IAOe?IIAEUeIA IOCE*IA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

?i. I.?.*AEEIANUeEIAI

Oeiainueeee Iao?i Eineiiae/

OAeE 78.072(477.82)

Ioce/ia aeeooy Aieei? 20-30-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy

17.00.03 – Ioce/ia ienoaoeoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? ca?oa?aeii? ioceee Iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,

Aiao?a Oaia?a O?aie?aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueia ioce/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie

?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e ?noi??? ca?oa?aeii? ioceee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,
i?ioani?

Caaaeeaae/ Ia??y Iao??aia,

?inoeooo ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,

oieueeei?enoeee oa aoiieia??

?i. I.O. ?eeuenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie (Ee?a),

a?aeae?e ioceeiciaanoaa

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa

Aoeea TH??e Iao?iae/,

aeioeaio Aeuiai aea?aeaaiiai ioce/iiai

?inoeoooo ?i. I.A.Eenaiea (Euea?a),

eaoaae?a oai??? ioceee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia
eiina?aaoi??y

?i. A.A.Iaaeaeaiiai?, eaoaae?a ?noi??? ioceee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 29 aa?aciy 2000 ?ieo i 17.00 ia can?aeaii?
ciaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.005.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe o Iaoe?iiaeuei?e ioce/i?e
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai ca aae?anith: 01001, Ee?a, aoe.
A?o?oaeoi?a Ai?iaeaoeueeiai, 1/3, 2-e iiaa?o, aoae. 36.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i.I.?.*aeeianueeiai.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 28 ethoiai 2000 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa
?.I.Eioaiee.

4

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeena?oaoe??

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No/ani? iaoeia? oyaeaiiy i?i eoeueoo?o ye i?ioean,
ui ?icai?oa?oueny ia o?euee? a /aniaiio, aea e noni?eueiiio i?inoi?? a
??cieo ?noi?e/ieo, iaoe?iiaeueieo, aaia?ao?/ieo, noee?noe/ieo, aeai?iaeo
eii?aeeiaoao, aeiaaathoue a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai i?iieeiaiiy o oeae
i?ino??. Iaeiith c iaeaeooaeuei?oeo caaea/ nueiaiaei?oiueiai ?noi?e/iiai
ioceeiciaanoaa ? aeinyaiaiiy ia’?iiiai eoeueoo?iiai aa/aiiy, aea aiii ?
iaiiaeeeaei aac aeine?aeaeaiiy eoeueoo?ieo yaeu.

Na?aae iiaeo iai?yi?a, ye? iaaiith i??ith caaacia/othoue ?ica’ycaiiy
aeaiiai caaaeaiiy, ? ?aa?iiaeueiee, eiee ioce/ia eoeueoo?a ie?aiiai
?noi?e/ii oa aeiiii?/ii aecia/aiiai ?aa?iio ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
nai???aeia eoeueoo?ia noanenoaia, aa?oeeaeueiee /aniaee c??c yei?
i?noeoue o nia? oi?aa?naeueio oaeoieia?/io oa eiiaioa?io ?ioi?iaoe?th.

?aa?iiaeueiee aniaeo oe?a?inueeiai ioceeiciaanoaa ? iaei?ic?iaeaiei c
i?e/ei ye niaoeeo?/ii iaoeiaeo, oae ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo. Inoaii?
i?ecaaee aei nooo?aeo aeaoi?iaoe?e o ieiuei? aoiai?oa?ieo ciaiue,
iicaaaeee ?o oe?e?niino? oa caaeainiaaiino?. Iaeia?oa oea noino?oueny
iaaeaaiuei? aeiooaii? i?aeoeee aeeo/aiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? /anoee c
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?ii? ?, cie?aia, ioce/ii? aaiethoe??, a
/anii ? ?aii?oaaiiy anueiai, ui a?aeaoaaeinue o ienoaoeoa? ca
oa?eoi??aeueieie iaaeaie ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie aei 1939 ?ieo.
Iani?inoiaaii aeooaeueiith ? iio?aaa iiaeieaiiy ?cieyoe?eiino? o
aea/aii? oe?a?inueeeo Noiaeo oa Caoiaeo, oeaio?o ? i?ia?ioe??,
iao?iiie?? oa ae?anii?e.

Naia oea niiioeaei aaoi?a caa?iooeny aei ioce/iiai aeeooy Aieei? 20-30-o
?ie?a OO noie?ooy, eiee iacaaiee cao?aeiee ?aa?ii c i?oeieie
eoeueoo?ieie o?aaeeoe?yie oa cia/ieie aeooiaieie caeiaooeaie aoiaeea aei
neeaaeo Iieueu?. Aaoi? i?iiiio? ?icaeyiooe aeacaia yaeua ye neeaaeiao
/anoeo ni?eueiioe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, ine?eueee a i?aeai?ii?
aeanyoee?ooy Aieeiue aoea ia o?eueee nai???aeiei ina?aaeeii eoeueoo?ii?
?ioaa?aoe??, aea e iacaaniei aiaieuai oe?a?inoaa, iaaiith i??ith
aa?aioii caa?aaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, i?aeaeaii? ieaiii??iiio
cieuaiith a ?aaeyinuee?e ?iia???. C oeeo iiceoe?e ioce/ia aeeooy Aieei?
20-30-o ?ie?a, iiaeeeai, ia? iaa?oue yne?aa?oa iaoe?iiaeueia
caaa?aeaiiy ii??aiyii c? no?aeieie ?aa?iiaie, aea oe?a?inueeee
eoeueoo?iee no?oi?iue aoa iiaeeiooee “?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiei”
?aeaieia?/iei.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai /?oea ?aa?iiaeueia ni?yioaaiiy
iia’ycothoue aeena?oaoe?th c aeayeeie ?ioeie iaoeiaeie ?iaioaie inoaii?o
?ie?a, a yeeo oaeiae ?icaeyaeathoueny eoeueoo?ii-ienoaoeuee? yaeua,
ii?iaeaeai? aeiaaeueieie ?noi?eei-iie?oe/ieie iiae?yie ii/aoeo OO
noie?ooy. Oea, cie?aia, eaiaeeaeaonuee? aeena?oaoe?? A.Aecthae
“Eiioea?oii-oi?iaa aeeooy Oe?a?ie 20-o ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy”,
E.Oaiee “?noi??y oi?iaiai oiaa?enoaa “Aiyi” (Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia)”,
A.Einothe “Ioce/ia eoeueoo?a Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie 20-30-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy
: ?aea? iinooio ? ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e”.

Iaoa i?iiiiiaaii? aeena?oaoe?? – a?aeiiaeaiiy yeiiiaa iiai?oi?
oaeoieia?/ii? ea?oeie ioce/iiai aeeooy Aieei? 20-30-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy
? anoaiiaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ioe?ii/ieo e?eoa???a. Eiie?aoi? caaea/? –
aeaoaeueiee ?icaeyae iaea?eueo yne?aaeo yaeu o eiiiiceoi?nuee?e
oai?/ino?, aeeiiaanoa?, ioae?oeenoeoe?, iiooe ia’?aeioth/eo oaiaeaioe?e
oa eia?ei-i?ioeanoaeueieo ca’yce?a i?ae noa?aie ?aa?iiaeueii? ioce/ii?
eoeueoo?e, aeyaeaiiy caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo niaoeeo?/ieo ?en ioce/iiai
ieneaiiy a eiai oe?e?niino?.

Ie?aiee, ?noi?e/iee aniaeo ?iaioe – iiiiaeaiiy caaooeo aai cian?i
iaciaieo ?iai, caiiaiaiiy “a?eeo ieyi” a aaea?a? iniaenoinoae
i?neyeenaie?anueeiai iieie?iiy eiiiiceoi??a, ooi/iaiiy aeaoaeae
caaaeueiieoeueoo?ii? iaii?aie oe?a?inueeiai ienoaoeoaa i?aeai?iii? ii?e.
A ?iaio? ia?aaaaeathoue ?ioi?iaoeaiee (iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy oa oii?yaeeoaaiiy
iaoa??aeo) oa aiae?oe/iee (aiae?c ioce/ieo oa ioae?oeenoe/ieo oai??a)
i?aeoiaee. Ie??i oeueiai, c?iaeaii ni?iao ocaaaeueieoe oa aecia/eoe
ia?niaeoeai? neeaaeia? ?ioi?iaoe?? o iaoeiaiio a?aeiioaii?.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aeena?oaoe?? ? iaoiae oe?e?niiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia iniia? eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai i?eioeeio ??aiicia/iino?
aeine?aeaeoaaeueieo ia’?eo?a a ?o ?noi?e/iiio oa anoaoe/iiio aei??ao, c
aeei?enoaiiyi ia o?eueee ioceeiciaa/eo, aea e nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo
e?eoa???a. Oe?iei canoiniaoaaeanue oaeiae i?aeoeea a?o?aiciaanoaa.
Na?aae nooi ioceeiciaa/eo oai?aoe/ieo aniaeo?a ne?ae aeae?eeoe –
oi?iciaa/ee.

Iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoeaiiai aeieo ? /eneaii? a?o?ai? aeai?
– aacaoi?, aeo?iaeuei?, iioi? aeaeaiiy, ?oeiiene, eenoe, eiioea?oi?
ao?o? ? o.?i. Iniiaith aiae?oe/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue neoaoaaee oai?e ??cieo
aeai??a aeaio aieeinueeeo eiiiiceoi??a – I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai oa
A.??/einueeiai, a oaeiae ioae?oeenoe/ia niaaeueia I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai.

