CAII??CUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 947.401

Eacaeia Ieaenaiae? Ieaen?eiae/

IINEIANUeEI-EEOIANUeEA AI?IOUeAA CA AeAAIUeI?ONUeE? CAIE?

A E?IOe? XV- IA II*AOEO XVI NO.

07.00.02 — Anana?oiy ?noi??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Caii??aeaey 1998

3

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? neiayinueeeo ia?iae?a
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (i.
Ee?a)

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

AEo?aa Ieoaeei Aiaoie?eiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa

(i. Ee?a),

eaoaae?a ?noi??? neiayinueeeo ia?iae?a, aeioeaio

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

*eoei A?oae?e Na?a?eiae/,

?inoeooo a?ia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee

IAI Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Eiycueeia TH??e Iao?iae/,

Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe

Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a ?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa, aeioeaio

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

?inoeooo ?i. A.A. Ei?ieaiea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

eaoaae?a anana?oiuei? ?noi???

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 15 » n?/iy 1999 ?ieo i 14-00 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 17.051.01 a Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 330600, i. Caii??aeaey, aoe. AEoeianueeiai,
66, ei?i. ?5, aeoiaee cae

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 330600, i. Caii??aeaey, aoe.
AEoeianueeiai, 66, ei?i. ?2.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii » 4 » a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee
N.I.Oei/aiei

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?aae?? nueiaiaeaiiy, cie?aia, ooai?aiiy
iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa ia oa?ai? ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco, i?iaoaeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a — i?aeaeuothoue ?ioa?an aei aea/aiiy
aca?iia?aeiinei ia?iae?a o aeaeaeiio ieioeiio, cie?aia, aei ?noi???
oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo oa?eoi??e oa ei?aeii?a. A aeine?aeaeaii? ii?ooai?
oae? aaaeeea? ? a iao? aei? i?iaeaie, ye ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aeia?ia?eueiino? oa ianeeey a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy iie?aoi?/ieo aea?aeaa
No?aeii? ?a?iie, i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? oa i?aeeiioan?ei? eiioe?eoe. C ?ioiai
aieo, i?e aecia/aii? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aoiaoaaany noai ?icaeoeo
?noi?e/ii? iaoee, ui ?iaeoue aeooaeueiei aiae?c ia?eoeaii? ea?oeie on?o
aoai?a oa aniaeo?a oi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae aac ?aeaieia?/ieo
aeiai oa ia?ae?o/aiue. Iaeiei c oaeeo aaaeeeaeo aoai?a oeueiai i?ioeano
? o?eaaea ? iai?oaeaia ai?ioueaa i?ae iaea?eueoeie no?aeii?a?iiaenueeeie
aea?aeaaaie aaeeeeie eiyc?anoaaie Iineianueeei ? Eeoianueeei a e?ioe?
XV — ia ii/aoeo XVI no. ca aeaaiuei?onuee? caie?.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?enueeiai-aeeieiiaoe/ia
ai?ioueaa i?ae Iineianueeith aea?aeaaith (aeae?: IAe) oa Aaeeeei
eiyc?anoaii Eeoianueeei (aeae?: AEE) a e?ioe? XV — ia ii/aoeo XVI no.,
ui caaa?oeeanue i?e?aeiaiiyi cia/ii? oa?eoi??? aeaaiuei?onueeeo caiaeue
aei Iineae.

Ia?eoii aeine?aeaeaiy ? eiiieaen aeieoiaio?a, ui a?aeia?aaea? o?ae
aeeieiiaoe/ieo aca?iei oa iineianueei- eeoianueeeo a?ei a e?ioe? XV — ia
ii/aoeo XV? no.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie. O iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? aena?oethaaeeny
ie?ai? aniaeoe i?iaeaie, ? ?yae i?aoeue c aeecueeeo oa aeioe/ieo oai,
cie?aia, c ieoaiue i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei o No?aei?e ?a?ii? XV-XVI no.,
i?aeeiioan?eiiai noaiiaeua, aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith AEE, iayai?
?aa?iiaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioa, oaeoe/ii, iaia? aeiaeii?
iiiia?ao?/ii? i?aoe?, a ye?e aoa ae cae?eniaiee eiiieaeniee aiae?c
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae i?ae IAe oa AEE a e?ioe? XV – ia ii/aoeo
XVI no.

Ia?oee aianie a ?noi??ia?ao?th i?iaeaie c?iaeee ?in?enuee? ?noi?eee
XVIII – ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX no. Aieiaiith caneoaith A.I. Oao?uaaa,
I.I. Aaioeo-Eaiainueeiai, I.I. Ua?aaoiaa, I.I. Ea?aic?ia, N.I. Nieiaeiaa
oa ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a aoei aaaaeaiiy ieie a iaoeiaee ia?a cia/iiai
ianyao iaoeiai-aeieoiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo oa ni?iaa eiai
nenoaiaoecaoe??.

Ia?oei niaoe?aeueiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?aeiinei
aoea i?aoey A.O. Ea?iiaa.. Ea?iia A.O. Enoi?ey ai?ueau Iineianeiai
ainoaea?noaa n Iieuenei-Eeoianeei. 1463-1508.- *.I-II.- I., 1867. Aiia
ia a?aecia/aeanue oe?ieith aeaea?aeueiith aacith, a nai aaoi? iaiaaeeany
aeeeaaeii aeeieiiaoe/ii? ?noi??? oiai /ano, a nai?e a?eueoino? aaea
a?aeiii?. Eieaa aoea iaienaia i?ae aieeaii Iieuenueeiai iianoaiiy
1863-1864 ??. ? iaea ia iao? aei?aaaeaoe eieii?aeueio iie?oeeo oea?aoo,
aiia i?iiecaia ?aaeoe?eieie, oia?i?noe/ieie ? iiia?o?/ieie iiaeyaeaie
aaoi?a. Aeineoue oaeaeei aiia canoa??ea ? ao?aoeea aoaeue-yea iaoeiaa
cia/aiiy.

A ae?oa?e iieiaei? XIX – ia ii/aoeo XX no. i?aeaeueany ?ioa?an aei
ieioeiai cao?aeieo ie?a?i oiai/anii? ?in?enueei? ?iia???. Cyaeeenue
ioae?eaoe?? c ?noi??? ie?aieo aeaaiuei?onueeeo caiaeue AEE, ca ye?
aaeanue ai?ioueaa i?ae IAe ? AEE. Ia?o? ?aa?iiaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaee
eiii?eyoeaiee oa?aeoa?, ye eieaa ?.I. Aeiia?aaeiaa i?i Aycueio, ?io?, ye
i?aoe? I.A. Aieoaianueeiai i?i Niieainuee ? N?aa?nueeo caieth,
A.?. Aeaieeaae/a i?i Iieioeueeo caieth, aoee aeiaaaeai? eeoa aei e?ioey
XV- ii/aoeo XVI no. I?aoe? ?. Iiaiei?ia i?i Oi?iiaoeue oa
A. Aoaineaanueeiai i?i Niieainueeo caieth, oi/ ? ioiiethaaee oaanue
eeoianueeee ia??iae, aea aeaeaei ia ae/a?ioaaee i?iaeaio. A?eueo iiaii
oa ?aoaeueii aoee aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy I.A. Eeaiaonueeiai i?i
Ee?anueeo caieth oa I.N. A?ooaanueeiai i?i I?inueea Iie?nny oa i?i
noaiiaeua i?no o Eeoa? oi?iaeiaae XIV-XV no.. Aeiia?aaeia E.I.
Enoi?e/aneee i/a?e ai?iaea Aycueiu n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei XVII a.
(aeeth/eoaeueii) .- I., 1890; Aoaineaaneee A. Niieaineay caiey a
eeoianeee ia?eiae // Niieaineay noa?eia.- Aui.3.- *.1.- Niieaine, 1914.-
N.1-104; Eeaiaoneee I.A. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee Eeaaneie caiee.- O.1.-
Iaeanna, 1912; A?ooaaneee A.N. Ieineia Iieanuea. XIV-XVI aa.
Enoi?e/aneea i/a?ee.- Eeaa, 1903; Eiai ae. Ai?iaea Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa
Eeoianeiai a XIV-XVI aa. Noa?eia e ai?ueaa ca noa?eio.- Eeaa, 1918.

?yae aeine?aeaeaiue i?enay/aii aea/aiith ?aaeueieo i?ioean?a
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua AEE o an?e ?o eiie?aoiino?.
I.I. Eiyeiae/ oa ?io? ?noi?eee iaiaaaeenue aeiaanoe, ui «caiaaeii?onneee
ia?iae» (eoaee aiie a?aeiineee oe?a?ioe?a ? a?ei?on?a) oi?iaeiaae
noie?oue caciaaaa iieii?caoe?? ? eaoieeoeueeiai aiiaeaiiy, a
aicc?aeiaiiy c ?in??th aoei aeey iueiai aecaieaiiyi, aeoii ?noi?e/ii?
ni?aaaaeeeaino?.. Eiyeiae/ I.I. Eaeoeee ii enoi?ee Caiaaeiie ?innee.-
I., 1864.- N.161. Aeaia eiioeaioe?y nooo?ai aieeioea ia ianooii? iaoeia?
i?aoe? ?.Ae. Aaey?aa, I.O. Aeaaeeie?nueeiai-Aoaeaiiaa, A.A. Aioiiiae/a
oa ?ioeo. ?noi?eee c i?aeic?ith noaaeeenue aei AEE, iaiieaaeeai ooeath/e
oai iai?eie?aii? eiioe?eoe, aioaaii?ci ?onueeiai ?
iieuenueei-eeoianueeiai ia/ae a iie?oeoe?, i?nueeiio aeeoo? oa
eoeueoo??, ienaee i?i iayai?noue «?onneie ia?oee», yea o XV-XVI no.
iaiaaaeanue /eieoe ii?? eeoianuee?e aeaae?.

Eeaneeith e?ooai?noeee noaee ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
I.E. Ethaaanueeiai, I.A. Aeiaia?-Caiieuenueeiai, O.?. Eaiioiae/a oa
?ioeo ?noi?ee?a.. Ethaaaneee I.E. Iaeanoiia aeaeaiea e ianoiia
oi?aaeaiea Eeoianei-?onneiai ainoaea?noaa ei a?aiaie ecaeaiey Ia?aiai
eeoianeiai Noaoooa.- I., 1892; Eiai ae. Eeoianei-?onneee naei.- I.,
1900; Aeiaia?-Caiieueneee I.A. Ainoaea?noaaiiia oicyenoai Aaeeeiai
eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai i?e ssaaeeiiao.- Eeaa, 1901; Eaiioiae/ O.E. I/a?ee
enoi?ee eeoianei-?onneiai i?aaa. Ia?aciaaiea oa??eoi?ee Eeoianeiai
ainoaea?noaa.- NIa., 1894. Aeey oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeaa cia/aiiy
iathoue i?aoe? I.E. Ethaaanueeiai, i?enay/ai? iaeaniiio iiae?eo,
i?noeaaiio oi?aae?iith, oae?eueiei ?onueeei eiycyi, aea?aeaaiiio ono?ith
AEE aei ii/aoeo XVI no.

