1

I?I?NOA?NOAI EOEUeOO?E ? IENOAOeOA OE?A?IE

AEAAeAI?ss IA?ACIOAI?*IAI IENOAOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

Oei/aiei Oaoyia ?inoeneaa?aia

OAeE 75.025.4.

IOCAEIEE IAI?ssI ?ANOAA?AOe?? A OE?A?I?.

EE?ANUeEA OEIEA. 1920-1940 ??.

17.00.08. — Ioca?ciaanoai; caa??aaiiy ooaeiaei?o oe?iiinoae

oa iai’yoie a?o?oaeoo?e

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeaaeai?? ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e
(Ee?a) I?i?noa?noaa eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa Aaicaiei Ea?ena
Aai?a??aia, ?inoeooo

ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee ?
aoiieia?? ?i.I.O.?eeuenueeiai
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa Aoaianue?a Aaneeue
Aiae??eiae/, ?inoeooo

ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee ? aoiieia?? ?i.I.O.?eeuenueeiai
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, iaoeiaee
eiinoeueoaio

— eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani?
I?ea?aa Eaii?ae Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Aeaaeai?y ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa
? a?o?oaeoo?e (Ee?a)

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa
aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “22”/a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.103.01 Aeaaeai?? ia?acioai?/iai
ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e

ca aae?anith: 254 053, Ee?a, aoe. Nie?iiaa-Eanoi/e?ia 20.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aeaaeai??
ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e ca aae?anith: Ee?a, aoe.
Nie?iiaa-Eanoi/e?ia 20.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 22 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
TH.A.Aae?/ei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Caa?aaeaiiy, inai?iiy ? ia?aaea/a ienoaoeueei? niaaeueie iaeaooi?i
iieie?iiyi ni?aaaaeeeai aaaaea?oueny iaiao?aeiith ia?aaeoiiaith ?icaeoeo
iaoe?? oa ?? eoeueoo?e. ?anoaa?aoe?y, ye iaeia c oi?i eoeueoo?iiai
iane?aeoaaiiy, caaaeaee aoea iieeeeaia i?aeo?eioaaoe aeaai? iai’yoee o
oe?e?niino?; iaeiae ?aeaeii-oai?aoe/i? oa anoaoe/i? canaaee aeaii?
ae?yeueiino?, oae naii ye ? i?aeoe/i? ?? iaoiaee, aaiethoe?iioaaee o
/an?. Iaoea i?i ?anoaa?aoe?th ii/aea oi?ioaaoenue eeoa o OO no., oiio
/eiaei ieoaiue iaoiaeieia?? ?anoaa?aoe?eii? aaeoc? caeeoathoueny aein?
inoaoi/ii iac’yniaaieie aai iaaeinoaoiuei iaa?oioiaaieie.

Aea/aiiy aeina?aeo ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ieioeeo aiio iiaea
aeyaeoeny iaaecae/aeii ei?eniei o ?ica’ycaii? oeeo ieoaiue. Nueiaiaei?
?noi??y ?anoaa?aoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye eiiieaenia iaoeiaa aeenoeeie?ia,
ui nie?a?oueny ia iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ?noi???, ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,
anoaoeee oa eoeueoo?ieia??. sse iieacaa ?icaeoie ?noi??? ?anoaa?aoe?? ca
inoaii? aeaa aeanyoe??//y, aeai?, caeiaoo? o i?ioean? ?noi?e/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ni?aae, iiaeooue nooo?ai aeiiiaieoe
a?aeiiino? i?i ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e o oiio /e ?ioiio ?aa?ii?, a oaeiae
nei?eaoaaoe oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee a?aeiinii ci?noo oa iaoe ?anoaa?aoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?iaioa i?enay/aia ?icaeoeo iocaeiiai iai?yio
?anoaa?aoe?? noaieiaiai aeeaiieno a Oe?a?i? o 1920 — 1940 ??. ia
i?eeeaae? Ee?aa. Iaei??th c i?e/ei caa?iaiiy aei aeaii? oaie ?
iaaeinoaoiy ?? aea/ai?noue: eiiieaeniiai aiae?co ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ni?aae
a Oe?a?i? oeueiai ia??iaeo aein? cae?eniaii ia aoei.

Ia?aia oaia noaiiaeoue ?ioa?an aeey ?noi??? a?o/eciyii? ooaeiaeiuei?
eoeueoo?e, ine?eueee aeyaey? iia? oaeoe iiaoooaaiiy oai??a
ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa. Nueiaiaei? iio?aaothoue ei?eaoaaiiy ?
ooi/iaiiy aeaye? ienoaoeoaiciaa/? aeniiaee, c?iaeai? o ieioeiio ia
iniia? a?ae?anoaa?iaaieo iai’yoie, ye? ni?eeiaeenue ye i?ea?iaeuei?, aac
a?aooaaiiy i?ci?oeo, o o./. ?anoaa?aoe?eieo aeiiiaiaiue. Aecia/aiiy
oa?aeoa?o ?anoaa?aoe?eiiai ao?o/aiiy a iaoa??aeueio no?oeoo?o oai??a
ienoaoeoaa aeanoue iiaeeea?noue a?eueo aiaaiaii ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe
?noi?e/i? iaoa?oaaiiy ii a?aeiioaiith aei ia?a?nieo /anoei iai’yoie.

Aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ?, aac noii?ao, ae??oaeueiei o ni?iaao
iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? ? ?in??.
A?eueo?noue ?aeae, aeneiaeaieo ?in?enueeeie ? oe?a?inueeeie ae?y/aie
eoeueoo?e o 1920 — 1930-o ??., noaee iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaeaieo i?ioyaii
1960 — 1980-o ??. canaae no/anii? ?anoaa?aoe??. Aea ine?eueee oai?aoe/i?
i?eioeeie a?o/eciyii? ?anoaa?aoe?? aoee noi?ioeueiaai? ia?aaaaeii a
oiiaao oioae?oa?ii? aea?aeaae, ana a?eueo aeooaeueiei noa? ?o ia?aaeyae
o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?aeaieia?/ieie oa anoaoe/ieie aeoeaioaie no/aniiai
noni?euenoaa. Caa?iaiiy aei ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ?anoaa?aoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?, cie?aia, ia??iaeo 1920 — 1940 ??., ni?eyoeia
ooi/iaiith iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo oai??? ?anoaa?aoe?? ?, niiae?aa?iiny,
iaoeia iiceoeaiee aieea ia no/aniee i?ioean eoeueoo?iiai iane?aeoaaiiy.
E??i oiai, aea/aiiy ie?aieo ?anoaa?aoe?eieo iaoiaeee, ye? aaeeaaeenue o
ieioeiio, iiaea aianoe ei?aeoeae aei nueiaiaei?oiuei? ?anoaa?aoe?eii?
i?aeoeee.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy: aecia/aiiy eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo
ia?aaeoiia, /ano aeieeiaiiy ? aoai?a ?icaeoeo iocaeiiai iai?yio
?anoaa?aoe?? a Oe?a?i?; c’ynoaaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae ee?anueei?
oeiee iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe??; aaaaeaiiy o iaoeiaee ia?a
iaoa??ae?a c ?noi??? ?anoaa?aoe?? noaieiaiai aeeaiieno a Oe?a?i? o 1920
— 1940 ??. ia i?eeeaae? Ee?aa.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?, ianaiia?aae, i?eioeeie
?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, ye? aoee noi?ioeueiaai? o Aaiaoe?ainuee?e
oa?o?? 1964 ?. ? io?oe?eii i?aeo?eiai? a onueiio na?o?. Aaoi?
nie?a?oueny oaeiae ia ?aeath, aeneiaeaio a i?aoeyo A.A.Aeueioeia,
TH.A.Aia?iaa, E.A.Aaicaiei, A.A.Ca???aa 1980 — 1990-o ?ie?a, yea
noaa?aeaeo?, ui canaaee ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? o aoaeue-yeo
?noi?e/io aiioo aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeaoue a?ae aeooaeueii? nenoaie
oe?iiinoae. O aeena?oaoe?? canoiniaaii i?eioeeie eiiieaeniiai oa
?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiiai i?aeoiae?a aei aeine?aeaeoaaieo yaeu.

Ie aeei?enoiao?ii a aeai?e ?iaio? oa?i?i “iocaeiee iai?yi ?anoaa?aoe??”,
caiice/aiee c iioae?eiaaieo o 1980-o ??. i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo ?noi???
?anoaa?aoe??, ye oaeee, ui, c iaeiiai aieo, iaeoi/i?oa a?aeaeaa?
niaoeeo?eo ?icaeoeo ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ni?aae a Oe?a?i?, a, c ?ioiai —
a?aeae?ey? iaoeiao ?anoaa?aoe?th iocaeieo ooaeiaei?o oe?iiinoae a?ae
?ioeo iai?yi?a ?anoaa?aoe?? (oea?eiaiiai, oea?eiaii-a?oaieia?/iiai,
eiia?oe?eiiai).

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue ee?anueei? ?anoaa?aoe?eii? oeiee
— iaeiiai c iaeaaoi?eoaoi?oeo iaoeiai-ienoaoeueeeo ina?aaee?a, ui
caeiaeeny caa?aaeaiiyi iai’yoie noa?iaeie a Oe?a?i? a 1920 — 1940 ??.

Iniiaia oaaaa o aeine?aeaeaii? cina?aaeaeaia ia ?anoaa?aoe?? iai’yoie
noaieiaiai aeeaiieno. Aea aeey ooi/iaiiy iniiaieo i?eioeei?a
?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? 1920 — 1940 ??. o ?iaio?
iaaiaeyoueny oaeiae ie?ai? i?eeeaaee ?anoaa?aoe?? oai??a
iiioiaioaeueiiai aeeaiieno, neoeueioo?e, oaeeoeiaiai ienoaoeoaa.

Iniiaiee iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?nio? aeinoaoiy e?euee?noue aeaea?ae,
ui aeathoue iiaeeea?noue a?aeoai?eoe ea?oeio ?icaeoeo ?anoaa?aoe?eii?
ni?aae o Ee?a? o 1920 — 1940 ??. Oea, a ia?oo /a?ao, iaiioae?eiaai? ?
iaeia?aeii? ienaii? aeaea?aea, ui caa??aathoueny a aea?aeaaieo a?o?aao
i. Ee?aa (Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa
oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie, Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a?
Oe?a?ie, Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a?-ioca? e?oa?aoo?e oa
ienoaoeoaa Oe?a?ie, Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? a?iiaaenueeeo
ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie, Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? Ee?anueei? iaeano?,
Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? i. Ee?aa, ?inoeooo? ?oeiien?a Iaoe?iiaeueii?
a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?i.A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai), a oaeiae a a?o?aieo oiiaeao
ioca?a oa ?ioeo onoaiia Oe?a?ie (Iaoe?iiaeueiiio ooaeiaeiueiio ioca?
Oe?a?ie /IOIO/, Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?anoaa?aoe?eiiio
oeaio?? Oe?a?ie, Euea?anuee?e ea?oeii?e aaea?a?, Oa?e?anueeiio
ooaeiaeiueiio ioca? oa ?i.). A?aeiiino?, iaea?aeai? c a?o?aieo aeaea?ae,
ia eeoa ?icoe?ththoue eiei iaoeo oyaeaiue i?i ?anoaa?aoe?eio
ae?yeuei?noue a icia/aiee ia??iae, aea e aeicaieythoue ooi/ieoe
iioae?eiaai? o o? /ane aeai?.

