Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa

Iaao Noaiai?y Iao??aia

OAeE 372.86:371.4.(477)

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy o/i?a a?iiac??

a i?ioean? o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy

13.00.02 — oai??y oa iaoiaeeea o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai?
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Neaei?aiei A?eoi?
Einoyioeiiae/ Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?oani? eaoaae?e
o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy oa e?aneaiiy

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeo?ou Aiaoie?e
Aieiaeeie?iae/,Oa?iii?euenueeee aenia?eiaioaeueiee ?inoeooo
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe, i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe

Eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Aeaienaiei Ethaeieea ?aai?aia ?inoeooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie, iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee eaai?aoi??? o?oaeiai?
i?aeaioieee ? iie?oaoi?/ii? oai?/ino?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy ? i?ioi???ioaoe??, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?nii

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 11 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14-30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?o a/aii? ?aaee E 26.053.05 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, Ee?a,
aoe.Ie?iaiaa, 9)

C aeena?oaoe??th eiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, Ee?a,
aoe.Ie?iaiaa, 9)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 9 eaooiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?aeociaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.I.Iaca?aiei

.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie

Ooaa?aeaeaiiy ? ci?oeiaiiy Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae noaaeoue ia?aae
iaaeaaia?/iith iaoeith iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaa ? iaa?aeeeaaeia caaaeaiiy —
aeoiaaiiy a?iiaaeyieia-iao??ioa. Oiio no/ania iaaeaaia?/ia iaoea iiaeiia
noai?eoe oaeo nenoaio aeoiaaiiy, yea a caaacia/oaaea oi?ioaaiiy o
i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?.

Oai?aoe/i? canaaee iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy caeeaaeaii o
aeine?aeaeaiiyo oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo-ineoieia?a I.Ai?eoaanueeiai,
A.Aauaiea, Ae.A?eiinueei?, Ae.Aeiioeiaa, I.Eoeue/eoeueeiai, TH.Eeie,
A.Iineaeueoey, TH.?eia?aiea, ?.N?ei?nueeiai, A.Oeeiaaethea,
Ae.*eaeaanueeiai, I.Oeaieaae/a, A.ssi?aa, ss.ss?aie oa ?ioeo. O ?o
i?aoeyo aeeaiei a?aeia?aaeaia oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay,
aeooiai?noue, aeaiie?aoe/i? canaaee iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy, aoiai?noe/i?
oe?iiino?.

Ia aaaeeea?noue iaoe?iiaeueiiai ni?yioaaiiy aeoiaaiiy iieiae? aeacoaaee
i?ia?aneai? ae?y/? Oe?a?ie A.A??i/aiei, I.A?ooaanueeee, Ae.Aeiioeia,
I.Ae?aaiiaiia, ?.Ia??iei, A.Neiai?iaea, N.?oniaa oa ?io?.

Aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy i?enayoeee nai?
i?aoe? aaaaoi iaaeaaia?a nueiaiaeaiiy, na?aae yeeo — I.Aeoiaanueeee,
A.Aeiaaeuaiei, I.Ae?iaycei, ?.Caoa?/aiei, I.?aiaoaiei, A.Eatheia,
A.Eocue, ?.Ia?oeithe, TH.?oaeaiei, C.Na?a?e/oe, I.Noaeueiaoiae/,
A.Nooia?ee, ?.Nyaaaei, Ae.Ooi?aeaanueeee oa ?io?. Aiie iaa?oioiaothoue,
ui iniiaith iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ? ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia niaaeueia
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

I?iaeaia aieeao eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie, a naia ia?iaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ia
na?aeii?noue iniaenoino? aoea i?aaeiaoii oaaae I.Aeai/aiei, Ae.Aeaeiee,
?.Cycthia, A.Einthea, A.Iacaie, E.I?oainueeiai, I.No?oiei?, Ae.O?aiey oa
?ioeo.

O Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
a?aeiia?aeii aei Aea?aeaaiiai noaiaea?oo caaaeueiiina?oiuei? na?aaeiuei?
ina?oe a Oe?a?i? (Ina?oiy aaeocue “Oaoiieia??”), aeaaeai?eii AII Oe?a?ie
Aeieo?ii Ooi?aeaanueeei caii/aoeiaaii iaoeiao oeieo c i?iaeaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a o i?ioean? o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy,
nooaeaio?a iaaeaaia?/ieo aoc?a, a oaeiae a/eoae?a o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy.
Ie?ai? iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ia o?ieao
o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy a oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eieo caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e aoee
?icaeyioo? o aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo O.E?aa/aiei, I.Eeoieao,
A.Ion??iea, A.?aea, O.Ooi?aeaanueei?, N.*aaiiaiea.

I?aaeiao “O?oaeiaa iaa/aiiy” ciaeiieoue o/i?a ?c ienoaoeoaii ye
neeaaeiaith ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua ? ia oe?e iniia? aieeaa? ia ?o
na?oiaeyae.

Oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo ia o?ieao o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy cae?enith?oueny
??cieie iaoiaeaie ? caniaaie. O iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? iniaeeaa cia/aiiy
iaaea?oueny caniaai aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa, yea ?
iaa?ae?iiith neeaaeiaith ia?iaeiiai ienoaoeoaa. Aiii iiaycaia c iiaooii,
iianyeaeaiiith i?aoeath, ia? iaaecae/aeii aaeeeee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy
aeooiaiiai na?oo iniaenoino?.

Aeoiaia cia/aiiy oai??a aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa
aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aiie iioei?cothoue caycie ethaeeie c i?aaeiaoiei
na?aaeiaeuai, yea aieeaa? ia ?o oa?aeoa? ? niaee. Oae? aeaee
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ye ooaeiaeiy aeoeaea, a?na?ia
?oeiae?eey, aoceeeiaa ieao?iiy, aycaiiy aa/eii ? nieoeyie ?
o?aaeeoe?eieie aeaeaie oaeeoeiaiai ienoaoeoaa oe?a?ioe?a, ui ia
aeiaaathoue neeaaeiiai oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy /e iaoa??aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy, aea iathoue aenieo ooaeiaeith oe?ii?noue. Iaenoa?ii
aeeiiai? ae?iae ianooue a nia? iiaooi?e iioaioe?ae aeooiaiino?,
aeaaioai?ii aieeaathoue ia ii/oooy ? ia?acio oyao ae?oae, niiioeathoue
?o aei ii?aeiaiiy e?aneaiai ? ei?eniiai a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?.
Ioaea, aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeia ienoaoeoai ia? aaeee? iiaeeeaino? aeey
aeoiaaiiy iieiae?, aea eiai aeoiaiee iioaioe?ae, ye cana?ae/ea aiae?c
oe?eueieo i?ia?ai, i?ae?o/iee?a oa aea/aiiy iaoiaee/ieo aeaea?ae,
aeei?enoiao?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei. Ii-ia?oa, /a?ac neaaeo oai?aoe/io
aeine?aeaeaii?noue iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae?
caniaaie aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa; ii-ae?oaa, —
a?aenooi?noue iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie aeey i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy ?o
iaa/aeueieie caaaeueiiina?oi?ie caeeaaeaie. Naia oe? ianoaaeie ?
coiiaeee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe “Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy
o/i?a a?iiac?? a i?ioean? o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy”.