Aeinyaiaiiy e?ooai?noeee e?ioey XIX – ii/aoeo XX no. aoee ocaaaeueiai?
a eo?n? eaeoe?e I.?. I?aniyeiaa, iioae?eiaaieo eeoa /a?ac o?eaeoeyoue
?ie?a o 1939 ?. oa a ia?en? I.E. Ethaaaneiai.. I?aniyeia A.A. Eaeoeee ii
?onneie enoi?ee.- Aui.1.- O.II.- I., 1939; Ethaaaneee I.E. I/a?e enoi?ee
Eeoianei-?onneiai ainoaea?noaa aei Ethaeeineie oiee aeeth/eoaeueii.-
I., 1915. I?aoe? i?noyoue aaaaoi i?ea?iaeueieo ? oe?iieo niinoa?aaeaiue
c aioo??- oa ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua Eeoae oa ?on?. Ie?ai?
aniaeoe iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?aeiinei ia iaae? XV-XVI no. aoee
aeine?aeaeai? I.N.A?ooaanueeei o eiai ooiaeaiaioaeuei?e i?aoe? c ?noi???
Oe?a?ie.. A?ooaanueeee I.N. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie — ?one.- O.IV.- Ee?a, 1993.

AEiaoiaaa ?aaiethoe?y 1917 ?. a ?in?? oa i?eo?ae aei aeaaee a?eueoiaee?a
iaaaoeaii iicia/eeenue ia noai? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. A 20-o ?ieao
ianooaa e?ooai?noe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a N?N? iii?oii nei?ioeany, a a
30-o ??. aiie, oaeoe/ii, i?eieieeenue.

Aea/aiiy iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?aeiinei oa ?noi??? i?e?aeiaiiy
aeaaiuei?onueeeo caiaeue aei IAe a e?ioe? XV — ia ii/aoeo XVI no.
iiiiaeeinue o ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? c 40-o ?ie?a OO no. Iaeii/anii
a ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? iaaeiaai ooaa?aeeeanue eiioeaioe?y oeeo iiae?e,
neeaaeaia i?ae aieeaii aaaaoueio ?aeaieia?/ieo noai. C iaeiiai aieo, oea
noa?a ?aeay i?i i?ioenoiyiiy i?aaineaaii? ?on? eaoieeoeueeiio Caoiaeo, c
?ioiai — ia?enenonueea oaca i?i ae??oaeueio ?ieue ia?iaeieo ian o
oai?aii? ?noi??? oa aeiiaa eeaniaiai i?aeoiaeo. O i?aenoieo aeeoei
oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oa, ye iana ?onueeiai («?onneiai») ianaeaiiy AEE, ui
no?aaeaeaea a XV no. a?ae eaoieeoeueeiai ai?oo, i?aaioea ia?aeoe i?ae
aeaaeo IAe ? ia iaae? XV-XVI no., caaaeyee oni?oi?e iie?oeoe?
iineianueeiai o?yaeo, «aicc’?aeiaeanue» c ?aeeiia??ieie no?aeieie
a?aoaie. Iiae?aiee iiaeyae noiniaii Niieainueea aeneiaea ua a 1940 ?.
A.I. Iaeueoeaa.. Iaeueoeaa A.I. Ai?ueaa ca Niieaine (XVI-XVII aa.).-
Niieaine, 1940.

Iniiai? iai?yiee ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee IAe ae?oai? iieiaeie XV no. aoee
aeine?aeaeai? E.A. Aaceeaae/ai.. Aaceeaae/ E.A. Aiaoiyy iieeoeea
?onneiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai ainoaea?noaa. Aoi?ay iieiaeia XV aaea.- I.,
1952.

Aaoi? aeei?enoaa oe?iea eiei aeaea?ae, caeo/eaoe aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao ua
ia iioae?eiaai? ?ic?yaei? eieae oa ?yae e?oiien?a. Iaio, i?ae oiai
aeiaaaee iinoaaeai? iei caaaeaiiy, aoei aeei?enoaii ?iicaiieo aeaea?ae.
Ia aeaeue, aeine?aeaeaiiy oeao? ia o?aaeeoe?ei? ?aeaieia?/i? noaie ?
aeiaie oa ia? ?yae iaaeinoaoiuei iaa?oioiaaieo iieiaeaiue ? oac. I?ioa,
iacaaaeath/e ia aeacai? iaaeie?ee, iiiia?ao?y E.A. Aaceeaae/a
i?iaeiaaeo? caeeoaoenue aaaeeeaei iaoeiaei aei?iaeii. Caaaeyee
?aoaeueiiio aiae?co aeaea?ae, aaee/aciiio oaeoe/iiio iaoa??aeo,
aaaeeeaei eiie?aoiei niinoa?aaeaiiyi, aiia aei iaoiai /ano caeeoa?oueny
iaea?eueo a?oioiaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee IAe i?e ?aai?
III.

Caaaeaia oaca i?i i?aaiaiiy neia’yinueeiai ianaeaiiy AEE aei
«aicc’?aeiaiiy» c IAe, i?e aeoeai?e a?enueeia?e aeiiiiic? c Iineae,
iiaoi?th?oueny o an?o ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeyo c ?noi??? N?N?, ?in??,
Oe?a?ie, A?ei?on?? oa Eeoae, aeaeaieo oi?iaeiaae 50-80o ?ie?a. A
iaea?eueo ?icai?iooiio aeaeyae? oey eiioeaioe?y aoea aeeeaaeaia a
aeena?oaoe?? oa ioae?eaoe?yo A.A. Eociaoeiaa.. Eociaoeia A.A.: Ai?ueaa
?onneiai ainoaea?noaa ca ainniaaeeiaiea caiaaeii?onneeo caiaeue (Ia?aay
/aoaa?oue XVI a.). Aaoi?ao.eaiae.aeenn.- I., 1966.

Oi?iaeiaae 60 — ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a a ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??
c’yaeeeny i?aoe? ?.A. A?aeiaa, I.A. Oaeaiaiiai?, A.E. Oi?ioeaae/,
I.I. Cei?ia oa ?ioeo ?noi?ee?a, ye? ?icaeyaeaee iineianueei-eeoianuee?
a?aeiineie XV – XVI no.. A?aeia E.A. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
ioiioaiee Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu XIV-XVI aa.- I., 1963; Oi?ioeaae/ A.E.
?onneia ainoaea?noai a nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee eiioea XV —
ia/aea XVI a.- I., 1980; Ceiei A.A. ?inney ia ?oaaaea XV-XVI noieaoee.-
I., 1982; Eaooaiia N.I. Nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneay enoi?ey ?innee eiioea
XV — ia?aie iieiaeiu XVI a.- I., 1967; Oaeaiaiiaa I.A. Ia?aciaaiea
caiaaeiie /anoe oa??eoi?ee ?innee a XVI a. a nayce n aa ioiioaieyie n
Aaeeeei eiyaeanoaii Eeoianeei e ?a/ueth Iiniieeoie. Aaoi?ao. eaiae.
aeenn.- I., 1971.

Eeoa a 1982 ?. A.I. Oei?y ai?n o cae/io noaio iineianueei-eeoianueeeo
a?aeiinei iaai? ei?aeoeae, a?aecia/eaoe o/anoue aaaaoueio oe?a?inueeeo
oa a?ei?onueeeo oaiaeae?a o ai?iouea? i?ioe ia?aeiaa/i? iie?oeee IAe,
cie?aia, ?o ?ieue o i?eaeooaii? caeieioo I. Aeeinueeiai.. Oei?y A.I.
Ae?aaia?onneea o?aaeeoeee e ai?ueaa ainoi/iineaayineeo ia?iaeia ca
ainniaaeeiaiea // Iaoooi A.O., Oei?y A.I., Oi?ioeaae/ A.E.
Ae?aaia?onneia ianeaaeea e enoi?e/aneea noaeueau ainoi/iiai neaayinoaa.-
I., 1982.- N. 151-238. Oae aoei c?iaeaii ia?oee e?ie aei ca?eueiaiiy
a?ae canoa??eeo aeiai oa ae?iaeaiiy a?eueo ?aae?noe/ieo eiioeaioe?e.

Aaaeeea? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? c?ooaiiy, cie?aia, ?iciaae N?N? oa
ooai?aiiy iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa, i?ecaaee aei ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
?noi?e/ieo ci?i ? ia?aaeyaeo canoa??eeo aeiai oa ?aeaeieo ooaii?a. Oiio,
aeey iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a oa?aeoa?i?, caeaa?eueoiai,
iia? i?aeoiaee aei i?iaeai, ui noinothoueny iaoi? oaie. O 1991 ?ioe?
cyaeany iaoeiai-iiioey?iee ia?en ?noi??? AEE, c?iaeaiee N.A. Aeoi?iei..
Aeoiei N.A. Ae?oaay ?onue (Aaeeeia eiyaeanoai Eeoianeia e ?onneia) //
Enoi?ey Ioa/anoaa: ethaee, eaeae, ?aoaiey. I/a?ee enoi?ee ?innee IX —
ia/aea OO aa.- I., 1991.- N.76-126. Aaoi? caia?a/o? noa?aioeie, ui
neeaeeny i?e aea/aii? AEE, cie?aia, noaaeoueny i?ae noii?a oaca i?i
oyae?iiy neiayinueeiai ianaeaiiy aei Iineae, a?aeeeaea?oueny ? oaca i?i
aeniain?th eaoieeoeecio a no?aeiineiayinueeeo caieyo o XV no. Cai?noue
o?aaeeoe?eiiai oyaeaiiy N.A. Aeoi?i i?iiiio? ?ioee iiaeyae ia AEE, ye ia
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueio aea?aeaao, ui oi?iaeiaae o?eaaeiai /ano oni?oii
ae??ooaaea nai? /enaeuei? i?iaeaie.

Noaiiaeua aeaaiuei?onueeeo caiaeue o neeaae? AEE, eeoianueei-?onueeeo
eiyc?a oa i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy, a oaeiae ?o noaaeaiiy aei i?iaeaie aeai?o
i?ae Iineaith ? A?eueii ?icaeyaea?oueny o iiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
A.TH. Aeai?ie/aiea ? I.I. E?iia.. Aeai?ie/aiei A.TH. ?onneea caiee
Aaeeeiai eiyaeanoaa Eeoianeiai (aei ia/aea XVI a.). I/a?ee enoi?ee
iaueiu, nineiaee, ainoaea?noaaiiinoe.- NIa., 1993; E?ii I.I. Iaae
?onueth e Eeoaie.- I., 1995. A aeine?aeaeaii? I.I. E?iia ciaoiaeyoue
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oace i?i eiioan?eiee ie? o AEE, a?enueeiao aeniain?th
IAe, cia/iee aieea i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy ia oa?aeoa? ? ?acoeueoaoe
iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?ei e?ioey XV – ii/aoeo XVI no.

