?INOEOOO AA?A?II? AEIIII?EE

OE?A?INUeEI? AEAAeAI?? AA?A?IEO IAOE

Eo/a?oe ?ai? Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 631.158

IIOEAAOe?ss AA?A?II? I?AOe?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.09.01 – aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea i?aoe?,

nioe?aeueia
aeiiii?ea ? iie?oeea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

Aoaooeueeee Ieaen?e Aiae??eiae/,

?inoeooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

E?aniia TH??e Ieeieaeiae/,

Iaoeiai–aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo

I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ naeoi?a i?iaeai caeiyoino?

ianaeaiiy ? ?eieo i?aoe?

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

Aeeoethe Iaoae?y ?aai?aia,

?inoeooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa- ?inoeooo n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa

Iie?nny OAAI , i. AEeoiie?

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 17 “ aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 12-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.26.350.02 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
a ?inoeooo? aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI ca aae?anith: 252127, Ee?a – 127,
aoe. Aa?i?a Iai?iie, 10, eiioa?aioe-cae, 3-e iiaa?o.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aa?a?ii?
aeiiii?ee OAAI , i.Ee?a – 127, aoe. Aa?i?a Iai?iie, 10, 2-e iiaa?o.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 16 » ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe Ioe?i A.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ethaeeia caaaeaee aoea ? caeeoa?oueny aieiaiith
i?iaeoeoeaiith neeith, caeiath/e oeaio?aeueia i?noea o noni?eueiiio
ae?iaieoeoa?. Aea, ia aeaeue, iei? neeaeany cian?i ?ioa neooaoe?y o
aeei?enoaii? i?aoe? a aa?a?i?e noa??. O i?aoe?aiee?a naea
niinoa??aa?oueny iecueea ca?ia?oia ieaoa, ii?ooaiee oeeee a?aeoai?aiiy
?iai/i? neee, a?aeaoaa?oueny iaae?iiy i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai oa
eoeueoo?ii-ii?aeueiiai ??aiy.

Ana oea coiiaeaii caaaeueiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith e?ecith
ae?iaieoeoaa, a naia: iia??oaiiyi ??aiy oaoi?/ii? iniauaiino? ?
caaacia/aiiyi ae?iaieoeoaa; iecueeei ??aiai nioe?aeueii? ?icaoaeiae
naea; iaaeineiiae?noth a?aeiinei aeaniino?, ianaiia?aae caiaeueii?;
ianoaa?euei?noth oe?i oa ?ioeyoe?eieie i?ioeanaie; iaae?iiyi iioeaaoe??
o ae?iaiee?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??. Cieaeaiiy ?ioa?ano o
i?aoe?aiee?a naea aei ae?iaieoeoaa iineaaeei ??aaiue ?o na?aeiiino?,
aeenoeeie?io, oai?/o aeoeai?noue.

A aa?a?i?e aaeoc? ia noai?aii aaeaeaaoiiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e
neooaoe?? iioeaaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio i?aoe?, oi/a a?aeaoeeny ia?aoai?aiiy
a iie?oe/i?e, aeiiii?/i?e oa nioe?aeuei?e noa?ao. I?aeoe/ii o a?eueoino?
i?aoe?aiee?a aa?a?ii? noa?e c?oeiiaai? aeoeai? iioeae ? noeioee aei
i?aoe?.

Oiio iioeaaoe?y i?aoe? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee a oiiaao
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece ? aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith, ui ? iaoiiaeei
aea?? oaie oa no?oeoo?io iiaoaeiao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Noai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie. I?iaeaia iioeaaoe?? aa?a?ii? i?aoe? a inoaii?e
ia??iae ciaoiaeeoue aeineoue oe?iea a?aeia?aaeaiiy a aeiiii?/i?e
e?oa?aoo??. Cia/iee aeeaae a ?ic?iaeo oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo
aniaeo?a iioeaaoe?? aa?a?ii? noa?e AIE aianee i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo a/aieo,
oaeeo ye Caaaaenueeee E.N., Aoaooeueeee I.A., TH?/eoei A.A., Iae?e I.E.,
Aoaeceinueeee I.Ae.,Aeeoethe I.?., Ae??nia?ia A.N., Ieaei?e I.?.,
Eoiaeiaa A.?., Iie?uoe I.I., Eae?i/ee I.A., E?aniia TH.I.,
Oiaeae?anueeee A.?., sseoaa E.?., I?eaoee I.E. oa ?io?. Aaaaoia?aii?noue
oa neeaaei?noue i?iaeaie iioeaaoe?? a iei?oi?e ia??iae ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie iio?aaothoue aeeaieiai aea/aiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, aeaiia?ao?/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo ? iaoa??aeueieo
oaeoi??a iioeaaoe??, ui ? coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue iiaeeaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iioeaaoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a aeoea?caoe?? aa?a?ii? i?aoe?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa ? ?acoeueoaoii iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo aaoi?ii ca?aeii
oaiaoe/iiai ieaio a?aeae?eo oe?i ia iaoa??aeuei? ?ano?ne oa ?iai/o neeo,
i?ae /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy i/ii? ani??aioo?e 1996 – 1999 ??. a ?inoeooo?
aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aeyaeaiiy noeioe?a ? iioea?a o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?
oa ?ic?iaea no/aniiai iioeaaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

?aae?caoe?y iaoe aeiaaaea ae??oaiiy ianooiieo caaaeaiue:

— iaa?oiooaaoe oai?aoe/i? iniiae iaoai?cio iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? c
o?aooaaiiyi oai??? ? i?aeoeee ca?oa?aeiiai oa a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo,
niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? ia nae? ca
iei?oiuei? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe??;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ae?yeuei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ?
aieea ia ieo ae?th/i? nenoaie iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?;

— iaa?oiooaaoe iniiai? iai?yie uiaei noai?aiiy no/aniiai iioeaaoe?eiiai
iaoai?cio ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaee/i? oa i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao. Ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii ainiiaea?noaa AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?. Iiaeeaeaiee
aiae?c i?iaiaeeany ia iaoa??aeao noaoenoe/ii? ca?oiino? AEeoiie?nueeiai,
Aa?aee/?anueeiai oa Ei?inoeo?anueeiai ?aeii?a. A ?iaio?
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny iaoa??aee aieaooaaiiy, i?iaaaeaiiai na?aae
i?aoe?aiee?a ENI “Ae?oaeaa” Aa?aee/?anueeiai ?aeiio , aa?io??ie
“N?iao?e” oa i?aoe?aiee?a oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noa AEeoiie?nueeiai
?aeiio. Aeey aeaoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeae? a?oiiai? iioeaaoe??
oe?iei aeei?enoaia ia?aeiia ?ioi?iaoe?y aa?io??ie “N?iao?e”.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a, i?iiiceoe?e, ui aeiineoueny ia
caoeno, iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— iaa?oioiaai? oai?aoe/i? iniiae iioeaaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio i?aoe? o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? a ca`yceo c eiai e?eciaith neooaoe??th;

— cai?iiiiiaai? noeioee ? iioeae, ui iaea?eueoa a?aeiia?aeathoue
?eieiaei oiiaai;

— ?ic?iaeai? ea?oe ?acoeueoaoeaiino?, ye ?ino?oiaio iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?,
ui i??ioo? ?iaioo i?ae?icae?e?a ? ie?aiiai i?aoe?aieea ia e?ioeaaee
?acoeueoao;

— aecia/aii ia?niaeoeai? iai?yie iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao, ui a?oioothoueny ia i?eioeeiao
aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a oa no/anii? oai??? a?oaa?i?ecio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ni?eythoue
aoaeoeaiiio aeei?enoaiith ??cieo /eiiee?a iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?,
aeinyaiaiith aenieiai ??aiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, i???ioaoe?? ea??aieo
? ainiiaea?nueeeo i?aai?a a iai?yi? oaeineiiaeaiiy iioeaaoe?eieo
iaoai?ci?a oi?aae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaii a oiiaao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
e?ece.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, i?eaaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, io?eiai? aaoi?ii iniaenoi. Aeae?eaii ?
iiaeeaeaii aea/aii oaeoi?e aioo??oiuei? iioeaaoe??, ye? iia’ycai? c
o?oaeiaith ae?yeuei?noth n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aoe?aiee?a, a
oaeiae oaeoi?e ciai?oiuei? iioeaaoe??, ui ciaoiaeyoueny iica iaaeath
i?aoe?. C’yniaaiee iaoai?ci iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? a oa?ia?nueeeo
(naeyinueeeo) ainiiaea?noaao a Iie?nuee?e cii?. ?ic?iaeai? ea?oe
?acoeueoaoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?, ui caaacia/othoue
iaeaeuee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo ?iaioe i?ae?icae?eo oa ie?aiiai i?aoe?aieea.
Aia?oa a Oe?a?i? cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue a?oiiai? iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?, ui
a?oioo?oueny ia i?eioeeiao a?oaa?i?ecio, yea i?ioiaeeea ai?iaaoe?th a
aa?io??i? “N?iao?e” oa ?? ia?aeiieo i?ae?icae?eao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaiaai? ia:

— i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “O?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae Oe?a?ie ?
eiai ?aae?caoe?y a oiiaao ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee”,
Euea?a (eenoiiaae 1997 ?.);

— iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe?? naeoe?? aeiiii?ee Iie?nueei?
iieiae?aeii? aeaaeai?? iaoe, AEeoiie? (eenoiiaae 1996 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeeiiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 5
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue a niaoe?aeueieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo caaaeueiei ianyaii
1,7 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?, a oiio /ene? iaeia i?aoey a ni?aaaoi?noa?.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 170 noi??ieao
eiii`thoa?iiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 26 oaaeeoeue, 9 ?enoie?a, 15 aeiaeaoe?a.
Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae aeeth/a? 120 iaeiaioaaiue.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe:

Anooi.