Aanue ii?aoeueiaaiee o aeena?oaoe?? iaoa??ae aia?oa aaiaeeoueny o
iaoeiaee ia?a. Aaeeea e?euee?noue iiaeo ?iai, oaeo?a, aiae?c iaa?aeiieo
aein? ioce/ieo oai??a oa ?yaeo ioae?oeenoe/ieo noaoae, nai i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeaye? aeniiaee noiniaii ?icaeoeo ie?aieo ioce/ieo
aeai??a, aaaaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? aieeinueei? eiiiiceoi?nueei? oeiee a
?noi?e/iee eiioaeno caaacia/othoue iaoeiao naiino?ei?noue oa
ci?noiai?noue ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii ca?aeii c ieaiaie iaoeiai?
?iaioe Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai.

Iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe a?aeaeaathoueny o ianooiieo iieiaeaiiyo
aeena?oaoe??:

1. ?aa?iiaeueiee iai?yi oe?a?inueeiai ioceeiciaanoaa a?aee?eaa? iia?
iiaeeeaino? aea/aiiy a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e ye ia’?iiiai
aaaaoieiiiiiaioiiai i?ioeano, aea? ciiao aeey eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy
eiie?aoii aecia/aieo o /an? aoai?a ioce/ii? aaiethoe??.

2. Ioce/ia aeeooy Aieei? 20-30-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy /i?ae /an ia?aaoaaiiy
o neeaae? Iieueu?/ ? iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith oe?a?inueei? ioce/ii?
?noi???, ine?eueee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeyaii yne?aai-iaoe?iiaeueieo oi?i.

3. Iaeiei c aaaiieo /eiiee?a ioce/iiai aeeooy Aieei? aeaiiai ia??iaeo
aoea i?ioan?eia, oe?eeii no/ania ?aa?iiaeueia eiiiiceoi?nueea oeiea, a
oai?/ino? yei? a?aeaeeeny nooo?a? anoaoe/i? oa oaoiieia?/i? oaiaeaioe??
/ano.

4. Ioae?oeenoe/ia niaaeueia I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai neeaaea? aaaiio,
naiino?eio eaieo a ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? ioceeiciaa/i? aeoiee.

5. Oi?iaa aeeooy Aieei? i?aeai?iieo aeanyoee?oue na?ae/eoue i?i ?icea?o
oi?iaiai aeai?o o oai?/ino? oa aeeiiaanoa? ? neoaeeoue i?eeeaaeii
aeeiai?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?ia?aeiiai aeai?iaiai iai?yieo a?o/eciyii?
ioce/ii? eoeueoo?e a iiaeo noee?noe/ieo oiiaao ia?oi? o?aoeie OO no.

I?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe iiaeeeaa o aeaeyae? ?ic?iaee
niaoe?aeueiiai ioce/ii-?noi?e/iiai aai ae eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai
iaa/aeueiiai eo?no aeey ?aa?iiaeueieo aeueo o/aiaeo caeeaae?a,
aoiai?oa?iiai ni?yioaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy iaeyaeiaeo ?icae?e?a a?aeiia?aeieo
i?ae?o/iee?a, /eoaiiy na??? ie?aieo eaeoe?e, aeei?enoaiiy iaoa??ae?a o
i?aeoeoe? e?a?ciaa/eo oa ienoaoeueeeo ioca?a, a oaeiae o aeaeyae?
ii/aoeiai? aace ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioa iaaiai?thaaeany ia can?aeaiiyo
eaoaae?e ?noi??? ca?oa?aeii? ioceee Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? aeaaeai??
Oe?a?ie ? caeiaoea iiceoeai? a?aeaoee. Ie?ai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa
i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aoee aeeeaaeai? o aenooiao ia ?anioae?eainuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aoean ?noi??? eoeueoo?e Aieeinueei? iaeano?”/Eooeuee,1991
??e/, ae?oa?e ?aa?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aaeeea Aieeiue”/Eooeuee,1992
??e/, 39-e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
oa nooaeaio?a iaaeaoc?a /Eooeuee, 1993??e/.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio aeaa,
aeniiae?a, aeaio aeiaeaoe?a – iioiiai oa aeieoiaioaeueiiai, a oaeiae
nieneo aeei?enoaieo a?o?aieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e. Caaaeueiee ianya –
144 noi??iee, a?ae?ia?ao?y – 119 iiceoe?e.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O Anooi? aeaoaeueii iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??,
aeiaiaeeoueny ?? iaoeiaa aeooaeuei?noue, aecia/a?oueny aieiaia iaoa oa
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ic’ynith?oueny iaoiaeieia?y oa oai?aoe/ia aaca,
a?aoiaioo?oueny iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeaii? ?iaioe.

Aaoi? iaaiaeeoue aeae?eueea nooo?aeo iiceoe?e ia ei?enoue ia?aiiai
ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiiy – ioce/iiai aeeooy Aieei? 20-30-o ?ie?a OO
noie?ooy – ? i?aee?aneth? eiai yne?aaa iaoe?iiaeueii-oe?a?inueea
caaa?aeaiiy. Na?e iiaeyae ia ?aei?noue eoeueoo?ii-ienoaoeueeeo i?ioean?a
Caoiaeo oa Noiaeo o aeacaiee ia??iae a?i i?ioenoaaey? “?cieyoe?eiiio
ooeeo”, yeee i?eoaiaiiee aeayeei iaoeiaei ?iaioai inoaii?o ?ie?a
iiae?aiiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai ni?yioaaiiy ? iaaieioo? ia oiio, ui
a?aei?iiino? i?ae ioce/iei ?icaeoeii oe?a?inueeeo ?aa?ii?a, ?icae?eaieo
oa?eoi??aeueii, ia aoee i?eioeeiiaeie, a, iaoii?noue iaee aaaaoi
ni?eueiiai.

O Anooi? iaaieioo?oueny, ui ?iaioa aaeany ii aeaio iniiaieo iai?yieao –
eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio (I oa II aeaae, i?enay/ai? aea/aiith
ioce/ii-a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e oa eiioea?oii-aeeiiaanueeeo yaeu ia
oa?ai? Aieei?) oa aeania aiae?oe/iiio (III oa IV aeaae, a yeeo
aeine?aeaeo?oueny noni?eueii-a?iiaaenueea, eiiiiceoi?nueea oa
ioae?oeenoe/ia oai?/?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a aieeinueei? ?aa?iiaeueii? oeiee
eiiiiceoi??a – I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai oa A.??/einueeiai).

Aeaaa I. “Ioce/ii-a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?iaee ?oo ia Aieei? o
20-30-o ?ieao OO noie?ooy” a?aee?eaa?oueny ei?ioeei ia?enii eoeueoo?ii?
?noi??? Aieei? a?ae eiyc?anueeeo /an?a aei ia??iaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy
(?icae?e I. “Iniiai? aoaie eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo Aieei? aei ?aaeyinueeeo
/an?a”). A oeueiio ?icae?e? aena?oeththoueny iniiai? aoaie eoeueoo?ii?
aaiethoe?? ?aa?iio oa eiai ?ieue o iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeooiaiiio aeeoo?.
Aeae?eythoueny oae? ?noi?e/ii-aaaii? oa ?acoeueoaoeai? ia??iaee
aieeinueei? ?noi???, ye Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueea aea?aeaaa (XIII-XIV no.),
Ino?icueeee ia??iae (XVI – ii/aoie XVII no.) oa ?i. Inoaii?e
ioe?ith?oueny ye “cieioee a?e” Aieei?, eiee aiia a?ae?a?aaaea ?ieue
e?aea?a oe?a?inueeiai I?ina?oieoeoaa. Aeae? eiinoaoo?oueny o?eaaeee
ia??iae iaei?ooiiiai “cano?eiiai” ?nioaaiiy, ui i?ecaaei aei
“ia?eoa??eiiai eiiieaeno”, yeee o?eaaa iaeaea aei ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy.
Iaaiaeyoueny oaeoe Aieeinueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia ii/aoeo 900-o ?ie?a, iia’ycai? ye c ie?aieie
ia?niiae?yie (?iaeeia Eina/?a ? Eany Oe?a?iea), oae ? c a?iiaaenueeeie
i?aai?caoe?yie (”Aieiaeeie?-Aieeinueea ioce/ii-ae?aiaoe/ia ? ooaeiaei?
oiaa?enoai”, “Eooeueea a?oenoe/ia oiaa?enoai”). A ca’yceo c iaaaaeaieie
i?iiiaenoeie oaeoaie i?iiiio?oueny oa?i?i “aieeinueeee ?aianain” 20-30-o
?ie?a, ie?aneth?oueny eiei eiai e?aea??a – eiiiiceoi?e I.Oaeaaeeinueeee
oa A.??/einueeee, aeo?iae?no I.Iaaiee, iaeaooi?e Iao??a?o Oe?a?inueei?
aaoieaoaeueii? oea?eae N.Ne?eiiee, ei?eoae oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii?
oi?aia?ao?? A.Aa?aiaiei, oaao?aeueiee ae?y/ I.Iaaiee.

A e?ioe? ?icae?eo iiaea?oueny noenea noni?eueii-eoeueoo?ia o?ii?ea
aieeinueeiai aeeooy i?aeai?iieo aeanyoee?oue, iaaiaeyoueny aeieace
iayaiino? iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeeiio, eiinoaoothoueny eiai /eneaii? aeyae
ye o ae?yeueiino? iacaaieo a?iiaaenueeeo no?oeoo?, oae ? a i?noeaa?e
ia??iaeeoe? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ni?yioaaiiy. Iath/e ia iao? o iiaeaeueoiio
aiae?c ae?yeueiino? oiaa?enoaa “I?ina?oa” Aieeinueeiai ?aa?iio, aaoi?
i?iiiio? noeneo ?noi?e/io aeia?aeeo uiaei oe??? i?ia?aeii?
eoeueoo?ii-iao??ioe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? ? i?aee?aneth? iaaecae/aeio ?ieue
?? i?noeaaeo o?e?e a ?iee, eiee ia no?aeieo oa?eoi??yo i?ina?oyinuee?
ina?aaeee aoee aai e?ea?aeiaai?, aai, a e?auiio ?ac?, ia?ai???ioiaai? ia
?aaeyinueeee eaae.