A?iiac?? — iaa/aeueii-aeoiai? caeeaaee iiaiai oeio ??-??? nooiai?a (1-7
a?iiac?ei? eeane a?aeiia?aeathoue 5-11 eeanai caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee)
noai?ai? aeey iiooeo, iaa/aiiy, ?icaeoeo oa aeoiaaiiy iaaea?iaaieo ?
oaeaiiaeoeo ae?oae. Oe? caeeaaee ina?oe aeiiiaiththoue ianiao
caaaeueiiina?oith oeieo ca ci?noii, iaoiaeaie ? oi?iaie iaa/aiiy.

Iniiaiei iai?yieii ?iaioe iaae ci?noii ina?oe a a?iiac?? ? aecia/aiiy
aaciaiai ? aa??aoeaiiai eiiiiiaio?a c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeainoae ? iio?aa
iaaea?iaaieo ? cae?aieo ae?oae

O aa??aoeaiiio eiiiiiaio? i?iiiio?oueny aaeeeee aea?? oaeoeueoaoea?a oa
niaoeeo?n?a, ye? ? iaiayceiaeie. Cia/ii oe?oa ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny
o??ciiiai?oiaiiy iaoiae?a ? oi?i iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy iaaea?iaaieo
ae?oae, canoiniao?oueny naiino?eia ?iaioa o/i?a ca ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie
iaa/aeueieie ieaiaie, ?icoe?aiiy eiea ieoaiue, ui aea/athoueny,
i?enei?aia oa ?ioaineaia iaa/aiiy, oiui.

Oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui a?iiac?y, ye iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee caeeaae iiaiai
oeio, ia? nai? iniaeeaino? ii??aiyii c caaaeueiiina?oi?ie oeieaie o
iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeoiaaii?. Oea, ianaiia?aae, coiiaeaii niaoeeo?eith
aeoiaaiiy iaaea?iaaieo ? cae?aieo ae?oae. Iaaea?iaai? ae?oe
ae??ciythoueny oi?ioith iaiyooth, eia?/iei ieneaiiyi, aeiieoeea?noth.
Oiio caeo/aiiy oaeeo ae?oae aei aeooiaii? ? iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e
/a?ac i?ecio iaoe?iiaeueieo oa caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae aeathoue
ciiao oi?ioaaoe a aeeoeie ii/oooy a?iiaaeyinueeino?, iaoe?iiaeueii? oa
iniaenoi? a?aeiino?.

?icii/eiath/e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee iiooe, ie aecia/eee ia?eo, i?aaeiao,
iaoo oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy o/i?a o i?ioean?
o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — ci?no oa iaoiaeeea iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
o/i?a a?iiac?? o i?ioean? ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe?.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — aecia/eoe oa iaa?oiooaaoe ci?no oa iaoiaeeeo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a caniaaie aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy o/i?a a?iiac?? o
i?ioean? o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy aoaea ?acoeueoaoeaiei yeui:

— ci?no iaa/aiiy ni?yioaaoe ia i?eeo/aiiy o/i?a aei aeooiaieo ?
iaoa??aeueieo caeiaooe?a oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, a?aoiaoth/e
iaoe?iiaeueiee aii??e/iee aeina?ae aeoiaaiiy i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy;

— iiaeeaeoe a o/i?a ?ioa?an aei aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ca
aeiiiiiaith i?iaaaeaiiy ianoaiaea?oieo o?ie?a;

— caaacia/eoe ianooii?noue aeoiaii? ?iaioe ia o?ieao ianeoaiaoth/i?
i?aoe? oa a iicao?i/iee /an, ni?yiiaoth/e ?? ia aea/aiiy
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa.

?aae?caoe?y iinoaaeaii? iaoe oa aeiaaaeaiiy a?iioace aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia?aaeaa/athoue ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? canaaee iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae?;

— aecia/eoe iaoo, caaaeaiiy ? niaoeeo?eo iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a
o i?ioean? o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy a oiiaao a?iiac??;

— iaa?oiooaaoe oa cae?enieoe a?aea?? iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, ui
caaacia/o? oiiae aeey iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a?iiaceno?a;

— ?ic?iaeoe oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe iaoiaeeeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy o/i?a a i?ioean? o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?: aaceni? iieiaeaiiy oai???
i?ciaiiy; ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oai??? uiaei ?ie? o?oaeiai?
ae?yeueiino? o oi?ioaaii? oa ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?; eiioeaioe?? aeaeaoieo
ae?y/?a iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee uiaei oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy; iniiai? iieiaeaiiy i?i
?aoi?ioaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o caaaeueiiina?oi?o oeieao,
aeeeaaeai? o Aea?aeaai?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? “Ina?oa. Oe?a?ia OO?
noie?ooy”. O aeena?oaoe?? e?eoe/ii aeei?enoaii oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i?
?ic?iaee, a oaeiae i?aoe? aoiia?ao?a, oieueeei?eno?a, e?oa?aoi??a,
ae?y/?a eoeueoo?e.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa i?iaiaeeeanue a Oe?a?inuee?e a?iiac?? ?i.
?.O?aiea oa caaaeueiiina?oi?o oeieao ? ? 4, 7, 23 i. Oa?iiiiey, ?11 i.
Eooeueea oa ?3 i. Aeoiaaa Ee?anueei? iaeano?.

Iniiaia aenia?eiaioaeueia aaca — Oe?a?inueea a?iiac?y ?i. ?.O?aiea i.
Oa?iiiiey, yea caaacia/o? iaoeiai-oai?aoe/io, aoiai?oa?io,
caaaeueii-eoeueoo?io i?aeaioiaeo iaaea?iaaieo oa cae?aieo ae?oae.
A?iiac?y noai?aia ia aac? na?aaeiuei? oeiee ? 1 o aa?ani? 1991 ?ieo ye
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ia a?iiac?y. ?ai?aai?ciaaia o 1996 ?. a Oe?a?inueeo
a?iiac?th ?i. ?.O?aiea.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue o aeae?eueea aoai?a.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1993-1995 ?.?.) cae?enithaaeinue oai?aoe/ia aea/aiiy
iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo, i?iaiaeeany aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeai aca?iica’yceo o?oaeiaiai ? anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy
caniaaie aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ye neeaaeiaeo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iieiae?, a oaeiae e?oa?aoo?e c
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, ia?iaeiciaanoaa, c ieoaiue oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.
Ii?yae c oeei i?iaiaeeany a?aea?? iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, cania?a
iai/iino? aeey i?iaaaeaiiy caiyoue c aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa ia o?ieao ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe? ? ?ic?iaeyeany iaoiaeeea
i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia oe?e iniia? aoei noi?ioeueiaaii ?iai/o
a?iioaco, iaoo oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii ia?oee
aa??aio ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo c ie?aieo aeae?a
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ia o?ieao ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe?
aeey o/i?a 1-3 eean?a a?iiac??.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1995-1997 ?.?.) aoei ?icii/aoi
aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueio ?iaioo a a?iiac?? c iaoith ia?aa??ee
aeinooiiino? oa ooi/iaiiy ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, a oaeiae
?acoeueoaoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy cania?a oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? a i?ioean? o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy. Ia iniia? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a ? c?iaeaieo aeniiae?a aoei cae?eniaii aeiii?aoethaaiiy
ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ? ae?iaeaii eiai inoaoi/iee aa??aio.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1997-1999 ?.?.) — i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueio
ia?aa??eo aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy ia o?ieao ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe? oa o iicao?i/iee /an a oiiaao
oe?a?inueei? a?iiac?? caniaaie aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa. Ia
oeueiio aoai? i?iaiae?ciaaii, ii?aoeueiaaii ? ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii aeniiaee, ioi?ieaii aeena?oaoe?eio
?iaioo, ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? a/eoaeyi-i?aeoeeai aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy caiyoue c aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ? i?ia?aio
eo?no “I?ee?ane ?ioa?’??iiai oa iaeyaiaiai i?ecia/aiiy”.