?ioo a?oio noaiiaeyoue ienaii? iioae?eiaai? aeaea?aea, na?aae yeeo
iiaeia aeae?eeoe i?aoe? 1920 — 1930-o ??., i?enay/ai? i?iaeaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?anoaa?aoe?? aeaaiuei?onueeeo iai’yoie (I.I.Iaea?aiea,
I.I.Iiaeoeueeiai, ?.A.Ii?a?eaanueeiai, Ae.E.E?ie?ea); ienoaoeoaiciaa/?
?ica?aeee, a yeeo caaaeothoueny ie?ai? ?anoaa?aoe?ei? ?iaioe
(Ae.I.Ua?aae?anueeiai, O.E.A?inoa); iien ae?yeueiino? ?anoaa?aoe?eieo
iaenoa?aiue (i?aoe? ?.N.Na?ioe?oeueeiai, I.I.Eo??iiiai); ioae?eaoe??
?anoaa?aoi??a, ye? iienothoue naith i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue
(I.E.Aie/oea, ss.E.Ioceee, N.Ae.Ia?auoe). C no/anieo ienaiieo aeaea?ae
ne?ae a?aecia/eoe i?aoe?, i?enay/ai? ?icaeoeo iai’yoeiioi?iiii?
ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? 1917 — 1940 ??. (N.C.Ca?aiae, C.I.A?eieiiy,
I.I.Ianooe? oa ?i.); ienoaoeoaiciaa/? aeine?aeaeaiiy I.I.??iei,
I.TH.An??ai?, I.O.Neaei?a, E.?.Iiiiai?.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaee a noaoe a?ae?anoaa?iaai? o
ieioeiio iai’yoee noaieiaiai aeeaiieno c ioca?a Oe?a?ie, yeui a
ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue c ieo ia i?aeaeaaaeany o iiaeaeueoee ia??iae
naiai ?nioaaiiy iiaoi?iei ?anoaa?aoe?yi. Ine?eueee aecia/eoe a ieo
ne?aee ?anoaa?aoe?eieo ao?o/aiue 1920 — 1940 ??. iaeaea iaiiaeeeai,
iniiaio oaaao aoei cina?aaeaeaii ia ienaiieo a?o?aieo aeaea?aeao.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ae?yeuei?noue ee?anueeeo ?anoaa?aoe?eieo
caeeaae?a (?anoaa?aoe?eii? iaenoa?i? Anaoe?a?inueeiai Iocaeiiai Ai?iaeea
/AIA/, Anaoe?a?inueei? ooaeiaeiuei-?anoaa?aoe?eii? ?ai?iaeoeoe?eii?
iaenoa?i? /AO??I/, Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaaieo iaoeiai-aeine?ae/eo
?anoaa?aoe?eieo iocaeieo iaenoa?aiue /OeAeIAe?II/) o aaeoc? i?aaaioeaii?
eiina?aaoe??, iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?anoaa?aoe?? ooaeiaei?o c?a?aiue
Ee?aa oa ?ioeo i?no Oe?a?ie; c’yniaothoueny iniiai? i?eioeeie ?oiuei?
ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae eiie?aoi? eiina?aaoe?eii-?anoaa?aoe?ei?
iaoiaeeee.

Iniaeeaino? aeine?aeaeaiiy. O i?ioean? aea/aiiy aeaea?ae c ?anoaa?aoe??
iocaeiiai iai?yio a Oe?a?i? 1920 — 1940 ??. aoei aeyaeaii, ui a oeae
/an ?nioaaee aeaa oeaio?e ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ni?aae — Ee?a ? Euea?a.
?anoaa?aoe?y a ?ioeo i?noao Oe?a?ie ?icaeaaeanue ai?ciaee/ii ? o cia/ii
iaioiio ianyc?; a aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny eeoa ie?ai? i?eeeaaee
oaeeo ?ia?o.

Aea/aiiy ?anoaa?aoe?? iocaeiiai iai?yio a Ee?a? oyaey?oueny iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeaei, ine?eueee Ee?a ye iie?oe/iee ? eoeueoo?iee oeaio? Oe?a?ie c
aeaai?o /an?a aoa ina?aaeeii ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. A?aeiii, ui o
Ee?a? iai’yoee iiioiaioaeueiiai aeeaiieno aeiae Ee?anueei? ?on?
iine?aeiaii i?aeaeaaaeenue ?anoaa?aoe?? i?ioyaii OV?? — O?O no. C 30-o
??. O?O no. a Ee?a? i?iaaaeyoueny a?oaieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
noai?ththoueny ia?o? a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? oea?eiaii-a?oaieia?/i? ioca?,
ao?oeeai ?icaeaa?oueny i?eaaoia eieaeoe?iioaaiiy. A 1920 — 1930-? ??.
Ee?a noaa oei ina?aaeeii, aea ?ic?iaeyeenue ? ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny
i?eioeeie caa?aaeaiiy oa inai?iiy eoeueoo?iiai iaaeaaiiy. ? a oie aea
/an Ee?a, ye oeaio? iie?oeee ?aaeyinueeiai ea??aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?,
caciaa iaeoyae/eo eoeueoo?ieo ao?ao — ooo iine?aeiaii cieuoaaeeny ?
aeaeaoi? ae?y/? ienoaoeoaa, ? ooaeiaei? iai’yoee. Aeneiaeth?oueny
i?eiouaiiy, ui naia a Ee?a? ?aeaieia?/i? aeii?iaioe a iaea?eueo?e i???
aieeioee ia iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.
Aeoiaey/e c aeuaiaaaaeaiiai, aeoeaio o aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii ia aea/aiiy
ee?anueei? oeiee iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe??.

Aaaeeeaa ?ieue euea?anueei? oeiee ?anoaa?aoe?? iocaeiiai iai?yio
aecia/a?oueny oei, ui o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio Ioca? o Eueaia? i?ioyaii 1910 —
1930-o ??. noi?ioaaeenue ?aea? uiaei iaoe ? i?eioeei?a ?anoaa?aoe??
iocaeieo iai’yoie; aoea ?ic?iaeaia i?ea?iaeueia iaoiaeieia?y
?anoaa?aoe?? aaeeoeueeiai ?eiiiieno. Ioaea, a ?icaeyiooee ia??iae a
Oe?a?i? i?aoethaaee aea? oeiee ?anoaa?aoe?? iocaeiiai iai?yio —
ee?anueea ? euea?anueea, o canaaeao ae?yeueiino? yeeo niinoa??aaeinue
aaaaoi ni?eueiiai. Iaeiae euea?anueea oeiea ?anoaa?aoe?? yaey? niaith
ie?aio ienoaoeoaiciaa/o i?iaeaio.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa?, ianaiia?aae, o oiio, ui aiii ?
ia?oith ?iaioith, aea i?iaeaie inai?iiy oa caa?aaeaiiy eoeueoo?ii?
niaaeueie Oe?a?ie a 1920 — 1940 ??. ?icaeyaeathoueny a aniaeo? ?noi???
?anoaa?aoe?? iocaeieo ooaeiaei?o oe?iiinoae. Aecia/ai? iniaeeaino?
?icaeoeo ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ni?aae a aeaiee ia??iae. Aia?oa cae?eniaii
aiae?c iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaiiai aniaeoo ooaeiaeiueiai aeeooy
Oe?a?ie, iia’ycaiiai c ?anoaa?aoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth a?aeiieo ae?y/?a
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e. Ia i?aenoaa? aea/aiiy aeecueei 100 ?ai?oa
iaiioae?eiaaieo aeieoiaio?a a iaoeiaee ia?a aaiaeyoueny iaoa??aee i?i ?o
aianie o ni?aao aea/aiiy oa caa?aaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ienoaoeueei?
niaaeueie Oe?a?ie. Aia?oa iaa?oioiao?oueny canoinoaaiiy iiiyooy
“iocaeiee iai?yi” aei ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? 1920 — 1940
??. Iaea?aeai? o ?iaio? aeai? aeiiiaiththoue ea?oeio ?icaeoeo
ooaeiaeiuei? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy ?o i?e iaienaii? ?noi??? ?anoaa?aoe?? a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae
aeey iie?ioaiiy no/aniiai noaio ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ni?aae ? ioi?iie
iai’yoie. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny i?e
aeeeaaeaii? ?noi??? ?anoaa?aoe?? nooaeaioai ?anoaa?aoe?eieo oa
ioca?ciaa/eo a?aeae?eaiue aoc?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aoee ii?eethaeiai? ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo ?anoaa?aoe?eieo oa
ienoaoeoaiciaa/eo eiioa?aioe?yo, aeeeaaeai? o iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo ?
oacao aeiiia?aeae. *anoeia ?iaioe oa?eoea aei i?ia?aie eo?no “Iniiae
?anoaa?aoe?? iai’yoie iocaeiiai caa??aaiiy (?ooiieo)” aeey nooaeaio?a
eaoaae?e ioca?ciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai ?inoeoooo eoeueoo?e, a
oaeiae eo?no “?ice?eooy iai’yoie noaieiaiai aeeaiieno” aeey nooaeaio?a
eaoaae?e oaoi?ee ? ?anoaa?aoe?? oai??a ienoaoeoaa Aeaaeai??
ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (Ee?a).

INIIAIEE CI?NO
AeENA?OAOe??

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c iniiaii? /anoeie (anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a) ianyaii 158 noi??iie, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (420, c
yeeo 149 a?o?aieo) ia 39 noi??ieao, aeaio aeiaeaoe?a: i?ei?oie (16
noi??iie) e ?ethno?aoeaiiai iaoa??aeo (25 noi??iie).

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iocaeiee iai?yi ?anoaa?aoe?? ye i?iaeaia
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa” (i?ae?icae?e 1.1. “Iaoea i?i ?anoaa?aoe?th.
Eiioeaiooaeueia aaiethoe?y iiaeyae?a”) c’yniao?oueny i?noea ?noi?e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ni?aae o no/ani?e iaooe? i?i
?anoaa?aoe?th; i?e oeueiio aena?oeththoueny oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee
oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo 1920 — 1930-o ??. o aaeoc? ?anoaa?aoe??.