?icae?e 2 Aeaae I “Ioce/ia ae?yeuei?noue oiaa?enoa, onoaiia,
i?aai?caoe?e caaaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ni?yioaaiiy Aieei? 20-30-o ?ie?a”,
iaaaaaoi ia’?ii?oee, noaiiaeoue oeaio?aeueiee ?ioi?iaoeaiee aeie
aeena?oaoe??. Iine?aeiaii ? aeeaiei aiae?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue oaeeo
i?aai?caoe?e, ye “I?ina?oa”,”Aieeinueea oe?a?inueea ia”?aeiaiiy”, eeoae
“??aeia oaoa” oa “E?oa?aoo?ii-ienoaoeueea oiaa?enoai ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee”.
?ioi?iaoe?y uiaei eiaeiiai oiaa?enoaa ocaaaeueith?oueny noeneeie
aeniiaeaie, ye? iai?ee?ioe? aeaae ooai?ththoue i?aenoiiaoth/ee ?icae?e.

I?ia?aeia i?noea a ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ia?oi? aeaae a?aeaiaeeoueny
oiaa?enoao “I?ina?oa” ye iaea?eueo aaoi?eoaoiiio oa ae?eiaiio. Aaoi?
aaaaea? ca iio??aia iaaanoe ?yae noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo uiaei iayaiino?
o?e?e “I?ina?oe” i?aeoe/ii a on?o i?noao oa i?noa/eao ?aa?iio,
e?eueeino? aeoea?no?a, no?oeoo?ii? aoaeiae o?e?e ?i. Oea ? aeieacii
oiai, ui i?ina?oyinoai iaei oa?aeoa? ianiaiai yaeua ? iieeeeaia aoei, ye
noaa?aeaeo? Noaooo Aieiaeeie?nueei? “I?ina?oe”, “i?aeo?eioaaoe ?
?iciineoe i?ii?iiy eoeueoo?e o an? caeooee oaiii? aoaeaiueie”. Aieiaia
oaaaa aaoi?a cina?aaeaeaia ia oaeoieia??, ui noino?oueny ioce/ii?
ae?yeueiino? “I?ina?o”, o?enaoe?? ?? ??ciiiai?oieo oi?i, ye io:
ooai?aiiy ioce/ieo aai ioce/ii-ae?aiaoe/ieo naeoe?e, ye? ?nioaaee
i?aeoe/ii a on?o o?e?yo, aeaoooaaiiy “e?oa?aoo?ii-ioce/ieo i?iaeoeoe?e,
eiioea?o?a, ieaeaiiy ioceee ? ni?ao” (oeeoaoa c aeua caaaeaiiai
Noaoooo).

Na?aae /eneaiieo oaeo?a ie?aeii? ioce/ii? i?aoe? “I?ina?o” aeena?oaio
iniaeeai iaaieioo? ia ?o oi?ia?e ae?yeueiino?. Aeine?aeaeothoueny oeyoe
noaiiaeaiiy i?ina?oyinueeeo oi??a, ?o ?aia?ooa?, ??aaiue aeeiiaanueei?
iaenoa?iino?. Ie?aii a ?icae?e? 2 ?icaeyaea?oueny ?noi??y oe?a?i?caoe??
oea?eiaii? a?aei?aae o Aieeinueeiio ?aa?ii?, eiee naia i?ina?oyinuee?
oi?e i/ieeee ai?ioueao ia?ao?yi ca ??aeio iiao. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aiaineoae?iiy iio?aaoaaei ioce/iiai iiiaeaiiy a?aei?aa,
ia?aaeyaeo oea?eiaii-ioce/ii? anoaoeee. Oeth i?n?th acyee ia naaa
aieeinuee? eiiiiceoi?e I.Oaeaaeeinueeee oa A.??/einueeee, oai?/ee
caeiaooie yeeo ?icaeyaea?oueny a ianooiieo aeaaao aeena?oaoe??. Aaoi?
i?aee?aneth? o?niee ca’ycie aeooiaieo oai??a oeeo eiiiiceoi??a c
i?ina?oyinueeith ?aeaieia??th.

Aeine?aeaeothoueny oaeiae ?io? aniaeoe ae?yeueiino? “I?ina?o” –
oaao?aeueiee, oi?aia?ao?/iee, i?eano?iai-?ino?oiaioaeueiee. Eiaeai c
iacaaieo aniaeo?a ?ethno?o?oueny /eneaiieie oaeoaie-i?eeeaaeaie. Aiie
na?ae/aoue i?i aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy “I?ina?o” o nei?i/aii? a?aenoai? iii?ae
aiaoi?noaii oa i?ioan?iiae?ciii, anoaiiaeaii? iiaeo oaoiaeo e?eoa???a
aeey eieaeoea?a oa nie?no?a.

Aeae? aiae?co?oueny ae?yeueiinoue AOI (Aieeinueeiai Oe?a?inueeiai
ia’?aeiaiiy), yea noaei i?aaiianooiieeii “I?ina?o” i?ney ?oiueiai
caiaiaaeo. Iiaea?oueny noenea ?noi??y noai?aiiy oiaa?enoaa a
oiae?oiueiio noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio eiioaeno? Aieei?, ?icaeyaea?oueny
eiai noaooo oa no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino?, aeieeaaeii aea/athoueny
??ciiiai?oi? oi?ie ioce/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Iaaiaeyoueny aeai?, ye?
na?ae/aoue i?i iaaiee oi?iaee “i?ia?an”, a naia i?eeiyooy
AieiaiithOi?aaith AOI Noaoooo I?ina?oyinueeeo oi??a, ca?aeii yeiai oi?
caoaa?aeaeoaaany ye naiino?eia o oai?/iio, i?aai?caoe?eiiio oa
iaoa??aeueiiio a?aeiioaiiyo no?oeoo?ia iaeeieoey. Iaaiaeyoueny eiie?aoi?
aeai? i?i ?aia?ooa? iiae?aieo “aaoiiiiieo” oi??a, ui neeaaeaany c
aa?oeiieo, /anii aeoaea neeaaeieo oai??a iaoe?iiaeueii? eeaneee (Neoaeaa
Aiaea I.Eaiioiae/a, “I?iiaoae” E.Noaoeaiea, “Caiia?o” I.Eenaiea ?
iaa?oue “Caii?iaeaoeue ca Aeoia?i” N.Aoeaea-A?oaiianueeiai).
?icaeyaea?oueny ae?yeuei?noue ?icia?oeo eoeueoo?ii-ioce/ieo aeoe?e
(?ii?ac) – Oaa/aie?anuee? aeaaeai??, aa/i?e ia /anoue ?ieiaei aeaeaoieo
ae?y/?a eoeueoo?e (?.O?aiei, E.Oe?a?iee, ?.Eioey?aanueeiai), ?noi??? oa
iie?oeee (?.Iacaie, N.Iaoeth?e), ??caeayi? aa/i?e, “Nayoa aanie” ? o.?i.
Aaoi? i?inoaaeo? aca?iica’ycie i?ae aeoeaiei ?icaeoeii oi?iaiai
aeeiiaanoaa ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi nenoaie oi?iai? ina?oe o aeaeyae? on?eyeeo
eo?n?a.

Ie?aiee aniaeo oi?iai? oaiaoeee ?icae?eo neeaaea? aeine?aeaeaiiy
?noi??? oi?iaeo eiieo?n?a, ui nenoaiaoe/ii cai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue i?ae
aa?aeith AOI. Acaaae? ae ooieoe?iioaaiiy AOI ia ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a
cia/ii i?aeo?eiaei oa ?ioaineo?eoaaei ioce/ii-eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie
?aa?iio. Caaaeyee AOI a?ae/ooii c?inea ieoiia aaaa i?ioan?iiae?caoe?? a
caaaeueiiio ioce/iiio eiioaeno?.

Ooo aea ?icaeyaea?oueny ae?yeuei?noue e ?ioeo aeuacaaaeaieo oiaa?enoa,
ui iaea ii??aiyii iaioee ianooaa oa ?aciiain.

?icae?e 2 Aeaae ? cae?i/o?oueny caaaeueieie aeniiaeaie uiaei ?ie?
?icaeyiooeo i?aai?caoe?e o ioce/iiio aeeoo? ?aa?iio. Naia aiie
ni?e/eieee ?icea?o oi?iaiai aeeiiaanoaa ia Aieei?, ooai?aiiyi /eneaiieo
oi?iaeo eieaeoea?a, ye? ni?eyee oe?ie?e i?iiaaaiae? e?aueo c?ace?a
a?o/eciyii? ia?iaeii? oa i?ioan?eii? ioceee. Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?icia?oeo
aee?eaaionueeeo eo?n?a oa oi?iaeo eiieo?n?a caeeaei ooiaeaiaio
i?ioan?iiae?caoe?? o aeeiiaanuee?e oa ina?oi?e noa?ao. A iiyaa
??ciiiai?oieo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo eieaeoea?a oa ?icaeoie nieueiiai
aeeiiaanoaa caaacia/eee i?inoaaiiy aia?aae e ?ioeo i?ioa?e?a ioce/ii?
eoeueoo?e. I?iiiae oa ?aoa?aoe i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy ?ii?ac, nenoaiaoe/i?
aacaoi? ioae?eaoe?? ia ioce/i? oaie i?aeaiooaaee a?oio aeey ca?iaeaeaiiy
ioce/ii? e?eoeee.

Oaeei /eiii, a ia??iae i?ae aeaiia na?oiaeie a?eiaie ia Aieei? neeaeeny
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy iniia i?ioan?eiiai ioce/iiai
ienoaoeoaa.