Ia an?o aoaiao aeine?aeaeaiiy canoiniaoaaeenue ??ciiiai?oi? iaoiaee, ye?
aca?iii aeiiiaithaaee iaeei iaeiiai: aea/aiiy oa aiae?c o?einionueei?,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, aiae?c i?ae?o/iee?a, iaa/aeueieo
iin?aiee?a oa iaa/aeueii-i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaio?a c o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy ?
ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe?, aiae?c aeaea?ae c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e,
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa oa ia?iaeiciaanoaa; niinoa?aaeaiiy ca oiaeii
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano oa anaa?/iee aiae?c eiai ?acoeueoao?a.
Oi?iaeiaae oeueiai /ano aea/aany noai i?aeoe/ii? ?iaioe o
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oeieao oa caeeaaeao iiaiai oeio ca aeaiei iai?yieii,
ine?eueee ia oeae /an c’yaeyeeny aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?ic?iaee c ieoaiue
i?eeo/aiiy o/i?a aei iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e caniaaie ie?aieo aeae?a
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ia o?ieao o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii? oa
aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ia?aa??oe? iiaeeeainoae iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
o/i?a a i?ioean? ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe? a oiiaao a?iiac??.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae
aei aeoiaiiai aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? o/i?a,
?ic?iaeaii iao?aaeeoe?ei? oi?ie i?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a, ye? aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue caaacia/oaaoe ?icaeoie ?ioa?ano o/i?a aei aeooiaii? ?
iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e ??aeiiai ia?iaeo. Iaa?oioiaaii iieacieee
?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? aeoiaaiino? oa e?eoa??? ?o ioe?ithaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? ci?noo oa
iaoiaeeee iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ia o?ieao ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe? ? a
iicao?i/iee /an, yea iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia oaeiae a na?aaei?o
caaaeueiiina?oi?o caeeaaeao ??ciiai oeio. ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aio oa
iaa?oioiaaii iaoiaeeeo i?iaaaeaiiy oaeoeueoaoeaiiai eo?no “I?ee?ane
?ioa?’??iiai oa iaeyaiaiai i?ecia/aiiy”.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny
iaoiaeieia?/iith iaa?oioiaai?noth eiai aeo?aeieo iiceoe?e, canoinoaaiiyi
eiiieaeno iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo iao? oa caaaeaiiyi aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe, ?ai?acaioaoeai?noth aea??ee, e?euee?niith ia?iaeith oa ye?niei
aiae?cii ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo, ai?iaaoe??th ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ?o o
i?aeoeeo ?iaioe iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe caeeaae?a iiaiai oeio.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? a i?ioean? canoinoaaiiy
?ic?iaeaieo aeena?oaioeith iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a a oiiaao Oe?a?inueei?
a?iiac?? ?i. ?.O?aiea i. Oa?iiiiey, caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e ?? 4, 7, 23
i. Oa?iiiiey. Iaeaaaeeea?o? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia eiioa?aioe?yo ? a?aeia?aaeai? o iaoa??aeao
i?aeaoc?anueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoe?iiaeueia oeiea
Oe?a?ie: caeiiii??iino? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo” (Oa?iii?eue, 1996 ?.),
i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? ?
iaoiaee/i? eiino?othaaiiy ci?noo i?ioan?eii? ina?oe” (A?iieoey, 1998
?.), Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?inueea
nenoaia aeoiaaiiy: iiooee, i?iaeaie” (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1998 ?.), a
oaeiae ia ui??/ieo (1995 — 1998 ??.) ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo eaoaae?e iaoiaeeee o?oaeiaiai
iaa/aiiy oa e?aneaiiy Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
Ieoaeea Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe coiiaeaia eia?eith aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ioi?ieai? o aeaeyae? aeena?oaoe??, yea neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (160
aeaea?ae), aeiaeaoe?a.

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai?
iaoa ? a?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aiee ia?eo, i?aaeiao ? caaaeaiiy
?iaioe, iaoiaee oa aoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi iaoiaeieia?/i? oa
oai?aoe/i? iniiae, iaoeiao iiaecio, aea?oueny ioe?iea i?aeoe/iiai
cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaoeia? iniiae iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a i?ioean?
o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy” aiae?cothoueny i?aeoiaee oa noai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a, ?icaeyaea?oueny i?noea
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a iiaiai oeio ye ina?aaee?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae?, iaa?oioiaaii ci?no i?aaeiaoa
“ianeoaiaoth/a i?aoey” aeey 1-3 eean?a a oiiaao a?iiac?? ye can?a
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “I?ioean iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a a?iiac??”
?icaeyaeathoueny caniae ? iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino? ia o?ieao o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy oa a iicao?i/iee /an,
aiae?cothoueny ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
i?iaiaeeoueny ?o aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Aeey oni?oiiai aoae?aieoeoaa aeaiie?aoe/ii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae
iaiao?aeii, uia i?ae?inoath/? iieie?iiy iaee aenieo iaoe?iiaeueio
na?aeii?noue ? naiina?aeii?noue, ye? ? ooiaeaiaioii aeey ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino?, inieneaiith ci?noo ?? aeeooy ? ae?yeueiino?. Aiie
noai?ththoue oiiae aeey aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy iio?aa, ?ioa?an?a naiai
ia?iaeo ia an?o aoaiao eiai ?icaeoeo, ni?eythoue aeeaieiio inieneaiith
iath oni?o?a ? iaaaea/, aecia/aiith oe?eae ? caaaeaiue, ?aae?caoe?y yeeo
ni?yiiaaia ia aeinyaiaiiy a?eia?/ieo i??e, iaae?e, niiae?aaiue ??aeiiai
ia?iaeo.

Iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ina?oyinueeeo ae?y/?a ? iaaeaaia?a ia?aeiieeai
aeiaiaeyoue, ui aeeoeia iiaeiia ia?aaoaaoe i?ae iino?eiei aieeaii
iaoa??aeueii? ? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e naiai ia?iaeo. Ianaiia?aae aiia
iiaeiia iaoe /?oeo a?aeiia?aeue ia ieoaiiy: ooi y, yeeie aoee ii?
i?aaeee, aei yeiai ?iaeo-ieaiai? aiie iaeaaeaee, yea iaoa oe?a?inueea
aeooiai?noue, o /iio ci?no aeeooy ? yea iieeeeaiiy eiaeii? ethaeeie —
a?iiaaeyieia Oe?a?ie. I?e oeueiio i?iaoaeaeothoueny i?e?iaei? caaeaoee
eiaeiiai o/iy, noeioeth?oueny ?oiy i?ciaaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue,
oi?iothoueny noni?eueii-ei?eni? oe?iiino?. Iiaeia c aiaaiai?noth
neacaoe, ui naia oaeee oeyo i?eaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a
noni?eueii-ei?enieo oe?iiinoae, i?aaiaiiy noaoe /anieie ethaeueie,
iaeeeie iao??ioaie, no?eeeie a?iiaaeyiaie Oe?a?ie.

O nai?io aeine?aeaeaii? ie noi?ii ia iiceoe??, ui iaoa iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy iiaeiia iieyaaoe o ieaeaii? i?ae?inoath/eo iieie?iue c aeeaiei
iaoe?iiaeueiith na?aeii?noth ? naiina?aeii?noth, oa?aeoa?ii,
na?oiaeyaeii oa ?aeaaeaie ia o?aaeeoe?yo eoeueoo?e, aeooiaiino?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, c aeei?enoaiiyi e?aueo aeinyaiaiiyo ?ioeo
ia?iae?a.