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae o?oaeiai? iioeaaoe??.
1.1.Ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?. 1.2. A?o/eciyiee ?icaeoie
iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?. 1.3. Iniaeeaino? iioeaaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?aoe?.

?icae?e 2. Aeiiii?ei-nioe?aeueiee iaoai?ci iioeaaoe?? aa?a?ii? i?aoe?.
2.1. No?oeoo?a iaoai?cio iaoa??aeueii? iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?. 2.2.
Aeaiia?ao?/ii – o?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae. 2.3. I?ioan?eii —
eaae?o?eaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy. 2.4. Nioe?aeueia ?io?ano?oeoo?a.
2.5. Ae?iaie/a ?io?ano?oeoo?a.

?icae?e 3. Oaeoi?e i?aeaeuaiiy iioeaaoe?? aa?a?ii? i?aoe?. 3.1. Oaeoi?e
aioo??oiuei? iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?. 3.2. Oaeoi?e ciai?oiuei? iioeaaoe??
i?aoe?. 3.3. Iioeaaoe?y i?aoe? a oa?ia?nueeeo (naeyinueeeo)
ainiiaea?noaao. 3.4. Iiaeaeue a?oiiai? iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?.

Aeniiaee.

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

Aeiaeaoee.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae o?oaeiai?
iioeaaoe??” ?icaeyiooi oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe , ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae oa
a?o/eciyiee ?icaeoie iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? , aeei?enoaiiy iioeaaoe?eieo
oaeoi??a ? iniaeeaino? ?o ae?? a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio
ae?iaieoeoa?.

C iiaeyaeo aia?eeainueeeo a/aieo, ?noi??th ?icaeoeo o?oaeiai? iioeaaoe??
iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia o?e iniiai? aoaie. Ia?oee aoai — 1710-1900 ??. —
o?oaeia? a?aeiineie oi?iothoueny, aeoiaey/e c eiioeaioe?? ?iai/i? neee
ye iaiao?aeiiai aeaiaioo ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano, i?eaeaoeo oaoiieia??.
Oaeee i?aeo?ae a?aeia?aaea? niiaeea/ee oa?aeoa? aeei?enoaiiy ?iai/i?
neee, i?e yeiio iaeaieiai?oa caaaeiiy — io?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai
i?eaooeo ca?aooiie aei?noiei? aenieoaoaoe??. Ae?oaee aoai —
1910-1959 ??. — ?ic?iaea ? oaeineiiaeaiiy oai??? “ethaenueeeo
a?aeiinei”, a iniia? yeeo eiioeaioe?y “yeino? aeeooy ia ?iaio?”,
aa?iii?caoe?y a?aeiinei i?ae aeanieeaie cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? iaeiaieie
?ia?oieeaie. sse iane?aeie – noai?ththoueny oai??? eiioe?eo?a, oai??y
o/ano? ?ia?oiee?a a i?eaooeao ? o.?i. O?ao?e aoai c 1960 ?. ? ii iei?
-o?oaeia? a?aeiineie aoaeothoueny ia iniia? i?aaenoaaeaiiy ?iai/i? neee
ye iaa?aeoai?iiai ?ano?no aai ethaenueeiai eai?oaeo.

A Oe?a?i? oi?io?oueny oeiea iaoa??aeueii? iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?, ?? ia?oeie
i?aaenoaaieeaie aoee i?ioani?e E.N. Caaaaenueeee, I.?. Ieaei?e. Oae, a
iaoiaee/ieo ? iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo E.N. Caaaaenueeiai , eiai ia?oeo a
Oe?a?i? i?ae?o/ieeao c oi?aae?iiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei
ae?iaieoeoaii aeyaeaii niaoeeo?eo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo niiioeaeueieo
iioea?a, iia`ycaieo c o?oaeiaith ae?yeuei?noth ??cieo eaoaai??e
i?aoe?aiee?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa. Caaaeyee i?aoeyi
i?ioani??a I.? Ieaeiueiai , I.I Iie?uoea, I.E. Iae?ea a Oe?a?i?
noi?ioaaeinue a/aiiy i?i nenoaie ? oi?ie iieaoe
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?aoe?.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie aeieoi??a
aeiiii?/ieo iaoe I.A.Aoaooeueeiai, A.N.Ae??nia?iaa, A.?. Eoiaeiai? a
aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui iioeaaoe?eia no?oeoo?a o noa?? i?aoe?
oi?io?oueny i?ae aieeaii iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaeoi??a i?ioyaii iaaiiai /ano. Aa?ii?iieneiaa
i?aoey, ia a?aei?io a?ae i?aoe? acaaae?, ia? nai? iniaeeaino?, ui
caeaaeaoue a?ae ?? niaoeeo?ee ?, cie?aia, a?ae ??aiy iaoai?caoe??
iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a, ae?iaie/i? ? nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e,
??aiy aeeooy i?aoe?aiee?a naea, aeaiia?ao?/iiai noaio, naciiiiai
oa?aeoa?o ?ia?o, iieaoe i?aoe?, a oaeiae a?ae ni?eeiyooy ethaeeie ye
iniaenoino?, oiaoi ?ie?, yeo aeeiio? i?aoe?aiee o ae?iaieoeoa?, eiai
a?eo, eaae?o?eaoe??, ina?oe oiui.

O oeueiio ca`yceo a aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeththoueny ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei
noai?aiiy iae?iiiaeaeae aoaeoeaii? iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?. A?aeiia?aeii aei
Caeiio i?i ?aaoethaaiiy n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa (NOA, 1933 ?.)
aecia/aia eiioeaioe?y ia?eoaoo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? iie?oeee,
ca?aeii c yeith eiaeiee ??e iaaiee ianya ae?iaieoeoaa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? iiaeiai aeicaieeoe oa?ia?o
io?eiaoe iaaio e?euee?noue oiaa??a oa iineoa, ui noeioethaaei ?o aei
?acoeueoaoeai?oi? i?aoe? oa aoei iniiaiei iioeaii.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aeiiii?ei-nioe?aeueiee iaoai?ci iioeaaoe?? aa?a?ii?
i?aoe?” i?iaaaeaii aiae?c i?ia?aeieo /eiiee?a, i?ae aieeaii yeeo
oi?io?oueny iaoai?ci iioeaaoe?? o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?.

Aeeiioth/e aoaeue-yeo ae?th, ethaeeia aeo?a/a? coneeey, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue
aei iaea?aeaiiy iaaiiai ?acoeueoaoo, ui, a naith /a?ao, ia?aaeaa/a?
aeiaai?iaeo. Inoaiiy a?aeiia?aea? aai ia a?aeiia?aea? aaaeaiiyi
ethaeeie (aaeaioi?noue) – ?en.1.

Coneeey?acoeueoaoAeiaai?iaeaAaeaioi?noue

I/?eoaaiiy

?en.1. No?oeoo?a iaoai?cio iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?.

Coneeey, ?acoeueoao, aeiaai?iaea ? aaeaioi?noue iia`ycai? i?ae niaith
i/?eoaaiiyi. I?e oeueiio, /ei a?eueoa ?aaeueia aeiaai?iaea a?aeiia?aea?
i/?eoaaiiio, oei aeua nooi?iue aaeaioiino?.

Iineaaeaiiy aeiaeii? c oeeo eaiie cieaeo? iioeaaoe?th. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e,
eiaeiiio i?aoe?aieeo iaiao?aeii ciaoe, ui eiai coneeey i?ecaaaeooue aei
iie?auaiiy ?acoeueoaoo, iaee?auee ?acoeueoao i?ecaaaea aei i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiaai?iaee, a oea i?aeaeuaiiy a?aeiia?aeaoeia (aaeaioii) eiai
i/?eoaaiiyi.