Aeaaa ?? aeena?oaoe?? – “Eiioea?oii-oaao?aeueia aeeooy Aieei? 20-30-o
?ie?a” – i?iaeiaaeo? ?ioi?iaoeaio /anoeio ?iaioe, aeine?aeaeoth/e
aaaeeea? /eiieee aieeinueeiai ioce/iiai aeeooy ciai?oiueiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, a naia aenooie aano?iethth/eo eieaeoea?a oa nie?no?a.
Iniiaiee ci?no aeaae neeaaea? o?ii?ea eiioea?oii-oaao?aeueiiai i?ioeano
a ?aa?ii? a cacia/aiee ia??iae. Ia a?aei?io a?ae Aeaae ?, a ye?e
?icaeyaeathoueny iania? ioce/i? yaeua, Aeaaa ?? ia? a?eueo
“ia?nii?o?eiaaiee” aeaeyae.

Ooo iine?aeiaii ?icaeyaea?oueny ? eiiaioo?oueny aano?ieueiee ?oo ia
oa?ai? Aieei?: aenooie oi??a, i?eano??a, ?ino?oiaioaeueieo ainaiae?a,
iia?ieo oa ae?aiaoe/ieo oaao?aeueieo o?oi, oi?aia?ao?/ieo eieaeoea?a oa
nie?no?a, ia?aaaaeii c? No?aeii? Oe?a?ie.

Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny oaeiio o?aaeeoe?eiiio ? iieaciaiio aeey
oe?a?inueeiai ienoaoeoaa ?ino?oiaioo, ye aaiaeo?ia. Iaaiaeyoueny aeai?
a?ia?ao?/iiai ? oai?/iai ci?noo a?aeiieo ia Aieei? nie?no?a-aaiaeo?eno?a
Ae.Ua?aeie, E.I?naae/a, A.A?eiaoa. O?enothoueny oae? i?iiiaeno? oaeoe,
ye caoiieaiiy eiino?othaaiiyi aaiaeo?, ooai?aiiy ao?oe?a aaiaeo?eno?a,
?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?aeoeee ni?eueieo aenooi?a nie?no?a-aaiaeo?eno?a oa
i?ina?oyinueeeo oi??a, ooai?aiiy iacae/aeieo ainaiae?a, cie?aia,
eaa?oaoo aaiaeo?eno?a. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui eiaca?nueeee “?oo” ia Aieei?
a 20-30-o ??. aoa caeiiii??iei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi a?aeiia?aeii? oaiaeaioe??
o ioce/iiai aeeooy No?aeii? Oe?a?ie ii/aoeo 20-o ??., ui ? aeieacii
ni?eueiino? ienoaoeueeeo i?ioean?a a oe?a?inuee?e eoeueoo?? i?aeai?iieo
aeanyoee?oue.

?icaeyaea?oueny ae?yeuei?noue oe?eaaeo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo eieaeoea?a,
ye “Ainaiaeue eoaainueeeo eicae?a” i?ae ea??aieoeoaii A.Iaaeiaa,
“Ainaiaeue aaeaeaeie ??aiainueeiai i?aaineaaiiai aeia?iae?eiiai
oiaa?enoaa” i?ae ea??aieoeoaii ?.Aeoa?ia?ia, Caeieaoi?anueeee ainaiaeue
aaeaeaeie i?ae ea??aieoeoaii E.Aeyeiaa-Noaaeoeueeiai, Aieeinueeee
i?eano? iaiaeie?i?no?a. Aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?, ui ia o?eueee aaiaeo?a
?ai?acaiooaaea aieeinueeee ?ino?oiaioa??e – ?nioaaea aeinoaoiy
e?euee?noue ??ciiiai?oieo ainaiae?a ia?iaeieo ?ino?oiaio?a, ui
caiiaithaaee “a?e? ieyie” ?ino?oiaioae?cio, i?eiaei? a iaaeaaeai?/i?e
noa??.

Caaaeueii-eoeueoo?io iae?o?o Aieei? cia/ii caaaa/oaaei e
eaia?ii-aieaeueia ioceeoaaiiy, yeiio a?aeaiaeeoueny cia/ia i?noea a
aeai?e aeaa? . *a?ac nai? aaeaea aaia?ao?/ia ?icoaooaaiiy oa
oe?ieia?aeii? aeaai? ienoaoeuee? o?aaeeoe?? Aieeiue ? a 20-30-o ?ieao
aoea iiioey?iei aano?ieueiei ioieoii, yeee ia iaieiaee iaa?oue nie?noe
i?ia?aeieo ?a?iiaenueeeo oaao??a. sse iai?eeeaae, aano?ie? nie?noa
Iineianueeiai Aaeeeiai oaao?o aa?eoiia Ai?ena Iiiiaa, aaea?eie
Euea?anueei? iia?e I?ie E??naiiai?, aaeaoiaenoa?a Ee?anueeiai iia?iiai
oaao?o Ieaenaiae?a Oi?ooiaoi, nie?noa Aa?oaanueei? iia?e Noai?neaaa
?aoieueaea oa ?i. Iniaeeai a?aecia/a?oueny eiioea?oia ae?yeuei?noue
oethaeaioey aieeinueei? ioae?ee, a?oenoa Aieeinueeiai Oe?a?inueeiai
oaao?o ?aaia Naeea, aenooie yeiai ia aeoieo I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai, noaaaee
oaeeeiaie “ni?aaaeiuei? anoaoe/ii? ianieiaee”. ? Naeei aeeiioaaa a
eaia?ieo eiioea?oao a??? c iia?e Ae.Io//ei? “Oinea”, AE.Iania “Aa?oa?”,
A.AEae?inueeiai “ssiae”, ?iiaine A.Aeii?oeaoo?, oe?a?inuee? ia?iaei?
i?ni?. Aea aeii?iaioith eiai ?aia?ooa?o aoea ciaiaieoa aeoia-nieini?a
I.Eenaiea “Aaoueiaie, aaoueiaie” c “Ioceee aei Eiaca?y”.

Ioaea, aenooie a?aeiieo nie?no?a-aieae?no?a noai?thaaee ni?eyoeeaee
a?oio aeey c?inoaiiy ioce/ii-oaao?aeueieo niae?a ? iio?aa aieeiyi. Aaoi?
aaaaea?, ui a ?aa?ii? ?nioaaea ?aaeueia iio?aaa noai?aiiy aeaniiai
ioce/ii-ae?aiaoe/iiai oaao?o. Oiio a iiaeaeueoiio i?noaaeo?oueny ?noi??y
Aieeinueeiai oaao?aeueiiai ?ooo.

Iiaea?oueny iaeyae aano?iethth/eo oaao?aeueieo o?oi, ye ae?aiaoe/ieo,
oae ? iia?ieo aai ae iia?aoeiaeo. Aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?noi??y i?noeaaiai
oaao?aeueiiai aiaoi?noaa, a oaeiae ooai?aiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
Aieeinueeiai Oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o, yeee th?eaee/ii aeiee o 1930 ??. a
Eooeueeo, ia iniia? aiaoi?nueeiai ae?aiaoe/iiai ao?oea, i/iethaaiiai
aiooc?anoii oaao?aeueii? ni?aae, iaeiei c i?aaenoaaiee?a aieeinueeiai
?aianaino I.Iaaiei. Aeena?oaio i?iiiio? a?ia?ao?/io aeia?aeeo i?i
oai?oey iacaaiiai oaao?o, iaaieiooth/e ia oaeeo i?iiiaenoeo oaeoao eiai
ae?yeueiino?, ye i?aoey a Iineianueeiio Ooaeiaeiueiio oaao??,
Aea?aeaaiiio Oe?a?inueeiio oaao?? a Ee?a?, ni?ai?aoey c I.Naaeianueeei a
Oaeai?iae?. Iiyaa aeaniiai oaao?o a?aee?eea iia? ienoaoeuee? ia??? a
eoeueoo?iiio na?aaeiaeu? ?aa?iio. AOO noaa ni?aaaeiueith oeieith
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ooaeiaei?o niae?a oe?iei?
aoaeeoi???.

Oai?/ei e?aaei eieaeoeao aoea ?aia?ooa?ia oi?aa?naeuei?noue, ui
a?aeiia?aeaei e aeiiaai /ano, ? i?noeaa?e eoeueoo?i?e neooaoe??. Iniiao
?aia?ooa?o neeaaeaee oe?a?inuee? i’?ne: ae?aie “I?i ui oe?na oaeano?ea”
I.*a?eanaiea, “A??o” A.Aeiie/aiea, eiiaae?? “No?oa” oa “Ia?oei Ao?oey”
?.Ea?iaiea-Ea?iai, ia?iaei? iia?aoe “Ie, ia oiaee A?eoeth” oa “Oeeaaiea
Aca” I.Noa?eoeueeiai. Eiaeiee iiaee nacii oaao?o a?aee?eaaany “Iaoaeeith
Iieoaaeith” ?.Eioey?aanueeiai a ioce/i?e ?aaeaeoe?? I.Eenaiea. Ie?aio
eaieo noaiiaeee iinoaiiaee I.Iaaiiai ioce/ii-oieueeei?iiai ni?yioaaiiy,
ia c?acie “I?naiue a eeoeyo” I.E?iieaieoeueeiai. Ii?yae c oe?a?inueeeie
noaaeeeny i’?ne ? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a. Iai?eeeaae, “I??aiaeiea”
E.Aieueaeii?, “Aeo?aiue” O?eueaea, “Aeia?a iioeoee o?ae” Ae?aaae?, “?o?”
E.*aiaea.