Eiaeai eiie?aoiee ia?iae /a?ac naith iaoe?iiaeueio nenoaio aeoiaaiiy
i?aai?/ii i?iaeiaaeo? naaa a ae?oyo, aaia?o? iaoe?iiaeueiee aeoo,
iaioae?oao, oa?aeoa?, ineoieia?th, o?aaeeoe?eio ?iaeeiii-iiaooiao
eoeueoo?o, niin?a aeeooy. Iaiiaiaiiy aeoiaiiai i?ioeano naiiaooi?i
ci?noii, caniaaie ? iaoiaeaie aeoiaii? ?iaioe, ye? ae?iaeeeny a eiaei?e
iaoe?? iai?ioyc? anueiai ?noi?e/iiai noaiiaeaiiy ? ? iaa?ae’?iiith
/anoeiith ?? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e. ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee cana?ae/o?, ui
oa?aeoa? iaoiae?a aeoiaaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae noinoie?a o noni?euenoa? ?
ci?ith?oueny caeaaeii a?ae ia?ai?i o nioe?aeuei?e noa??. Oiio oe?eeii
i?e?iaeiei ? caeiiii??iei aenooia? iaoa i?aaiaiiy a?ae?iaeeoe ?
ia?ainieneeoe iaoe?iiaeueio nenoaio aeoiaaiiy ia no/aniiio aoai?
?icaeoeo ? noaiiaeaiiy iaoi? aea?aeaae.

A aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? aiae?co /enaeueieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
iieacaii, ui nenoaia iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a Oe?a?i? ia? aeeaie?
?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae. ? ia?aeiieea? ?noi?e/i? na?ae/aiiy, ui
iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o ieioeiio caaacia/oaaany
i?eeo/aiiyi ae?oae c ?aiiueiai a?eo /a?ac iiao ? eoeueoo?o aei
aeooiaiiai aeeooy oe?a?ioe?a, aeoiaaiiyi o n?i’? ? oeie? ia ia?iaeieo
o?aaeeoe?yo.

A oiiaao nueiaiaeaiiy ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii
na?aeiiiai iieiaeiai iieie?iiy aea?aeaae caaacia/o?oueny ia o?eueee a
oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eieo caeeaae?a ina?oe, a e o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao
iiaiai oeio — a?iiac?yo, eieaaeao, oeieao-eiiieaenao, n?iaeieo oa
aaoi?nueeeo oeieao.

O aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy ci?noo ina?oe o
caeeaaeao iiaiai oeio iia’ycaia ?c ?icaeoeii oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
oeiee. ? oea caeiiii??ii. Aac iiaoaeiae caeeaaeo ina?oe ia
iaoe?iiaeuei?e iniia? ae??oeoe caaaeaiiy aeooiaiiai oa ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe??, aeoiaeo a?o/eciyii? iaoee, oaoi?ee ? eoeueoo?e ia
na?oiaee ??aaiue — iaiiaeeeai. Ooo ie ia?ii ia oaac? aeoiaaiiy
iao??ioecio ia iniia? aea/aiiy ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueei? iaoe??,
ni?yiiaaiiai ia oi?ioaaiiy o iieiaeiai iieie?iiy no?eeiai ii/oooy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?acoeueoaoe nai?? ae?yeueiino?, i?aoe?, aeaniee
ae?i, n?i’th, ca nai? ioi/aiiy, ca na?e ia?iae, ca naith Aaouee?aueio.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ia aac? Oe?a?inueei? a?iiac?? ?i.
?.O?aiea i. Oa?iiiiey, yea ? iaa/aeueiei caeeaaeii iiaiai oeio ?
iieeeeaia ae??ooaaoe aeacaio i?iaeaio. O aeena?oaoe?? ia i?eeeaae?
a?iiac?? iieacaii, ui o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeao iiaiai oeio
i?ia?aeiith ?aea?th ?o ae?yeueiino? ? iniaeno?niee aniaeo ci?noo oa
oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy, i?aaiaiiy aei ?icaeoeo i?e?iaeieo
iiceoeaieo iaoee?a, cae?aiinoae ? iaaea?iaaiino?, oai?/iai ieneaiiy,
iio?aae ? ai?iiy naiiaaeineiiaethaaoeny; oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueei?
iiceoe??, aeoiaaiiy ii/oooy aeanii? a?aeiino?, aioiaiino? aei o?oaeiai?
ae?yeueiino?, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca nai? ae?? eiaeiiai o/iy.

O aeoiai?e ?iaio? a?iiac?? aeii?io? ?aeay iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
i???ioiaaia ia oi?ioaaiiy ?en iaoe?iiaeueii-na?aeiii?, aenieiina?/aii?,
caeaoii? aei naii?icaeoeo oa naiiaeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?, noaiiaeaiiy yei?
a?aeaoaa?oueny o i?ioean? iaieiae?iiy ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iith, aeooiaiith
niaaeueiith naiai ia?iaeo, ona?aeiieaiiy nai?? i?eiaeaaeiino? aei
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, e?enoae?caoe?? a?iiaaeyinueei? iiceoe??. O
aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui o ae??oaii? oeueiai iiaea i?eneoaeeoeny
ia?iaeia aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeia ienoaoeoai. Caaaeyee ienoaoeoao
cae?enith?oueny ca’ycie iieie?iue, ia?aaea?oueny oi?aa?naeueiee
noni?eueii-aaaiiee aeina?ae. Ienoaoeoai ?icaeaa? a ethaeei? caeaoi?noue
i?iyaeoe naaa a ??cieo noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, ai aeeiio? ooieoe?th
aa?iii?caoe?? ?icoio ? ii/ooo?a. Ienoaoeuee? oai?e iia?e?cothoue on?
aeooiai? ?ano?ne iniaenoino? ? aeeeeeathoue o ia? aeooiaiee ?aciiain, ui
aieeaa? ia eoeueoo?ii-oai?/o ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie.

I?e aecia/aii? ci?noo oai?aoe/ii? ? i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee o/i?a a
i?ioean? caiyoue aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiei ienoaoeoaii ie nie?aeeny ia
aeeeaaeai? a oaoia?e e?oa?aoo?? i?aeoiaee aecia/aiiy e?eoa???a aeiai?o
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo aeey niaoe?aeueieo i?aaeiao?a. Oaeeie e?eoa??yie
?: a?aeiia?aei?noue iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo iniiaiei aeaeai
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa; caaacia/aiiy noaoaai-?ieueiai? oa
i?ioan?eii? ni?yiiaaiino? o ci?no? iaa/aiiy; a?aeiia?aei?noue
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ineoieia?/iei iniaeeainoyi eiai canai?iiy;
iineeuei?noue iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, yeee a?aeiia?aea?
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueiei iiaeeeainoyi o/i?a 1-3 a?iiac?eieo eean?a;
ni?yiiaai?noue iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ia oi?ioaaiiy aoe/ieo, anoaoe/ieo
oa i?aeoe/ieo yeinoae; a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iaa/aeueiiio iaoa??ae?
oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae o?oaeiaeo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;
a?aeiia?aei?noue iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo iniiaiei iaoiaeai i?aai?caoe??
oa i?iaaaeaiiy o?ie?a o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy.