Eiioeaiooaeueiee ?icaeoie ?noi??? ?anoaa?aoe?? (ye iai?yio iaoeiaiai
aiae?co ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?) i?ieoia oeyo a?ae iieno
noa?iaeiieo ?aoeaio?a, oaoiieia?e, iaoiae?a aei eiiieaeniiai
eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai aiae?co ?anoaa?aoe??, o i?aeoe/ieo i?eeiiao yei?
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e a
oe?eiio, ?, a ia?oo /a?ao, noaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa aei aeaai?o iai’yoie.
O 1980 — 1990-o ??. i?eeoei ona?aeiieaiiy oiai, ui ?anoaa?aoe?y iana a
nia? ?aeaieia?/i? oa anoaoe/i? aeii?iaioe nai?? aiioe (i?aoe?
A.A.Ca???aa, E.A.Eaeaeiaa, A.?.Acaei?iiaa oa ?i.). ?anoaa?aoe?eia
ae?yeuei?noue a ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.A.Aeueioeia, TH.A.Aia?iaa,
E.A.Aaicaiei ii/aea ?icaeyaeaoenue ye ?aeeiee aaiethoe?eiee i?ioean, ui
aeiaaaei aea/aiiy oe?eiai eiiieaeno oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaathoue ia
noaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa aei naiai ieioeiai. Aeoea?caoe?y iiae?aieo
aeine?aeaeaiue o na?o? ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y (o i?aoeyo *.A?aiae?,
O.Aaeueae?i?, O.Aeueooioa?a, ?.Ia??ei?nnaia oa ?i.) noaa?aeaeo?
iaiao?aei?noue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy ?noi???
?anoaa?aoe?? a ie?aieo e?a?iao, i iaa?oue oa?eoi??aeueieo ?aa?iiao, c
o?aooaaiiyi ?o ?noi?e/ii? oa eoeueoo?ii? nai???aeiino?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.2. “Noaiiaeaiiy iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe??
noaieiaiai aeeaiieno a Oe?a?i?” ia i?aenoaa? i?aoeue A.?.Acaei?iiaa,
TH.A.Aia?iaa, E.A.Aaicaiei, A.A.Ca???aa iiaeaii ei?ioeee iaeyae iniiaieo
oaiaeaioe?e ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? OV?? — O?O no. Aeae?
?icaeyiooi eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/i? /eiieee, ye? ni?eyee oi?ioaaiith
oyaeaiue i?i ?anoaa?aoe?th ye can?a aea/aiiy ? caa?aaeaiiy iai’yoee (o
?one? ?aeae oea?eiaii? a?oaieia?? ae?oai? iie. O?O — ii/. OO no.).
I?ine?aeeiaaii ?ieue ioca?a “eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai” (ca aecia/aiiyi
?.N.Na?ioe?oeueeiai) ni?yioaaiiy o cai?iaaaeaeaii? iiaeo i?eioeei?a
?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, ia?o ca ana, ii a?aeiioaiith aei iai’yoie
iocaeiiai caa??aaiiy. Oea noino?oueny, cie?aia, Iaoe?iiaeueiiai Iocath o
Eueaia? (IIE). Ca?iaeaeaiiy iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe?? a Oe?a?i?
aoei iia’ycaia c ii/aoeii ?iaioe o oeueiio ioca? I.E.Aie/oea ye
“eiina?aaoi?a ?eiiiiai a?aeae?eo” (c inai? 1910 ?.).

I.E.Aie/oe, ia?aaoaath/e o 1909-1910 ??. o Ia?eae?, ?acii c? nai?ie
ia?oeie o/iyie (I.?.Eania?iae/ai, N.I.Iaeai?inueeith, N.?.Aiaeoai aea
Eo?oaia, O.O?aii oa ?i.) caii/aoeiao? iiaee iai?yi oe?a?inueeiai
ienoaoeoaa (caiaeii ae?noaa iacao “aie/oe?cia”). I.E.Aie/oe
noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui ni?aaaei? ienoaoeuee? oai?e ionyoue aooe “oa?oioiaai?
ia niinoa?aaeaiiyo iieie?iue, iaiyo? a iaoe?iiaeueio oi?io ?
o?aaeeoe?eii ia?aeacoaai? iauaaeeai”. Oiio aie/oe?noe, aea/ath/e e?au?
c?acee na?oiaiai iiioiaioaeueiiai iaey?noaa, iiaiiaoth/e ??ciiiai?oi?
i?ioan?ei? oa ia?iaei? oaoi?ee, ana ae iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eyee
ienoaoeuee?e niaaeuei? Oe?a?ie. O an?o ?? i?iyaao — a?ae ?eii, o?anie,
iica?e aei ienaiie ? eeeei?a — aiie aa/eee aeaea?aei oai?aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai “neioaoe/ii-oe?a?inueeiai” (ca neiaaie I.E.Aie/oea)
noeeth. Aeaaiuei?onueea ?ae?a?eia ienoaoeoai aie/oe?noe aea/aee ia
i?aeoeoe? — ia eeoa c aieo noee?noeee, aea e oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia??
?eiiiiai e o?aneiaiai ienueia. Ciaiiy iaoa??aeueii-i?aaeiaoii? no?oeoo?e
oai??a aeaaiueiai ienoaoeoaa aeaei iiaeeea?noue c?icoi?oe i?e/eie
?oeiaoe?? iai’yoie ?eiiiieno ? no?iiieno, a oaeiae ciaeoe niiniae ??
i?eieiaiiy. sse noa? c?icoi?eei c eiai aeneiaethaaiue, I.E.Aie/oe
aaaaeaa ?anoaa?aoe?th ie?aiei aeaeii i?ioan?eii? ienoaoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?.

I?aoey a aaeoc? ?anoaa?aoe?? a?aeiia?aeaea oai?/ei iiooeai aie/oe?no?a,
ine?eueee aeaaaea iiaeeea?noue aeaoaeueii aeine?aeeoe iai’yoee
na?aaeiueia?/iiai aeeaiieno, a yeeo I.E.Aie/oe oa eiai iine?aeiaieee
aaa/aee iniiao aeey noai?aiiy iiaiai oe?a?inueeiai ienoaoeoaa. A oie aea
/an naia ?anoaa?aoe?y aeicaieeea ienooeyi ao?eeoe ia i?aeoeoe? ?aeath
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, iaiao?aeiith oiiaith yeiai aoei
caa?aaeaiiy ?? eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie.

Cia/iee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue aie/oe?no?a i?i canaaee
?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iaei ?o ni?eeoaaiiy o 1910-o ??. c
aeaeaoieie oai?aoeeaie ?anoaa?aoe?? ?in?? — I.E.?a??oii ?
I.I.Iie?eoe?iei, a oaeiae eiioaeoe c ae?y/aie oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e —
A.Oaioeoeueeei, I.N.A?ooaanueeei, A.A.E?e/aanueeei, E.A.Oa?ioeueeei oa
?i.

Aea/aiiy aianeo I.E.Aie/oea a ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? ?anoaa?aoe?? a
1910-o ??. ciooo? caa?iooenue aei ia??iaeo eiai ia?aaoaaiiy o Eueaia?. O
1910 — 1914 ??. I.E.Aie/oe (c ia?a?aaie), ?acii c N.I.Iaeai?inueeith,
I.?.Eania?iae/ai oa O.O?aii i?aoethaaee ?anoaa?aoi?aie a IIE. Ia iniia?
cao?eniaaieo aeoiie I.E.Aie/oea uiaei iaoe ? caaaeaiue ?anoaa?aoe??
(iioae?eiaaieo iei o 1912 ?. a aeo?iae? “?onneay ooaeiaeanoaaiiay
eaoiienue” ? aeneiaeaieo o eeno? aei I.N.A?ooaanueeiai oiai ae /ano), a
oaeiae ?ioi?iaoe?? ?.N.Na?ioe?oeueeiai (a i?an? oa aeaeaiiyo IIE), o
aeena?oaoe?? a?aeoai?aii iniiai? i?eioeeie ?anoaa?aoe?? iai’yoie
?eiiiieno, yeeo aeio?eioaaany I.E.Aie/oe, i?aoethth/e a IIE:
aeoeaioiaai?noue ia eiina?aaoe?eieo caoiaeao ? ia i?ioeanao ?ice?eooy
a?ae caa?oaeiaiue ? iioaii?eeo iie?eaieo oa??a; i?i?iaeueiee ianya
?anoaa?aoe?eieo aeiiiaiaiue. I?iaiae?ciaai? aeneiaethaaiiy ienooey uiaei
i?eioeei?a ?anoaa?aoe?? na?aaeiueia?/iiai nae?aeueiiai ienoaoeoaa,
a?aei?iieo a?ae ?nioth/eo o oiai/ani?e ?anoaa?aoe?ei?e i?aeoeoe? (ye?
iiaeia a?aeianoe aei eiia?oe?eiiai oa oea?eiaii-a?oaieia?/iiai iai?yi?a
?anoaa?aoe??).

O 1912 — 1915 ??. I.E.Aie/oe ?acii c I.?.Eania?iae/ai ? O.O?aii
i?iaiaeea ?anoaa?aoe?ei? ?iaioe o O?ueionayoeoaeuene?e oea?ea? n.Eaiao?
i?ae Eicaeueoeai. E??i oiai, I.?.Eania?iae/ i?ioyaii 1914 — 1918 ??.
?anoaa?oaaa aeniiiaoe *a?i?a?anueeiai iocath oe?a?inueeeo
noa?iaeeoiinoae A.A.Oa?iianueeiai, a oaeiae /a?i?a?anueeeo oa ee?anueeeo
i?eaaoieo eieaeoe?e.

O e?ioe? ?icae?eo c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui o 1910-o ??. ni?a?nioaaee
o?aaeeoe?eia (oea?eiaia) ?anoaa?aoe?y ?eiiiieno ?
oea?eiaii-a?oaieia?/iee ?? iai?yi. ?acii c oei a iocayo
“eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai” oeio ca?iaeaeo?oueny iocaeiee iai?yi
?anoaa?aoe??. Oeueiio ni?eyea ?anoaa?aoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue I.E.Aie/oea
oa eiai o/i?a o 1910-o ??.,yeo iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye aaaeaiiy aea/eoe ?
caa?aaoe ienoaoeueeo niaaeueio Oe?a?ie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “?icaeoie iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe?? o 1918 —
1930 ??.” aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?ioean ioi?ieaiiy ?anoaa?aoe?? a ie?aio
aaeocue iocaeii? ae?yeueiino?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.1. “?anoaa?aoe?ei? ?iaioe o Nio?enueeiio niai?? a Ee?a?
(1918 — 1919 ??.)” i?iaiae?ciaaii i?iiiceoe?? a/aieo uiaei ?anoaa?aoe??
oe??? iai’yoee (cie?aia, O.?.Oi?oa, I.I.Iaea?aiea, ?.A.Ii?a?eaanueeiai
oa ?i.), ui a?aeiia?aeaee ??ciei iai?yiai ?anoaa?aoe?? —
oea?eiaii-a?oaieia?/iiio ? iocaeiiio; aeine?aeaeaii i??eoaaiiy
I.E.Aie/oea uiaei iaoiaeeee ?anoaa?aoe?? o?anie o?auaeuei? niai?o, ye?
ciaeoee i?aeo?eieo na?aae a?eueoino? a/aieo. ?acthioth/e iaiao?aei?noue
iaiaaeeoe ao?o/aiiy eeoa eiina?aaoe?eieie caoiaeaie, I.E.Aie/oe ienaa:
“Ie aaaaea?ii ca iaia’ycie caa??aoe eiaeio iaeae??ai?oo /anoeio, yea
eeoeeanue a?ae noa?eo /an?a, ia ci?iyth/e ?? aeaeyaeo”. ?anoaa?aoe?ei?
?iaioe I.E.Aie/oea o Nio?enueeiio niai?? (iaaani? ? ae?oeo 1919 ?.)
na?ae/aoue i?i iino?eio oaaao ienooey aei ieoaiue iaoeiai? ?anoaa?aoe??
iai’yoie aeaaiuei?onueeiai iiioiaioaeueiiai aeeaiieno.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.2. “Ae?yeuei?noue Anaoe?a?inueeiai A?oaieia?/iiai
eii?oaoa o aaeoc? ?anoaa?aoe?? (1921 — 1930 ??.)” iaaiaeyoueny aeai? i?i
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?anoaa?aoe?th oai??a na?aaeiueia?/iiai iiioiaioaeueiiai
aeeaiieno Ee?aa ? *a?i?aiaa i?ae aa?aeith oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaio ioi?iie
iai’yoie a Oe?a?i? 1920-o ??. — Anaoe?a?inueeiai A?oaieia?/iiai Eii?oaoa
(AOAE) i?e Anaoe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai?? Iaoe (AOAI), a oaeiae i?i
oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy oe?a?inueeeie a/aieie canaae caa?aaeaiiy
aeaai?o iai’yoie. C’yniaaii oa?aeoa? o/ano? I.E.Aie/oea ?
I.?.Eania?iae/a o ?iaioao AOAE, aeacaii iai?yie ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa
I.?.Eania?iae/a c ?ioeie onoaiiaaie AOAI.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.3. “Ae?yeuei?noue ?anoaa?aoe?eii? iaenoa?i? Iocath
eoeueo?a oa iiaooo Anaoe?a?inueeiai
Iocaeiiai Ai?iaeea (1924 — 1930 ??.)” ?icaeyaea?oueny ?noi??y aeieeiaiiy
Iocath eoeueo?a oa iiaooo ia oa?eoi??? Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueei? Eaa?e oa
i?aai?caoe?? i?e i?e ?anoaa?aoe?eii? iaenoa?i?. Aieiaiith iaoith
noai?aiiy Iocath eoeueo?a aoei caa?aaoe a?ae iia?aaoaaiiy ? ieuaiiy
cia/io /anoeio eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie, iia’ycaii? c o?enoeyinoaii.
C’yniaaii, ui a i?aai?caoe?? iocath (1922 — 1924 ??.) a?aee o/anoue
aeaaeai?e O.?.Oi?o ? ?ino?oeoi? Aoaa?inueeiai eii?oaoo ioi?iie iai’yoie
noa?iaeie ? ienoaoeoaa O.?.Ii?icia, yeee noaa ia?oei o?aieoaeai ?
oaeoe/iei ea??aieeii iocath.