Aaaiiee aianie o aea/aiiy ??ciiiai?oieo noi??i aeeooy AEE c?iaeee
iieuenuee? ?noi?eee. I?iaeaie aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee
Eeoianueei? aea?aeaae a e?ioe? XV – ia ii/aoeo XVI no. aoee i?aaeiaoii
aea/aiiy o iiiia?ao?yo O. Iaia, E. O?ieaey, E. Eieaieianueeiai,
I. Oaeaoeueeiai oa ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a.. Pape F. Polska ? Litwa na
przelomie wiekw srednich.- T.I.- Krakw, 1904; Finkel L. Elekcja Zygmunta
I.- Krakw, 1910; Kolankowski L.: 1) Dzieje Wielkiego Ksistwa Litewskiego
za Jagielloow.- T.I.- Warszawa, 1930; 2) Polska Jagielloow. Dzieje
polityczne.- Lww, 1936; Halecki O. Dzieje Unji Jagiellonskiej.- T.I-II.-
Krakw, 1919-1920. A i?aoeyo i?iaaaeaiee anaa?/iee aiae?c noaiiaeua AEE
o cacia/aiee ia??iae (aeeth/ath/e ? a?aeiineie c IAe). Aenieo iaoeiao
oe?ii?noue iacaaiei i?aoeyi aea? aaee/aciee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, acyoee c
a?o?a?a Iieueu? oa ?ioeo e?a?i. Ie?ai? aniaeoe iineianueei-eeoianueeeo
a?aeiinei, ?ic?iaeai? iieuenueeeie ?noi?eeaie, ? nueiaiaei?
caeeoathoueny ?aeeiei ??oioiaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oeeo iiae?e. Ciai?oiy
iie?oeea Eeoianueeiai eiyc?anoaa ? o?ae ai?iieo ae?e c IAe c 1490-o ii
1530-o? ??. i?iaiae?coaaa O. Ei?cii.. Korzon T. Dzieje wojen i
wojskowosci w Polsce. Epoha przedrozbiorowa.- T.I.- Krakw, 1912. A
aaeoc? aaiaaeia??, ia?o ca ana, ne?ae caaaeaoe ooiaeaiaioaeueio i?aoeth
TH. Aieueoa i?i eeoianueei-?onueeeo eiyc?a.. Wolff  J. Kniaziowie
litewsko-ruscy od koca czternastego wieku.- Warszawa, 1895. Ca
aaaaonoaii c?a?aiiai a i?e iaoa??aeo iiiia?ao?y aei iaoiai /ano ia ia?
nia? ??aieo. Aea/aiith noaiiaeua i?aaineaaii? oea?eae oa i?aaineaaieo o
AEE aoee i?enay/ai? i?aoe? ss. O?yeaea, E. Oiaeeieoeueeiai,
A. Eaieinueeiai.. Fijalek J. Opisy Wilna az do polowy wieku XVII-go //
Atenneum Wilenskie.-R.II.-Wilno, 1924.-S.131-158; Chodynicki K. Kosciol
prawoslawny a Rzeczpospolita Polska.- Warszawa, 1934; Lapinski A.
Zygmunt Stary a kosciol prawoslawny.- Warszawa, 1937. Ia aeoieo
?noi?ee?a, ?ae?a?eia noaiiaeua i?aaineaaieo aoei ni?eyoeeaa ? aiie
ei?enooaaeenue an?ia a?iiaaeyinueeeie i?aaaie ? naiaiaeaie. A iiiia?ao??
ss. Iaoainiia-E?nueeiai aeaoaeueii i?ine?aeeiaoaaeenue ci?ie
iineianueei-eeoianueeiai ei?aeiio ia oii? iie?oe/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei
aeaio aea?aeaa.. Natanson-Leski J. Dzieje granicy wschodniej
Rzeczypospolitej.– Cz.I. Granica moskiewska w epoce jagiellonskiej.-
Lww-Warszawa, 1922. Aaoi? aecia/a? oa?eoi??aeuei? ao?aoe Eeoae a
?acoeueoao? a?ei e?ioey XV- ii/aoeo XVI no.

A 30-40-o ?ieao o Iieueu? aeeoia ?yae i?aoeue ocaaaeueithth/iai
oa?aeoa?o. Ieoaiiy aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee AEE XV-XVI no.,
ia oe?ieiio oaeoe/iiio iaoa??ae?, ?icaeyaeaeenue a iiaeo iiiia?ao?yo
O. Iaia, C. Aie/aoianueeiai, aioo??oi?e noai eeoianueeiai noni?euenoaa
aiae?coaaa A. Eaiaiaoeueeee.. Pape F. Aleksander Jagielloczyk.- Krakw,
1949; Wojciechowski Z. Zygmunt Stary (1506-1548).- Warszawa, 1946;
Kamieniecki W. Spoleczestwo litewskie w XV wieku.-Warszawa, 1947.
Iaiao?aeii aeae?eeoe eai?oaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy N. Eo/einueeiai
i?enay/aia /a?i?aiai-n?aa?nueeei caieyi.. Kuczyski S. Ziemie
czernihowsko-siewierskie pod rzdami Litwy.- Warszawa, 1936. Aaoi?
ooi/ith? aaiaaeia?th eiyc?anueeeo ?iae?a, cyniao? neeaae ?o aieiae?iue.
?noi??y «aa?oianueeeo» ? n?aa?nueeeo oae?e?a aea/a?oueny ia oii?
eeoianueeeo a?aeiinei c IAe ? oaoa?aie; aeaoaeueii iieno?oueny
i?e?aeiaiiy oeeo caiaeue aei IAe ia iaae? XV-XVI no. Aaoi?, one?ae ca
?ioeie iieuenueeeie aeine?aeieeaie, aaaaea? ?ae?a?ei? ooenee
i?aaineaaieo eeoa io?oe?eiei i?eaiaeii, aeei?enoaiei ?aaiii III aeey
caaeiaieaiiy aeanieo iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a.

A i?neyai?ii?e ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? iaea?eueo oe?eaaeie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae i?ae IAe ? AEE noaee
iiiia?ao?? O. ssaeiiianueeiai (O?I), I. Aaeona (NOA) oa Ae. Oaiiaea
(Aaeeea A?eoai?y), a oaeiae oeeee noaoae iieuenueeiai ?noi?eea
N. Oa?anoa.. Jablonowski H. Westrussland zwischen Wilna und Moskau.-
Leiden, 1955; Backus O.P. Motives of West Russian Nobles in Deserting
Lithuania for Moscow, 1377-1514.- Lawrence, 1957; Fennell J. Ivan the
Great of Moscow.- London, 1961; Herbst S. Bitwa nad Wiedrosza 1500 roku
// Wieki srednie. Prace ofiarowane T. Manteufflowi.- Warszawa, 1962.- S.
275-282. O. ssaeiiianueeee aia?oa a ?noi??ia?ao?? aeineoue aeaoaeueii
?icaeyioa i?iaeaio iie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe?? aeaaiuei?onueeiai ianaeaiiy, a
I. Aaeon i?enayoea nai? aeine?aeaeaiiy cynoaaiith iioea?a eiyc?anueeeo
«iouacaeia» aei Iineae. Ae. Oaiiae aeine?aeea aioo??oith oa ciai?oith
iie?oeeo IAe /an?a ?aaia ???.

I?ioa, a oe?eiio, iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aaaaoi ieoaiue iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?aeiinei e?ioey
XV — ii/aoeo XV no. eeoathoueny ia nueiaiaei? iacyniaaieie.
Iaaeinoaoiuei aena?oeaiith ? i?iaeaia a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae
i?ae IAe ? AEE, a ie?ai? ?? aniaeoe aeiaaathoue ia?aaeyaeo ? a?eueo
aeaoaeueiiai ?ice?eooy c caeo/aiiyi iiaiai eiea aeaea?ae oa iia?oiuei?
e?oa?aoo?e.

Aieiaia iaoa aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, uia ia oe?ieiio eie? aeaea?ae
oa iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e anaa?/ii ? eiie?aoii aena?oeeoe
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/io ai?ioueao i?ae IAe ? AEE ca aeaaiuei?onuee? caie? a
e?ioe? XV – ia ii/aoeo XVI no. oa anoaiiaeoe ?? iane?aeee.

Aeoiaey/e c caaaeueii? iaoe, iiaeia aecia/eoe iniiai? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

– aecia/eoe nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie o a?o/eciyi?e ? ca?oa?aei?e
?noi??ia?ao??;

– aeyaeoe eiiieaen ?noi?e/ieo aeaea?ae oa aecia/eoe ?o
?ai?acaioaoeai?noue;

– aeyaeoe /eiieee, ui coiiaeee aeoeai?noue iineianueei-eeoianueeeo
a?aeiinei o e?ioe? XV no. oa anoaiiaeoe a?enueeiai-iie?oe/i? ia?aaeoiiae
ai?ioueae i?ae IAe oa AEE.;

– ?icaeyiooe noaiiaeua aeaaiuei?onueeeo caiaeue o neeaae? AEE, aecia/eoe
?o aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaee noaoon;

– i?iaiae?coaaoe o?ae iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?ei e?ioey XV — ii/aoeo
XVI no. (1486-1494 ??. oa 1500-1503 ??.) oa aeeieiiaoe/ii? ai?ioueae (ia
iniia? ie?iiai aeiaiai?o 1494 ?. oa ia?aie?’y 1503 ?.);

– aecia/eoe a?enueeiai-iie?oe/i? ?acoeueoaoe iineianueei-eeoianueei?
ai?ioueae;

– eieae?coaaoe aaia?ao?/i? ?aia?e oa aecia/eoe o?iiieia?/i? aoaie
ai?ioueae i?ae IAe ? AEE;

– c’ynoaaoe aieea iineianueei-eeoianueeeo noinoie?a ia nenoaio
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei o No?aei?e ?a?ii? oiai /ano.