Ia i?aenoaa? oeeo e?eoa???a aoa cae?eniaiee aiae?c aeae?a
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ? aecia/aiee ia?ae?e ciaiue ?
ai?iue, ui aecia/athoue ci?no niaoe?aeueii? i?aeaioiaee. Ciaiiy, ai?iiy
oa iaae/ee, ui aecia/athoue ci?no i?aeoe/iiai iaa/aiiy
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiio ienoaoeoao ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaieo
aca?iicayceao oa aca?iiae?yo i?ae niaith. Oea aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue
cae?eniaiiy nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa no?oeoo?oaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo.

I?e nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa no?oeoo?oaaii? iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ie
nie?aeeny ia oae? iaaeaaia?/i? i?eioeeie: i?aaeiaoi? oa i?aei?aaeiaoi?
i?aeoiaee; i?eioeei aeaoae?caoe?? iaa/aeueieo aeaiaio?a; i?eioeei
iioei?caoe??; iniaeno?niee i?aeo?ae.

Uia iaee?aua cae?enithaaoe aeoiaaiiy a?iiaaeyieia iacaeaaeii?
aeaiie?aoe/ii? Oe?a?ie, o aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue
ea?oaaoeny oaeeie iaaeaaia?/ieie ? iaoiaee/ieie i?eioeeiaie: i?eioeei
nenoaiiino?; iaoeiaino? o aeoiaaii? a?iiaaeyinueeino?; ?noi?ecio;
ia?iaeiino?; cayceo aeoiaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeino? c aeeooyi; a?aooaaiiy
a?eiaeo, iaoe?iiaeueieo oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae o/i?a;
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai?/ino?.

A?aooaaiiy oeeo iaaeaaia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo i?eioeei?a aeiiiiaaa?
aeoiaaoaeth ? a/eoaeth a?eueo aoaeoeaii aeoiaoaaoe no/aniiai
a?iiaaeyieia noaa?aiii? aeaiie?aoe/ii? Oe?a?ie, caeaoiiai na?aeiii
i?aoethaaoe aeey ?? ?icaeoeo ? i?ioea?oaiiy, aeey iaeneiaeueiiai
caaeiaieaiiy nai?o iaoa??aeueieo ? aeooiaieo iio?aa.

Aecia/ath/e ci?no, iaoiaee, oa iaaeaaia?/i? i?eeiie oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?, ie iie?aeenue ia i?ciaaaeueio
aeoeai?noue o/i?a oa ?ioa?an aei aea/aiiy ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e nai??
iaoe??.

Ine?eueee ia o?ieao i?aoe? o/i? iiaiiaothoue ia?aaaaeii i?aeoe/i? ai?iiy
oa iaae/ee, ui noinothoueny ia?iaeiiai aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa, ?iaioo ie aoaeoaaee oaeei /eiii, ui oai?aoe/iee iaoa??ae,
yeee iiaea ni?eyoe aeoiaaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? aieiaiei
/eiii, aea/aany aaeiia, ia ??ciiiai?oieo aeoiaieo caoiaeao a?iiac??, a
oaeiae oaeoeueoaoeaiiio caiyoo? “I?ee?ane iaeyaiaiai oa ?ioa???iiai
i?ecia/aiiy”. Niinoa?aaeaiiy oa aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa iieacaee, ui
aeei?enoaiiy iaie aa??aioo iaa/aeueii? i?ia?aie ni?eyee cia/iiio
c?inoaiith ?ioa?ano o/i?a aei caiyoue aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiei
ienoaoeoaii oa oi?ioaaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ia eeoa noa?eoeaieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie oa
aieaooaaiiyi, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo iaaaaeaii o aeena?oaoe??, aea e
ia?eoeaieie aeaieie i?i o/anoue a?iiaceno?a o iino?eii ae?th/?e
a?iiac?ei?e aenoaaoe?, eiieo?nao aeeoy/eo oai?/eo ?ia?o ??cieo ??ai?a,
caaaeueiia?iiac?eieo aeoiaieo caoiaeao ia?iaeiciaa/iai oa?aeoa?o, ?iaio?
oaeoeueoaoeao “I?ee?ane ?ioa???iiai oa iaeyaiaiai i?ecia/aiiy” oa
naiino?ei?e ?iaio?. sse iieacaei iieooaaiiy, na?aae oeo o/i?a, ui
iaa/athoueny ca aeaiei aa??aioii i?ia?aie, iaeaea 78 % o a?eueiee a?ae
caiyoue /an caeiathoueny aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiei ienoaoeoaii o
aeiiaoi?o oiiaao, oiae? ye o/i?, ye? iaa/athoueny ii i?ia?ai? aeey
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e, eeoa 32 %.

Ine?eueee aeoiaia cia/aiiy oai??a aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa
aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aiie iioei?cothoue ca’ycie ethaeeie c i?aaeiaoiei
na?aaeiaeuai, yea aieeaa? ia oa?aeoa?, cae/ee, niaee ethaeeie, oi o
nai?io aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ie i?iiiio?ii noai noi?iiaaiino?
ni?eeiaiiy o/iyie aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ioe?ithaaoe ca
oaeeie ??aiyie: aeaiaioa?iee (ianeaia ni?eeiaiiy i?ae?aniiai ye aeaiaioa
ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua, iaona?aeiieaia ni?eeiaiiy ae?eniino?);
aeeth/ii-ianeaiee (ooee?oa?ii-ei?eniee, aai iaoa??aeueiee — ?iaioe
ia?iaeieo oi?eueoe?a ni?eeiathoueny ia ??ai? ooee?oa?ii-i?eeeaaeiiai
aeei?enoaiiy); aeeth/ii-aeoeaiee (i?aaiaiiy ? aaaeaiiy ethaeeie aei
naiino?eiiai aeaioiaeaiiy ae?ia?a aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa,
i?aeoe/ia canai?iiy ooaeiaei?o oe?iiinoae); ooaeiaeiuei oai?/ee ??aaiue
(ethaeeia noai?th? ooaeiaei? oe?iiino? — ni?aaaei? aeoai?e ienoaoeoaa).

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui cia/ii aeueo ?acoeueoao?a o
aeoiaaii? o/i?a iiaeia aeinyaoe oeyoii caeo/aiiy ?o aei
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ia o?ieao ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe? oa
a iicao?i/iee /an, aeei?enoiaoth/e a iiai?e i??? an? iiaeeea? iaoiaee ?
caniae iaa/aiiy. Aei ia?aieo iaie cania?a iaa/aiiy aoei a?aeianaii:
?ioi?iaoe?ei? a?aeiiino? i?i aeaee aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa
Oe?a?ie, ?o ?noi??th, iaoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?; ia?iaeiciaa/?
a?aeiiino?; e?a?ciaa/ee iocae; oaiaoe/i? aenoaaee; cono??/? c ia?iaeieie
iaeno?aie aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa; eiieo?ne; ie?ii?aaee;
oanoeaae?; niaoe?aeueia e?oa?aoo?a.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie aoei ai?iaaaeaeaii a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean
ianoaiaea?oi? o?iee — o?ie-iaa?oiooaaiiy oai?/i? cae?eiai? ?iaioe,
o?ie-caoeno oai?/i? cae?eiai? ?iaioe, iino?eio ae?th/o ci?iio aenoaaeo
aeeoy/eo ?ia?o o/i?a a?iiac?? oa ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aio oaeoeueoaoeao
“I?ee?ane iaeyaiaiai oa ?ioa???iiai i?ecia/aiiy”.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui o?ie-iaa?oiooaaiiy ?
i?iaeoeoeai?oei ca cae/aeia i?aeoe/ia caiyooy, a o?ie-caoeno
aoaeoeai?oee i?ae i?aenoieiaee o?ie. Oe? o?iee i?aeaeuothoue ??aaiue
?icoiiai? i?aoeacaeaoiino? o/i?a, cie?aia, a caiaiyoiaoaaii?, inieneaii?
ciaiue, canoinoaaii? ciaiue, ai?iue ? iaae/ie o /anoeiai ci?iaieo ?
iiaeo oiiaao.