Ia iaiaaeoth/enue aiae?cii ?aia?ooa?o, a aeena?oaoe?? iine?aeiaii
i?inoaaeothoueny on? ianoaaeie oaao?aeueiiai aeeooy – a?aio
ae?yeueiino?, iaoa??aeuei? oiiae, aano?ieuei? ia?o?ooe. Iniaeeai oaaaeii
aeine?aeaeothoueny ?ieue ioceee a ae?aiaoe/ieo niaeoaeeyo, ye?noue
iia?ieo iinoaiiaie, ??aaiue oaao?aeueiiai i?eano?o oa oi?o ?i.
I?aee?aneth?oueny oni?o oaeeo iia?ieo i?iaeo?a AOO, ye “*i?iiii?oe?”
I.Eenaiea, “Caii?iaeaoeue ca Aeoia?i” N.Aoeaea-A?oaiianueeiai,
“Eaoa?eia”

I.A?eana ? ia?aoo? “Iieoth?i” I.Eenaiea, yeee ?ai?oa aoa iaa?aeiiee
aieeinueeei iaeiiaiai. Aaaeeeai, ui, AOO o?eiaany ia o?eueee ia
aiooc?aci? ea??aieea oa eieaeoeao, aea e ia i?oeiiio
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/iiio ooiaeaiaio? caaaeyee Aieeinueeiio
Oe?a?inueeiio oaao?aeueiiio oiaa?enoao, yea iinoaei ia ii/aoeo 1932
?ieo. O nai?io onoaiia/iio “Caa?iaii? aei a?iiaaeyi” oiaa?enoai oae
aecia/a? iai?yiee nai?? iaeaooiuei? ae?yeueiino?: “i?iaaaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o, e?ii; oii?yaeaeoaaiiy aenoaa, eiioea?o?a oa
eaeoe?e; aeaeaaaiiy oa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ae?aiaoe/ieo oai??a ?
e?oa?aoo?e, ui oi?ea?oueny oaao?aeueiiai ienoaoeoaa; canioaaiiy ?
i?iaaaeaeaiiy ae?aiaoe/ieo nooae?e, ioce/ieo oe?e oa e?iinooae?e;
i?aeo?eiaiiy aiaoi?nueeeo ao?oe?a”. sse aa/eii, a?aiae?ici? ieaie
oiaa?enoaa iaee a iiai?noth iiiaeoe eoeueoo?ia aeeooy ?aa?iio. Aea, ia
aeaeue, aiii ia io?eiaei a?aeiia?aeii? aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee ?
ia?aaoaaei a ne?ooiiio iaoa??aeueiiio noaiiaeu?, a a?aeoae cina?aaeeei
nai? coneeey eeoa ia oo?eiaii? oaao?o.

Aeaaa ??? aeena?oaoe?? – “Eiiiiceoi?nueea oai?/?noue I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai
oa A.??/einueeiai” – aiae?oe/ia ? ? iaea?eueoith ca ianyaii. Aiia
a?aee?eaa?oueny a?ia?ao?/iei ia?enii o aeai?? “iiaea?eiiai ii?o?aoo”,
ine?eueee iiaa eaea i?i aeaio eiiiiceoi??a. Oieeath/e ae??aieo
oaeoieia?/ieo iiae?iaeoeue (aiie aianai? o Aeiaeaoie ?), ooo
cina?aaeaeaii oaaao ia ni?eueieo oai?/eo ?enao I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai oa
A.??/einueeiai, aeae?ey?oueny ?yae iciae, ca yeeie ?o iiaeia ia’?aeiaoe
a iaaio ?aa?iiaeueio eiiiiceoi?nueeo oeieo. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui oe?
eiiiiceoi?e – iaeiii?oi?o? iinoao? aieeinueeiai “ioce/iiai ?aianaino”.
Naia caaaeyee ?o coneeeyi, iaaoiii?e oai?/?e oa i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?
Aieeiue o 20-30-o ??. OO no. aeeea aeoeaiei oa ie?aeiei ioce/iei
aeeooyi.

Eiiiiceoi?nueea niaaeueia I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai oa A.??/einueeiai aeineoue
??ciiiai?oia ? aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? ia o?eueee aeoeaiiai aiaoi?noaa, aea
e eieaeueiiai i?ioan?eiiai yaeua. E?euee?noue ? ye?noue iaienaiiai,
aeai?iaee a?aea??, noee?noe/ia ni?yioaaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui aaoi?e
nie?aeenue ia i?ia?aei? ooaeiaei? i???ioe?e ioce/ii? no/aniino? ?
a?ae/oaaee naaa ia ii/aoe?aoeyie-i?ia?ioe?aeaie, a iiaiii?aaieie
o/anieeaie eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeano.

E??i oeueiai caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia ?yae a?aei?iieo ?en o ianooaa?,
aeai?iaiio a?aeiioaii?, oei? ooaeiaeiuei? iniaenoino? iaio aieeinueeeo
eiiiiceoi??a ? a?aoiaioo?oueny iiaoaiiee, ii??aiyeueiee oeyo aiae?co
?oi?o oai??a. Cacia/a?oueny oaeiae neeaaei?noue ? o?aaiaioa?iee oa?aeoa?
aiae?oe/ii? ?iaioe a oiiaao ia iiaiiai, a eeoa /anoeiaiai caa?aaeaiiy
eiiiiceoi?nueeeo ?oeiien?a aai ae ae?oeiaaieo oai??a.

Ie?aneth?oueny aeai?iaa iae?o?a oai??a I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai (E?oo?a?y,
ca??iee “Aieeinuee? oe?a?inuee? ia?iaei? i?ni?”, “Ca??iee i?naiue ?
caaaa aeey ae?oae”) oa A.??/einueeiai (”Oe?a?inueea A?aei?aaa Aa/??iy oa
?aiiy”, ca??ea “Anaia?iaei? ni?ae a oe?a?inuee?e oea?ea?”, “Oe?a?inuee?
eieyaeee”), ye? neoaoaaee ia’?eoii aiae?oe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
iaaieioo?oueny, ui aeooiaia ioceea ? ia?iaea ia?iaeii? i?ni?
a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue i?a-aeai??a oe?a?inueei? i?ioan?eii? ioceee,
neeaaeathoue ooiaeaiaio ?? ?ioiiaoe?eiino?, ooai?ththoue iniiao
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino?. Aeeth/aiiy oai?/ino? Oaeaaeeinueeiai ?
??/einueeiai a caaaeueiee i?ioean aaiethoe?? oeeo aeai??a nooo?ai
aeiiiaith? ? ei?aao? ?noi?e/io ea?oeio oe?a?inueei? ioce/ii? eoeueoo?e
aeaiiai ia??iaeo.

E??i oeueiai aiae?oe/iee ?icae?e Aeaae ??? i?noeue noeneee ia?en
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aeooiaii? ioceee a?ae XVIII aei XX noie?ooy.
Cacia/a?oueny, ui ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy, /a?ac /eneaii?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? eaoaee?cie, aeooiaia ioceea noa? nai???aeiei
aaaiaa?aeii oai?/eo iiooe?a aeey oe?ei? ieayaee eiiiiceoi??a.

“Oaia” aeooiaii? ioceee ia?an?eaeany c aaaaoueia aieth/eie ieoaiiyie
?aeaieia?? oiai /ano: i?iaeaia iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino?, ca’ycie c
eoeueoo?ieie o?aaeeoe?yie, oe?a?i?caoe?y oea?eae. ssne?aaa iie?oe/ia
caaa?aeaiiy oiae?oi?o “iaaeieiaeooiaieo” aeeneon?e i?ecaaei aei
eaoaai?e/iiai ?iciaaeoaaiiy eiiiiceoi?nueeeo oe?e ia iineianueeo aai, ca
aeneiaethaaiiyi Oaeaaeeinueeiai, “iineaio?euenueeo” (I.A?a/ai?iia,
I.?iie?oia-?aaiia, I.*aniieia) oa aeueoa?iaoeaio, yea ia’?aeiaeany
iaaeiei oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? (I.Eenaiei, E.Noaoeaiei,
I.Eioeoeue, I.Eaiioiae/, A.Iao?ooaanueeee ?, cae/aeii, I.Oaeaaeeinueeee
oa A.??/einueeee).

Aaoi? iia?aeii coieiy?oueny ia ?ica?aeiinoyo iii?ae oeeie aeaiia
oeieaie, aiae?co? iiceoe?th I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai, aeeeaaeaio a noaoo?
“Aeae?eueea oaaa i?i iao oea?eiaiee ni?a” ? oei naiei aioo? a?oio aeey
aaeaeaaoiiai ni?eeiyooy oai??a inoaiiueiai.

A Aeaa? ??? ?icaeyaeathoueny oae? oai?e I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai, ye
“Oa?oaeinueea i?niy” Oa-iaaei?, “Oa?oaeinueea i?niy” nieue-i?ii?,
“Iee?noue niieith” Nieue-iaaei? oa ?io? i?i?aoth?e, ui aoiaeyoue aei
neeaaeo E?oo?a?? ?iaiia Ceaoionoa. Ooo canoiniao?oueny iaoiae
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co, ni?anoaaeythoueny oai?e Oaeaaeeinueeiai c
aiaeia?/ieie ca aeai?ii — Ae.Ai?oiyinueeiai, E.Noaoeaiea,
A.A?oaiaaeuenueeiai, A.Eiiae?ia. Oeae iaoiae i?aeeacaiee naiith
iiaoaeiaith ca??ee “Ni?ae ia e?oo?a?? Nayoiai ?iaiia Ceaoionoa” aeaeaii?
o Aa?oaa? o 1937 ?., aea ii?yae c oai?aie Oaeaaeeinueeiai ai?uai? oai?e
iacaaieo aaoi??a.