Aaia?ao?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/athoue a naaa o? ?aeiie AEE, ye?
ia iaae? XV-XVI no. noaee a?aiith aieiaeo ae?e i?ae /an
iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?ei. Aei ieo iiaeia a?aeianoe no/ani?
?in?enuee? caie? — Niieainuee, A?yinuee, Oi?iiaoeue ? o.ae.; ?yae
iaeanoae A?ei?on?? — Iieioeuee, A?oaanuee, I?oa, Aiiaeue oa ?io?; oa
Oe?a?ie — *a?i?a?aueia, N?aa?ueia. I?aaii??i?noue oaeiai i?aeoiaeo
iiaeia iiynieoe, ii-ia?oa, ni?euei?noth aeie? iacaaieo oa?eoi??e o
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, ii-ae?oaa, iacaaa?oai?noth aoi?/ieo i?ioean?a.
Iio?aao? ie?aiiai iiyniaiiy aeei?enoaiee o aeine?aeaeaii? oa?i?i
«aeaaiuei?onuee? caie?». Aeeeeeathoue na?eici? caia?a/aiiy oa?i?ie
«?onneea» aai «caiaaeii?onneea» caie? o i?aoeyo ?in?enueeeo ?noi?ee?a
noiniaii aeacaieo aeua oa?eoi??e. Iacaaa?oai?noue aoi?/ieo i?ioean?a
oa?aeoa?ia ? aeey aeania ?in?enueeeo oa?eoi??e. A oeae ia??iae ni?eueiei
aeey o?ueio no?aeiineia’yinueeeo aoiin?a AEE caeeoaany oa?i?i «?onue»,
«?oneie». Uiaei oa?i?io «caiaaeii?onneea caiee», oi oaeeie aiie noaiooue
eeoa i?ney caoiieaiiy ?o IAe. Aei ii/aoeo XVI no. aiie i?eiee ?ai?oa ia
aoiaeeee i? aei neeaaeo Iineianueeiai eiyc?anoaa, i? aei aoaeue-yeiai
?ioiai i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai eiyc?anoaa, ia oa?ai? yeeo ooai?eeanue
?in?enueea aea?aeaaa.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae
c ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a XV no. aei ii/aoeo XVI no. Naia a oeae /an
?icii/aeanue ai?ioueaa i?ae aaeeeeie eiyc?anoaaie Iineianueeei oa
Eeoianueeei ca ia?aae?e aeaaiuei?onueeeo caiaeue. Cacia/ai?
o?iiieia?/i? iaae?, a cia/i?e i???, ? oiiaieie, ine?eueee, a aeayeeo
aeiaaeeao i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaiaeeeiny caa?oaoenue ye aei a?eueo
?aii?o /an?a (ii/aoie ? na?aaeeia XV no.), oae ? aei a?eueo i?ci?oeo
(ia?oa o?aoeia XVI no.).

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caeiie ae?aeaeoeee ? eia?ee
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, i?eioeei eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai aiae?co
noni?eueieo yaeu ? iiae?e. O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee,
?noi?eei-aaiaoe/iee, ii??aiyeueiee iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
ia?aaeaa/athoue eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy i?iaeaie.
Aeaea?aeiciaa/? iaoiaee, aeei?enoai? a ?iaio?, o?aaeeoe?ei? aeey
a?o/eciyii? ?noi??ia?ao??. Ii?yae c eeane/iei
ii??aiyeueii-oaenoieia?/iei iaoiaeii oa eia?/ii-nieneiaei aiae?cii
?noi?e/iiai iaoa??aeo, a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao iiaea?oueny aaoi?nueea
o?aeooaaiiy aeaea?aea, iaaeiei yeiai oi/eoueny aeeneon?y a iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo??.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? eiiieaen a?o?aieo oa
iioae?eiaaieo aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a. Aieiaiee ianea a?o?aieo
aeaea?ae caa??aa?oueny o oiiaeao ?in?enueeiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao
aeaai?o aeo?a (aeae?: ?AeAAeA). Iaea?eueo aaaeeeaei, ooiaeaiaioaeueiei
aeaea?aeii aeey aea/aiiy iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?aeiinei ia iaae?
XV-XVI no. ? iinieuenuee? eieae ii ciineiai c Iieuenueei-Eeoianueeith
aea?aeaaith, ui ioiieththoue ia??iae c 1487 ii 1702 ??. (?AeAAeA. O.79).
Iinieuenuee? eieae ? aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiei ca iiaeeeainoyie
aeei?enoaiiy aeaea?aeii. Aiie aeeth/athoue iinieuenuee? iaeace, ca?oe
iine?a (noaoaei? nienee), eenooaaiiy i?ae aieiaaie aea?aeaa, o?ae oa
ci?no ia?aaiai??a i?ae aea?aeaaaie, ia?aie?’y, «aeieii/aiey» (aeiaiai?e)
oa ?io? aeeieiiaoe/i? aeieoiaioe. E??i aeania aeeieiiaoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a
o ieo i?noeoueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i a?enueeia? ae??, oe?eaa? aeai? i?i
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/io neooaoe?th a i?eei?aeiiieo ?aeiiao, iino?eii
caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia aca?ieie «oe?aeiiuo» eiyc?a i?ae niaith ? c
ainoaea?yie Iineae oa A?eueii. Oe?iiei aeiiiaiaiiyi aei oeeo aeaieo ?
iaeace ? noaoaei? nienee iineianueeeo iine?a, ui a?aea?aeoaaee E?ei,
ye? i?noyoueny o iinieuenueeeo eieaao ii ciineiai c E?einueeei oainoaii
aei ii/aoeo 20-o ?ie?a XVI no. (?AeAAeA.  O.123.).

Ianooiiei iie?ooieoe?iiaeueiei aeaea?aeii ? Eeoianueea iao?eea – a?o?a
eaioeaey??? AEE (?AeAAeA. O.389 oa OeAe?A Oe?a?ie EIO-36). A i?ioean?
?iaioe, ii?yae c iioae?eiaaieie,. Aeou, ioiinyueany e enoi?ee Caiaaeiie
?innee.- O.?.- NIa., 1846; ?onneay enoi?e/aneay aeaeeioaea.- O.20.-
NIa., 1903; Acta Tomiciana.- T.I-XVII.- Pozna, 1852-1966. aoee
aeine?aeaeai? o oiiae? Eeoianueei? iao?eee a?o?ai? eieae, ui i?noyoue
?ioi?iaoe?th ca e?iaoeue XV – ii/aoie XVI no. (eieae 5-9). A?eueo?noue
eiea Iao?eee, a ?o nueiaiaei?oiueiio aeaeyae?, yaeythoue niaith ca??ieee
aeieoiaio?a, aeineoue iaiaeii??aeieo ca nai?i neeaaeii. Aiie i?noyoue
o?aaiaioe iinieuenueeeo eiea ? cioeo?a, a oaeiae aaaaoee iaoa??ae
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiai aeeooy AEE. Aeeieiiaoe/i? iaoa??aee Iao?eee
cia/ii iinooiathoueny, ca iiaiioith aena?oeaiiy iiae?e, ?in?enueeei
iinieuenueeei eieaai, aea aiie /anoeiai aena?oeththoue eaeoie aei 1487
?. oa ia??iae 1505-1517 ??. ? aeiiiaiththoue ?o.

Ie?ai? aeieoiaioe, aeei?enoai? a ?iaio?, ciaeaeai? a c?a?aii? eii?e
iaoa??ae?a Eai?anaa?cueeiai a?o?ao (?AeAAeA. O.147.- E?aiinueeee i?aeai
oa E?oeyiae?y c Anoeyiae??th). Iaaia ?ioi?iaoe?y c aeine?aeaeoaaii?
oaiaoeee ciaoiaeeoueny a iaoa??aeao aeeieiiaoe/ieo ciinei IAe c I?on??th
oa ?iia???th.. Iaiyoieee aeeieiiaoe/aneeo niioaiee.- O.I.- NIa., 1851.

Iaiyoieee aeeieiiaoe/ieo ciinei neoaoaaee iaoa??aeii aeey ia?aoeaieo
aeaea?ae – ?in?enueeeo e?oiien?a oa cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo o?ii?e..
Iieiia nia?aiea ?onneeo eaoiienae.- O.1-37.- NIa.-I., 1846-1982;
Weinreich C. Danziger Chronik.- Berlin, 1855; Krantz A. Vandalia.-
Frankfurt, 1580. E?oiiene ? o?ii?ee ? aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey
aea/aiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, cie?aia, iineianueei-eeoianueeeo
a?ei e?ioey XV – ii/aoeo XVI no. Oeeaaea/? aaeeeieiyc?anueeeo e?oiien?a
iaee aeinooi aei aeieoiaio?a aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao. E?oiieni? aeai?
eiiiainothoue a?aenooi?noue iinieuenueeeo eiea aei 1487 ?., a ieo
?aoaeueii o?enoaaeeny aeai? i?i ae?yeuei?noue ?iicaioe?a o IAe oa
?iaeeii? caycee i?aaenoaaiee?a aaeeeieiyc?anueeiai aeiio. Aiaeii/an a
e?oiienieo caaaeaiiyo ? o?ii?eao ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy iie?oe/i?
eiioeaioe?? ?o aaoi??a oa aeaeeny aciaee /ano? ?aaeaaoaaiiy e?oiien?a o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c iniaeeainoyie aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua
aea?aeaae.

Iineianueei-eeoianuee? a?eie i?eaa?oaee oaaao a?ei?onueei-eeoianueeeo
e?oiienoe?a, eeoianueeeo oa iieuenueeeo o?ii?no?a.. IN?E.- O.32,35.- I.,
1975,1980; O?iieea Auoiaoea.- I., 1966; Kronika Polska, Litewska,
Zmodska i wszystkiei Rusi, Macieja Stryjkowskiego.- T.2.- Warszawa,
1846; Kronika Bernarda Wapowskiego z Radochoniec … cze ostatnia, czazy
podlugoszewskie obejmujaca (1480-1535).- Krakw, 1874; Bielski M. Kronika
Polska.- Sanok, 1856.- T.13. Oe? aeaea?aea, i?e ii??aiyeueiiio aiae?c? c
?in?enueeeie, aeathoue iai iiaeeea?noue iiaeeaeoenue ia aeine?aeaeoaai?
iiae?? c ?ioiai aieo. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?ia aena?oeaiiy iiae?e o ai?iaeiio
aeey Iineae aeon?. A?eueo?noue e?oiien?a ? o?ii?e i?noyoue /eiaei
oaeoe/ieo iiieeie oa iaiaae?eio o?iiieia?th, a ?iiae? cono??/athoueny
iaeia??ia?aei? oa eaaaiaea?i? iia?aeiieaiiy, ye? iio?aaothoue
aeiaeaoeiaiai ooi/iaiiy, ia?aa??ee oeyoii ni?anoaaeaiiy c ?ioeie
aeaea?aeaie. Aeaye? oe?eaa? a?aeiiino? i?i aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae
iiaeia ii/a?iiooe ?c na?ae/aiue ?iicaioe?a, cie?aia, N.Aa?aa?ooaeia,.
Aa?aa?ooaei N. Caienee i Iineiaee.- I. 1988. yeee a?aea?aeaa Iineao ia
ii/aoeo XVI no.