Iaoith aenoaaee oai?/eo ?ia?o ? a?aeia?aaeaiiy noaiiaeaiiy iaenoa?iino?
o/i?a a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aiia ni?ey?
ae?iaeaiith o ae?oae ye iaaieo ai?iue oa iaae/ie, oae ? oi?ioaaiith
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?.

Ae?yeuei?noue oaeoeueoaoeao “I?ee?ane iaeyaiaiai oa ?ioa???iiai
i?ecia/aiiy” ? i?aai?/iei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi ? aeaeueoei ?icaeoeii o???
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe, yea i?iaiaeeoueny ia o?ieao ianeoaiaoth/i?
i?aoe?. Aiia ia aeoaeth? ?? ai? ca ci?noii, ai? ca oi?iith oa iaoiaeaie
? a?oioo?oueny ia ?ioa?an? ae?oae aei aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa, ui noaiiaeoue ?? iaaeaaia?/io oe?ii?noue. ?iaioa
oaeoeueoaoeao ni?ey? iiaeeaeaiith ?ioa?ano o/i?a a?iiac?? aei
eoeueoo?ieo oa oai?/eo iaaeaaiue iiia?aaei?o iieie?iue ? aaaeaiith
?icaeaaoe oa caaaa/oaaoe ?o.

A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaycaia ?c aea/aiiyi aieeao
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa ia na?aeii?noue oeiey??a, ie
ia?oi/a?aiao oaaao i?eae?ey?ii naia anoaoe/iei aniaeoai
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai aeoiaaiiy. Ea?oth/enue /?oeei aecia/aiiyi
e?ioeaai? iaoe caiyoue aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiei ienoaoeoaii — aeoiaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-na?aeiii? iniaenoino? — yeo aaa/a?ii a i?eeo/aii?
i?aee?oe?a aei iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, ie iinoaaeee ca iaoo ciaeoe
i?aeoiaee aei ?ic?iaee e?eoa???a noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
?icaeoeo iniaenoino?. Oey i?iaeaia ia no/aniiio aoai? caeeoa?oueny ua
iaeiaeine?aeaeaiith, aaeaea aei i?iaieioaiiy Oe?a?ie, ye iacaeaaeii?
noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae, anoaoe/iiio ?icaeoeo ? iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeoiaaiith
/eieeeny iino?ei? ia?aoeiaee. Anoaoe/ia aeoiaaiiy iaaoei iaea?eueoi?
caiaaeaaiino? ? i?aeoe/ii aoei aeeo/aii ?c nenoaie ina?oe.

I?iaiaey/e aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie i?eeoee aei aeniiaeo i?i
oa, ui iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaai?noue, yea ? ?acoeueoaoii iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino?, ? noeoiiei ae?acii ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai (i??eoaaeueiiai),
aiioeaiiai (aiioe?eii-ioe?iiiai) oa iiaaae?ieiai-ae?yeuei?niiai
(iiaaae?ieiai? aioiaiino?) eiiiiiaio?a (noaia 1)

Noaia 1

wmetafile8? ??B ?? ?:???????????? ??????? ?????????
??????? ????? Ie ??? ???????????uIy?????Ea?oth/enue
?ic?iaeaiith no?oeoo?ith iaoe?iiaeueii? aeoiaaiino?, iaie ?ic?iaeaii
e?eoa??? noi?iiaaiino? aeooiaiiai na?oo iniaenoino?, ye? oiiaii
iiae?eaii ia aea? a?oie.

Aei ia?oi? a?oie a?aeianaii e?eoa???, ye? aeiiiiaaathoue aecia/eoe
??aaiue oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue i?i aeooiaiee na?o iniaenoino?:

— oi?iiy aeaoe aecia/aiiy iiiyooy, ?icoi?iiy eiai noo?;

— e?euee?noue iiiyoue, yeeie iia?o? o/aiue i?ae /an aiae?co aeooiaiiai
na?oo ?aaeueii? ethaeeie, iaoe?iiaeueiiai /e e?oa?aoo?iiai aa?iy, aai
noo? eiie?aoiiai yaeua.

Aei ae?oai? a?oie a?aeianaii e?eoa???, ye? aeiiiiaaathoue aecia/eoe
??aaiue i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy ciaiue:

— ni?eeiaiiy ? ?icoi?iiy o/iai aeooiaiiai na?oo ?ioi? ethaeeie, ai?iiy
aeaoe eiio ioe?ieo;

— iayai?noue iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aeaaeo;

— iio?aaa naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy;

— aa/aiiy oeyo?a naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oeeo e?eoa???a o aeine?aeaeaii? aecia/aii o?e ??ai?
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? o/i?a.

Aenieee ??aaiue: o/aiue a?eueii aieiae?? iiiyo?eiei aia?aoii; ?icoi??
cia/aiiy iiiyoue; aeia?a aieiae?? iiaith c aeei?enoaiiyi ia?iaeieo
i?ene?a’?a oa i?eeacie; cia? ?noi??th oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; ia?
oyaeaiiy i?i aeooiaio ? iaoa??aeueio eoeueoo?o oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;
cia? ineo?/i? iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; ona?aeiieth? i?noea ?
?ieue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo na?aae ?ioeo ia?iae?a; aeeaiei ni?eeia? ?
?icoi?? aeooiaiee na?o eiie?aoieo ethaeae, iaoe?iiaeueieo aa?i?a, ai??
ioe?ieoe eiai; ia? iaoe?iiaeueiee ?aeaae; ia? yne?aai ae?aaeaio iio?aao
o naiiaaeineiiaeaii?, ?iaeoue eiie?aoi? e?iee a oeueiio iai?yieo; ia?
aaaeaiiy caoeuaoe ?ioa?ane aea?aeaae ? i?iaeiaaeoaaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? oa
eoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe??.

Na?aaei?e ??aaiue: o/aiue aieiae?? iiiyo?eiei aia?aoii, i?ioa eiei
iiiyoue iaiaaeaia; a?ae/oaa? o?oaeiiu? a ?icoi?ii? ie?aieo iiiyoue;
iina?aaeiuei aieiae?? oe?a?inueeith iiaith, ia ei?enoo?oueny i?ene?a’yie
oa i?eeaceaie, aea ia? aaaeaiiy ni?eeoaaoeny oe?a?inueeith iiaith ?
aaeineiiaethaaoe nai? ciaiiy; iiaa?oiaai oe?eaaeoueny ?noi???th
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; ia? iiaa?oiaaa oyaeaiiy i?i aeooiaio oa
iaoa??aeueio eoeueoo?o oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; iiaa?oiaai ?icoi??
ineo?/i? iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; ni?eeia? ? ?icoi?? aeooiaiee
na?o eiie?aoieo ethaeae, iaoe?iiaeueieo aa?i?a, ai?? eiai ioe?ieoe; ia?
iaoe?iiaeueiee ?aeaae; ia? iio?aao o naiiaaeineiiaeaii?, aea iaae
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiyi ia i?aoeth?; aaaa?oueny uiaei iaiao?aeiino?
aeeiiaiiy naiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai ? iao??ioe/iiai iaia’yceo.