?anoaa?aoe?eia iaenoa?iy ieaioaaeanue ye anaoe?a?inueea, c aaaaoueia
a?aeae?eaie. *anoeiai oea aaeaeiny ?aae?coaaoe: 1 o?aaiy 1924 ?. aoea
caniiaaia ?anoaa?aoe?eia iaenoa?iy a?aeae?eo noaieiaiai iaey?noaa, ?
caaaeyee ?? ?iaio?, ii/eiath/e c 1926 ?., ?anoaa?aoe??th aoei ioiieaii
a?eueo?noue ooaeiaei?o c?a?aiue Ee?aa, a oaeiae ioca? Oa?eiaa ?
*a?i?aiaa. O ca’yceo c i?aai?caoe??th 29.09.1926 ?. ia oa?eoi???
Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueei? Eaa?e aea?aeaaiiai eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai caiia?aeieea
“Anaoe?a?inueeee Iocaeiee Ai?iaeie” /AIA/, o iaenoa?i? a 1926 — 1927 ??.
aoee noai?ai? ua aeaa a?aeae?ee — ?anoaa?aoe?? oeooy ? oeaieie oa
ea?ai?ee (?anoaa?aoi?e I.?.A?euenueea ? Ae.I.O?ei?euenueeee); o
iaeaooiueiio ia?aaeaa/aeiny oaeiae a?aee?eoe a?aeae?ee ?anoaa?aoe??
iiioiaioaeueieo iai’yoie, iaoaeo, eieae. ?anoaa?aoi?ii a?aeae?eo
noaieiaiai iaey?noaa i?aoethaaa I.?.Eania?iae/; o 1927 ?. ia ?iaioo aoee
i?eeiyo? E.?.E?aeai?inueeee, a oaeiae aeai? nei?a I.?.Eania?iae/a — ?aai
? Oiaeinue; c 1928 ?. I.?.Eania?iae/ noaa caa?aeoth/ei iaenoa?iath.

A?ae ii/aoeo naiai canioaaiiy ?anoaa?aoe?eia iaenoa?iy Iocath eoeueo?a
oa iiaooo i?iaaaeeea naith ?iaioo i?ae aa?aeith AOAE, ui iicia/eeinue ia
i?aai?caoe?ei?e no?oeoo?? oa i?eioeeiao ?? ae?yeueiino?. O na?ii? 1924
?. aoea noai?aia ?anoaa?aoe?eia eii?n?y (a iniiaiiio c /eai?a AOAE —
ienoaoeoaiciaaoe?a, a?oaieia?a), yea cae?enithaaea iino?eiee eiio?ieue
ca aeeiiaiiyi ?anoaa?aoe?eieo ?ia?o.

Iniiaiei iai?yiii ae?yeueiino? iaenoa?i? aoee eiina?aaoe?y oa
?anoaa?aoe?y iai’yoie noaieiaiai (oaiia?iiai e ie?eiiai) aeeaiieno.
C’yniaaii ianya ? oa?aeoa? aeeiiaiiy ?anoaa?aoe?eieo ?ia?o ca aeaa
ia??iaee ae?yeueiino? iaenoa?i? (1924 — 1927 oa 1927 — 1930 ??.).
Ia?oi/a?aiaei nai?i caaaeaiiyi iaenoa?iy aaaaeaea eiina?aaoe?th iocaeieo
oiiae?a (ye ienaa aee?aeoi? AIA I.I.Eo??iiee, “e?eoaaiiy iaaacia/ii
oi?eo iai’yoie, ia iaiaaeoth/enue no?iaie Eaa?nueeiai Iocath”), oiio a
ia?o? ?iee i?aoe? aoea ianoaaeaia cia/ia e?euee?noue aeniiiao?a ioca?a
Ee?aa ? Oa?eiaa, neeaaeai? i?iaeoe ?o ?anoaa?aoe??, i?iaaaeaia
oei/aniaa, a iio?i ? iino?eia ?o cae??ieaiiy. I?e oeueiio iaaieiooaaeiny
ia iaiao?aeiino? eiina?aaoe?eii? ia?iaee on?o iai’yoie, a ia eeoa
i?ecia/aieo aeey aeniiceoe?? (ye oea iaei i?noea o i?aeoeoe? aeayeeo
ioca?a). Caii?oeith noi?iiiino? iocaeieo c?a?aiue iaenoa?iy aaaaeaea
noai?aiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia caa??aaiiy ? aaaeaiiy iino?eiiai eiio?ieth
iaae noaiii aeniiiao?a; naia oiio o 1925 ?. /eaiaie ?anoaa?aoe?eii?
eii?n?? i?aeaioiaeaii aea? ?ino?oeoe?? — c eiina?aaoe?? iai’yoie
noaieiaiai iaey?noaa (I.?.Eania?iae/ai) oa oeooy ? oeaieie (/eaiaie
?anoaa?aoe?eii? eii?n?? Ae.I.Ua?aae?anueeei ? I.I.Iaea?aieii). A oe?e
inoaii?e noaa?aeaeo?oueny: “I?ae ?anoaa?aoe??th Eii?n?y ?icoi?? ia
i?ae?iaeo, aeiaeaaaiiy oa cai?io cieuaieo /anoei iiaith ?i?oaoe??th, a,
c iaeiiai aieo, i?eieiaiiy i?ioeano ?o aeaeuei?oiai ?oeioaaiiy, a c
ae?oaiai — i?eaaaeaiiy iioeiaeaeaieo /anoei a oie aeaeyae, uia
iaaeinoa/a /anoei ia ia?aoeiaeaeaea ?o [iai’yoie] aeniiceoe??”. Oaea
oi?ioethaaiiy oe?eeii ni?aa?aeiineoueny c no/anieie oyaeaiiyie i?i iaoo
? canaaee ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

?anoaa?aoe?ei? ?iaioe i?iaaaeeeenue o Anaoe?a?inueeiio ?noi?e/iiio ioca?
?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea (iei? IOIO), Ioca? Ienoaoeoa AOAI (Ee?anueeee iocae
cao?aeiiai oa no?aeiiai ienoaoeoaa /EICNI/), oa?e?anueeiio Ioca?
oe?a?inueeiai ienoaoeoaa (Oa?e?anueeee ooaeiaei?e iocae),
*a?i?a?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio ioca? (*a?i?a?anueeee ooaeiaei?e iocae),
iaeiae iniiaiee ianya ?ia?o i?eiaaeaa ia eieaeoe?? AIA — a?aeae?e
noaieiaiai iaey?noaa Iocath eoeueo?a oa iiaooo, Iocae oe?a?inueei?
noa?iaeie (c?a?aiiy I.I.Iioioeueeiai) oa o?aie Eaa?e. Aoei
a?ae?anoaa?iaaii cia/io e?euee?noue aeniiiao?a AIA — ?eiie c eieeoiueiai
iocath Ee?anueei? aeooiaii? aeaaeai?? (/ioe?e aieaonoe/i? ?eiie VI —
VIII no. /oaia? — o EICNI/ ?c c?a?aiiy Ii?oe??y Oniainueeiai, a?aoeuee?
?eiie c o.ca. ni?ie?inueei-o?ea?ao?anueei? eieaeoe??); oai?e
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai aeeaiieno c Iocath ienoaoeoa AOAI. Iaeiae
iaea?eueoo /anoeo a?ae?anoaa?iaaieo aeniiiao?a noaiiaeee oe?a?inuee?
?eiie, ia?aaaaeii OV? — OV??? no., na?aae yeeo — “Aiinoiee Iao?i ?
Iaaei” /?ia. E-2/, “Aiaiyaeaiiy” /E-4/, “TH??e-Ci??ai?aoeue” /E-504/, a
oaeiae oe?a?inueeee ii?o?aoiee aeeaiien OV??? — O?O no. (ii?o?aoe Naaae
Ooioaea /AE-974/, A.A.Aaiae?? /AE-181/, iiae?oaeaey N.?. oa I.A.Noeeie
/AE-174, 175/) (on? iacaai? oai?e iei? caa??aathoueny a IOIO), ui
a?aeiia?aeaei iaiaaaiiyi ienoaoeoaiciaaoe?a aeine?aeeoe iniaeeaino?
ooaeiaeiuei? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie aeaai?o /an?a.

Ie?ai? ?anoaa?aoe?? i?iaaaeeeenue ca niaoe?aeueiei caiiaeaiiyi AOAEa:
oea noino?oueny, a ia?oo /a?ao, ?eii Iaoa?? Aiaei? ?ai?aanueei? (c
Oniainueeiai niai?o Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueei? Eaa?e) oa na. Ieeiee Iie?iai (c
Nio?enueeiai niai?o). I.?.Eania?iae/ o na?ii? — aa?ani? 1924 ?. aeeiiaa
?o eiina?aaoe?th oa ?ice?eooy a?ae i?ciueiai ie?eiiai caieno, ui
aeicaieeei a/aiei aeine?aeeoe oe? aeaeaoi? iai’yoee na?aaeiueia?/iiai
aeeaiieno.