Aeooiaia niaaeueia Oaeaaeeinueeiai ?ethno?o? iaaio ?aeaieia?/io
oaiaeaioe?th: noai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaiai a ii??aiyii? c “iineianueeei”
oea?eiaiiai noeeth, iaeneiaeueii iaaeeaeaiiai aei na?aaeiueia?/iiai
ciaiaiiiai ?icni?ao, iiaoaeiaaiiai iaeaea ia oeo naieo
eaaei-?ioiiaoe?eieo canaaeao. Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui oaeee oeyo ?icaeoeo
oea?eiaiiai noeeth ia?oi? o?aoeie OO no. aoa aeaui oeaiei, ine?eueee a?i
ia?aaeaa/aa a?aeiiao a?ae no/anii? ioce/ii? oaoiieia??. Iaaieiooth/e ia
anoaoe/i?e iaiaaeaiino? eiioeaioe?? Oaeaaeeinueeiai, aaoi? ?acii c oei
eiinoaoo? ?? i?aai ia ?nioaaiiy. Iaeyne?aa?o? /anoeie E?oo?a?? ia
iicaaaeai? naiiaooiino?, eia?ee oa ?ioiiaoe?eii? i?e?iaeiino?,
ooai?ththoue iaaio noeeueiao ?aei?noue.

Eeane/ia 4-aieinny a?aeiia?aea? aa?oeeaeueiiio ?iciiae?eo oaia?iaeo
ooieoe?e, ia?aaaaeath/ee aei?aeiaee aeeeaae a?aeiia?aea? ooieoe?ei?e
noai?aeeiaoe?? aa?iii?/ieo niieo/aiue, aeai?iai iaeo?ae?ciaaia,
“aaceie??ia” iaeiaeeea a?aeiia?aea? “aaciniaiaiio” ia’?eoea?ciaaiiio
oaenoo, iaaeeoa?aioe?eiaai?noue oaiaoecio ? ia-oaiaoecio a?aeiia?aea?
aeiaiaoe/iiio ni?eeiyooth oea?eiaieo eaiii?a. sse noee?noe/ia yaeua,
ia?aeaeueia oea?eiaiiio eaiiio, aeooiaia ioce/ia niaaeueia
Oaeaaeeinueeiai ? anoaoe/ii caeiiii??iith. I?ioa “noa?eeueia” /enoioa
noeeth i?aeaea? noa?ee?caoe?? ? naio oai?/o ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue. Naia a
oeueiio, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iieyaa? iaea?aceea?oa i?noea
anoaoe/ii-oaoiieia?/ii? eiioeaioe?? Oaeaaeeinueeiai.

Na?onueea oai?/?noue eiiiiceoi?a i?aaenoaaeaia a Aeaa? ??? aeaiia
i?naiieie ca??eaie, ia?aaaaeii ia?iaeaie. Ooo iiaea?oueny iaaaee/eee
?noi?e/iee aeneo?n aeai?o ia?iaee. Cie?aia, i?iiiio?oueny iiaeyae ia
ia?iaeo ye ia noiooieoeth aaiethoe?? eiiiiceoi?nueei? oaoi?ee ? ye ia
i?ia?aeio aeai?iao “eoeueoo?o” ia oe?a?inueeiio ioce/iiio a?oio?. sseui
a oai?/ino? eiiiiceoi??a O?O noie?ooy ia?iaea ?icaeaaeanue aaiethoe?eii,
iinooiiai, oi a ?aaiethoe?eiiio OO noie?oo? aiia oaae
“?aaiethoe?ii?coaaeanue”. AEai?iaei aeaooii ni?eeia?oueny oi?eaeueia
oai?/?noue Ae.Eaiioiae/a, yeee, ia?ao?acoth/e Iaei?anueeiai, “aicaunee
ia?aaioeo aei o?iaiy ia?iaeiie o?aaaaeee”. A i?ioean? aiae?co aaoi?
ciiao caa?oa?oueny aei iaoiaeeee ii??aiyiiy, aea “ia a?aenoai?”,
ni?anoaaeyth/e iaoiae Eaiioiae/a oa Oaeaaeeinueeiai. Ca??ea “Aieeinuee?
oe?a?inuee? ia?iaei? i?ni? ia i?oai? oi?e”, aeaeaia a 1922 ?. a
Noai?neaa?, ? oeiiaei i?eeeaaeii “?aa?iiaeueii?” ca??ee. Oaiaoe/ia eiei
i?naiue ia?eia? a?/i? caaaeueiiethaenuee? nthaeaoe – aania, /aeaiiy,
eioaiiy, aan?eey, c?aaea, ooai?thth/e nai???aeio o?aaiaioa?io
“naeyinueeo o?ii?eo”, aeecueeo ii aeooo aei oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e oa
ae?aiaoo?a?? eeane/iiai ia??iaeo. Noeeue ia?iaie Oaeaaeeinueeiai aeaui
iaaaaeo? Eaiioiae/a: naiaiaea ?icai?oaiiy ioce/iiai ia?aco, i?aaiaiiy
eiai ineoieia?caoe??. ?acii c oei, Oaeaaeeinueeee caa??aa? aeaniee
i?eioeei iaa?aaeiiai ao?o/aiiy a i?ea?iaeueio ia?iaeio ia?oiiniiao. I?i
oea na?ae/aoue nai? iaeiae??, ye? ianooue a nia? yai? ne?aee
?ioiiaoe?eii? ia?a?niino?: ia?aaeaiaioiaaia iao?eea, aa??aioia
no?oeoo?a, ia?ai?ii?noue eaaeiaeo oeaio??a. Ii??aiyii c Eaiioiae/ai, o
Oaeaaeeinueeiai a?eueoo oi?iiai?/o ?ieue a?ae?a?a? aa?oeeaeue, aa?iii?y,
aioo??oi? no?oeoo?e i?ino?o?, c iaioith e?euee?noth eiio?anoieo
iiaoaeia. Oaeaaeeinueeee, ye i?aaeei, ia i?aaia noai?eoe ineoieia?/ii
?iaeea?aeoaeueio aa?n?th i?ni?, eiai iaoa – oa?eoe yeiiiaa aacaie?ni?oa
a ia?iaeii-i?naiio ?ioiiaoe?eio i?aai?eo, ?ic/eieoe na?e “i?ioan?eiee”
aiein a caaaeueiiia?iaeiiio oi??.

Inoaii?i c oai??a Oaeaaeeinueeiai a Aeaa? ??? aiae?co?oueny “Ca??iee
i?naiue ? caaaa aeey ae?oae”, aeaeaiee o Noai?neaa? a 1922 ?. Ooo
i?inoaaeo?oueny ?noi??y aeai?o aeeoy/i? ioceee acaaae? ? aeeoy/i? ca??ee
cie?aia, aeneiaeththoueny nai? niinoa?aaeaiiy uiaei niaoeeo?ee
oeeaaeaiiy iiae?aieo ca??ie, iaaiaeyoueny ii??aiyeuei? i?eeeaaee.

A?aea?? i?naiue, ?o iine?aeiai?noue ? oa?aeoa? iathoue ia?aaeon?i
iaoiaee/io ni?yiiaai?noue, oiio ? oa?aeoa?enoeea ca??ee i?aeii?yaeeiaaia
iaoiaee/i?e caaea/? iinooiiaiai iiaioaaiiy a?eueo neeaaeieo
?ioiiaoe?eieo iaae/ie.

Ca nai?ie no?oeoo?ii-oaiaoe/ieie yeinoyie oeae oa?? Oaeaaeeinueeiai
oyae?? aei oeeeeo, i?i oea na?ae/aoue nthaeaoi?, aeai?ia?, iaeiaee/i?
iioeae. Ioce/ia iiaa ca??ee aaeaino? iii?ae oei?caoe??th
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa oeiiaiai a iaaeao iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaeino ? a
oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eiiai aeai?o, ui, aacnoii?aii i?iaeiaaeo? eenaie?anueeo
e?i?th aeeoy/i? ioceee.

Aeae? a Aeaa? ??? aaoi? caa?oa?oueny aei oai?/ino? A.??/einueeiai –
caieyea, ae?oaa, iaeiiaeoioey I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai. Niaaeie ??/einueeiai —
oea iaeaea aeeeth/ii aeooiai? oai?e, a?ae oi?iai? i?i?aoth?e aei
aeooiaiiai eiioea?oo.

“Anaoe?a?inuee? ni?ae a oe?a?inuee?e oea?ea?. Ca??ea
caaaeueii-aeinooiieo oea?eiaieo ni?a?a aeey n?euenueeeo oi??a, aeey oe?e
? ia?iaeo”, aeaeai? o Aieiaeeie?-Aieeinueeiio a 1925 ?., i?noeoue
o?eaeoeyoue iiia??a, c yeeo ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue — oea noa?iaeii?
oea?eiai? iaeiae??: cie?aia noa?ia?aoeuee?, ee?anuee?, euea?anuee?, oae
caai? “cae/aei?”, a oaeiae i?noeaa? aieeinuee?. I?ea?iaeueieo
eiiiiceoe?e cia/ii iaioa, aea naia a ieo aeyaey?oueny
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue eiiiiceoi?a. Na?aae ?icaeyiooeo oai??a –
“Oa?oaeinueea i?niy” Oa-iaaei? oa “Iee?noue niieith”, ye?
ii??aiththoueny c iaeii?iaiieie oai?aie Oaeaaeeinueeiai.