Iecueeee ??aaiue: o/aiue neaai aieiae?? iiiyo?eiei aia?aoii; iiaaii
aieiae?? oe?a?inueeith iiaith ? ia ia? aaaeaiiy aaeineiiaethaaoe nai?
ciaiiy; ia i?iyaey? ?ioa?ano aei ?noi??? Oe?a?ie; ia oe?eaaeoueny
eoeueoo?ith oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; ia aeyaey? ?ioa?ano aei aeooiaiiai
na?oo iaoe?iiaeueieo aa?i?a, eiie?aoieo ethaeae, ia iiaea eiai ioe?ieoe;
ia ia? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aeaaeo; ia ia? iio?aae o naiiaaeineiiaeaii?; ia
ia?oa i?noea noaaeoue iaoa??aeueia, oi/a ?aaeueieo oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy
iaoa??aeueiiai aeia?iaooo aeacaoe ia iiaea; ia aa/eoue iio?aae aeeiiaiiy
a?iiaaenueeiai ? iao??ioe/iiai iaia’yce?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei e?eoa???a ? ??ai?a noi?iiaaiino? aeooiaiiai na?oo
iniaenoino? o aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aii iieacieee ??aiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? iniaenoino? ca ?? noaaeaiiyi aei ioi/oth/i? ae?eniino?:
noaaeaiiy aei a?iiaaeyinueeiai iaia’yceo; noaaeaiiy aei aeooiaii? oa
iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e; noaaeaiiy aei ?ioeo ethaeae; noaaeaiiy aei
naaa.

A iniiao aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeoiaiiai aieeao aaaaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiiiiiaioa a nenoaio o?ie?a c ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe? a
1-3 a?iiac?eieo eeanao aoei iieeaaeaii niinoa?aaeaiiy, eiiieaen aan?ae
oa aieao, ui aeicaieeee i?iaanoe aeaoaeueiee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iath/e oaeee ?ino?oiaioa??e aeey aecia/aiiy ??ai?a
noi?iiaaiino? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? o/i?a, ie iiaee ia?eoeaii
ioe?ieoe ? iaoiaeii ei?aeyoe?? ii??aiyoe ?acoeueoaoe aeoiaii? ?iaioe,
yea i?iaiaeeeanue c o/iyie ca iane?aeeaie oanoiaeo aei?iaiaoaaiue.

Aecia/aiiy ?iciiae?eo o/i?a ca ??aiyie iaoe?iiaeueii? aeoiaaiino?
cae?enithaaeeny ca oanoaie (neiino?oeiaaieie ca no?oeoo?ith I.?iee/a).
?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai oanooaaiiy aeaee i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a
o/i?a eiio?ieueieo eean?a iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeie oe?iieie i???ioaoe?yie ?
iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy, ?icaaae, ea?’??eci oiui. A aenia?eiaioaeueieo
eeanao i?aee?oee ia ia?oa i?noea noaaeyoue iayai?noue a??ieo ae?oc?a,
ciaiiy ?noi??? ? eoeueoo?e ??aeiiai ia?iaeo, iiae, caei?ia’y, oe?eaao
?iaioo oiui.

Aiae?coth/e ???a?o?th oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e ie aeyaeee, ui a o/i?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a ia?aaaaeathoue oe?iiino? iia’ycai? c
aeooiaiei, eoeueoo?iei, ?noi?e/iei aeeooyi ia?iaeo oa
caaaeueiiethaenueeeie ii?aeueieie ii?iaie. A o eiio?ieueieo eeanao
ia?aaaaeathoue oe?iiino?, iia’ycai? c iniaenoei aeeooyi oa iaoa??aeueiei
aeaaiiieo//yi.

Ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe iieacaee oaeee
?iciiae?e o/i?a ca ??aiyie i?iyao anoaoe/ieo niae?a (Oaaeeoey 1):

Oaaeeoey 1

E E A N E? i c i i ae ? e c a ? ? a i y i e I e c ue e e eN a ? a ae
i ? eA e n i e e eA n i a ? e i a i o a e ue i ?7,2 %21,4 %71,4 %E i i o
? i e ue i ?15,8 %36,7 %48,2 %

Oaeei /eiii, iane?aeee aieaooaaiiy ia?aeiiothoue a oiio, ui
cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? ?
aoaeoeaiith ? iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia anaa?/iee ?icaeoie iniaenoino? e
ooai?aiiy nioe?aeueii-cia/eieo iioea?a iaeaooiuei? ae?yeueiino?
oeiey??a.

AENIIAEE

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe:

1. O aeaiee /an a Oe?a?i? aeoea?coaaeany iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/ia
ae?yeuei?noue ni?yiiaaia ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a.

2. O cia/i?e i??? caaacia/aiith iaeaaeieo oiia ?icaeoeo oa oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo a?iiaaeyi nai?? e?a?ie iiaeii? noaoe
iaa/aeueii-aeoiai? caeeaaee iiaiai oeio — e?oea?, a?iiac??, eieaaeae?
oiui. Oea caaacia/o?oueny ia?aaeon?i caaaeyee niaoeeo?/iino?
i?aai?caoe?? oa cae?eniaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano o aeaieo
caeeaaeao ina?oe.

3. Oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? aeey iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy cae?eniththoueny ia
o?ieao o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy i?e iciaeiieaii? o/i?a c ??cieie aeaeaie
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa. Aeoiaia cia/aiiy ae?ia?a
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aiie
iioei?cothoue ca’ycie ethaeeie c i?aaeiaoiei na?aaeiaeuai, yea aieeaa?
ia oa?aeoa?, cae/ee ? niaee ethaeeie. I?aaiaiiy o/i?a aei iaieiae?iiy
oaoi?eaie aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa iiaeiii aecia/aoeny
aioo??oiueith iio?aaith eiaeiiai o/iy.

4. Aeioe?eueii aei?aaaeaieie caniaaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ia
o?ieao ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe? iiaeii? aooe: ?ioi?iaoe?ei? a?aeiiino? i?i
aeaee aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa Oe?a?ie, ?o ?noi??th,
iaoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?; ia?iaeiciaa/? a?aeiiino?; e?a?ciaa/ee iocae;
oaiaoe/i? aenoaaee; cono??/? c ia?iaeieie iaeno?aie
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa; eiieo?ne; ie?ii?aaee; oanoeaae?;
niaoe?aeueia e?oa?aoo?a.

5. ?acoeueoaoeai?noue iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a ia o?ieao
ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe? iiaeii? caaacia/oaaoeny a?aeiia?aeiei
no?oeoo?oaaiiyi o?ie?a, ?o a?aeiia?aeiei ci?noiaei iaiiaiaiiyi, aaeaeei
ii?aeiaiiyi o?i/ii? ? iicao?i/ii? ?iaioe. Ci?no caiyoue iiaeiai aooe
iaiiaiaiee ia?iaeiciaa/eie a?aeiiinoyie.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a.

1. Iaao N.I. I?eeiie aoceeeiaiai ieao?iiy oaoi?eith iae?aia // O?oaeiaa
i?aeaioiaea a caeeaaeao ina?oe. — 1997. — ? 2 (5).— N. 22-27.

2. Iaao N.I. ?icaeoie oai?/eo cae?aiinoae ia o?ieao o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy
// Ina?oyiei. — 1998. — ? 2. — N. 33-34.

3. Iaao N.I. Caniae ? iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? a?iiaceno?a ia o?ieao o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy // Iaoeia?
caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Na??y: Iaaeaaia?ea. ? 1. — 1999. — N. 179-183.