Ioe?ithth/e i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue ?anoaa?aoe?eii? iaenoa?i? AIA c
iiceoe?e no/aniino?, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iine?aeiaia
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeio i?i?iaeueiiai ao?o/aiiy o no?oeoo?o iai’yoee
(ia ui aeacothoue ioae?eaoe?y I.I.Eo??iiiai 1927 ?., ca?oe iaenoa?i? ca
1924 — 1930 ??., a oaeiae uiaeaiieee c ?anoaa?aoe?? I.?.Eania?iae/a ca
1924 — 1930 ??.). Oeae i?eioeei ao?ethaaany ia an?o aoaiao: eiina?aaoe??
(a?aeaeaaaeany ia?aaaaa eieaeueiiio cae??ieaiith iaae iiaiei;
aeoaethaaiith ie?aeie iaae iiaiei aeoaethaaiiyi iieioai); ?ice?eooy
(/anoeiaa aeaeaeaiiy, iioiioaiiy oa ae??aithaaiiy iie?eaieo oa??a;
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei aeaeaeaiiy caien?a); aeeaiieniiai
aeiiiaiaiiy (aea??eiaa aeiiiaiaiiy ao?ao a?oioo, oiioaaiiy ao?ao
aeeaiieno o.ca. iaeo?aeueiei oiiii).

Iniiai? iaoiaee ?iaioe iaenoa?i? ni?aa?aeiinyoueny c aeina?aeii
i?ia?aeieo ?in?enueeeo ?anoaa?aoe?eieo oeaio??a, c yeeie i?aeo?eioaaany
iino?eiee ca’ycie. Oae, o 1925 ?. I.?.Eania?iae/ i?ieoia noaaeoaaiiy o
iaenoa?iyo Aea?aeaaiiai ?in?enueeiai iocath /Ae?I, Eai?ia?aae/ (o
I.A.Ieieiae/a), o Aea?aeaai?e O?aoyeianuee?e aaea?a? /AeOA/ (o
I.I.?eai?eiaa) ? Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaaieo ?anoaa?aoe?eieo iaenoa?iyo
/OeAe?I, Iineaa/ (o ?.A.A?aaa?y, A.E.*e??eiaa, Ae.O.Aiaineianueeiai).
Iai?ee?ioe? 1928 — ia ii/aoeo 1929 ??. I.?.Eania?iae/ ?
E.?.E?aeai?inueeee ciaeiieeeny c aeina?aeii ?iaioe OeAe?I oa Aeaaeai??
?noi??? iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e (Eai?ia?aae). I?ioa, ye noa? c?icoi?eei
c uiaeaiiee?a I.?.Eania?iae/a, i?iaeo?a oa ca?o?a i?i ?anoaa?aoe?eio
?iaioo, o ee?anuee?e iaenoa?i? iaea?eueo iine?aeiaii ai?iaaaeaeoaaany
i?eioeei a?aeiiae a?ae ?aeiino?oeoe?? oi?ie i?e aeeaiieniiio caiiaiaii?
ao?ao (o iaoiae? oiioaaiiy o.ca. iaeo?aeueiei oiiii), i?e/iio ia eeoa
ia ?eiiao, aea e ia oai?ao i?inoi?iaiai aeeaiieno, a oaeiae oaeeoeiaiai
ienoaoeoaa (oeooy oiui). I?aeo?ae aei ?ice?eooy aeeaiieno, cie?aia, ii
a?aeiioaiith aei iie?eaieo oa??a, ui ?nioaaa o iaenoa?i? AIA, ia ia?
aiaeia?a o a?aeiieo iai iioae?eiaaieo aeaea?aeao c ?noi??? ?anoaa?aoe??
1920 — 1930-o ??.

E??i oiai, ooo iine?aeiaii aeeiioaaeany iaoeiai-aeine?aeia
aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa c ia?aa??ee ? aaeineiiaeaiiy ?anoaa?aoe?eieo
iaoiaeee; ni?eueii c iaoeiaeie onoaiiaaie Ee?aa ai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue iia?
aeey Oe?a?ie iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iai’yoie (i?e?ioioia?aooaaiiy,
ceiiea o ?aioaai?anueeeo i?iiaiyo). Aeey iniaeeai oe?eaaeo c iaoeiai?
oi/ee ci?o iai’yoie i?iaaaeeeenue ie?ai? iiaeeaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
(oaoi?ee aeeaiieno, i?aiaioiiai neeaaeo oa?aiaiai oa?o oiui). Aaeiny
iino?eia aeieoiaiooaaiiy i?ioean?a ?anoaa?aoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith
oioiceiiee. Aoei ?ic?iaeaii i?ioieie ?anoaa?aoe??, “C?aceiao eieao” aeey
o?enoaaiiy niinoa?aaeaiue ca aeniiiaoaie ioca?a. I?aoe?aieee iaenoa?i?
/eoaee eaeoe??, aaee nai?ia?e aeey nooaeaio?a oa ani??aio?a AOAI,
Ee?anueeiai ooaeiaeiueiai ?inoeoooo ? AIA. O 1928 ?. aoea a?aee?eoa
aenoaaea a?ae?anoaa?iaaieo aeniiiao?a, ia iniia? yei? o 1929 ?. i?e
iaenoa?i? noai?aii ?anoaa?aoe?eiee iocae o/aiaiai oa?aeoa?o.

Iaoeiaa i?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe, oe?ieee ae?aiacii ae?yeueiino? iaenoa?i?,
i/aaeaeii, ia iiaee a ?aae?coaaoenue aac iino?eii? oaaae c aieo
Anaoe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe, ? cie?aia — AOAE. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe
aaaeeeao ?ieue o oe?e ni?ai?aoe? aee?aeoi?a Iocath eoeueo?a (c 1926 ?.
aee?aeoi?a AIA), nae?aoa?y AOAE, a?oaieiaa I.I.Eo??iiiai. O 1927 ?.
I.I.Eo??iiee iioae?eoaaa o ca??ieeo “Oe?a?inueeee iocae” noaooth i?i
ae?yeuei?noue iaenoa?i?, aea aeieeaaeii iienaa iai?yie oa iaoiaee ??
?iaioe ? aecia/ea iniiai? caaaeaiiy ia iaeaooi?.

Cia/iee aianie i?aoe?aiee?a ?anoaa?aoe?eii? iaenoa?i? AIA o aeoiaaiiy
iiaiai iieie?iiy ni?a?ia?oiee?a ioca?a Oe?a?ie coiiaethaaany ia eeoa
oe?ieith i?ina?oieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth, aea e naiei ??aiai
i?aai?caoe?? ?anoaa?aoe?eieo ?ia?o. ?anoaa?aoe?y c aeiiii?aeii?
?ai?nie/i? ?iaioe i?e iocayo ia?aoai?eeanue ia ie?aio aaaeeeao aaeocue
iocaeii? ae?yeueiino?, c aeanieie caaaeaiiyie oa iaoiaeaie. I?eioeeie
?anoaa?aoe?? iocaeiiai iai?yio aeoeaii cai?iaaaeaeoaaa I.?.Eania?iae/.
Nai?th aaaaoi??/iith i?aoeath a?i caii/aoeoaaa o?aaeeoe?th, ui eyaea a
iniiao ae?yeueiino? ee?anueei? oeiee ?anoaa?aoe?? noaieiaiai aeeaiieno,
noi?iiaaii? iai?ee?ioe? 1920-o ??.

O aeaiiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii oaeiae noene? a?aeiiino? i?i euea?anueeo
oeieo. Iniiai? ?ene ?anoaa?aoe?eii? i?aeoeee IIE (i??i?eoaoia cia/aiiy
eiina?aaoe?eieo caoiae?a oa i?ioean?a ?ice?eooy, a oaeiae na?aeiia
iaiaaeaiiy ?anoaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a) na?ae/aoue i?i caeaaei?noue
ae?yeueiino? euea?anueeeo ?anoaa?aoi??a (a ia?oo /a?ao, ss.E.Ioceee, yea
?icii/aea naiino?eio ?anoaa?aoe?eio i?aoeth a IIE c 1926 ?.) a?ae
i?eioeei?a iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe??, ui aoee aeneiaeai?
I.E.Aie/oeii ? ?icaeioo? o 1920-o ??. ee?anueeith oeieith ?anoaa?aoe??.
Cia/iith i??ith oeueiio ni?eyei ni?eeoaaiiy ss.E.Ioceee c I.E.Aie/oeii ?
I.?.Eania?iae/ai o 1920-o ??., a oaeiae noaaeoaaiiy ?? o 1928 ?. a
OeAe?I. Aiaeii/an, ye na?ae/aoue a?o?ai? caiene ss.E.Ioceee, ii?yae c
no/anieie ?anoaa?aoe?eieie iaoiaeeeaie o i?aeoeoe? iaenoa?i? IIE
ia??aeei canoiniaoaaeeny oaeiae o?aaeeoe?ei? aeey oea?eiaiiai iai?yio
?anoaa?aoe?? i?eeiie.

O e?ioe? ?icae?eo c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui o 1920-o ??. a Oe?a?i?
?anoaa?aoe?y iaaoea noaoono ie?aii? aaaeeeai? aaeoc? iocaeii? ?iaioe.
?anoaa?aoe?eia iaenoa?iy Anaoe?a?inueeiai Iocaeiiai Ai?iaeea, aeieeioaoe
i?e ie?aiiio ioca?, ia?aoai?eeanue ia iaoeiaee caeeaae
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai ianooaao. Ia iniia? ?? ae?yeueiino? iai?ee?ioe?
1920-o ??. aoea noi?iiaaia ee?anueea oeiea ?anoaa?aoe?? noaieiaiai
aeeaiieno iocaeiiai iai?yio. Ee?anueea oeiea ia aoea aeiyoeii;
ia?aeaeueii c iath ?icaeaaeanue euea?anueea oeiea iocaeiiai iai?yio
?anoaa?aoe??.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?icaeoie iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe?? o 1930 —
1940 ??.”, a i?ae?icae?e? 3.1. “Aieea oioae?oa?ii? aea?aeaae ia
?anoaa?aoe?th oa ioi?iio iai’yoie o 1930-o ??.” ?icaeyiooi ie?ai?
aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/i? oa ?aeaieia?/i? /eiieee, ye? ci?ieee i??i?eoaoe
ioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?. Iai’yoee o?enoeyinoaa oa oe?a?inueei?
na?onueei? eoeueoo?e aaaaeaeenue o oeae /an “eeaniai ai?iaeeie”, ui
iaaaoeaii iicia/eeinue ia ?anoaa?aoe?ei?e i?aeoeoe? ee?anueei? oeiee.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.2. “Inoaii?e ia??iae ae?yeueiino? ?anoaa?aoe?eii?
iaenoa?i? Anaoe?a?inueeiai Iocaeiiai Ai?iaeea (1930 — 1932 ??.)”
i?ine?aeeiao?oueny, ye aioe?ae?a?eia eaiiai?y, ?aaeniiceoe?y on?o ioca?a
caiia?aeieea a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aeaieia??
ii/eiathoue a?aeaeaaoeny ia ?iaio? iaenoa?i?. A na?aaeei? 1930 ?. ??
caeeoa? I.?.Eania?iae/. I?aoey iaenoa?i? a iniiaiiio cina?aaeaeo?oueny
ia eiina?aaoe?? aeniiiao?a AIA. Na?aae aecia/ieo ?ia?o ni?a?ia?oieea
iaenoa?i? E.?.E?aeai?inueeiai ne?ae iacaaoe ?anoaa?aoe?th ?eii iaicey
I.I.A?oaaey c Ee?ee?anueei? oea?eae.