Ca??ea ??/einueeiai “Oe?a?inuee? oea?eiai? ni?ae” – aeeoea ne?aeii ca
ia?oith, a 1926 ?. Aea a ooaeiaeiueiio a?aeiioaii? aiia aaea iaaaaaoi
ia?aaa?oo? ia?oo. Ia ci?io ne?iiiei i?i?aoth?ai i?eeoee a?eueo
?icaeiai?, /anii ? aaeee? oi?ie ??cii? aeai?iai? i?eiaeaaeiino? –
aioeoii, eiiaeae, “Oa?oaeinueea i?niy”, ? iaa?oue eiioea?o “Cani?aaeoa
Ainiiaeaa? i?nith iiao”. I?iaeiaaeoth/e ii??aiyeueiee iaoiae aiae?co,
ooo ni?anoaaeythoueny oai?e ia aiaeia?/i? oaenoe iaio ca??iee?a ?
?iaeoueny ?yae aeniiae?a uiaei noaiiaeaiiy eiiiiceoi?nueeiai noeeth
??/einueeiai. Ioce/ia iiaa ca??ee ? aeineoue i?ea?iaeueiith, i?eiaei?,
iaaaiaeueiith, ye ? naia iniaeno?noue ?? aaoi?a – e?ea?y ? aiaeii/an
?ae?a?eiiai ae?y/a, a cia/eoue, iaaiith i??ith ?aeaae?noa. Ca?aene –
ii?aeiaiiy a aeooiaieo eiiiiceoe?yo ??/einueeiai aneaoe/ii? no?eiaiino?
? aiioe?eii? a?aee?eoino?, /?oeiai “?ic?aooieo“ ? caiaeo. Aeaiye?noue
oai?/i? iaoo?e eiiiiceoi?a ua a?eueo iii?oiith noa? a eiai o?ao?e / ?
inoaii?e, ca a?aeiiinoyie aeena?oaioa/ ca??oe? “Oe?a?inueea a?aei?aaa
Aa/??iy ? ?aiiy”, yeo aoei aeaeaii a 1929 ?., o Aieiaeeie?- Aieeinueeo.
Oea – eoeuei?iaoe?eiee oa?? eiiiiceoi?a: ooo ia?aaaaeathoue ianooaai?
i?ea?iaeuei? oai?e, iaio ?iciianthaeaeaieo aeai??a oea?eiaiiai noeeth.
Ca??ea iaeaea iiai?noth aaoi?nueea.

sseui ii??aiyoe ca??ee ??/einueeiai, oi noaia i/aaeaeiith no??iea
aaiethoe?y i?ioan?iiae?cio eiiiiceoi?a — a?ae iaa?aaeieo ni?ia oa?eoe a
noeeueiao nenoaio noai?iai oea?eiaiiai eaiiio aei ona?aeiieaiiy
aeanii?,oi/ ? ne?iiii? noee?noeee. A oie /an, ye ioceea Oaeaaeeinueeiai
a?aeaeaa? oeiia? caeiiii??iino? nenoaiiiai ieneaiiy, oai?/?noue
??/einueeiai oe?eaaa ia?o ca ana, ye ie?aiee aeiaaeie noaiiaeaiiy
iniaenoino?, iinooiiaiai ca?eueiaiiy ?? a?ae eaiiio.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy iaae ca??eith ??/einueeiai “Oe?a?inuee? eieyaeee”/ 1927
?./ aeicaieeee aaoi?o caaa?oeoe Aeaao ??? a?oioiaieie aeniiaeaie uiaei
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? eiiiiceoi?a, i?aaenoaaieea aeooiaii? o?aaeeoe??, a
oai?/ino? yeiai a?aeaeeenue noia?a/eea? oaiaeaioe?? ia?oi? o?aoeie OO
noie?ooy. Oi/a, ye ienoaoeueea iniaeno?noue, a?i noi?ioaaany oe?eeii ia
canaaeao oe?a?inueeiai “i?aaaeeaiai oea?eiaiiai noeeth”, aea aeineoue
oaeaeei iieeioa ?yaee iiai?iee?a o.c. “/enoiai noeeth”. Aiioe?eia
ni?eeiyooy e?oa?aoo?ieo ? ioce/ieo aeaea?ae aiaineoae?iiy iaaeeoioei
??/einueeiai ia iiaoecaoe?th noai?iai eaiiio. Caeeoath/enue a ?aieao
a?aeiia?aeii? nenoaie, a?i caaaaoea ??, aeei?enoiaoth/e iia?,
iai?eoaiaii? ?e caniae ae?aciino?. Iaea?eueo ?aaeeeaeueieo ci?i caciaea
o?aaeeoe?eii iaeo?ae?ciaaia oea?eiaia iaeiaeeea. A?ae/ooi? “?i’?eoe??”
ia?iaeii-i?naiieo, ?iiainiai-iiaooiaeo, ?ino?oiaioaeueieo ?ioiiaoe?e
iaaeaee ?e ?aeue?oiino? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ae?aciino?.

I?aeei?yth/enue ?ioo?oeaiei ae?aiaoo?a?/iei ?iioeuenai, ??/einueeee
?ieiee ia ao?eth?, a ia?aao?eth? eaiii?/i? a?ae?ei? oaenoe a e??e/i? aai
e??eei-ae?aiaoe/i? eiiaioa??.

Aeaaa ?V aeena?oaoe?? “Ioae?oeenoeea I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai” aiae?co? ?yae
e?eoe/ii-ioae?oeenoe/ieo oai??a eiiiiceoi?a – cai?oie, ?aoeaic?e,
ia?en?a, i?iaeaiieo oa iieai?/ieo noaoae. A oeaio?? oaaae aaoi?a –
iaoe?iiaeueia i?iaeaiaoeea, oieueeei?iee aniaeo, oi?iaa oai??y
I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai, ?iaioe, i?enay/ai? eeane/iei oe?a?inueeei ioce/iei
oai?ai, cie?aia, iia?ai “Caii?iaeaoeue ca Aeoia?i”
N.Aoeaea-A?oaiianueeiai oa “Eaoa?eia” I.A?eana. Ci?noiaieie ? oe?eaaeie
? noaoo?, oaiaoe/ii iia”ycai? c iiia?aaei?ie aeaaaie: “?inoeai?caoe?y
i?ni?”, “Aeae?eueea oaaa i?i iao oea?eiaiee ni?a”.

O aeniiaeao aei Aeaae IV i?iiiio?oueny ?icaeyaeaoe ioae?oeenoeeo
I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai ye iiaiioe?iio /anoeo caaaeueii-oe?a?inueeiai oiiaeo.
??aaiue Oaeaaeeinueeiai – ioae?oeenoa iaaaaaoi ia?aaa?oo? ne?iii?
?aa?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e aacaoiiai ioce/iiai iaeyaea/a. A?i ocaaaeueiea o
nai?o noaooyo noni?eueii-ienoaoeueeee aeina?ae Aieei? i?aeai?iieo
aeanyoee?oue, ia?aeeioa iaae?eiee i?no i?ae ?aa?iiii ? “Aaeeeith
Caieath” iaoe?iiaeueiiai eoeueoo?iiai aoooy, cia/ii nei?ioea a?aenoaiue
i?ae oeaio?ii ? i?ia?ioe??th.

Oaiaoe/iee ae?aiacii ?ia?o eiiiiceoi?a, ?ioaeaeooaeueia aeeaeia,
i?ioan?eia a?aoiaioiaai?noue oa e?oa?aoo?ia iaenoa?i?noue aeathoue i?aai
?icaeyaeaoe ?o ii?yae c i?aoeyie i?ia?aeieo oe?a?inueeeo ioce/ieo
ioae?oeeno?a 20-30-o ?ie?a.

Aeniiaee

Aieeinueea ioce/ia aeeooy /an?a iieuenueei? ieoiaoe?? aoyei on?ia
aa?aaie eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai niaeo?o ? a iiai?e i??? a?aeiia?aeaei
iai?oaeaiiio ? neeaaeiiio noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio oa
aeooiaii-?ioaeaeooaeueiiio eiioaenoo, yeee ?nioaaa oiae? a ?aa?ii?.
Aeeiiaanoai oa eiiiiceoe?y, ina?oa oa ioae?oeenoeea – oea i?ia?aei?
noa?e, a yeeo a?aeaeaaany ? ia?an?/iee ioce/iee iiaoo, ? iacaia?a/iee
i?ioan?eiee i?ia?an. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aieiaia i?e/eia oaeiai i?ia?ano
iieyaa? a oiio, ui an? aa??aioe na?aeiiiai ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai
naiiaeyaeaiiy, ye? neeaaeathoue eoeueoo?io noanenoaio, iioiaeeee c
iaei??? ni?eueii? ?aea? – ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy aai
iaa?oue nai???aeiiai noni?eueiiai ?inoeieoo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
naiicaa?aaeaiiy. Naia iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay a oiiaao eieii?aeueiiai oeneo
ia o?eueee caa?aaea aeey Aieei? ?? aeanio eoeueoo?o, aea e i?aeiyea ??,
anoia?a/ ?ia?oe?? i?ia?ioe?eiiai noaoono, ia ??aaiue eieaeueiiai
?aianaino .

Na?aae aaaeeeaeo /eiiee?a i?ioan?iiae?caoe?? ?aa?iiaeueiiai ioce/iiai
na?aaeiaeua aeae?eythoueny oae?:

1) iayai?noue o?aaeeoe?eiiai eoeueoo?iiai a?oioo, iaaieo “niaaeeiaeo”
?en aeooiaiiai aoooy;

2) aeoeai?noue noni?eueiiai oiio, ia yeiio ?icai?oa?oueny
ioce/ii-a?iiaaenueea ?io?ano?oeoo?a o aeaeyae? /eneaiieo oiaa?enoa,
i?aai?caoe?e, ni?eie;

3) ?nioaaiiy noni?eueiiai caiiaeaiiy naia ia ioce/io ae?yeuei?noue, ye
ia ?iaiaioio oe?a?inuee?e iaoe?? ? iae?acoeueoaoeai?oo a ?aae?caoe??
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?;

4) cia/ia ?icaaeoaeai?noue noa? ioce/iiai aeeooy a ??cieo oi?iao
aeeiiaanoaa /oi?iaa, nieueia aieaeueia oa ?ino?eiaioaeueia, ainaiaeaaa
oa /anoeiai i?eano?iaa/, ina?oe /oi?ia? eo?ne, eaeoi???, ia?iaei?
oeiee/, ioae?oeenoeee /iiioey?ecaoi?nueea, e?eoe/ia, aiae?oe/ia/;

5) aenieee ??aaiue ciai?oi?o i?aeeoeueoo?ieo ca’yce?a, iiaeeea?noue
eiioea?oii-aano?ieueii? ae?yeueiino? ye a aeaaeai?/iiio, oae ? a
oieueeei?iiio iai?yieao;

6) iiyaa iaaea?iaaieo, i?ioan?eii ina?/aieo e?aea??a na?aae
eiiiiceoi??a, aeeiiaaoe?a, ioceeiciaaoe?a oa iaaeaaia?a.