Iaoa??aeuei? iioeae iaaoaathoue iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iei?, aaeaea
??aaiue ca?ia?oii? ieaoe iecueeee, a /ano?oa aiia acaaae? ia
aeiea/o?oueny. Iinooiiai iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue iieaoe i?aoe? cieaeo?
iioeaaoe?eio ooieoe?th, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy yeino? ?ia?o oa
niaaeo iieaciee?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?. Oae, ca 1997 ?. ia?aoiaaia
na?aaeiy ca?ia?oia ieaoa ia iaeiiai i?aoe?aieea n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa o AEeoiie?nuee?e iaeano? noaiiaeea 76,7 a?i. Ca oaeei
??aiai iieaoe i?aoe?aieee ia iathoue ciiae eiiiainoaaoe aeo?aoe ia
?icoe?aia a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee. I?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? iaaoea
oaiaeaioe?? aei cieaeaiiy- c 1995 ?. ii 1997 ?. ??/iee ?? ??aaiue noaa
iaioei ia 27 a?aenioe?a.

Aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y ia nae? – ia a?aeie?aieaia /anoeia o?oaeiaiai
iioaioe?aeo, a iie?auaiiy ?? oa aeoiaaiiy iaee?aueo o?ce/ieo ? ?icoiiaeo
cae?aiinoae i?aoe?aiee?a ? iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo iioea?a i?aoe?.

Ca iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie iniiaieie i?e/eiaie e?eciaiai aeaiia?ao?/iiai
noaio ?: ?ioaineaia nia?oi?noue ianaeaiiy, ye ?acoeueoao aeieia?/iiai
caa?oaeiaiiy oa?eoi???; cieaeaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy; iia??oaiiy
iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy. Aeii?ioth/ei oaeoi?ii ciaioaiiy ianaeaiiy
aoei i?e?iaeia nei?i/aiiy. Ca 1997 ?./enaeuei?noue iiia?eeo a
AEeoiie?nuee?e iaeano? ia?aaeueea /enaeuei?noue ia?iaeaeaieo iaeaea ia
8,6 oen. /ie., i?e/iio a i?nueeeo ianaeaieo ioieoao ia 0,8 oen., a a
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? — ia 7,8 oen./ie.

A /an nioe?aeueii — aeiiii?/ii? e?ece c?inoa? iaiao?aei?noue iie?auaiiy
ye?nieo ia?aiao??a i?aoe?aiee?a naea. I?ioa a cia/i?e i??? eaae?e aeey
naea aioothoueny aac a?aooaaiiy cae?aiinoae oa oai?/eo iiaeeeainoae
iieiae? aei ia?aii? i?ioan??, aac iaa?oiooaaiiy iioeaaoe?eiiai aeai?o
naia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. A?eueoa iieiaeia
niaoe?ae?no?a, ye? cae?i/eee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? iaa/aeuei?
caeeaaee, i?aoeththoue a ?ioeo noa?ao, a ia a aa?ii?iieneiaiio
eiiieaen?. A inoaii? ?iee cia/ii ciaioeeanue i?aeaioiaea
o?aeoi?eno?a-iaoei?no?a oa aiae??a aaoiiia?e?a a iaa/aeueii-eo?nia?e
ia?aae?. Nooo?a? iaaeie?ee iathoue i?noea o iaoiaeieia?/iiio,
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiio caaacia/aii? iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy yeino? iaa/aiiy.

Ioaea, ia?oi/a?aiai iaiao?aeii iaeaaiaeeoe nenoaio i?aeaioiaee ?
i?aeai?o eaae??a aeey n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, iniaeeai oeo a?oi
i?ioan?e, yeeo iaaeinoaoiuei a o?e /e ?io?e aaeoc?.

Ia?aaeoiiaith aoaeoeaii? iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? ? noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeii?
no?oeoo?e ae?iaieoeoaa ye a nioe?aeuei?e, oae ? o ae?iaie/?e noa?ao.
Iaae?iaie/? iniiai? oiiaee ? aeiiii?/iith iniiaith nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e ? caaeiaieueiythoue nioe?aeuei? iio?aae ethaeeie. Ia
aeaeue, no/ani? oiiae aeeooy oa ??aaiue ianeoaiaoaaiiy n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy ciaoiaeyoueny aeaeaei a?ae no/anieo noaiaea?o?a oiio, ui a
n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? iaaeinoaoith oaaao i?eae?eythoue aoae?aieoeoao
aei??a, aiaei- ? aaciiinoa/aiith, iaaeaiith iiaooiaeo iineoa oiui. A
inoaii?, ye? iaaeathoueny a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, iathoue aenieo
aa?o?noue, ui, a ca`yceo ?c nenoaiaoe/iith iaaeieaoith ca?ia?oii? ieaoe,
ia aeicaiey? a?eueoino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy ei?enooaaoeny ieie.

Iaeiei ?c iiiaio?a, yeee oa?aeoa?eco? iaaeinoaoi?e ?icaeoie nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, ? aeei?enoaiiy eaiaeeaaeaiue. ?c caaaeueiiai ianyao
eaiaeeaaeaiue ii AIE a AEeoiie?nuee?e iaeano?, yeee o 1996 ?. noaiiaea
74934 oen.a?i., ia eaiaeeaaeaiiy iaae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy aeei?enoaii
23043 oen.a?i. O 1997 ?. caaaeueiee ianya eaiaeeaaeaiue ciaioeany ia
7,2%, aeei?enoaiiy eaiaeeaaeaiue iaae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy — ia 8%. A
ia??iae 1995-1997 ??. a?aeaoaaeinue nei?i/aiiy ianya?a aoae?aieoeoaa
aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a ye eieaeoeaieie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie
i?aei?e?inoaaie, oae ? ca aeaniee ?aooiie ianaeaiiy. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith
nei?i/aiiy aoae?aieoeoaa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeoea eieaeoeaieie
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie ? ianai?/ani?noue ?ic?aooie?a
ca n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th, a oaeiae c?inoaiiy ??aiy oe?i
ia aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee, eiino?oeoe??, ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ia
iaeaaeiaiiy, o?ainii?oi? oa aoae?aaeueii-iiioaaei? iineoae.

?icaeoie n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?aoe?, ?? aoaeoeaia iioeaaoe?y caeaaeaoue a?ae caaacia/aiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ae?iaie/eie oiiaeaie. ?icaeoie
ae?iaie/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici??o eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue
ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy.

?c caaaeueiiai ianyao eaiaeeaaeaiue ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy a AIE
iaeano? ca 1996 ?. aeei?enoaii 51891 oen.a?i. oa 48408 oen.a?i. o 1997
?. Niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y iia??oaiiy ye?niiai neeaaeo oaoi?/ieo
cania?a. sse?noue oaoi?ee ia a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei noaiaea?oai ? ia
ni?ey? ?aoe?iiaeuei?e aca?iiae?? ?iai/i? neee ? cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Oaeoi?e i?aeaeuaiiy iioeaaoe?? aa?a?ii? i?aoe?”
iaa?oioiaothoueny iniiai? iai?yie ?icaeoeo aoaeoeaii? iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?
. A ia?oo /a?ao, aeey i?aeaeuaiiy iioeaaoe?? aa?a?ii? i?aoe? iaiao?aeii
aeyaeoe o? iaeai?oaei?ie? oaeoi?e, ye? a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue aeey
noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia ia ae?iaieoeoa?. A n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio
ae?iaieoeoa? aeae?eythoueny aea? a?oie oaeoi??a, i?ae aieeaii yeeo
oi?io?oueny iioeaaoe?eia no?oeoo?a o noa?? i?aoe?:

1) aioo??oi?o, iia’ycaieo ? ii?iaeaeaieo naiith o?oaeiaith
ae?yeuei?noth;

2) ciai?oi?o, ui ciaoiaeyoueny iica iaaeath i?aoe?.

A eiaei?e a?oi? no?oeoo?a iioea?a ci?ith?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oe?iiinoae, ui a o?e /e ?io?e i??? caaeiaieueiythoue i?aoe?aiee?a. Aeey
aeyaeaiiy iaea?eueo aieeaiaeo iioea?a i?iaaaeaii nioe?aeueia ianoaaeaiiy
oeyoii aieaooaaiiy a ENI “Ae?oaeaa” Aa?aee/?anueeiai ?aeiio oa
aa?io??ie “N?iao?e” AEeoiie?nueeiai ?aeiio ii noi ?aniiiaeaio?a a
eiaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?.