I?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue ie?aieo ?anoaa?aoi??a iia’yco?oueny ?c
caaaeaiiyie aioe?ae?a?eii? i?iiaaaiaee. Oae, o 1930 ?.
E.?.E?aeai?inueeee ?icii/eia? “i?eethaeia iiiaeaiiy ?eii” o ?ia?oie/eo
eeoaao Ee?aa. “Iiiaeaiiy” (oiaoi ?aaaia?aoe?y ciooi?eiai iia?e?eiai eaeo
ia ?eiiao nie?oiaith ia?ith) i?acaiooaaeinue ye iaoeiaa ?ic’yniaiiy ?
?ica?i/aiiy “oea?eiaieo /oaean”. I/aaeaeii, iiieo ia iiae?ai? aeoe??
c?inoa?, ine?eueee aaea o 1931 ?. E.?.E?aeai?inueeee ii/eia? ooeaoe
niiniae “aeaaaia?aoe?? eaeo” (oiaoi eiai ooo/iiai ?iceeaaeaiiy —
caiooi?iiy) c iaoith aeaioiaeaiiy aeniiiao?a aeey aeaiiino?aoe??
“iiiaeaiiy ?eii”. Iiae?aia iaa’ycoaaiiy ?anoaa?aoe?? iaaeanoeaeo ?e
ooieoe?e na?ae/eei i?i a?ae/ooiee oene c aieo ?aaeyinueei? ?aeaieia??.
Ae?oeo 1932 ?. iaenoa?iy io?oe?eii i?eieiy? nai? ?nioaaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, a oiiaao ?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa 1930-o ??. cia/i?
iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? ?anoaa?aoe?eii? iaenoa?i? AIA —
aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeuei?noue, oe?ioa ioiieaiiy iocaeieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie —
ia ciiaee ?aae?coaaoenue o iiai?e i???.

I?ae?icae?e 3.3. “Ae?yeuei?noue Anaoe?a?inueei?
ooaeiaeiuei-?anoaa?aoe?eii? ?ai?iaeoeoe?eii? iaenoa?i? (1931 — 1934
??.)” i?enay/aii ?iaio? caniiaaii? ia oa?eoi??? Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueei? Eaa?e
AO??I, yea oaeoe/ii i?iaeiaaeeea o?aaeeoe?? ?anoaa?aoe?eii? iaenoa?i?
AIA. I?i oea na?ae/aoue i?aai?caoe?ei? iniaeeaino? oa i?eioeeie ??
?iaioe, a oaeiae ? oa, ui an? ?anoaa?aoi?e iaenoa?i? AIA
(E.?.E?aeai?inueeee, I.?.Eania?iae/, Ae.I.O?ei?euenueeee,
I.?.A?euenueea) ia?aeoee ia ?iaioo aei AO??I. O ieaiao AO??I aoei
cayaeaii i?i anaoe?a?inueeee ianooaa ?? ae?yeueiino?; i?iyaeeanue
caoe?eaaeai?noue caaaeueiiiocaeieie i?iaeaiaie (caa??aaiiy aeniiiao?a,
i?aeaioiaea eaae??a); ?anoaa?aoe??th aoee ioiieai? iai’yoee noaieiaiai
aeeaiieno, neoeueioo?e, oaeeoeiaiai ienoaoeoaa, iiioiaioaeueiiai
aeeaiieno, a?o?oaeoo?e (?anoaa?aoi? E.A.Iiuaiei). Aei ?? ieai?a aoiaeeei
oaeiae iane?aeoaaiiy oa neeaaeaiiy i?iaeo?a ?anoaa?aoe?? iai’yoie — ye
iiioiaioaeueieo, oae ? iocaeiiai caa??aaiiy; a?oaieia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy; iaoeiai-aeine?aeia ?iaioa o noa?? ?anoaa?aoe?? oa
oaoi?ee aeeaiieno; ienoaoeoaiciaa/? aeine?aeaeaiiy; iaa/aiiy iocaeieo
?ia?oiee?a oa ?anoaa?aoi??a.

Iaeiae athaeaeaoi? eiooe a?aeioneaeeny ae?ae iacaaeia?eueii.
Iaiaaath/enue noai?eoe iaoa??aeueio aaco aeey nai?? ae?yeueiino?,
ea??aieoeoai iaenoa?i? i?eeiyei ??oaiiy aeeiioaaoe ?ai?iaeoeoe?ei?
?iaioe: a?inia? ioeyae?, eii??, oioia?ao??. Iniiaia /anoeia oe???
i?iaeoeoe?? i?ecia/aeanue aeey noai?aiiy ia?anoaieo aioe?ae?a?eieo
aenoaaie; ia?aaeaa/aeiny oaeiae caaacia/aiiy i?ia?ioe?eieo ioca?a
ioeyaeaie oa eii?yie, iaiao?aeieie aeey iiaoaeiae aeniiceoe?e.
I?iaieioaiiy iaenoa?iath ei?eniino? ioeyaea “ye caniao caa?aaeaiiy
oi?ie, ye caniao iiioey?ecaoe?? oi?eoio a ?ioa?anao ianiai?
eoeueoo?ii-iie?oe/ii? ?iaioe” na?ae/eei i?i oa, ui noni?euenoai ao?a/aei
a?ae/oooy ?noi?e/ii? oe?iiino? oa aaoaioe/iino? iai’yoee.

Ca ei?ioeee oa?i?i naiai ?nioaaiiy i?aoe?aieee AO??I aeeiiaee cia/iee
ianya caieaiiaaieo ianoaaeaiue oa ?anoaa?aoe?eieo ?ia?o. ?anoaa?aoe??th
aeeaiieno, neoeueioo?e oa oaeeoeiaiai ienoaoeoaa aoee ioiieai? ioca?
Ee?aa (AIA, Anaoe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee iocae ?i. O.A.Oaa/aiea, Iocae
ienoaoeoa AOAI), *a?i?a?anueeee ooaeiaei?e iocae, Oa?e?anueeee
ooaeiaeiuei-?noi?e/iee iocae, Eiiioiinueeee e?a?ciaa/ee iocae. Aeaeaoia
iaoeiaa cia/aiiy iaei ?ice?eooy iai’yoieea E.Ino?icueeiio OV? no. c
Oniainueeiai niai?o Eaa?e, aeeiiaia E.?.E?aeai?inueeei. E??i
?anoaa?aoe??, iaenoa?iy iaiaaaeanue i?aai?coaaoe iino?eio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeio ?iaioo. Ia i?aenoaa? ca?o?a ? ieai?a iaenoa?i? iiaeia
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui o AO??I i?aeo?eioaaeeny i?eioeeie ?anoaa?aoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?, ye? aoee ae?iaeai? o i?aeoeoe? iaenoa?i? AIA. Oai?aoe/i?
?ic?iaee AO??I (cie?aia, ?? aee?aeoi?a I.A.Aaeiooaeia) ciaiaiothoue
niaith iiaee aoai inieneaiiy ?ie? iocaeii? ?anoaa?aoe?? o nenoai?
ioi?iie iai’yoie Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae, i?ney oiai ye eaiiai?y i?ioe iaoeiaeo
ni?a?ia?oiee?a AIA o 1933 ?. cae?i/eeany /eneaiieie a?aooaie (cie?aia,
i?ae ne?aenoaii iieieeeny I.I.Eo??iiee, E.A.Iiuaiei), AO??I ia ii/aoeo
1934 ?. i?eieieea nai? ?nioaaiiy.

O na?aaeei? — ae?oa?e iieiaei? 1930-o ??. iineeththoueny ?ai?an?? i?ioe
ae?y/?a oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e. Na?aae nioaiue ?ioeo aoee canoaeaeai? e
?icno??eyi? aeaeaoiee ienoaoeue-iaaeaaia I.E.Aie/oe, eiai ae?oaeeia
N.I.Iaeai?inueea-Aie/oe, aaaaoi eiai o/i?a. No?a/aii E.?.E?aeai?inueeiai
? I.?.Eania?iae/a. ?iaia aaaaoueio ae?y/?a ooaeiaeiuei? eoeueoo?e,
iaieioaieo “ai?iaaie ia?iaeo”, o 1930-o ??. aoee aee?aneai? c ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? iocaeii? ?anoaa?aoe??, a a?eueo?noue aeieoiaio?a, ui
noinoaaeeny ?o i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?, cieuai?. I/aaeaeii, c oe???
i?e/eie i?ioyaii 1940 — 1980-o ??. iioe?thaaeanue aeoiea i?i oa, ui aei
noai?aiiy OeAeIAe?II a Oe?a?i? ia aoei aea?aeaaieo ?anoaa?aoe?eieo
iocaeieo iaenoa?aiue, ? ni?aaa iocaeii? ?anoaa?aoe?? cian?i ia
?icaeaaeanue.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.4. “Ii/aoie ae?yeueiino? Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaaieo
iaoeiai-aeine?ae/eo ?anoaa?aoe?eieo iocaeieo iaenoa?aiue (1938 — 1941
??.)” ?icaeyaeathoueny i?eioeeie ae?yeueiino? OeAeIAe?II ia ii/aoeiaiio
aoai?.

Ia i?aenoaa? iinoaiiae ?IE O?N? oa iaeaco Oi?aae?iiy a ni?aaao ienoaoeoa
i?e ?IE O?N? o 1938 ?. aoee i?aai?ciaai? OeAeIAe?II (oaia? —
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?anoaa?aoe?eiee oeaio? Oe?a?ie). sse
onoaiiaa ?anioae?eainueeiai cia/aiiy, OeAeIAe?II o nai?e ?iaio?
iaiaaaeenue ioiieoe cia/io e?euee?noue ioca?a Ee?aa, Iieoaae, Oa?eiaa,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueea, Ieeiea?aa, Iaeane oa ?i. i?no. Aee?aeoi?ii
iaenoa?aiue aoa ooaeiaeiee I.?.Eiae’?a; iaoeiaeie ni?a?ia?oieeaie —
ienoaoeoaiciaaaoeue I.I.*i?iiaoaia ? o?i?e-oaoiieia A.TH.Eioaiueei;
?anoaa?aoi?aie — E.I.Eaeaie/aiei, O.?.Aeaieae/oe-Aeai/oe,
Ae.I.Iaae?eoee, C.A.Iaaiee?ia, ?.O.Na?aethe oa ?io?. Aeaye? c ieo o 1939
?. i?ieoee iaa/aiiy o iaenoa?i? AeOA (Iineaa), i?aoe?aieee yei? (?acii c
?anoaa?aoi?aie Oeaio?aeueieo ooaeiaeiuei-?anoaa?aoe?eieo iaenoa?aiue o
Iinea?) a ianooii? ?iee i?iaeiaaeoaaee eiio?iethaaoe ae?yeuei?noue
OeAeIAe?II. Ca ia??iae 1938-1941 ??. aoei a?ae?anoaa?iaaii cia/io
e?euee?noue aeniiiao?a c ioca?a Oe?a?ie.