Aaaeeeaei aeiiiaiaiiyi aei ?ioi?iaoe?? ia?aoeaieo aeaea?ae ? ?ic?yaei?
eieae.. ?ac?yaeiay eieaa 1475-1598 aa.- I., 1966; ?ac?yaeiay eieaa
1475-1605 aa.- O.1.- *. I-II.- I., 1977. Aiie aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
ooi/ieoe aeaooaaiiy, i?ecia/aiiy ai?aiae, iia?aeiieythoue oe?eaa?
aeaoae? a?enueeiaeo iioiae?a oiui. Aeey cynoaaiiy noaiiaeua eiyc?a o AEE
oa i?e/ei ?o «iouacaeia» iaie aeei?enoai? aeai? ?iaeiaiae?a aeae?eueeio
?aaeaeoe?e, iaea?eueo ?aii? c yeeo a?aeiinyoueny aei 20-30-o ?ie?a
XVI no.. “Aa?oaoiay eieaa”: ?iaeineiaiay eieaa eiycae e aeai?yi
?inneeneeo e auacaeeo… *. I-II.- I., 1787; ?aaeeea enoi/ieee ii
enoi?ee ?innee.- Aui.2.: Iiaua ?iaeineiaiua eieae XVI a.- I., 1977.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e
?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaaaeaii aeaoaeueia eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae i?ae IAe oa AEE a e?ioe? XV — ia ii/aoeo
XVI no. ?icaeyiooi oaeoi?e, ui ni?eyee aeoea?caoe??
iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?aeiinei a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XV no. oa i?ecaaee
aei a?aee?eoiai ca?ieiiai eiioe?eoo. Ia iniia? nenoaiaoecaoe??
oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aoee oaeineiiaeai? aaiaaeia?/i? noaie ?iaeiaiae?a
eiyc?a oa aia?oa neeaaeai? ?noi?e/i? ea?oe. Aea/aiiy
iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?aeiinei aeaei aaoi?o iiaeeea?noue aia?oa
aecia/eoe o?iiieia?/i? aoaie ai?ioueae i?ae Iineaith oa A?eueii. A
aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ia?aaeyiooi ?yae canoa??eeo iieiaeaiue
oa ioe?iie, ui iaee i?noea a ?noi?e/i?e iaooe?, ii-iiaiio
?ioa?i?aoothoueny iiae?? oa aeniiaee. A iaienaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?
?iaioao ai?uaii aaoi?nueeee iaoa??ae c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
iiaeaeueoiio aea/aii? i?iaeai, ui noinothoueny i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei o
No?aei?e ?a?ii? oa i?aeaioiaoe? ocaaaeueithth/eo aeine?aeaeaiue c
?noi??? ?in??, Oe?a?ie, A?ei?on??, Eeoae (AEE), i?e iaienaii?
iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a, a iaoeiai-iiioey?i?e e?oa?aoo??, ioae?oeenoeoe?
oa e?a?ciaa/?e e?oa?aoo??. Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy iiaeooue i?eaeaoeny a
i?aeoeoe? aoc?anueeiai aeeeaaeaiiy, cie?aia, i?e i?aeaioiaoe?
niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a c ?noi??? oi?ioaaiiy no/anieo aea?aeaa No?aeii?
?a?iie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee ii?eethaeiai? ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? a ?inoeooo? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? i?e Iineianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i. I.A. Eiiiiiniaa. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? i?e neeaaeaii?
?iai/i? i?ia?aie c eo?no «?noi??? neiayinueeeo ia?iae?a aeiae
na?aaeiueia?//y», ieai?a oa iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aei icia/aiiai
eo?no. Aeena?oaoe?th ?icaeyiooi ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aei caoenoo ia
can?aeaii? eaoaae?e ?noi??? neiayinueeeo ia?iae?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 241 noi??ioe? ae?oeiaaiiai
oaenoo ? neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (5 a?o?aieo oiiae?a ? 67 iaca iioae?eiaaieo ca??ie
aeieoiaio?a) ? e?oa?aoo?e (200 iaca) oa aeiaeaoe?a.

A Ia?oiio ?icae?e? – «?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aea» oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo iaoeiai? aeoiee c ia?aii? i?iaeaiaoeee,
iiaea?oueny aiae?c aeaea?aeueii? aace aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e – «A?enueeiai-iie?oe/i? ia?aaeoiiae ai?ioueae i?ae
Iineianueeith aea?aeaaith oa Aaeeeei eiyc?anoaii Eeoianueeei.
I?eei?aeiiia a?eia 1486-1494 ??.» neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio ia?aa?ao?a. A
iueiio ioa?aeoa?eciaai? iineianueei-eeoianuee? a?aeiineie ae?oai?
iieiaeie XV no. oa aiae?co?oueny ii/aoie a?enueeiai? ai?ioueae,
aena?oeththoueny ?? ?acoeueoaoe ? iane?aeee.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? «Iineianueei-eeoianuee? a?aeiineie a 70-o — ia?o?e
iieiaei? 80-o ?ie?a XV no.» iaoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie a?aoiaioo?oueny oie
oaeo, ui a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa i?ae IAe oa AEE a e?ioe? XV no.,
oaeoe/ii, ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi ai?ioueae i?ae Iineaith oa A?eueii ca
iao?iiaae o ?onueeeo caieyo, ui i?ioiaeeea oi?iaeiaae XIV – ia?oi?
iieiaeie XV no. Iniaeea?noth aeaiiai ia??iaeo aoei oa, ui Eeoaa aaea ia
iaea iaiao?aeiiai a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiai iioaioe?aeo aeey oo?eiaiiy
aeanii? aea?aeaaii? oa?eoi???.

I?ioyaii 70-o — ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a aeiei??iii ci?ieeanue
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a e?a?iao No?aeii? ?a?iie oa neeaeanue
i?eioeeiiai iiaa ?icnoaiiaea nee. Aaeeeiio eiycth iineianueeiio
?aaio ??? oaeaeiny ia na?aaeeio 80-o ?ie?a caaa?oeoe ia?aeiaiiy
i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ?onueeeo caiaeue oa ca?eueieoenue a?ae
cieioii?aeeinueei? caeaaeiino?. Iaaia ??/, ui IAe iinoaaeea ia ii?yaeie
aeaiiee caaaeaiiy ia?aeiaiiy an?o aeaaiuei?onueeeo caiaeue. Oea iaieio/a
i?ecaiaeeei aei a?enueeiaiai c?oeiaiiy c AEE, o neeaae? yeiai ia?aaoaaea
a?eueo?noue oa?eoi??e Aeaaiuei?onueei? aea?aeaae. E??i iie?oe/ieo
?ioa?an?a c?inoaea aeiiii?/ia caoe?eaaeai?noue Iineae o eeoianueeeo
aieiae?iiyo.

Iieacaii, ui iieuenueei-eeoianueeee o?yae iaaeiioe?ithaaa iaaaciaeo c
aieo iiaiooai?aii? IAe. I?ioean ia?aeiaiiy ?onueeeo caiaeue iaaeiei
Iineae oae ? ia i?eca?a aei ca?ieiiai ao?o/aiiy Eeoae. Aaeeeee eiycue
eeoianueeee ? iieuenueeee ei?ieue Eaceie? IV /a?ac aeanio
iaaeaeaeiaeyaei?noue, a /anii a?aeaa?oo c?aaeo oae?eueieo eiyc?a, ia
aeei?enoaa ni?eyoeeao ciai?oiueiiie?oe/io neooaoe?th a 1471, 1480,
1485 ??. aeey iaianaiiy i?aaaioeaiiai oaea?o ii i?ioeaieeo,
iaiaaeeaoenue noai?aiiyi aioeiineianueei? eiae?oe??.

Aeaea?aea na?ae/aoue, ui c 70-o ?ie?a XV no. aaaeeeao ?ieue o
iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?aeiineiao ii/aee a?ae?a?aaaoe oae?euei?
eeoianueei-?onuee? eiyc?. Ca nai?i iioiaeaeaiiyi ? noaoonii aiie yaeyee
aeineoue ??ciiiai?oio ea?oeio – a?ae eiyc?a-aanae?a, ye? aecia/aee nai?
noinoiee c A?eueii ia aeiaia??i?e iniia?, aei cae/aeieo aio/eiiee?a.
*anoeia eiyc?a iaea cia/io naiino?ei?noue o noa?? i?aeaea?aeaaieo
a?aeiinei ? aeoeaii i?iyaeyea naaa ia ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?e a?ai?, /anoi
ci?ithth/e iineianueea /e eeoianueea i?aeaeainoai («neoaeeee ia iaa
noi?iiu»). ??aiiaaaa o eiyc?anueeeo a?ae?caeao ii/aea ii?oooaaoenue naia
o 70-o ?ieao, eiee ia iineianueeo neoaeao ia?aeoia eiycue
N.TH. Iaei?anueeee. Ia ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a, i?ney aee?eooy «ciiae
eiyc?a», aei Iineae oo?e O.?. Aaeuenueeee, a caiaeii ?. Aeeinueeee.
I?e/eie eiyc?anueeeo «iouacaeia» aa?oi, ia iaoo aeoieo, oaa/aoe a
caoiaeao eeoianueeiai o?yaeo ii ci?oeiaiith oeaio?aeueii? aeaaee oa
niiae?aaiiyie eiyc?a io?eiaoe ia iineianuee?e neoaea? a?eueoa oae?eueieo
i?aa.

Ae?enii, aaeeei? aaae o iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?aeiineiao iaaoei
ieoaiiy i?aeeiioan?eiiai noaiiaeua i?aaineaaieo ? eaoieee?a. I?ioa
i?iaaaeaiee iaie aiae?c aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?noi?e/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e, ia?aeiio?, ui aiai?eoe i?i ?ae?a?eiee ai?o o AEE e?ioey
XV no. iaia? i?aenoaa. Oi/ i?aaineaay aoei oai eeoa oa?ieiith
?ae?a??th, oey a??ioa?iei?noue aoea oe?ieith. I?yeeo ?ai?an?e /e
ianeeey i?ioe i?aaineaaieo ua ia aoei, ?o noaiiaeua caeeoaeinue
ni?eyoeeaei.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? «Noaiiaeua ia iineianueei-eeoianueeiio ei?aeii? oa
ii/aoie a?enueeiai? ai?ioueae 1486-1492 ??.» aena?oeththoueny iiae?? o
i?eei?aeiiieo caieyo oa o?ae a?enueeiai? ai?ioueae cacia/aiiai ia??iaeo.
C aeaieo aeaea?ae aeieeaa?, ui oi?iaeiaae 1486-1492 ??. ia anueiio
i?ioyc? iineianueei-eeoianueeiai ei?aeiio ?icai?oaeanue i?eei?aeiiia
a?eia. AEiaeia c noi??i oi?iaeueii i?eiee ia iaieiooaaea i?i ii/aoie
a?eie ? ia ii?eaaea aeeieiiaoe/ieo a?aeiinei.