?acoeueoaoe aieaooaaiiy iieacaee, ui iaeaieeaia?oei iioeaii a iaio
i?aei?e?inoaao aeyaeeanue “I?ioan?y”. Na?aae i?ia?aeieo iioea?a oaeiae ?
“A?aeiineie ?c ni?a?ia?oieeaie ii ?iaio?”, “Ii/oooy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?”, “Naii?aae?caoe?y o i?aoe?” oa “Iiaeeea?noue
i?aeaeueoe eaae?o?eaoe?th” (oaae 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Aieea aioo??oi?o oaeoi??a ia iioeaaoe?th i?aoe? a

n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao,1997 ?.*

Oaeoi?e Ieoiia aaaa iiceoeaieo a?aeiia?aeae (%)ENI “Ae?oaeaa”

Aa?aee/?anueeiai ?-ioAa?io??ia “N?iao?e”

AEeoiie?nueeiai ?-ioI?ioan?y9331A?aeiineie c oiaa?eoaie ii
?iaio?5924Ii/oooy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?3630Iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeueoe
eaae?o?eaoe?th3121Ona?aeiieaiiy nai?o aeinyaiaiue2415Naii?aae?caoe?y o
i?aoe?2325Neoaeaiaa c?inoaiiy1413Ci?no i?aoe?617*Noia ia?aaeuo? 100%, ai
o a?aeiia?aeyo ?aniiiaeaio?a cacia/aeiny aeaa ? a?eueoa oaeoi??a.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a ia iioeaaoe?th i?aoe? a

n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao,1997 ?.*

Oaeoi?eIeoiia aaaa iiceoeaieo a?aeiia?aeae (%)ENI “Ae?oaeaa”

Aa?aee/?anueeiai ?-ioAa?io??ia “N?iao?e”

AEeoiie?nueeiai ?-ioIieaoa i?aoe?9769I?aai?caoe?y i?aoe?1934Noinoiee c
aaciina?aaei?i ea??aieeii833A?aeiineie c aaei?i?no?aoe??th619Oiiae
i?aoe?3636Ineoieia?/iee ee?iao1027Iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy522Noeeue
ea??aieoeoaa620*Noia ia?aaeuo? 100%, ai o a?aeiia?aeyo ?aniiiaeaio?a
cacia/aeiny aeaa ? a?eueoa oaeoi??a.

Na?aae ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a iioeaaoe?? ?aniiiaeaioe ia?aaaao iaaeaee
“Iieao? i?aoe?”, aea ii-??ciiio. Oae, a ENI “Ae?oaeaa”-97%, a aa?io??i?
“N?iao?e” — 69%, iiaeeeai /a?ac oa, ui inoaii? i?aei?e?inoai ooieoe?iio?
a?ey i?noa AEeoiie?a ? eiai i?aoe?aieee iathoue ?io? aeaea?aea
caaeiaieaiiy iaoa??aeueii? iioeaaoe??. A ???a?o?? iioea?a oaeiae cia/ia
i?noea caeiathoue “Oiiae i?aoe?” oa “I?aai?caoe?y i?aoe?” (oaae.2).

Niiioeaeueiei iioeaii aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe? ? caaeiaieaiiy
iniaenoeo iio?aa ethaeae. ??no ??aiy iieaoe i?aoe? noeioeth? o?oaeiao
aeoeai?noue i?aoe?aiee?a ? ni?ey? iie?ioaiith aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a
ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa. Oiio i?aaii??ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie?
iieaoe i?aoe?. Aea oea aaaaoiieaiiaa i?iaeaia. A ?? ?ica`ycaii? aaaeeeao
?ieue a?ae?a?a? ?aae?caoe?y caoiae?a uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
iniiaii?, aeiaeaoeiai? iieaoe i?aoe? ? i?ai?thaaiiy. Oaeineiiaeaiiy
iiaeiii a?oiooaaoeny ia i?ia?aei?e ?ie? ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a a oni?oo
ainiiaea?noaa oa iie?auaiiyi a?aeaea/? on?o aeae?a ?ano?n?a. I?inoaaeeoe
aca?iica`ycie i?ae aeeaaeii i?aoe?aieea a aeioiae ainiiaea?noaa, eiai
ioe?ieith ? aeiaai?iaeith aeineoue aaaeei. A oeueiio ca`yceo iaie
cai?iiiiiaaii oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie aeiaai?iaee a eiioaeno? no/anieo
i?aeoiae?a aei iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?, ui noino?oueny nenoaie i?ai?thaaiiy,
iaaeaaaie, ioe?iee i?aoe?aiee?a ca aianeii a e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao.
I?eioeeiiaeie a?aei?iiinoyie oaeeo i?iiiceoe?e ?:

-iinoaiiaea ieai?a oa caaaeaiue eiaeiiio i?ae?icae?eo ainiiaea?noaa oa
ie?aiiio i?aoe?aieeo;

-ia??iaee/ia ca?oi?noue i?ae?icae?e?a oa i?aoe?aiee?a uiaei aeeiiaieo
caaaeaiue ? a?aeiia?aeia aeieaoa i?ai?? ca a?aoiaaieie aeinyaiaiiyie;

-anoaiiaeaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai ?ici??o i?ai?aeueiiai oiiaeo a
ainiiaea?noa? ia aac? ?ic?aooieiaiai a?aenioeo a?ae /enoiai i?eaooeo;

— anoaiiaeaiiy o/ano? i?ae?icae?e?a a aeioiaeao ainiiaea?noaa;

-ci?ia ??aiy iieaoe i?aoe? ? ea?`??e i?aoe?aiee?a a?aeiia?aeii aei ?o
?acoeueoaoeaiino?.

Aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaii? nenoaie iaiao?aeii c?a?aoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
?eieiaee ??aaiue iieaoe i?aoe?, ocaaaeueieoe a?aeaoee ? i?iiiceoe??
ea??aiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a, ?ic?iaeoe iieacieee ?acoeueoaoeaiino?
i?ae?icae?e?a, ai?iaoaaoe “ea?oe ?acoeueoaoeaiino?” a i?ae?icae?eao aeey
ioe?iee ?iaioe i?ae?icae?e?a ? eiaeiiai i?aoe?aieea.

Ea?oa ?acoeueoaoeaiino? — ?ino?oiaio oi?aae?iiy ? i???ioaoe?? ?iaioe
i?ae?icae?e?a ainiiaea?noaa ia e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao (a iiaeaeueoiio E?).
E? i?ae?icae?e?a ? E? eiaeiiai ie?aiiai i?aoe?aieea i?aaenoaaeythoue
niaith ieaie-caaaeaiiy ni?anoaaeai? c oe?eyie ainiiaea?noaa a /an? oa
eiai ?ano?niei caaacia/aiiyi. Ia??iae, yeee ioiieth? E?, iiaeiai aooe
aeineoue o?eaaeei aeey iiaeeeaino? i?iaeooaaiiy caaaeaiiy, aeeiiaiiy ?o
oa ioe?iee ca e?ioeaaei ?acoeueoaoii a iaaeao no?ieo. Aeey n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa — oea eaeaiaea?iee ??e. Aeai? E? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
ni?anoaaeoe a?aeiia?aei?noue ?acoeueoaoo caieaiiaaiei caaaeaiiyi oa
eiie?aoii ?ic?aooaaoe i?ai?aeueiee oiiae ie?aii ii i?ae?icae?eao oa a
oe?eiio ii ainiiaea?noao. Oai?aoe/iee i?eeeaae ?ic?aooieo ioe?iee
?acoeueoaoeaiino? ?iaioe ainiiaea?noaa oa i?ae?icae?e?a iaaaaeaii o
oaaeeoe? 3.

I? = (20% o 75% + 20% o 75%+ 30% o 86% + 30% o 80%) = (15 + 15 + 25,8 +
24) = 79,8%

I?ai?aeueiee oiiae ainiiaea?noaa aecia/a?oueny a i?ioeaioiiio
ni?aa?aeiioaii? aei /enoiai i?eaooeo ca ??e. O aeiaaeeo aeieeiaiiy
caeoeiaino? i?aoe?aieee ainiiaea?noaa iicaaaeythoueny i?ai?e.

Oaaeeoey 3

Ea?oa ?acoeueoaoeaiino? ainiiaea?noaa

I?ae?icae?eCia/e-i?noueCaieaiiaai? caaaeaiiyOeyoe aeinyaiaiiyAeinyaiooee
?acoeueoaoIoe?iea ?acoeueoaooAooaaeoa?nueei-ieaiiaee oa eaae?iaee
i?ae?icae?e

20%Aeoeaia ia?eaoeiaiaa iie?oeea, caoaa?aeaeaiiy i?ia?aie i?aeaioiaee ?
?icaeoeo eaae??aIaaeiiouaiiy ieeiiino? eaae??a a?eueoa 10%. Aeinyaiaiiy
i?eaooeo ca ?aooiie

ia?eaoeiao ia iaioa 10%Ieeii?noue eaae??a noaiiaeoue 8% (100%)

I?eaooie ca ?aooiie ia?eaoeiao noaiiaeoue 5% (50%)

(100+50)/2=75%Ianeoaiaoth/ee i?ae?icae?e

20%Iaaeyae oa ?aiiio oaoi?ee, ?icaeoie iiaeo oaoiieia?e, ui ni?ey?
e?au?e i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? i?eaooeiaino?Canoinoaaiiy iiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a ?
iaeaaeiaiiy.