O ia?o? ?iee a ?iaio? iaenoa?aiue i?inoaaeo?oueny iaaiee ca’ycie c
i?eioeeiaie ee?anueei? oeiee 1920 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 1930-o ??.; iaeiae
iinooiiai o i?aeoeoe? OeAeIAe?II i?iyaeythoueny ?ene, oa?aeoa?i? aeey
?aaeyinueei? ?anoaa?aoe?? ia??iaeo e?ioey 1930 — 1950-o ??.:
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ia no?eueee iio?aaai caa?aaeaiiy
iai’yoie, ne?eueee aeoaea aenieei (/anoi iaaei?aaaeaii) ieaiiaei
iieacieeai, iineeaiiy nooiaiy ?anoaa?aoe?eiiai ao?o/aiiy o no?oeoo?o
iai’yoee. Cieaeo?oueny ye?noue aeeiiaiiy ie?aieo eiina?aaoe?eieo ?
?anoaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Ii?iith ?iaioe noathoue ?aeiino?oeoe?? ao?ao
aeeaiieno “a iaia?? aaoi?a”, aac ?ic??ciaiiy aaoi?nueeeo ?
?anoaa?aoe?eieo /anoei, ia??aeei c ia?ae?eooyi i?ea?iaea ?anoaa?aoe?eiei
oiioaaiiyi. ?yae iciae (oaeeo, ye iiae?e ?anoaa?aoi??a ia “oaoi?/ieo” ?
“ooaeiaeiee?a”, caoiieaiiy iaoiaeii ia?aaaaeaiiy ia iiao iniiao, iiaia
aeaeaeaiiy eaeiaeo iie?eoo?a, caiiaiaiiy ao?ao aeeaiieno c
aeaeaeinyaeiith ?aeiino?oeoe??th oi?ie) caeeaeothoue i?aeoeeo ia?oiai
ia??iaeo ?iaioe OeAeIAe?II ?c canaaeaie ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? o
?in?enuee?e ?iia??? oa ?a?ii? O?O no.

I/aaeaeii, oea iiaeia o iaai?e i??? iiynieoe ci?iith i??i?eoao?a a
oe?a?inueeiio iocaeieoeoa?, eiee “iie?oina?oiuei-ianiaa ?iaioa ii
aeoiaaiith o?oaeyueo” aeo?nieea na?eici? ienoaoeoaiciaa/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ca oaei? neooaoe?? oe?ii?oith oyaeyeanue ia naia
i?ea?iaeueia iai’yoea, a ?? “eeaniaa nooi?noue”. Cia/io ?ieue o oeueiio
a?ae?a?aei ? na?aeiia a?aeiaaeoaaiiy (c iie?oe/ieo i??eoaaiue) a?ae
aeina?aeo ?anoaa?aoi??a-iiia?aaeiee?a, ? ?acii c oei — a?ae i?eioeei?a
iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe?? 1920-o ??. E??i oiai, aaccanoa?aaeia
i???ioaoe?y ia aeina?ae iineianueei? ?anoaa?aoe?eii? oeiee, cie?aia —
iaenoa?i? AeOA (a ye?e ia oie /an a?aeaoaaeenue aiaeia?/i? i?ioeane) ia
ni?eyea e?eoe/iiio ia?ainieneaiith ?? iaaooe?a, a oaeiae oi?ioaaiith
aeanii? oeiee ?anoaa?aoe??. Oiio ae?yeuei?noue OeAeIAe?II iiaeia
?icoe?ithaaoe ye ii/aoie iiai?, a ia i?iaeiaaeaiiy iiia?aaeiuei?
o?aaeeoe?? ee?anueei? oeiee 1920 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 1930-o ??.

I?ioeane, ui i?ioyaii 1930-o ??. ?oeioaaee oe?a?inueeo eoeueoo?o ia
oa?eoi??? ?aaeyinuee?e, ia oi?eioeenue cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue, ye?
aei 1939 ?. eeoaeeny /anoeiith Iieueu?. Cia/iei aeinyaiaiiyi
?anoaa?aoi??a IIE aoei aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo iaoiaeee ?anoaa?aoe??
i?noeaaiai (aaeeoeueeiai) ?eiiiieno, yea aacoaaeinue ia iino?eieo
niinoa?aaeaiiyo ca noaiii a?ae?anoaa?iaaieo aeniiiao?a iocath, oiaoi
noai?aiiy i?ea?iaeueii? iaoiaeieia?? ?anoaa?aoe?? oai??a ?eiiiieno.
O?aaeeoe?y iocaeii? ?anoaa?aoe?? Eueaiaa aoea ia?a?aaia aaea i?ney
a?eie, o 1940-o ??., eiee ii/aeeny ?ai?an?? ?aaeyinueeiai ?aaeeio i?ioe
ae?y/?a eoeueoo?e Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie.

O e?ioe? ?icae?eo c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ia?ao?ae a?ae iaoeiaeo
aei ?aeaieia?/ieo i??i?eoao?a o ?anoaa?aoe?? i?ioyaii 1930 — 1940 ??.
ni?eya iinooiiaiio a?aeiaaeoaaiith a?ae o?aaeeoe?? ee?anueei? oeiee
?anoaa?aoe?? iocaeiiai iai?yio, iaa’ycaa ?anoaa?aoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino?
iaaeanoea? ?e ooieoe??. O ?iaio? OeAeIAe?II (1938 — 1941 ??.)
niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy ??aiy oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy, a oaeiae
yeino? i?aeoe/ii? ?anoaa?aoe??; oiio ae?yeuei?noue ?? ia iiaea aooe
a?aeianaia aei ee?anueei? oeiee iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe?? 1920 —
ia?oi? iieiaeie 1930-o ??.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co oaeoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo o aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii
oae? iniiai? aeniiaee, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Iocaeiee iai?yi ?anoaa?aoe?? noaieiaiai aeeaiieno yaey? niaith
ie?aeio ? aaaaoia?aiio ae?yeuei?noue c inai?iiy oa caa?aaeaiiy
ienoaoeueei? niaaeueie ? ? oi?eaeueiei yaeuai a oe?a?inuee?e eoeueoo??
1920 — 1940 ??.

2. Ca?iaeaeaiiy iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe?? a Oe?a?i? iia’ycaia c
oai?/ith ae?yeuei?noth I.E.Aie/oea oa eiai o/i?a o 1910-o ??. I?aoey o
aaeoc? ?anoaa?aoe?? aeicaieeea ienooeyi aeaoaeuei?oa aeine?aeeoe
iai’yoee na?aaeiueia?/iiai nae?aeueiiai ienoaoeoaa, aeaea iiaeeea?noue
ia i?aeoeoe? ?aae?coaaoe aeani? ?aea? eoeueoo?iiai iane?aeoaaiiy, ye? o
1920-o ??. aoee iieeaaeai? a iniiao oai?aoe/ieo canaae ae?yeueiino?
ee?anueei? oeiee iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe??.

3. A neeo ?noi?e/ieo i?e/ei Ee?a o 1920-o ??. noaa ina?aaeeii oi?ioaaiiy
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a aaeoc? ioi?iie oa ?anoaa?aoe?? iai’yoie; ? naia
ooo o 1930-o ??. iaeyne?aa?oa aeyaeany iaaaoeaiee aieea ia
?anoaa?aoe?eio ae?yeuei?noue ?aaeyinueei? ?aeaieia??.

4. ?anoaa?aoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue o ?aieao iocaeiiai iai?yio a Oe?a?i?
(Ee?a) i?ioyaii 1920 — 1940 ??. i?ieoea aeaa aoaie ?icaeoeo, ye?
aecia/aeenue, ianaiia?aae, ci?iith noaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa aei
eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie. Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1920 — 1930 ??.) iocaeiee
iai?yi ?anoaa?aoe?? noa? iai?aiei. Ae?oaee aoai (1930 — 1940 ??.)
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iinooiiaei a?aeoiaeii a?ae i?eioeei?a iocaeiiai
iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe??.

5. Ee?anueeo oeieo ?anoaa?aoe?? noaieiaiai aeeaiieno 1920 — ia?oi?
iieiaeie 1930-o ??. oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?ioi?iaoe?eia a?aee?eo?noue,
eieaa?aeuei?noue o ?ica’ycaii? i?iaeai ?anoaa?aoe??; iino?eia oaaaa aei
i?iaeai iocaeiiai caa??aaiiy; iine?aeiaia aeio?eiaiiy i?eioeeio
i?i?iaeueiiai ao?o/aiiy o no?oeoo?o iai’yoee; ienoaoeoaiciaa/a
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?anoaa?iaaieo iai’yoie; nenoaiaoe/ia aeine?aeieoeueea oa
aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa c ia?aa??ee o?aaeeoe?eieo oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo
iaoiae?a ?anoaa?aoe??; i?aeaioiaea iocaeieo ?ia?oiee?a ? ?anoaa?aoi??a;
ioiieaiiy cia/ii? e?eueeino? ioca?a Oe?a?ie; ii?eethaeiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
nai?? iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?. Oaeei /eiii, ie iiaeaii noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
iinoaiiaea ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ni?aae o ee?anuee?e oeie? ?anoaa?aoe??
noaieiaiai aeeaiieno 1920 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 1930-o ??. a?aeiia?aea?
aeooaeueiei iai?ee?ioe? 1990-o ??. e?eoa??yi iaoeiaino? ?anoaa?aoe??.

6. I?aai?caoe?ei? i?eioeeie, iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy canaae ae?yeueiino?
ee?anueei? oeiee ?anoaa?aoe?? 1920 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 1930-o ??. o?nii
iia’ycai? c o/anoth a ?? ?iaio? Anaoe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe, ? a
ia?oo /a?ao, ea??aiiai i?aaio ioi?iie iai’yoie — Anaoe?a?inueeiai
A?oaieia?/iiai Eii?oaoo.

7. Iaei??th c iniaeeainoae, ui a?ae??ciythoue ee?anueeo oeieo 1920 —
ia?oi? iieiaeie 1930-o ??. a?ae ?ioeo oe?e ?anoaa?aoe?? oiai /ano, ?
aaciina?aaei?e aieea i?eioeei?a ?anoaa?aoe?? ?eiiiieno ia ?anoaa?aoe?th
?ioeo a?oi iai’yoie — noaieiaiai na?onueeiai aeeaiieno, oaeeoeiaiai
ienoaoeoaa.

8. ?anoaa?aoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue iocaeiiai iai?yio a Oe?a?i? ia aoea
?cieueiaaiith; aiia ?icaeaaeany i?ae aieeaii iino?eieo eiioaeo?a c
?in?enueeith iaoeiaith ?anoaa?aoe??th. I?ioa, yeui o 1920-o ??. ciaiiy,
iaaoo? o ?anoaa?aoe?eieo caeeaaeao Iineae (OeAe?I, AeOA) ? Eai?ia?aaea
(Ae?I), oai?/i ia?ainienethaaeenue oe?a?inueeeie ?anoaa?aoi?aie, oi
iai?ee?ioe? 1930-o ??. aaccanoa?aaeia ne?aeoaaiiy i?eioeeiai
ae?yeueiino? iaenoa?i? AeOA i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ??aiy oai?aoe/ii?
a?aoiaioaoe?? oa yeino? ?anoaa?aoe?eieo ?ia?o.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o oaeeo ?iaioao:

1. Oei/aiei O.?. Aei ?noi??? ina?oe iocaeieo ?anoaa?aoi??a Oe?a?ie o
ia?o?e o?aoei? OO no. / / Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y ienoaoeoaa.
Aeine?aeieoeuee? oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? i?aoe?. — Aei. 3. — E.:OAI, 1996.
— N. 29-31.