Iieacaii, ui ?i?oe?aoeaa o ?icai?oaii? ai?iieo ae?e iaeaaeaea IAe. Aeey
aeaii? noaae?? eiioe?eoo oa?aeoa?ia ??cea caaino?aiiy iai?oaeaiino? a
i?eei?aeiiieo ?aeiiao. Aieiaiith i?iaeaiith o iineianueei-eeoianueeeo
a?aeiineiao noa? oa?eoi??aeueia ieoaiiy oa eiioe?eoe i?ae neoaeaiaeie
«oe?aeiiuie» eiycyie.

A ia?aa?ao? aeieeaaeii ?icaeyioo? an? iayai? iia?aeiieaiiy aeaea?ae i?i
i?noey ? oa?aeoa? iineianueei-eeoianueei? ai?ioueae, neeaae ?? o/aniee?a
oa eiie?aoi? ?acoeueoaoe. Aeae?eythoueny ?? iniaeeaino?: aiia aaeanue ia
?aaoey?ieie a?enueeiaeie neeaie iaio noi?ioeaiee?a, a oaeoe/ii
i?eei?aeiiiith aeaaeith – oae?eueieie eiycyie oa iai?nieeaie. Ai?ii?
ae?? caiaeeeeny aei aca?iieo i?eei?aeiiieo «iaacaeia», ui iaee
ai?ciaee/iee oa?aeoa?. I?ioa aiie ia aoee i?iyaii aeiaaeeiaino?, aai ae
eeoa aeaniith ?i?oe?aoeaith eiyc?a /e iai?niee?a. A ?o iniia? aoei
cae?eniaiiy caaaeueiiai ieaio ae?e, ui ni?yiiaoaaany ? ea?oaaany
aa?oiaiith iineianueeith aeaaeith. Iieacaii, ui iino?eieo aoi?aiaiue
caciaaaee eeoianuee? aieiae?iiy a?ey Aaeeeeo Eoe, oi?iiaoeuee? ?
?aeaanuee? aieino?, «aa?oianuee? eiyc?anoaa» (caie? o aa?o?ayo Iee ?
Oa?e). Oea aea? iai i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui IAe aaeaeany aei
iie?oeee a?enueeiai? aeniain?? o a?aeiineiao c Eeoaith.

Caaaeyee i?eei?aeiii?e a?ei? Iineaa ciiaea ?iceaaeiaoe eeoianueeo
nenoaio iai?iie ei?aeiio ia cia/io aeeaeio. Ai?ii? ae?? aoee oaeiae
nai???aeiith «?ica?aeeith ai?i», ine?eueee aeaaaee iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe
a?enueeiaee iioaioe?ae i?ioeaieea oa eiai ??oo/?noue aei i?iaeiaaeaiiy
ai?ioueae.

Ca?aeii aeieoiaio?a, iacaaaeath/e ia a?eio, i?ae Iineaith ? A?eueii
a?aeaoaaany ?ioaineaiee aeeieiiaoe/iee iai?i, a oiae? yeiai noi?iie
cayaeyee aca?ii? caeioaa/aiiy a «iaacaeao» oa ?ici?aii? i?eei?aeiiieo
aieiae?iue.

I?e ?icaeyae? iiceoe?? eeoianueei-?onueeeo eiyc?a o
iineianueei-eeoianueeiio eiioe?eo? cyniao?oueny, ui ae??oaeueiei aoa, ia
iaoo aeoieo, 1489 ?., eiee ia iineianueeo neoaeao ia?aeoia
Ae.O. Ai?ioeinueeee oa eiyc? Aae?anuee? c aio/eiaie. Oea ?aaeeeaeueiei
/eiii ci?ieei neooaoe?th ia ei?aeii? ia ei?enoue Iineae. Noiniaii
iioea?a, yeeie ea?oaaeenue eiyc? o aeai?? i?ae Iineaith ? A?eueii,
iieacaii, ui, aacia?a/ii, ia ?o ??oaiiy aieeioa c?inoath/ee oene IAe,
aea aaaaoi caeaaeaei ? a?ae noinoie?a eiyc?a c a?eainueeei aeai?ii. Ie
i?eionea?ii, ui eiyc?anuee? ia?aoiaee aoee coiiaeai? i?aaiaiyi eiyc?a,
iai?eeeaae, iiaineeuenueeeo, caa?aaoe nai? aieiae?iiy oa oae?euei?
i?aaa. O?eueee iaei? c ieo aaaaeaee, ui ?i oea aa?aioo? eeoianueeee
ainoaea?, a ?io? ooeaee uanoy ia neoaea? o iineianueeiai. Oiio,
?aai ???, cieuoth/e oae?eueii-oaiaeaeueio nenoaio a IAe,
aeaiiino?aoeaii i?aeo?eiaa ?? o eeoianueeeo aieiae?iiyo, an?eyei
i?aee?anethth/e naiino?ei?noue ? noaa?aii?noue eiyc?a oa aei?aaaeiaoth/e
?o ae??.

A o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? «I?eei?aeiiia a?eia 1492-1494 ??. oa ?? iane?aeee»
aeeeaaeai? iiae?? oa i?ioeane 1492-1494 ??. ? cyniaai? ?o iane?aeee.
A?eia noaea oaeoe/ii i?iaeiaaeaiiyi iiia?aaei?o aieiaeo ae?e oa
aeeieiiaoe/ii? ai?ioueae.  Ia na?aaeeio 1492 ?., ye cyniao?oueny c
aiae?co aeieoiaio?a, ia a?aeaie?eath/e a?enueeiaeo nee c ?ioeo
iai?yie?a, Iineaa iinoaaeea i?ae na?e eiio?ieue cia/io /anoeio
«aa?oianueeeo» eiyc?anoa. Iiaiaeaeaiiy ?aaia ??? ?icii/aoe ia?aaiai?e c
Eaceie?ii IV, iiynith?oueny, ia iaoo aeoieo, caaeiaieai?noth aeinyaiooei
o i?eei?aeiii?e a?ei?, a ia iiaithaaiiyi iia?ic c aieo ei?iey. I?ioa
ianiiae?aaia nia?oue Eaceie?a IV noai?eea iiao ciai?oiueiiie?oe/io
neooaoe?th, ca yei? IAe a?aeiiaeeanue a?ae iiia?aaeiuei? aioiaiino?
?icii/aoe ia?aaiai?e.

Aeaoaeueiee aiae?c ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? na?ae/eoue i?i ??
aeineoue ni?eyoeeaee oa?aeoa? aeey IAe. Nia?oue Eaceie?a IV i?ecaaea aei
i?eieiaiiy oi?? i?ae Iieueuath ? AEE. Iineianueeee o?yae ae??oea
nei?enoaoenue oe??th ianoaaeiith aeey ??oo/iai neeiaiai ?icaycaiiy
ni??ieo ieoaiue. Aeaea?aea na?ae/aoue, ui aoi?aiaiue iineianueeeo
a?enuee caciaee ia eeoa oa?eoi??? o aa?o?ayo Iee ? Oa?e, aea e
i?ai?/ii-cao?aei? ?aeiie, cie?aia, Aycainueea eiyc?anoai. Iaaaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe?? aeai? ?iciia?aeathoue i?i a?aeaa?oi aa?aneaiee oa?aeoa?
ae?e IAe. Iniaeeai caiaee? ai? a?aeaoaaeeny ceiith 1492-1493 ??. o
?aeii? i?no Iacaoeuee, Na?iaenuee ? Iiaeia. Ao?i, eeoianueeee o?yae aoa
iani?iiiaeiei i?aai?coaaoe iai?iio i?eei?aeiiieo oa?eoi??e.

Cyniao?oueny, ui aieiaiei /eiieeii oni?o?a Iineae aoea i?aeo?eiea ??
iie?oeee eeoianueei-?onueeeie eiycyie oa ?o ia?ao?ae ia iineianueeo
neoaeao. I?iaiae?coaaaoe eenooaaiiy noi??i c oeueiai ieoaiiy, ie i?eeoee
aeniiaeo, ui eiyc? aoee iaaaeiaieai? ae?yeuei?noth a?eainueeiai aeai?o,
cie?aia, iaiiaeeea?noth caoenoeoe ?o aio/eie oa a?aeoeiaeoaaoe
caaaeaieo Iineaith ao?ao. Oiio ci?ia aaeeeiai eiycy eeoianueeiai noaea
i?eaiaeii aeey ??oo/eo ae?e. Ia iineianueeo noi?iio ia?aeoee iaa?oue
eiyc? N.O. Ai?ioeinueeee, I.?. Iacaoeueeee oa Aae?anuee?, ye? ?ai?oa
a??ii neoaeeee ei?ieth.

O ia?aa?ao? ocaaaeueiththoueny c?iaeai? aeua i?eiouaiiy i?i i?e/eie
eiyc?anueeeo «iouacaeia». A?aei?/aii, ui i? i?i ye? ?ae?a?ei? iioeae ?o
ae?e ia iiaea aooe iiae. Oea iiai?noth ocaiaeaeo?oueny c i?iaaaeaiei
iaie aiae?cii i?aeeiioan?eiiai noaiiaeua o AEE. Iaia? i?aenoaa aiai?eoe
? i?i neiiao?? «oe?aeiiuo» eiyc?a aei Iineae.

Aeae? a oaeno? c?iaeaii ni?iao cynoaaoe i?e/eie ie?ieo ia?aaiai??a i?ae
?aaiii ??? oa Ieaenaiae?ii Eaceie?iae/ai. Ia iaoo aeoieo, a Eeoa?
?ic?aoiaoaaee oeei naiei i?eieieoe a?eio, a aeeianoe/iee oetha c
iineianueeith eiyaeiath iiaeiai aoa caiia?aoe iiaeeeaiio eiioe?eoo a
iaeaooiueiio. I?aee?aneaii, ui a oiae? ia?aaiai??a ?aai ??? aeiaaaea aei
naiai oeooeo aaaaoicia/ia «ainoaea?ue anay ?one». I?e oeueiio iiaa ?aea
ia i?i ii/ania cia/aiiy iiaiai oeooeo, a i?i eiai iiaee iie?oe/iee ci?no
– i?aoaic?th ia noi?aiao?th iaae on?ia aeaaiuei?onueeeie caieyie,
a?eueo?noue c yeeo iaeaaeaea AEE. A oe?eiio, ye cacia/aii a oaeno?
?iaioe, Iineaa aoea caaeiaieaiith aeinyaiooei i?ae /an a?eie ? ia
i?aaioea aei iiaeo caaa?aaiue. Oiio, aaniith 1493 ?. ai?ii? ae?? ia
iineianueei-eeoianueeiio ei?aeii? i?eieieeeny. I?ioa, oeeaaeaiee, a
ethoiio 1494 ?. iineianueei-eeoianueeee, ie?iee aeiaia?? ia ae??oea
aeiaeiiai i?eioeeiiaiai ieoaiiy o a?aeiineiao i?ae IAe ? AEE, a
aeeianoe/iee oetha caaycaa iiaee aocie i?ioe??/.