Iaeiaa /anoeia o i?eaooeo ia iaioa 20%Iaeiaa /anoeia o i?eaooeo
noaiiaeoue 15% (75%)

75%

?ineeiieoeueeee i?ae?icae?e

30%I?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa a?iaeaeiino?.

Aeinyaiaiiy i?eaooeo

255480 a?i.Canoinoaaiiy iaee?aueo ni?o?a, oaoiieia?e oa n?aici?iI?eaooie

220120 a?i.

86%

Oaa?eiieoeueeee i?ae?icae?e

30%I?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaa?ei.

Caieaiiaaiee i?eaooie

200000 a?i.Canoinoaaiiy iaee?aueo ii??ae oa oaoiieia?e aeiaeyaeo ?
aiaeoaaiiyI?eaooie

160000 a?i.

80%

Ca iaoeie ?ic?aooieaie, aeey ainiiaea?noaa aecia/aii iaeneiaeueiee
i?ai?aeueiee oiiae o noi?, aea?aaeaioi?e 20% /enoiai i?eaooeo. *enoee
i?eaooie ca ??e noaiiaea 380120 a?i. I?ai?aeueiee oiiae noaiiaeoue 20% o
380120 a?i. = 76024 a?i. Ioe?iea ?acoeueoaoeaiino? ?iaioe ainiiaea?noaa
ca ??e – 79,8%. I?ai?aeueiee oiiae ainiiaea?noaa aei ?iciiae?eo
noaiiaeoue 76024 o 79,8% = 60667 a?i.

I?ai?aeueiee oiiae aooaaeoa?nueei – ieaiiaiai oa eaae?iaiai
i?ae?icae?eo noaiiaeoue 76024 o 0,2 o 0,75 = 11403,60 a?i.

I?ai?aeueiee oiiae ianeoaiaoth/iai i?ae?icae?eo 76024 o 0,2 o 0,75 =
11403,60 a?i.

I?ai?aeueiee oiiae ?ineeiieoeueeiai i?ae?icae?eo 76024 o 0,3 o
0,86 = 19614,19 a?i.

I?ai?aeueiee oiiae oaa?eiieoeueeiai i?ae?icae?eo 76024 o 0,3 o 0,8 =
18245,76 a?i.

Aeiiii?/i? oni?oe aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie caeaaeaoue, ianaiia?aae, a?ae
aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?? iniiaieo aaeocae ? i?aei?e?inoa, ui
aoiaeyoue aei ieo. I?aei?e?inoaa iiaeii? caaacia/oaaoe aenieee ??aaiue
ae?iaieoeoaa, aa?aiooaaoe ii?iaeuei? oiiae i?aoe?. Aeey oeueiai
iaiao?aeii, ia?o ca ana, caoe?eaaeoe eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai i?aoe?aieea a
?acoeueoaoeai?e, i?iaeoeoeai?e i?aoe?.

Aea/ath/e no/ani? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee oa oai??? iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?,
ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui eiee iaoe?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea ia?aaoaa? ia
aeai?an?eiiio a?ae??ceo aai iio?aiey? a “aeiaao oaeeth” e?ec ? /eiieee
iaoa??aeueii? iioeaaoe?? c oeeo aea i?e/ei oiaiiaeeeaeththoueny,
i??i?eoaoe caeiaoaathoue oai???, iienai? eiioeaioe??th “ethaenueeeo
a?aeiinei” ? oae caaiith oeieith “a?oaa?i?ecio”.

Iaea?eueo yne?aaei i?aaenoaaieeii oe??? oeiee a oaia??oi?e /an ?
eao?aao Iiaae?anueei? i?ai?? i?ioani? Aa?aa?o Naeiii (NOA). Ca?aeii eiai
eiioeaioe?? “aeiiii?/iiai a?oaa?i?ecio” iioeaaoe?y ?icaeyaea?oueny c
oi/ee ci?o a?oiiai? eiiia?aoeaii? iiaaae?iee, ? ??oaiiy a i?aai?caoe??
i?eeiathoueny eieaeoeaii ?? /eaiaie.

Ai?iaaoe?th iieiaeaiiy iiai? oai??? a?oaa?i?ecio cae?eniaii ia ia`?eoao
aa?io??ie “N?iao?e”, aeoiaey/e ?c aeiyoeiai? aeooaeueiino? oe??? oai???
aei oiia nueiaiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee ?, iniaeeai, ?? aa?a?iiai
naeoi?a. Aaeaea o?aaeeoe?ei? i?ia?aei? /eiieee iaoa??aeueii? iioeaaoe??
i?aoe? ?, cie?aia, aa?a?ii?, c?oeiiaai? auaio: ethaee ?ieaie ia
io?eiothoue ieaoi?, aiaeii/an ia i?inoi a?aea?aeothoue ?iaioo, a iaa?oue
i?aoeththoue ia iaiao?aeiiio oaoiieia?/iiio ??ai?.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanii? oeaee oe?iiinoae eiaeiiai /eaia eieaeoeao c
iaoith iiaoaeiae a?oaa?i?enonueei? iiaeae? iioeaaoe?? a aa?io??i?
aeei?enoai? aeai? ?acoeueoao?a ianiaiai nioe?ieia?/iiai oanooaaiiy, a
oaeiae i?iaaaeaii aeiaeaoeiaa aieaooaaiiy ca niaoe?aeueieie oanoaie oa
ie?ai? ?ioa?a`th c ea??aieie i?aoe?aieeaie, ye? iathoue aaeeeee
i?aeoe/iee noaae ?iaioe.

Aecia/aiiy oeaee oe?iiinoae i?iaiaeeeinue ia 3-o ??aiyo(?en. 2.):

1-e – ea??aiee ainiiaea?noaa; 2-e – aieiai? oa aaeocaa? niaoe?ae?noe,
ea??aieee na?aaeiuei? oa ieciai? eaiee; 3-e – aaciina?aaei? aeeiiaaoe? –
i?aoe?aieee iiei/ii-oiaa?ii? oa?ie.

Iieaciai oa, ui ea??aiee oeueiai aaaaoiaaeocaaiai, aeiiii?/ii e?auiai o
AEeoiie?nuee?e iaeano? i?aei?e?inoaa Aeiaaeo A?oae?e Aaneeueiae/, iath/e
noaae ea??aii? ?iaioe iiiaae 16 ?ie?a ? a?aeiia?aeath/e ia oanoe iaoi?
aieaoe, aeciaa, ui ?aaeueii aoaeoeaia oi?aae?iiy ia ??ai?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?aei?e?inoaa a no/ani?e neooaoe?? iiaea
cae?enithaaoenue eeoa eieaa?aeueii, /a?ac eieaeoea, a oi?aae?inuee?
??oaiiy iiaeii? i?eeiaoeny, aaeaiooth/enue c aeoieith, i?iiiceoe?yie oa
aaaeaiiyi i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo, oiaoi aaciina?aaei?o aeeiiaaoe?a.

A ia??iae e?ece a no?aoaa?? iaiaaeaeiaioo aeii?io? neooaoe?eia
oi?aae?iiy. A naith /a?ao, neooaoe?ei? ??oaiiy aeiaaathoue aaeeeeo
aeo?ao ?ioaeaeooaeueii? oa o?ce/ii? aia?a??. A iiaaae?ioe? ea??aieea
a?ae/oaa?oueny ia?aaoiia, ye iane?aeie iino?eiiai ia?aaaioaaeaiiy, ui
iiaea i?ecaanoe aei ao?aoe e?aea?noaa ? aaia?aoe?? ?aeae, a a?aeoae ?
aeaniiai ?i?aeaeo ?, aieiaia, i?ae??aaoe eiai caei?ia`y.

Ioaea, ca oeaeith oe?iiinoae ii?iae?caoe?y oi?aae?inueeiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aeey ea??aieea aa?io??ie ia? iaeaeuee ??aaiue. A
?aae?caoe?y no?aoaa?? iioeaaoe?? iieyaa?, a ia?oo /a?ao, a aeaeaaoaaii?
/anoeie iiaiiaaaeaiue aei eieaeoeaieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy.

?oa?aoe?y

oi?aae?inueeeo

??ai?aIioeaaoe?ei?

/eiieeeOeaea

oe?iiinoae?aae?caoe?y no?aoaa??

iioeaaoe??Aa?oi?eEa??aiee

aa?io??ieIi?iae?caoe?y

oi?aae?inueeiai

iaaaioaaeaiiy ?

a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?

1,0Aeaeaaoaaiiy

iiaiiaaaeaiue aei

eieaeoeaieo

i?aai?a oi?aae?iiyNa?aaei?eOi?aae?inueeee

ia?niiae,

niaoe?ae?noe,

ea??aieee

i?ae?icae?e?aIiaeeea?noue aeaeeoe

a e?eoe/i?e neooaoe??