4. Iaao N.I. Caeo/aiiy o/i?a aei iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e caniaaie
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa // “Iaoe?iiaeueia oeiea Oe?a?ie:
caeiiii??iino? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo”: Iaoa??aee i?aeaoc?anueei?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. — Oa?iii?eue, 1996 .— N. 97-99.

5. Iaao N.I. Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy ia o?ieao o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy
//Iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? eiino?othaaiiy ci?noo i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe: Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. —
A?iieoey, o?aaaiue 1998. — N. 101-107.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iaao N.I. Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy o/i?a a?iiac?? a i?ioean? o?oaeiaiai
iaa/aiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?y o aeaeyae? ?oeiieno ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe ?c niaoe?aeueiino? 13.00.02 — oai??y ?
iaoiaeeea o?oaeiaiai iaa/aiiy, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaia i?iaeaia iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a
Oe?a?inueei? a?iiac?? ia o?ieao ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe?. Aaoi?ii
i?iaiae?ciaaii niaoeeo?eo iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, aeoiaey/e c
iiaeeeainoae oeeo o?ie?a a oiiaao Oe?a?inueei? a?iiac?? ye
caaaeueiiina?oiueiai caeeaaeo iiaiai oeio. Cai?iiiiiaaii ci?no oa
iaoiaeeeo o?ie?a ianeoaiaoth/i? i?aoe?, a iniiao yeeo iieeaaeaii
o?aaeeoe?eii ae?ii/? aeaee aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa.
Aecia/aii e?eoa??? oa iieacieee iaoe?iiaeueii? aeoiaaiino? o/i?a i?ae
aieeaii caiyoue aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: caaaeueiiina?oi? caeeaaee iiaiai oeio, ianeoaiaoth/a
i?aoey, aeooiai?noue, iaoe?iiaeueia naiina?aeii?noue, iaoe?iiaeueia
eoeueoo?a, aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeia ienoaoeoai.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iaao N.I. Iaoeeiiaeueiia ainieoaiea o/aieeia aeiiacee a i?ioeanna
o?oaeiaiai iao/aiey.

Aeenna?oaoeey a aeaea ?oeiiene ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.02 — Oai?ey e iaoiaeeea
o?oaeiaiai iao/aiey. Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao eiaie
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee inaauaiu iniiaiua i?iaeaiu iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainieoaiey a
oneiaeyo noaiiaeaiey iacaaeneiie noaa?aiiie Oe?aeiu. Eiinoaioe?oaony
na?ueaciay aeaoi?iaoeey aeooiaiiai ie?a o/aueony aneaaenoaea
aeano?oeoeaiuo aeeyiee ni noi?iiu oioaeeoa?iiai iauanoaa.

Enneaaeiaaia niaoeeoeea iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainieoaiey, enoiaey ec
aiciiaeiinoae o?ieia ianeoaeeaathuaai o?oaea a oneiaeyo
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiiai caaaaeaiey iiaiai oeia — aeiiacee.

A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeai iiaue iiaeoiae e ainieoaieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai
naiiniciaiey iiae?inoeia, iniiao eioi?iai ninoaaeyao i?aaie/aneia
niaaeeiaiea o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiuo oaoiieiaee n niaea?aeaieai e
niaoeeoeeie i?aaeiaoa “ianeoaeeaathuee o?oae”. Eceiaeaiiay nenoaia
ainieoaiey iicaieyao iao/ii-iainiiaaii iaiieiyoue niaea?aeaiea i?aaeiaoa
niioaaonoaothuei o/aaiui iaoa?eaeii e iiaeae?aoue oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee
o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiie ?aaiou ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia noaiiaeaiey
iaoeeiiaeueiie oeieu.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeiaaiu niiniau e n?aaenoaa oi?ie?iaaiey
iaoeeiiaeueii-niciaoaeueiie ee/iinoe iooai i?eiauaiey iiae?inoeia e
aiaaonoao iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u a i?ioeanna caiyoee
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiui eneonnoaii, a /anoiinoe, o?aaeeoeeiiii
aeaineeie aeaeaie ?oeiaeaeey — ooaeiaeanoaaiiay auoeaea, aena?iia
?oeiaeaeea, ocaeeiaia ieaoaiea oaoieeie iae?aia, aycaiea nieoeaie e
e?th/eii ia o?ieao ianeoaeeaathuaai o?oaea e ai aiao?i/iia a?aiy.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi caiyoey o?aaeeoeeiiiuie aeaeaie
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa iiauoatho o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe i?aaeiaoa “ianeoaeeaathuee o?oae”, niaeaenoaotho
iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiio ?acaeoeth. Iieacaii, /oi n?aaenoaaie
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa, iiaeii i?eaeoue /oanoaa ethaae e
oaaaeaiey e ia?iaeiui o?aaeeoeeyi, iau/ayi e ia?yaeai; eioa?an e enoi?ee
e eoeueoo?a oe?aeineiai ia?iaea; iio?aaiinoue oniaa?oainoaiaaoue naie
ciaiey e oiaiey a aeaeueiaeoai oai?/aneii o?oaea ia aeaai iacaaeneiie
Oe?aeiu, /oi e ninoaaeyao iaoeeiiaeueioth naiiniciaoaeueiinoue ee/iinoe.

Iaoeeiiaeueiay naiiniciaoaeueiinoue o/aieeia ii?aaeaeyeanue aaoi?ii ia
iniiaa oeaeaono?aieaiiiai iaaethaeaiey ca eo aeayoaeueiinoueth ia
o?ieao, caiyoeyo oaeoeueoaoeaa “Oe?aoaiey aeey eioa?uea?a e iaeaaeaeu”,
aiaeeca naiinoiyoaeueii auiieiaiiuo i?aeoe/aneeo oai?/aneeo caaeaiee, a
i?ioeanna onoiuo aanaae n ieie.

Iaiauaiea yenia?eiaioaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia aeaee iniiaaiey aaoi?o
auaeaeeoue o?e o?iaiy i?iyaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey: aunieee,
n?aaeiee, ieceee e niioaaonoaothuea e?eoa?ee eo ioeaiee.

Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca e?eoa?eaa e o?iaiae noi?ie?iaaiiinoe
iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey a aeenna?oaoeee ii?aaeaeaiu iieacaoaee
o?iaiy iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey ee/iinoe ii aa ioiioaieth e
ie?oaeathuae aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe: ioiioaiea e a?aaeaeaineiio aeieao;
ioiioaiea e aeooiaiie e iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?a; ioiioaiea e ethaeyi;
ioiioaiea e naaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iauaia?aciaaoaeueiua caaaaeaiey iiaiai oeia,
ianeoaeeaathuee o?oae, aeooiaiinoue, iaoeeiiaeueiia naiiniciaiea,
iaoeeiiaeueiay eoeueoo?a, aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiia eneonnoai.

SUMMARY

Pavkh S.P. National education of gymnasium pupils at the lessons of
labour training.

Thesis manuscript is presented for the degree of Candidate of
Pedagogical Sciences by speciality 13.00.02. — The theory and methodics
of teaching of drawing. National Pedagogical University by
M.P.Dragomanov, Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis contains the national education of pupils of Ukrainian
gymnasium at the lessons of labour training. The author studies the
specific character of national upbringing, which proceeds from
possibilities of the lessons at the general education establishment of
new type — Ukrainian gymnasium. It has been offered the subject and the
methods of the labour training, where such traditional kinds of arts
and crafts as crocheting, knitting, embroidering, plaiting were learned.

The criteria and indices of national upbringing at the lessons of labour
training with the help of arts and crafts have been defined.

Key words: general education establishment of new type, labour training,
spiritual, national self-awareness, national culture, arts and crafts.

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