O aeniiaeao aei ?icae?eo i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui oi?iaeiaae 80-o ia
ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a XV no. o No?aei?e ?a?ii? neeaeany iiaa
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y, coiiaeaia c?inoath/ith aa?aneai?noth IAe.
Iinooiiai o iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?aeiineiao aeie?aieeeny aieiai?
ieoaiiy oa ?icii/aeanue a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ia ai?ioueaa ca ?o ae??oaiiy.

O?ao?e ?icae?e aeine?aeaeaiiy: «Iineianueei-eeoianueea a?eia
1500-1503 ??. oa ?? a?enueeiai-iie?oe/i? iane?aeee», neeaaea?oueny c
/ioe?ueio ia?aa?ao?a. A iueiio aeaoaeueii ?ice?eaathoueny iiae??
a?enueeiai? ai?ioueae i?ae AEE oa IAe o 1500-1503 ??. ? i?aeaiaeyoueny
?acoeueoaoe a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae i?ae Iineaith oa A?eueii.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? «Ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y o No?aei?e ?a?ii? a
e?ioe? 90-o ?ie?a XV no. Caaino?aiiy noia?ieoeoaa i?ae Aaeeeei
eiyc?anoaii Eeoianueeei oa Iineianueeith aea?aeaaith» aeeeaaeaii i?e/eie
a?enueeiaiai c?oeiaiiy i?ae aeaiia aea?aeaaaie, iieacaia oiae?oiy
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y, i?iaeaie i?aeaea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei.
Aiae?c aeaea?ae na?ae/eoue, ui a inoaii? ?iee XV no. iniiaieie
i?iaeaiaie a iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?aeiineiao caeeoaeeny:
oa?eoi??aeueia ?iciaaeoaaiiy o i?eei?aeiiieo ?aeiiao,
oeooeaoo?ii-oa?i?iieia?/ia ieoaiiy oa aeiiii?/i? ? iie?oe/i? ?ioa?ane
Iineae a eeoianueeeo aieiae?iiyo.

Ie?ia oaiaea 1494 ?. ia aeayeee /an a?aeeeaaeaea ca?ieia ae??oaiiy
ieoaiue i?ae Iineaith ? A?eueii. A?aeiineie i?ae AEE ? IAe ?icaeyioo? ia
oii? aeeieiiaoe/ieo cayce?a Iineae. Iineianueeee o?yae i?aaioa
aeei?enoaoe ia?aie?y ia cao?aeiiio ei?aeii? aeey aeoea?caoe?? aeanii?
iie?oeee a ?ioeo iai?yieao. Cie?aia, IAe ?icii/aea ai?ioueao c Aaicith ?
Oaaoe??th, i?aaio/e iiaa?iooe ao?a/ai? oa?eoi??? o Ea?ae??. Neeaaeiith
caeeoaeanue neooaoe?y o Eacai?, aea Iineaa iaiaaaeanue oo?eiaoe na?e
i?ioaeoi?ao. A oie aea /an, o a?aeiineiao c E?aiinueeei i?aeaiii
?aai ??? aeio?eioaaany eo?no ia ci?oeiaiiy ie?ieo noinoie?a. Ca
iina?aaeieoeoaa E?eio, ii/aee iaeaooiaoaaoenue a?aeiineie c Iniainueeith
?iia???th.

Iaeiae a?aeiineie c AEE i?iaeiaaeoaaee caeeoaoenue iaaecia/aieie. Ia
caaaeueiee noai iineianueei-eeoianueeeo noinoie?a iaaaoeaii aieeaaee
?ica?aeiino? noi??i a ioe?ioe? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua oa
iaae??oai?noue i?aeaea?aeaaieo i?iaeai. A 90-o ?ieao XV no. Iineaa
aaconi?oii aeiiaaaeany oeeaaeaiiy iieaeaanueei-eeoianueeiai nithco, ui
ua a?eueo caaino?eei iineianueei-eeoianuee? a?aeiineie.

A?aei?/aii, ui a e?ioe? 90-o ?ie?a oneeaaeieeany iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a
IAe, coiiaeaia caaino?aiiyi ai?ioueae ca aeaaeo i?e aeai?? ?aaia ???. Ia
iineianueei-eeoianueeiio ei?aeii? o?eaaee iino?ei? eiioe?eoe, aei oiai
ae iineianueeee o?yae ii/aa aeiaaaoe ioi?ieaiiy iiai? ie?ii? oaiaee oa
aeciaiiy oeooeo «ainoaea?ue anay ?one». Iaaaeaea ni?iaa o?aaoethaaiiy
oeeo ieoaiue, oaeoe/ii, i?ecaaea aei i?eieiaiiy aeeieiiaoe/ieo
a?aeiinei. C aiae?co aeaea?ae aeaeii, ui a 1498 ?. o Iinea? c?icoi?ee
iaieio/?noue iiai? a?eie c AEE ? ?icii/aee i?aeaioiaeo aei ?? ii/aoeo.
Iineianueeee o?yae c?iaea noaaeo ia ia noai?aiiy /enaeueii?, aea
iaeiaoaeoeaii? eiae?oe??, a ca?o/eany i?aeo?eieith E?einueeiai oainoaa,
a?ae yeiai iiaeia aoei io?eiaoe ?aaeueio aeiiiiiao. Ua iaeiiai nithcieea
ciaeoee ii oo noi?iio iineianueei-eeoianueeiai ei?aeiio. Iieacai? oaeiae
??ciiiai?oi? caniae aieeao Iineae ia eeoianueei-?onueeeo eiyc?a, a?ae
iaaaaeoaaiue i?i ooenee i?aaineaaii? a??e, aei ia?oeyiie ia?aaeaoe, o
?ac? ia?aoiaeo, «iiiaea ai?iaeu e aieinoe naie». Ni?iao oea?eiaii? oi??
aoei aeei?enoaii Iineaith ye i?ea?ae aeey ao?o/aiiy o aioo??oi? ni?aae
AEE.

I?aeaiooaaaoenue aei a?eie e?aua ca i?ioeaieea, IAe ?icii/aea ?? a
iaeni?eyoeea?oee aeey naaa /an. Aeieoiaioe na?ae/aoue, ui aa?aneaiee
oa?aeoa? ae?e Iineaa iaiaaaeany cia?aceoe ye caoeno i?aaineaaieo
i?aeaeaieo eeoianueeiai aaeeeiai eiycy, a caaa?aaiiy oa?eoi???
i?ioeaieea ye a?aeiiaeaiiy ?noi?e/ieo i?aa ia anth niaaeueio
Aeaaiuei?onueei? aea?aeaae.

Ae?oaee ia?aa?ao «Ii/aoie ai?iieo ae?e. Aeoaa ia ?.Aaae?ioa» ?ice?eaa?
ii/aoeiaee aoai a?eie ? aeaoaeueii aena?oeth? ae??oaeueio aeoao ia
?. Aaae?io?. Aieiaiith iiae??th ia?oi? iieiaeie 1500 ?. noaa ia?ao?ae ia
iineianueeo neoaeao n?aa?nueeeo eiyc?a N.?. Noa?iaeoanueeiai ?
A.?. Oaiy/e/a (aei 3 o?aaiy). Cyniao?oueny, ui aeaea?aea ii-??ciiio
aena?oeththoue ye iioeae ae?e eiyc?a, oae ? i?e/eie /a?aiai?
iineianueei-eeoianueei? a?eie. ?in?enuee? e?oiiene aeeeaaeathoue
io?oe?eio aa?n?th iiae?? («i?eoea ioaea i aa?a»), a
iieuenueei-eeoianuee? iia?aeiieythoue i?i iiia?aaeith oaiaeo i?ae
Iineaith ? eiycyie-c?aaeieeaie.

Oe?ieiianooaaia aoi?aiaiiy iineianueeeo a?enuee o iaae? AEE ?icii/aeiny
eeoa i?ney caaa?oaiiy anueiai eiiieaeno i?aeaioia/eo caoiae?a aei a?eie
? i?eaoooy eiyc?a N. Noa?iaeoanueeiai ? A. Oaiy/e/a a Iineao.

O eiioaeno? iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeeeee ?ioa?an iathoue aaciina?aaei?
a?enueeia? iiae??. Oiio, a aeena?oaoe?? aeieeaaeii ?icaeyaea?oueny aeoaa
i?ae iineianueeeie oa eeoianueeeie a?enueeaie ia ?. Aaae?ioa,–
aacia?a/ii, aieiaia iiae?y 1500 ?. C?iaeaii ni?iao ooi/ieoe
i?noea?icoaooaaiiy ?.Aaae?ioa, ieaie oa ae?? i?ioeaiee?a i?ae /an
aeoae. Cyniao?oueny, ui iineianueeei ai?aiaeai aaeaeiny iaaycaoe
i?ioeaieeo aeaniee ieai aeoae, e?aua i?aai?coaaoe aca?iiae?th ie?aieo
iiee?a, ui i?ecaaei aei ioi/aiiy ? ?ica?iio eeoianueeeo a?enuee.

Ii?acea ia Aaae?io? cana?ae/eea iani?iiiaei?noue AEE i?ioenoiyoe
aeanieie neeaie iineianuee?e aa?an??. IAe coi?ea ca ei?ioeee /an
caoiieoe aaee/aci? oa?eoi??? aeaaiuei?onueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue,
ui iaeaaeaee A?eueii. Oni?o Iineae o a?enueeia?e eiiiai?? 1500 ?. aoa
coiiaeaiee ia eeoa a?enueeiaeie ia?aiiaaie, a e iiceoe??th oae?eueieo
eiyc?a. Ia?ao?ae ia a?e ?aaia ??? N. Noa?iaeoanueeiai ? A. Oaiy/e/a aeaa
iiaeeea?noue IAe aac ai?ioueae caoiieoe oa?eoi??th *a?i?aiai-N?aa?nueeeo
caiaeue.