Noi?nia i?aoey ?

aca?iiaeiiiiiaa

Iieaoa i?aoe?

0,45

0,30

0,25

Oi?ioaaiiy

i?aai?a

naiioi?aae?iiy,

ni?ai?aoey c

iaoi?iaeueieie

e?aea?aie ?

a?oiaie,

oaeineiiaeaiiy

nenoaie iieaoe i?aoe?IeciaeeEieaeoea

iniiaieo ?

ianeoaiaoth/eo

i?aoe?aiee?a

iiei/ii-oiaa?ii? oa?ieIie?auaiiy

i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? ?

oi?aae?iiy

Iie?ioaiiy

iaoa??aeueiiai

noaiiaeua

Aooe a eieaeoea?

Ca?iaeoe iain?th

0,55

0.32

0.10

0.03Aeoea?caoe?y ?iaioe

?aaee eieaeoeao,

eieaa?aeuei?noue

a ?ic?iaoe?

oi?aae?inueeeo

??oaiue,

oaeineiiaeaiiy

nenoaie iieaoe

i?aoe?

?en.2.A?oaa?i?enonueea iiaeaeue a?oiiai? iioeaaoe?? a aa?io??i?
“N?iao?e”

Aea/ath/e aeoieo niaoe?ae?no?a oa ea??aiee?a i?ae?icae?e?a aa?io??ie
uiaei iioea?a i?aoe? (ii noo? ni?aae – iaiiea/oaaii? i?aoe?), iiiaae 90
a?aenioe?a cayaeee i?i aaaeaiiy i?aoethaaoe eieaeoeaii ? aeciaee, ui
iaee?au? ??oaiiy – eieaeoeai?. A ia caieoaiiy, “sse? iioeae Aaoi? ?iaioe
a eieaeoea??” ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue a?aeiia?ea: noi?nia i?aoey,
aca?iiaeiiiiiaa, iaiao?aei?noue ni?eeoaaiiy, iiaeeea?noue aeaeeoe a
e?eoe/i?e neooaoe??, cae/ea aei eieaeoeaii? i?aoe? ? aei eieaa ii
?iaio?. A e?aua oi?ia i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? – a?eaaaeia. A no?aoaa??
?aae?caoe?? iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? niaoe?ae?noe ? ea??aieee i?ae?icae?e?a
aeciaee: iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?a naiioi?aae?iiy, ni?ai?aoey c
iaoi?iaeueieie e?aea?aie ? a?oiaie a i?aeaioiaoe? iaea?eueo
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue, oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie iieaoe
i?aoe?.

A iecia?e oi?aae?inuee?e ?oa?aoe??, yeith ie ia?aee eieaeoea
iiei/ii-oiaa?ii? oa?ie n.N?iao?e, ia caieoaiiy “Aaoa aeoiea i?i noeeue ?
oi?io ea??aieoeoaa eieaeoeaii?” iaeaea iaeiinoaeii cayaeee –
“eieaa?aeueii”, “/a?ac ?aaeo eieaeoeao”. Na?aae a?aeiia?aeae ia
caieoaiiy “Ui Aai caaaaea? a ?iaio??” iaea?eueoa ?aniiiaeaio?a cacia/aee
“iecueea ca?ieaoa”. Aiaeii/an, o a?aeiia?aeyo ia ieoaiiy “Aaoa aeoiea,
ye iie?aueoe ?iaioo Aaoiai eieaeoeao?” aeineoue aenieo ieoiio aaao
(aeecueei 30%) – caeiathoue a?aeiia?ae? “iie?aueoe caoo”, “?aae?caoe?th
i?iaeoeoe??”. C a?aeiieo i?e/ei iiaeeeaino? i?aeiyoe ??aaiue iieaoe
i?aoe? ia oa?i? aeoaea iaiaaeai?. Caeeoa?oueny eeoa aeueoa?iaoeaa
iie?auaiiy noaiiaeua c aeiiiiiaith ?ioeo /eiiee?a iioeaaoe??, na?aae
ieo, ye “i?aeeacaee” ?aniiiaeaioe – “iie?aueoe i?aai?caoe?th i?aoe?”,
“iie?aueoe oi?aae?iiy eieaeoeaii”, ai ye cacia/aii a aieaoao,
“iaoaeoiaia noaaeaiiy ia/aeuenoaa” aeineoue /anoi cono??/a?oueny.

?ioeie neiaaie, canoinoaaiiy /eiiee?a aioo??oiuei? iioeaaoe?? ?,
cie?aia, oeo, ui noinothoueny oi?aae?iiy eiiia?aoeaiith iiaaae?ieith,
aeey caeiaoooy i?aai?caoe?eii? ??aiiaaae, oe?eeii ?aaeuei?.

A noai? iiaeae? a?oiiai? iioeaaoe?? ? cania?a ?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa??
aeae?ey?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aeaiie?aoecaoe?? oi?aae?iiy oeyoii
aeoea?caoe?? ?iaioe ?aaee o?oaeiaiai eieaeoeao, eieaa?aeueiino?
i?aeaioiaee, i?eeiyooy ? aeeiiaiiy ??oaiiy.

Aeniiaee

1.Ocaaaeueithth/e oai??th ? i?aeoeeo oa na?oiaee aeina?ae iioeaaoe??
aa?a?ii? i?aoe?, a oaeiae noiniaii neooaoe??, a ye?e ia?aaoaa? aeiiii?ea
Oe?a?ie, a ia??iae aoiaeaeaiiy a ?eieia? a?aeiineie, iniiaiei
i?aea?oiooyi aai aacith noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii? iioeaaoe?? a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? ? canoinoaaiiy eiioeaioe??
ia?eoaoo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? iie?oeee, ca?aeii c yeith eiaeiee ??e
iaaiee ianya ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? iiaeiai
aeicaieeoe ae?iaieeia? io?eiaoe aea?aaeaioio e?euee?noue oiaa??a oa
iineoa. Oea oaeiae aa?aioiaai? oe?ie, i?yi? aeieaoe, ?iii?oi? eaioe,
oe?eueia? aea?aeaai? noaneae?? oa caeie, ye? aeicaieythoue ae?iaieeai,
ui ia?aaoaathoue o e?eciaiio noai?, i?iaeiaaeoaaoe i?aoethaaoe ia nai?e
caie? (aeina?ae NOA).

2.A ?noi?eei-aaiethoe?eiiio ?icaeoeo iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? a eieeoiueiio ?
oaia??oiueiio oa?eoi??aeueiiio ?aa?ii? Oe?a?ie /?oei aecia/a?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y aca?iicaeaaeiino? caaeiaieaiiy iioea?a i?aoe? naeyi ?
aeiiii?/iiai noaio e?a?ie. Oeae eia?/ii no?eeee ca`ycie aeyaeaii ua c
/an?a naeyinueei? ?aoi?ie (1861 ?.), a ia??iae noieei?inueei? aa?a?ii?
iie?oeee, ?iee IAIo oa, iniaeeai, a ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae.

A no/aniee ia??iae ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee ia ?eieiaeo canaaeao
noi?ioaaeeny iiaeyaee ?icaeyaeo iioeaaoe?? aa?a?ii? i?aoe? ye
i?ia?aeiiai aeaiaioo iaoai?cio ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee oa o aca?iiae?? c
o?oaeiaei iioaioe?aeii, i?ioan?eii — eaae?o?eaoe?eiei noaiii,
nioe?aeueiith ? ae?iaie/ith ?io?ano?oeoo?ith.

3.A oiiaao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece /e aeai?an?? aeiiii?ee eeane/ia
noaia iaoai?cio iaoa??aeueieo /eiiee?a o?oaeiai? iioeaaoe??: Coneeey –
?acoeueoao — Aeiaai?iaea – Aaeaioi?noue, ui ie?aneaia oai???th
i/?eoaaiiy Ii?oa?a-Eioea?a, ae?? iaiaaeaii. sse iieacaee
aeiiii?ei-noaoenoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ia`?eoao eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa E?ninoaiiai? ciie AEeoiie?nueei?
iaeano?, iecueeee ??aaiue iieaoe i?aoe? cieaeo? iioeaaoe?eio ooieoe?th,
ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy yeino? ?ia?o oa cieaeaiiy ??aiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, ci?ie no?oeoo?e iaoa??aeueii? iioeaaoe??, a ye?e
ca?ia?oia ieaoa ao?a/a? iaeii?iaiia cia/aiiy, ine?eueee aeieeathoue oae?
aeaee iaoa??aeueiiai noeioeo, ye o?oaeia? oa nioe?aeuei? (iain??,
noaneae?? oa ?io?). Aeii?ioth/a iei? oi?ia iaoo?aeueii? iieaoe ia ?
aoaeoeaiei /eiieeii iioeaaoe??, oiio ui ia ni?ey? i?ia?ano ae?iaieoeoaa
ia iniia? oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo, a cia/eoue, ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

4.Cia/iee niaae ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??,
ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy, iia??oaiiy eiai a?eiai?
no?oeoo?e, iaaeieaoa ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, cieaeaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy,
c?inoaiiy nia?oiino?, iniaeeai ae?oae, ciaioaiiy ia?iaeaeoaaiino? –
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?oeiaoe?? o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo ? cieuaiiy aieiaieo
/eiiee?a iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? a eieaeoeaiiio naeoi??.