2. Oei/aiei O.?. Aie/oe?ci ? oe?a?inueea ?anoaa?aoe?y / /Ia?acioai?/a
ienoaoeoai. — 1997. — ? 3-4. — N. 60 — 62.

3. Oei/aiei O.?. Aa?iaiaaoeea ?anoaa?aoe?eii? ni?aae / / Oe?a?inueea
Aeaaeai?y ienoaoeoaa. Aeine?aeieoeuee? oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? i?aoe?. —
Aei.4. — E.:OAI, 1997. — N. 144 — 148.

4. Oei/aiei O.?. Oe?a?inuee? ioca? nueiaiaei? ? a/i?a / /
Ia?acioai?/a ienoaoeoai. — 1998. — ? 2. — N. 42-44.

5. Oei/aiei O.?. Ieeiea Eania?iae/ / / Ia?acioai?/a ienoaoeoai. — 1998.
— ? 2. — N. 14.

6. Oei/aiei O.?. Ainoaea?noai e ?anoaa?aoeey / / Ooaeiaeanoaaiiia
ianeaaeea. O?aiaiea, enneaaeiaaiea, ?anoaa?aoeey. — Aui. 18. — I.:
?inIEE?, 1997. (o ae?ooe?).

7. Oeeoiae/ A.E, Oei/aiei O.?. I?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey ?anoaa?aoeeiiiuo
oeie. / / Iaoa?eaeueiay aaca noa?u eoeueoo?u. — Iao/.-eioi?i. na.- Aui.
3. — I.: Ecae. ?AA, 1998. — N. 99 — 110.

8. Oeeoiae/ A.E., Oei/aiei O.?. ?anoaa?aoi?u eee ooaeiaeieee? (E
aii?ino i acaeiiaeaenoaee ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai e ?anoaa?aoeeiiiiai
oai?/anoaa). / / Iaoa?eaeueiay aaca noa?u eoeueoo?u. — Iao/.-eioi?i. na.
— Aui. 4. — I.: Ecae. ?AA, 1998. — N. 44 — 50.

9. E.A.Aaicaiei, O.?.Oei/aiei, A.?.Oeeoiae/. A?aeoai?aiiy niai?o
A?oeno?aoeaa Ieoa?ea. Iiaeyae ia iac’yniaai? i?iaeaie. / / Iai’yoee
Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ? 1.- N. 19 — 24.

10. Oeeoiae/ A.?., Oei/aiei O.?. “Iaoeia /ano” oa i?eionoei? iaae?
?anoaa?aoe?eiiai ao?o/aiiy / / O?ao? iaoeia? /eoaiiy Ae.Oaeanoa o
Eueaia?. — Euea?a: Euea?anueea ea?oeiia aaea?ay, 1995. — N.51 — 53.

11. Oei/aiei O.?. ?anoaa?aoeey a naaoa eaeae aa?iaiaaoeee / / Oacenu
aeieeaaeia iao/. eiioa?aioeee “Nia?aiaiiua i?eioeeiu ?anoaa?aoeee.
Eiia/iue ?acoeueoao ?anoaa?aoeee”. — I.:?inIEE?, 1995. — N. 79 — 81.

12. Oeeoiae/ A.?., Oei/aiei O.?.. I?iaeaie ?anoaa?aoe?? aieeinueei?
?eiie e?ioey XVI no. “O?enoin-O/eoaeue” c? ca??ee Oiiaeo “Oe?a?inueeee
?aianain” / / — Oace oa iaoa??aee III Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? “Aieeinueea ?eiia: ieoaiiy ?noi??? aea/aiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa ?anoaa?aoe??”. — Eooeuee : Aieeinueeee e?a?ciaa/ee iocae, 1996. — N.
63 — 64.

13. Oei/aiei O.?., Oeeoiae/ A.?. Aei i?iaeaie noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei?
oeiee ?anoaa?aoe?? o ia?o?e o?aoei? OO no. / / Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae ?
iia?aeiieaiue ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?aai
Ia??iei e ooaa?aeaeaiiy aoiai?oa?ii? iaoee oa ina?oe a Oe?a?i?”. —
AEeoiie?: AEo?oiiae, 1997. — N. 46 — 47.

14. Oei/aiei O.?. C ?noi??? ?anoaa?aoe?? oe?a?inueeiai ?eiiiieno o
1920-o ?ieao / / Aeiiia?ae? oa iaoa??aee ?V iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
“Aieeinueea ?eiia: Ieoaiiy ?noi??? aea/aiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
?anoaa?aoe??. — Eooeuee: Aieeinueeee e?a?ciaa/ee iocae, 1997. — N. 85 —
88.

15. Oei/aiei O.?. I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo iocaeii? ?anoaa?aoe?? o Ee?a? o 1920
— ia?o?e iieiaei? 1930-o ?ie?a / / Oace oa iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae
I?aeia?. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 60-??//th IIAe?OeO. —
E.:IEI Oe?a?ie, IIAe?OeO, 1998. — N. 154 — 157.

Iocaeiee iai?yi ?anoaa?aoe?? a Oe?a?i?. Ee?anueea oeiea. 1920 — 1940 ??.
— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 17.00.08 — Ioca?ciaanoai;
caa??aaiiy ooaeiaei?o oe?iiinoae oa iai’yoie a?o?oaeoo?e. — Aeaaeai?y
ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, Ee?a, 1998.

?icaeyaea?oueny iaeia?aeiiee aoai ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? ?anoaa?aoe??
noaieiaiai aeeaiieno a Oe?a?i? — 1920 — 1940 ??. Aeena?oaoe?th
i?enay/aii ae?yeueiino? ee?anueei? oeiee; iaeiae aeey aecia/aiiy
iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe?? a Oe?a?i?
caeo/aii iaoa??ae ii ?ioeo ?aa?iiao, cie?aia, iia’ycaiee c ae?yeuei?noth
euea?anueei? oeiee ?anoaa?aoe??. Aecia/aii ? ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aeaa
ia??iaee ?icaeoeo iocaeiiai iai?yio ?anoaa?aoe?? noaieiaiai aeeaiieno a
Oe?a?i? (Ee?a): 1920 — 1930; 1930 — 1940 ??. Aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao
aaaaeaii iaa?aeii? aein? oaeoe ? a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe c ?noi???
ooaeiaeiuei? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, a aaeoc? iocaeii? ni?aae,
ioi?iie iai’yoie, ?anoaa?aoe?? oai??a ienoaoeoaa c oe?a?inueeeo iocaeieo
c?a?aiue; /anoeia iioae?eiaaieo ?ai?oa aeaieo nei?eaiaaia a?aeiia?aeii
aei a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a. Aia?oa iaa?oioiao?oueny canoinoaaiiy iiiyooy
“iocaeiee iai?yi” aei ?anoaa?aoe?? noaieiaiai aeeaiieno a Oe?a?i? 1920 —
1940 ??.; aecia/aii iniaeeaino? ee?anueei? oeiee ?anoaa?aoe?? noaieiaiai
aeeaiieno (1920 — ia?oi? iieiaeie 1930-o ??.).

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eoeueoo?ia niaaeueia, caa?aaeaiiy, ?anoaa?aoe?y,
eiina?aaoe?y, aooaioe/i?noue iai’yoee, iocae, iocaeiee iai?yi
?anoaa?aoe??, ia?acioai?/a ienoaoeoai, noaieiaee aeeaiien.

Oei/aiei O.?. Iocaeiia iai?aaeaiea ?anoaa?aoeee a Oe?aeia. Eeaaneay
oeiea. 1920 — 1940 aa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa eneonnoaiciaiey ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 17.00.08 — Iocaaaaaeaiea; nio?aiaiea ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
oeaiiinoae e iaiyoieeia a?oeoaeoo?u. — Aeaaeaiey ecia?aceoaeueiiai
eneonnoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u, Eeaa, 1998.

?anniao?eaaaony iaeiecaanoiue yoai ?acaeoey iao/iie ?anoaa?aoeee
noaieiaie aeeaiiene a Oe?aeia — 1920 — 1940 aa. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia
aeayoaeueiinoe eeaaneie oeieu ?anoaa?aoeee, iaeiaei aeey auyniaiey
iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey iocaeiiai iai?aaeaiey ?anoaa?aoeee a
Oe?aeia i?eaeaeaaony iaoa?eae ii ae?oaei ?aaeiiai, a /anoiinoe,
eanathueeny aeayoaeueiinoe eueaianeie oeieu ?anoaa?aoeee. Ii?aaeaeaiu e
ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu aeaa ia?eiaea ?acaeoey iocaeiiai iai?aaeaiey
?anoaa?aoeee noaieiaie aeeaiiene a Oe?aeia (Eeaa): 1920 — 1930; 1930 —
1940 aa. A iao/iue iaeoiae aaaaeaiu iaecaanoiua aei neo ii? oaeou e
a?oeaiua aeieoiaiou ii enoi?ee ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u Oe?aeiu, a
/anoiinoe, a iaeanoe iocaeiiai aeaea, io?aiu iaiyoieeia, ?anoaa?aoeee
i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa ec oe?aeineeo iocaeiuo nia?aiee; /anoue
iioaeeeiaaiiuo ?aiaa aeaiiuo nei??aeoe?iaaia a niioaaonoaee n a?oeaiuie
aeieoiaioaie. Aia?aua iainiiauaaaony i?eiaiaiea iiiyoey “iocaeiia
iai?aaeaiea” e ?anoaa?aoeee noaieiaie aeeaiiene a Oe?aeia 1920-1940 aa.;
ii?aaeaeaiu iniaaiiinoe eeaaneie oeieu ?anoaa?aoeee noaieiaie aeeaiiene
(1920 — ia?aie iieiaeiu 1930-o aa.).

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eoeueoo?iia ianeaaeea, nio?aiaiea, ?anoaa?aoeey,
eiina?aaoeey, aooaioe/iinoue iaiyoieea, iocae, iocaeiia iai?aaeaiea
?anoaa?aoeee, ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai, noaieiaay aeeaiienue.

Tymchenko T.R. Museum direction of restoration in Ukraine. Kiev school.
1920’s — 1940’s. – Manuscript.

Thesis for competition for candidate of arts degree. Specialty 17.00.08.
“Museology; preservation of art values and architectural memorials”. —
Academy of Fine Art and Architecture, Kiev, 1998.

Unexplored stage of scientific restoration of easel painting examined in
the thesis -1920’s — 1940’s. This thesis dedicated to Kiev restoration
school, the thesis involves certain materials on other regions
(particularly Lviv restoration school) for identification of main drifts
of museum direction of restoration development in Ukraine. Two stages of
development of museum direction of easel painting restoration in Ukraine
(Kiev) are determined here: 1920 — 1930’s; 1930 — 1940’s. Unknown
hitherto facts of arts history of Ukraine (particularly museology,
preservation of memorials, restoration of art relicts from Ukrainian
museum collections) are introduced into scientific use. Some of
published records are corrected in accordance with archive documents.
For the first time usage of museum direction concept grounded for easel
painting restoration in Ukraine 1920’s — 1940’s; the thesis determines
peculiar properties of Kiev school of easel painting restoration (1920’s
— early 1930’s).

Key words: cultural heritage, preservation, restoration, conservation,
authenticity of cultural property, museum, museum direction of
restoration, fine art, easel painting.

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