Inoaii?e oaeoi? aoa ae??oaeueiei, ine?eueee aac iueiai ia a?aeaoany a
i?i?ea o iiao i?ioan?eio ye?noue ?aa?iiaeueiiai ioce/iiai aeeooy.
I/aaeaeii, ui A.??/einueeee ? iniaeeai I.Oaeaaeeinueeee aeanii?o/
caiaeeee ooiaeaiaio

ne?iiii? iiaiaoaeiae, yeo iiaeia iacaaoe aieeinueeith ?aa?iiaeueiith
eiiiiceoi?nueeith oeieith. Caeiaooee oe??? oeiee a aeai?ao oea?eiaii?
ioceee oa a aeayeeo na?onueeeo, cie?aia oi?iaeo, aeeeeeathoue iiaaao ?
ciooothoue aeoea?coaaoe iiooee a ?io?o ?aa?iiaeueieo iai?yieao.

Aeaia ?iaioa ? iaei??th c ia?oeo ni?ia ?aeiino?oeoe?? ioce/iiai aeeooy
a?aeaeaeaiiai a?ae oeaio?o ?aa?iio oeyoii iaeiie/aiiy oa aiae?oe/ii?
ia?iaee iiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy aea/aii eeoa a
ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii?. Aea oeueiai aeinoaoiuei, uia caaaiooe aeeaeio ?
aaaaonoai oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?iiai i?inoi?o, iainyaei?noue iaoeiaeo
?ioa?an?a ? iaae/a?ii?noue iaeaooi?o a?aee?eoo?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Oeiainueeee I.E. I?i ui ?iciia?ee a?o?ae // Ioceea. – 1997. ? 1-2.
N.22-23.

2. Oeiainueeee I.E. Eiioea?oia aeeooy Aieei? 20-30-o ??.OOno.
//Ienoaoeoaiciaanoai oa oai??y ? i?aeoeea ina?oe : Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. –
E.,1998. – N.53-58.

3. Oeiainueeee I.E. Ioae?oeenoeea I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai // I?iaeaie
aca?iiae?? ienoaoeoa, iaaeaaia?ee ? i?aeoeee ina?oe: Ca. iaoe.i?aoeue. –
Oa?e?a, 1999. – Aei. 4. – N.162-172.

4. Oeiainueeee I.E. Ioce/ia ienoaoeoai Aieei? o 20-30-o ??.OOno.//
Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO. – Eooeuee, 1997. – Aei.11. – N. 80-84.

Oeiainueeee I.E. Ioce/ia aeeooy Aieei? 20-30-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy.-
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 17.00.03 – Ioce/ia ienoaoeoai. –
Iaoe?iiaeueia ioce/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith ioce/iiai aeeooy Aieei? 20-30-o ?ie?a
OO noie?ooy. A ?iaio? ia’?eo aea/aiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ia ?cieueiaaii, a
ye /anoea ni?eueiioe?a?inueeiai ioce/ii-?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano. Eiai
iieaae/eee a ??cieo ioce/ieo noa?ao, anoaoe/ieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo
oaiaeaioe?yo ii??aiththoueny c a?aeiia?aeieie iieaae/eeaie ?aa?iiaeueii?
ioce/ii? eoeueoo?e. I?inoaaeo?oueny ioce/ia oa ioae?oeenoe/ia niaaeueia
aieeinueeeo eiiiiceoi??a I.Oaeaaeeinueeiai (1886-1939) oa
A.??/einueeiai(1892-1956). Anoaiiaeththoueny /eiiee? i?ioan?iiae?caoe??
?aa?iiaeueiiai ioce/iiai na?aaeiaeua, i?ine?aeeiao?oueny aca?iica’ycie
?aianainieo oaiaeaioe?e a ienoaoeoa? c iaoe?iiaeueiei i?aeianaiiyi.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ioce/ia aeeooy, ?aa?iiaeueiee iai?yi, oi?iaee ?oo,
i?ioan?iiae?caoe?y, aeooiaia ioceea, oi?iaa ia?iaea.

Oeiaineee I.E. Iocueaeueiay aeeciue Aieuie 20-30-o aiaeia OO noieaoey. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa eneonnoaiaaaeaiey
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 17.00.03. – Iocueaeueiia eneonnoai. – Iaoeeiiaeueiay
iocueaeueiay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu ei. I.E.*aeeianeiai, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth iocueaeueiie aeecie Aieuie 20-30-o
aiaeia OO noieaoey. A ?aaioa iauaeo eco/aiey ?anniao?eaaaony ia
eciee?iaaiii, a eae /anoue iauaoe?aeineiai iocueaeueii-enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna. Aai iieacaoaee a ?aciuo iocueaeueiuo noa?ao, ynoaoe/aneeo e
oaoiieiae/aneeo oaiaeaioeeyo n?aaieaathony n niioaaonoaothueie
iieacaoaeyie ?aaeiiaeueiie iocueaeueiie eoeueoo?u. Enneaaeoaony
iocueaeueiia e ioaeeoeenoe/aneia ianeaaeea aieuineeo eiiiiceoi?ia
I.Oaeaaeeineiai (1886-1939) e A.?e/eineiai (1892-1956). Onoaiaaeeaaaony
noaiaiue i?ioanneiiaeecaoeee ?aaeiiaeueiie iocueaeueiie n?aaeu,
i?ineaaeeaaaony acaeiinaycue ?aiannainiuo oaiaeaioeee a eneonnoaa n
iaoeeiiaeueiui iiaeuaiii.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iocueaeueiay aeeciue, ?aaeiiaeueiia iai?aaeaiea,
oi?iaia aeaeaeaiea, i?ioanneiiaeecaoeey, aeooiaiay iocuea, oi?iaay
ia?aaioea.

Shimansky P.I. Volyn musical life in 20-30th of XX century. –
Manuscript.

Thesis for candidate’s of musical art degree by speciality 17.00.03 –
Musical art. – Ukrainian National P.Tchaikovsky Academy of Music. Kyiv,
1999.

The thesis is dedicated to the problem of study of Volyn musical life in
20-30th of XX century. The object of studying is worked out as a part of
the whole process in the ukrainian history of music, but not isolated.
The results of the process in different musical spheres, aesthetical and
technological tendences are compared with the corresponding showings in
regional musical culture.

Cultural and educational, musical in particular, activities of
“Prosvita” and also Volyn Ukrainian union “Native House”, Lesya Ukrainka
literary-artistic society as well as Volyn concert-theatrical (amateur
and professional) life of this period is being investigated and examined
in the dissertation.

All these societies, organizations, institutions, “Prosvita” in
particular, conducted a great not only cultural and educational but also
social and public work among Ukrainian population. Their aim was raising
of people’s national consciousness, its involving in world’s and
national cultural values investigation. Thus, it was emphasized in the
statute of Volodymyr “Prosvita” that its activities would be aimed at
“supporting and spreading the rays of culture in all corners of humdrum
existence”. Especially important role in this process was played by
numerous choral societies, which promoted popularization of the best
samples of native choral classics and people’s singing art. Numerous
courses of conductors and chorus competitions laid the basis of
professionalization in performing and educational spheres.

The opening of Volyn Ukrainian theatre in Lutsk in 1930 under the
leadership of a great enthusiast and experienced theatre worker M.Pevnyi
became a prominent event in the cultural life of the region. The theatre
itself, its rich repertoire (dramas, comedies, comic operas and
operettas) opened new artistic horizons of the region and became a real
school of national education and development of artistic tastes of the
general public.

Social and public, performing and publicistic activities of two Volyn
repressed and undeservedly firgotten composers M.Telezhynsky (1886-1936)
and A.Richynsky (1892-1956) who leaded the music life of the region and
promoted its quick development is being investigated in the
dissertation.

The sacred choral works and treatment of folk songs of both composers as
well as the original series by M.Telezhynsky “Collection of Songs and
Fun for Children” has become the object of analysis. The above mentioned
composers’ activities are examined in comparison with genre analogues of
national classics, namely, M.Lysenko, M.Leontovych, K.Stetsenko,
O.Koshyts and others. In his sacred pieces of work as well as in
theoretisal outlooks M.Telezhynsky is put as a standard-bearer of famous
medieval spiritual singing. A.Richynsky not refusing “true spiritual
style” is much braver and more independent in his creative search than
M.Telezhynsky. First of all it concerns his melodics, enriched by
folk-song and romance sources.

While analysing the creative values as well as drawbacks of each
composer, the author strives to include their activities into a general
process of development of Ukrainian music, evolution of genres of sacred
music and folk song treatment of the 20-30-th of the XX century.

The investigation of creative work of A.Richynsky and M.Telezhynsky as
well as an extensive publicism (notes, reviews, essays, polemic
articles) of the latter adds considerably and corrects the historical
picture of the Ukrainian music development of inter-war decades.

Rising and intensive development of artistic music culture of Volyn in
the 20-30-th years of the XX century was a bright manifestation of
national self-preservation and self-affirmation idea. It was the
national idea in the conditions of colonial oppression that not only
preserved this region’s own culture but also raised it to the level of
the local Reneissance in spite of the inertia of provintial status.

The key words: musical life, regional direction, choral movement,
professionalization, sacred music, choir treatment.

Похожие записи