5.A iei?oi?e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa iaoai?ci ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee
aeioe?eueii aoaeoaaoe ia oaeeo aeieao: iioeaaoe?y i?aoe?,
aeaiia?ao?/ii-o?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae, i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiee noai,
nioe?aeueia oa ae?iaie/a ?io?ano?oeoo?a. Iioeaaoe?y i?aoe?, ye
i?ia?aeiee aeie oeueiai iaoai?cio, a?oioo?oueny ia iniia? i?aaenoaaeaiiy
?iai/i? neee, ye iaa?aeoai?iiai ?ano?no, aea eiaeai i?aoe?aiee
ni?eeia?oueny ye iniaeno?noue. A c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?
iia`ycaii, a ia?oo /a?ao, c iniaenoeie yeinoyie ? iioeaaoe??th eiaeiiai
i?aoe?aieea.

6.A?aoiaoth/e eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa? i?aeaeuaiiy iioeaaoe?? aa?a?ii?
i?aoe?, aeinyaiaiiy iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy aoaeoeaiino? iiaeeeai ia iniia?
aioo??oi?o, iia`ycaieo ? ii?iaeaeaieo naiith o?oaeiaith ae?yeuei?noth,
oa ciai?oi?o, ui ciaoiaeyoueny iica iaaeath i?aoe?, oaeoi??a, cie?aia:
ci?no ?iaioe, ona?aeiieaiiy nai?o aeinyaiaiue, i?aaiaiiy aei i?inoaaiiy
ii neoaea?, ii/oooy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa naii?aae?caoe?? o i?aoe?,
iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy, noeeue ea??aieoeoaa, oiiae i?aoe?, ineoieia?/iee
ee?iao, aeiaai?iaee, noni?eueiee oa i?ioan?eiee noaoon.

7.?c oaeoi??a aioo??oiuei? iioeaaoe?? iaeaieeaia?oeie iioeaaie ?: ia?aia
i?ioan?y, a?aeiineie c oiaa?eoaie ii ?iaio?, ii/oooy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, naii?aae?caoe?y o i?aoe?. A no/anieo aa?io??iao
ia?aaaaa iaaea?oueny a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, naii?aae?caoe?? o i?aoe?. O
oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noaao a?eueo?noue a?aeaea? ia?aaaao ci?noo i?aoe?,
i?ioan?? oa naii?aae?caoe?? o i?aoe?.

Na?aae ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a iioeaaoe?? iaea?eueo aaaiieie ? iieaoa
i?aoe?, oiiae ? i?aai?caoe?y i?aoe?, ineoieia?/iee ee?iao, a o
oa?ia?nueeeo ainiiaea?noaao — iayai?noue i?eaooeo.

8.Ine?eueee c on??? i?aoeacaeaoii? /anoeie ianaeaiiy o?eueee iaaaeeea
/anoeia aa?a o/anoue o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?, yea oaae
ia? aeeiai?eo aei cieaeaiiy, niiae?aaoeny ia iie?ioaiiy caaacia/aiino?
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ?iai/ith neeith iaeaeeae/ei /anii i?aenoaa
iaia?. Iie?auaiiy aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe?? oeyoii noaa?e?caoe??
aaniethoii? e?eueeino? ianaeaiiy iiaeeeai, ?icoe?thth/e noa?o
caeiyoino?, iniaeeai iieiae?, ca ?aooiie noai?aiiy ?iai/eo i?noeue a
nioe?aeuei?e ?io?ano?oeoo?? naea, ?icoe?aii? aa?io??iiaiai eiiia?oaaiiy,
?icaeoeo ?ioeo i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo? oa ?icaeoeo iaeiai a?ciano ia
nae?.

9. Oaeineiiaeaiiy iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? aeioe?eueii a?oiooaaoe ia i?ia?aei?e
?ie? ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a a oni?oiiio ainiiaea?thaaii? oa iie?auaii?
a?aeaea/? an?o aeae?a ?ano?n?a c i???ioaoe??th ia e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao,
yeee iiaea aooe ae?aaeaiee ? o iaoo?aeuei?e, ? o aa?o?ni?e oi?i?. Aeey
ia`?eoeaiiai ?iciiae?eo e?ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo i?aoe? cai?iiiiiaaii
aaanoe ea?oo ?acoeueoaoeaiino?, yea yaey? niaith a?cian-ieai, oiaoi
caaaeaiiy aeey eiaeiiai i?ae?icae?eo, ni?anoaaeai? c oe?eyie
ainiiaea?noaa a /an? c eiai ?ano?niei caaacia/aiiyi. Oea aea? ciiao aeey
ea??aiee?a ainiiaea?noa iieaaoeoe iaoai?ci iioeaaoe?? i?aeii?yaeeiaaieo,
aeinyaoe e?auiai ?icoi?iiy oe?eae ae?yeueiino?, anoaiiaeoe a?eueo
aoaeoeaia aca?ii?icoi?iiy i?ae ea??aieeaie ? ea?iaaieie, ni?yioaaoe
i?aoe?aieea ia ?acoeueoao, iaiao?aeiee ainiiaea?noao; iie?aueoe ye?noue
?iaioe i?aoe?aiee?a.

10.A ia??iae o?eaaei? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, eiee /eiieee
iaoa??aeueii? iioeaaoe?? i?aoe? oiaiiaeeeaeththoueny, ai ye oae?
a?aenooi?, a oeae? iioeaaoe?eieo oe?iiinoae ia?aaaao caeiaoaathoue
/eiieee oi?aae?iiy eiiia?aoeaiith iiaaae?ieith ethaeae, ui iienai?
no/aniith oai???th a?oaa?i?ecio. Canoinoaaiiy ?o ni?eyoeia: i?aeaeuaiith
nooiaiy aaeaioiaaiino? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue aei ae?iaie/i? neooaoe??
ia ??ai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?aei?e?inoaa ? eiai i?ae?icae?e?a;
a caeiaooo? oa ?aaoethaaii? aeinoaoiuei no?eei? i?aai?caoe?eii?
??aiiaaae, iaiao?aeii? aeey noaa?e?caoe?? ?iaioe eieaeoea?a a e?eciaeo
oiiaao; a aaia?ae?caoe?? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue oa cae?eniaii?
i?ia?aeii? ooieoe?? iaiaaeaeiaioo – oi?aae?iiy ethaeueie, a?oiooth/enue
ia aaaeaii?, caaeiaieaii? iio?aa oa iioea?a i?aoethth/eo.

Nienie ioae?eaoe?e ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??.

1.-Eo/a?oe ?.A. Oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio iioeaaoe?? aa?a?ii? i?aoe?//
Aeiiii?ea AIE. — 1997.-?6-N.91-94 (0,33 ae?.a?e).

2.-Eo/a?oe ?.A. I?ioan?eii — eaae?o?eaoe?eiee ??aaiue
n?euenueei-ainiiaea?nueeeo eaae??a AEeoiie?ueie// Aeiiii?ea AIE. —
1997.-?10-N.69-73 (0,35 ae?.a?e).

3.-Eo/a?oe ?.A. Aeaiia?ao?/ii-o?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae ia nae?
AEeoiie?ueie// Aa?i?ieii. 1998.-?1-2.-N.32-34 (0,14 ae?.a?e).

4.-Aoaooeueeee I.A., Eo/a?oe ?.A. *eiieee iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?// Oe?a?ia:
ai?aoe?. 1998.-?6.-N.3-7., ( caaaeueiee ianya 0,6 ae?.a?e., a o./.
aaoi?a 0,3 ae?.a?e.)

5.-Eo/a?oe ?.A. Iioeaaoe?y i?aoe? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?.// Oace
aeiiia?aeae i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. O?oaeiaee iioaioe?ae
Oe?a?ie ? eiai ?aae?caoe?y a oiiaao ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee.
Euea?a, 1997. N. 185-188 ( iioeae i?aoe? oa ?o cia/aiiy a oiiaao e?ece).
(0,20 ae?.a?e).

Eo/a?oe ?.A. Iioeaaoe?y aa?a?ii? i?aoe?.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.09.01.- aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea i?aoe? ,
nioe?aeueia aeiiii?ea ? iie?oeea.- ?inoeooo aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI,
Ee?a, 1999.

Aeeeaaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie iioeaaoe??
aa?a?ii? i?aoe? a oiiaao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece. Iaa?oioiaaii
iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy iioeaaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio i?aoe? o
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? oa ?ic?iaeai? ia?niaeoeai? iai?yie iioeaaoe??
i?aoe? a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao, ui a?oioothoueny ia
i?eioeeiao no/anii? oai??? a?oaa?i?ecio. I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ni?eythoue
aoaeoeaiiio aeei?enoaiith ??cieo /eiiee?a iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?,
aeinyaiaiith aoaeoeaiiai ??aiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, i???ioaoe??
ea??aieo ? ainiiaea?nueeeo i?aai?a a iai?yi? oaeineiiaeaiiy
iioeaaoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a oi?aae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaii a oiiaao
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iioeaaoe?y, iaoa??aeueia noeioethaaiiy, iieaoa i?aoe?,
aeiaai?iaea, oiiae i?aoe?.

Eo/a?oe E.A. Iioeaaoeey aa?a?iiai o?oaea.

Aeenna?oaoeeae anoue ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.09.01 – aeaiia?aoey,yeiiiieea o?oaea, nioeeaeueiay
yeiiiieea e iieeoeea. Einoeooo aa?a?iie yeiiiieee OAAI, Eeaa, 1999.

Eceiaeaiu iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey i?iaeaiu iioeaaoeee
aa?a?iiai o?oaea a oneiaeyo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena.
Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue oniaa?oainoaiaaiey iioeaaoeeiiiiai iaoaiecia
o?oaea a naeueneii oicyenoaa e ?ac?aaioaiu ia?niaeoeaiua iai?aaeaiey
iioeaaoeee o?oaea a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo, eioi?ua
aace?othony ia i?eioeeiao nia?aiaiiie oai?ee aeoaaei?ecia. I?aeoe/aneay
oeaiiinoue enneaaeiaaiey ninoieo a oii, /oi ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou
aeaaii?eyonoaotho yooaeoeaiiio eniieueciaaieth ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia
iioeaaoeee o?oaea, aeinoeaeaieth yooaeoeaiiai o?iaiy i?iaeoeoeaiinoe
o?oaea, i?eaioaoeee ?oeiaiaeyueo e oicyenoaaiiuo i?aaiia a iai?aaeaiee
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey iioeaaoeeiiiuo iaoaieciia oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaii a
oneiaeyo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena.

A ?aaioa aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia aeeyiee ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia ia
iioeaaoeeth o?oaea. Eo iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia o?e a?oiiu: oaeoi?u
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, e eioi?ui ioiinyony
aeaiia?aoe/ii-o?oaeiaie iioaioeeae, i?ioanneiiaeueii-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiia
iaania/aiea, nioeeaeueiay e i?iecaiaenoaaiiay eio?ano?oeoo?a;
aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea oaeoi?u; oaeoi?u a?oiiiaie iioeaaoeee. Ec oaeoi?ia
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a a ianoiyuee iiiaio ie iaeei ia
niioaaonoaoao aeieaeiiio o?iaith. Oae, aeaiia?aoe/ii-o?oaeiaie
iioaioeeae naea iaoiaeeony a e?eceniii ninoiyiee, a eiaiii ii oaeei
i?e/eiai: iiauoaiiay nia?oiinoue ianaeaiey, nieaeaiea aeeciaiiiai
o?iaiy, oooaeoaiea iaaeeoeeineiai ianeoaeeaaiey, oaaee/aiea eiee/anoaa
?acaiaeia, iaaeaiea o?iaiy ?iaeaeaaiinoe. A
i?ioanneiiaeueii-eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiii iaania/aiee eaae?aie iaaethaeaaony
oaiaeaioeey e nieaeaieth. Aieueoa iieiaeiu niaoeeaeenoia, eioi?ua
ieii/eee naeueneioicyenoaaiiua o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, ?aaioatho a ae?oaeo
noa?ao, a ia a aa?ii?iiuoeaiiii eiiieaena. Nouanoaaiiua iaaeinoaoee
eiatho ianoi a iaoiaeieiae/aneii, iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneii iaania/aiee
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, /oi i?eaiaeeo e oooaeoaieth ea/anoaa iao/aiey e
oiaiueoaao /eneaiiinoue ?aaioieeia, caeioa?aniaaiiuo ?aaioaoue a
naeueneii oicyenoaa. Nouanoaothuee yeiiiie/aneee iaoaieci oicyenoaiaaiey
ia iaania/eaaao yooaeoeaiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nioeeaeueiie e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u. Aaaaeaiea oic?an/aoiuo ioiioaiee ia
naea ia iaania/eei aeinoaoi/iuo aeaiaaeiuo ?ano?nia aeey eo
naiioeiaine?iaaiey. Auaeaeaiu e aeoaiei eco/aiu oaeoi?u aioo?aiiae
iioeaaoeee, eioi?ua naycaiu n o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aaioieeia, a oaeaea oaeoi?u aiaoiae iioeaaoeee,
eioi?ua iaoiaeyony iiae aeeyieai oneiaee, iacaaenyueo io o?oaeiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Nouiinoue iao/iie iiaeciu ?acoeueoaoia caeeth/aaony a
neaaeothuai: iainiiaaiu oai?aoe/aneea iniiau iioeaaoeeiiiiai iaoaiecia
o?oaea a naeueneii oicyenoaa a nayce n e?eceniie neooaoeeae; aeaia
ioeaiea ninoiyieth eniieueciaaiey oaeoi?ia iioeaaoeee o?oaea a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo AEeoiie?neie iaeanoe, auyaeaiu
ia?niaeoeaiua iioeau, eioi?ua a aieueoae noaiaie ioaa/atho ?uii/iui
oneiaeyi; iieacaiu iaoiaeieiae/aneea iiaeoiaeu e oi?ie?iaaieth e
ooieoeeiie?iaaieth iioeaia o?oaea; ?ac?aaioaiu ia?niaeoeaiua
iai?aaeaiey iioeaaoeee o?oaea a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo,
eioi?ua iniiauaathony ia i?eioeeiao nia?aiaiiie oai?ee aeoaaei?ecia.
Iioeaaoeey o?oaea a naeueneii oicyenoaa ineaaeaia. Iaoa?eaeueiua
iioeau eiatho i/aiue aieueoia cia/aiea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy, oioy o?iaaiue
ca?aaioiie ieaou ieceee, a /aua ca?aaioiay ieaoa aiiaua ia
auiea/eaaaony. Iinoaiaiii ieceee o?iaaiue iieaou nieaeaao
iioeaaoeeiiioth ooieoeeth. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoa?eaeueiiai
noeioee?iaaiey aace?oaony ia ?ani?aaeaeaiee eiia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa
o?oaea a niioaaonoaee n aeeaaeii eaaeaeiai ?aaioieea, /oi io?aaeaaony a
ea?oao ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie caaeaiea aeey
eaaeaeiai iiae?acaeaeaiey, ?aaioieea.

O/eouaay nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen, a ?aaioa nin?aaeioi/aii
aieiaiea ia o/aiee “/aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee”, a eiaiii oai?ee
aeoaaei?ecia, eioi?ay aace?oaony ia i?eioeeia eiiia?aoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey
ethaeae, o.a. iniiaiua no?aoaae/aneea aii?inu ?aoathony eieeaaeaeueii, a
niioaaonoaee n ?aaeueiuie aeaeaieyie e iio?aaiinoyie. Aic?anoaao ?ieue
aeoeaecaoeee niaaoa eieeaeoeaa, oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaiia naiioi?aaeaiey,
nio?oaeie/anoaa n iaoi?iaeueiuie eeaea?aie e a?oiiaie.

Ianoiyuay aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iai?aaeaia ia oi?ie?iaaiea iiaiai
iioeaaoeeiiiiai iaoaiecia a naeueneii oicyenoaa , eioi?ue o/eouaaao
e?eceniia ninoiyiea a nioeeaeueiie e yeiiiie/aneie noa?ao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iioeaaoeey, iaoa?eaeueiia noeioee?iaaiea, iieaoa
o?oaea, aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, oneiaey o?oaea.

Kucheruk I.V. Motivation of agrarian labor.

Manuscript.

Thesis on a candidate of Economic Science Degree, specialization
08.09.01.- demograpfy, labor economics, social economy and policy. –
The Institute of Agrarian Economics, the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian
Scientists, Kyiv, 1999.

Basic results of studing the motivation problem of the agrarian labor
under social and economic crisis are given. The necessity of
motivational mechanism of agrarian labor improvement and promising
directions of labor motivation in agricultural enterprices based on the
principles of modern theory of behaviorism are substantiated. The
practical value of this research is that the work facilitates the
effective use of different labor motivation factors, appropriate level
of labor productivity motivation, administrative and economical bodies
relating to the improvement of enterprise management motivational
mechanisms under the conditions of social and economic crisis.

Key words: motivation, material incentives, wages, recompense, labour
conditions.

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