Aeieoiaioe na?ae/aoue i?i iaiaeiicia/ia noaaeaiiy i?noeaaeo aeeoae?a aei
iineianueei-eeoianueeiai eiioe?eoo. Ianaeaiiy eiyc?anueeeo oae?e?a,
oaeoe/ii, i?yeei /eiii ia a?ae?aaaoaaei ia ci?io naiai
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaiai noaoono. ?ioith aoea ?aaeoe?y ainiiaea?nueeeo i?no.
sseui a 80-90-o ?ieao XV no. i?eei?aeiiia eeoianueea aeaaea ua
iaiaaaeanue /eieoe ii?? iineianueeei «iaacaeai», oi a 1500 ?. i?noa ia
iiaee i?ioenoiyoe ianiaaiiio iaoeneo. Uia oieeiooe ?ici?aiiy i?ney
caoiieaiiy i?no iineianueeeie a?enueeaie, i?uaie aoee ciooai? i?enyaaoe
iiaiio ainoaea?th.

Cacia/aii oaeiae, ui iacaaaeath/e ia oaeoi? caaithaaiiy, iineianueea
aeaaea ia aoea iiiaaiethaa/ai aeey i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy, na?aeiii
oieeaea ?ici?aiiy i?e?aeiaieo oa?eoi??e oa caoeuaea ?o, cie?aia, a?ae
oaoa? Aaeeei? I?aee.

A o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? «A?enueeiai-iie?oe/i? iiae?? o 1501-1502 ??.»
aeieeaaeii ?icaeyaeathoueny caoiaee a?eainueeiai o?yaeo, iai?aaeai? ia
noai?aiiy aioeiineianueei? eiae?oe?? a neeaae? E?aiinueeiai i?aeaio,
Iieueu?, Aaeeei? I?aee, Oai?nueei-*anueei? aea?aeaae. A naith /a?ao, IAe
i?aaioea aei a?eueo o?nii? aca?iiae?? c E?einueeei oainoaii aeey
ae??oaeueiiai oaea?o ii Eeoianuee?e aea?aeaa?. A ?acoeueoao? neeaaeii?
aeeieiiaoe/ii? a?e A?eueii aaeaeiny ca?o/eoenue i?aeo?eieith
E?aiinueeiai i?aeaio oa I?aee. Ia iaoo aeoieo, naia nithcieee a?yooaaee
AEE a?ae iiaeaeueoeo ii?acie. Aei oiai ae, c 1501 ?. Iieueua ? Eeoaa
ciiao ia?aaoaaee a oi??.

Cyniao?oueny, ui ia oa?aeoa? iineianueeeo ae?e i?ioe AEE aieeioea
?iceeaeai?noue a?enueeiaeo nee Iineae ia ??cieo iai?yieao – i?ioe
E?aiinueeiai i?aeaio ? I?aee. Oi?iaeiaae 1501 ?. a?aeaoeany eeoa iaeia
iineianueei-eeoianueea aeoaa a?ey Inoeneaaey. Ia caaaeath/e ia ii?aceo
eeoiaoe?a, i?noi aeo?eiaei iineianueeo iaeiao. A ianooiiiio 1502 ?. IAe
cina?aaeeea coneeey ia iaieiae?ii? Niieainueeii. Iaaaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe?? aeai? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue a?aeiiaeoe iiae?? «niieainueei?
aiiia?», oa noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a iineianueei-eeoianuee?e ai?iouea?
onoaiiaeeanue iaaia ??aiiaaaa nee. I? AEE, i? eiai nithciee I?aeai ia
iaee ?aaeueieo oain?a ia oni?oia i?iaeiaaeaiiy a?eie c IAe. E?einueeee
oai ?ici?ea eeoianuee? caie? ? ?ica?iiea ?ioiai nithcieea Eeoae –
Aaeeeo I?aeo. Iaia?oii aoei ooeaoe ie?ia ae??oaiiy eiioe?eoo.

Aeaea?aea na?ae/aoue, ui ci?ieany oa?aeoa? a?eie ? aeey IAe. I?ney
i?eaieiiooth/eo oni?o?a 1500 ?., ca aeaa ?iee aeniaaeeeai? a?eie Iineaa
ia ciiaea caoiieoe ? oo?eiaoe aeiaeiiai c aaeeeeo eeoianueeeo i?no. E??i
iani?eyoeeai? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? IAe aaea ia iaea i?aeo?eiee
c aieo i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy, yea oaa/aei a i?e ai?iaa. *an eaaeeo
ia?aiia aoa oaea iicaaeo, a aeey iiaeo iio??ai? aoee iaaaaaoi a?eueo?
a?enueeia? coneeey, aei yeeo ia ii/aoeo XVI no. IAe aeyaeeany
iai?aeaioiaeaiith. Oa?eoi??aeuei? caaa?aaiiy aeaooiaoaaee iineianueeee
o?yae, aei oiai ae, noa??th/iai ?aaia ??? ana a?eueoa oo?aoaaee i?iaeaie
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua aea?aeaae. Naia oe? ianoaaeie
noai?thaaee, ia iao iiaeyae, iaiao?aei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ii/aoeo ie?ieo
ia?aaiai??a.

A caeeth/iiio ia?aa?ao? «Ia?aie?y 1503 ?. A?enueeiai-iie?oe/i?
i?aenoiee ai?ioueae» o?aoueiai ?icae?eo aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaaaeaii aiae?c «ia?aie?ii? a?aiioe» i?ae IAe oa AEE. Ca?aeii oaiaee,
Iineaa, oi?iaeueii ia «ia?aie?iua eaoa», caa??aaea iaeaea an? caoiieai?
oa?eoi???. Ia i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e ae?eyioe? ei?aeiio aei IAe ia?aoiaeeee
*a?i?aiai-N?aa?nuee? caie? – aieiae?iiy eiyc?a N.?. Noa?iaeoanueeiai,
A.?. Oaiy/e/a, Iinaeuenueeeo ? O?oaaoeueeeo, a oaeiae ?yae i?no –
A?yinuee, Ioeainuee, Iooeaeue oa ?io?. Ia cao?aeiiio iai?yieo Iineaa
io?eiaea Ae?iaiaoae, a ia i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e ae?eyioe? i?noa Oi?iiaoeue,
A?eay. Oaeei /eiii, ca ia?aie?iith oaiaeith 1503 ?. aei neeaaeo IAe
ia?aoiaeeea aaeeea oa?eoi??y ia anueiio i?ioyc?
iineianueei-eeoianueeiai ei?aeiio. AEE ao?a/aei 20 i?no, 70 aieinoae, 22
ai?iaeeua ? 13 aaeeeeo n?e, ui noaiiaeei iaeaea o?aoeio aea?aeaaii?
oa?eoi???. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo c?iaeaii ni?iao
anoaiiaeoe iineianueei-eeoianueeee ei?aeii 1503 ?. Iieacaii, ui iiaee
ei?aeii iaaeaaaa IAe ?yae nooo?aeo a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/eo
ia?aaaa iaae Eeoaith. Oaeiae aiae?cothoueny i?aenoiee
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae aeaio aea?aeaa.

A aeiaeaoeao ai?uaii 7 ?iaeia?aeieo noai, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?iaeeii?
caycee aieiaieo oaiaeaeueieo n?iae oa 3 ea?oe, ui ?ethno?othoue ianooaae
oa iane?aeee iineianueei-eeoianueei? ai?ioueae.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

· Ca?ieia ? aeeieiiaoe/ia ai?ioueaa i?ae Iineaith ? Eeoaith ia iaae?
XV-XVI no. aoea i?iaeiaaeaiiyi ai?ioueae ca iao?iiaae iaae ?onueeeie
caieyie, ui o?eaaea oi?iaeiaae XIV – ii/aoeo XV no.

· ?i?oe?aoeaa o ?icai?oaii? a?enueeiai? aeniain?? ia?aeoea aei IAe, yea
a e?ioe? XV no. ia?aeiaea i?ae nai?th aeaaeith caie? I?ai?/ii-No?aeii?
?on?.

· Aieiaieie i?iaeaiaie o iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?aeiineiao aoee:
i?iaeaia oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?iciaaeoaaiiy, noaiiaeua i?aaineaaiiai
ianaeaiiy, oeooeaoo?ii-oa?i?iieia?/ia ieoaiiy oa aeiiii?/i? ? iie?oe/i?
?ioa?ane Iineae o eeoianueeeo aieiae?iiyo.

· Noaiiaeua i?aaineaaii? oea?eae oa neiayinueeiai ianaeaiiy o AEE aoei
aeineoue ni?eyoeeaei.

· Iineianueei-eeoianueea ai?ioueaa i?ieoea ?yae aoai?a oa ioiieea cia/io
oa?eoi??th No?aeii? ?a?iie.

· Nooo?aee aieea ia oa?aeoa? ? ?acoeueoaoe iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?ei
e?ioey XV – ii/aoeo XVI no. iaea iiceoe?y eeoianueei-?onueeiai
ianaeaiiy.

· I?ae /an ai?iieo ae?e IAe ciiaea caoiieoe eeoa neaaei iiaycai? c
iniiaiei yae?ii AEE oa?eoi???, ?aooa caiaeue caeeoeeany eiyeueiith aei
A?eueii.

· Aeey i?e?aeiaiiy ? oo?eiaiiy aeaaiuei?onueeeo caiaeue iineianueeee
o?yae, e??i a?enueeiai? neee, aeei?enoiaoaaa oaanue a?naiae iie?oe/ieo,
aeeieiiaoe/ieo oa ?aeaieia?/ieo i?eeii?a ? caoiae?a.

· Aoiaeaeaiiy aeaaiuei?onueeeo caiaeue aei neeaaeo IAe ia aoei
aeia?ia?eueiei aicc?aeiaiiyi c iath. Oaeoe/ii, aiii oyaeyei niaith
a?enueeiaa caaa?aaiiy aea?aeaaii? oa?eoi??? i?ioeaieea c ianooiiith ??
aiaen??th.

· Iineianueei-eeoianuee? a?eie e?ioey XV – ii/aoeo XVI no. iaee cia/iee
aieea ia i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie a No?aei?e ? Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Eacaeia I.I. Iineianueei-eeoianueea a?eia 1500-1503 ??. ca
oe?a?inuee? caie?.- Ee?a: OIA «I?aeia?iaeia o?iainiaa aaaioe?y», 1998.-
50 n.

2. Eacaeia I.I., Ii?aea?ioeaa A.I. Iaeia?aeii? noi??iee
iineianueei-eeoianueei? ai?ioueae ca aeaaiuei?onuee? caie? ia iaae?
70-80-o ?ie?a XV no.- Ee?a: OIA «I?aeia?iaeia o?iainiaa aaaioe?y»,
1997.- 28 n.

3. Eacaeia I.I. Aeoaa ia ?. Aaae?io? 15 eeiiy 1500 ?. // Oe?a?inueeee
?noi?e/iee aeo?iae.– 1998.– ?5.– N.52-63.

4. Eacaeia I.I., Ii?aea?ioeaa A.I. Ia?a?cae eiyc?a Aeeinueeeo ia
?in?enueeo neoaeao a e?ioe? XV – ia ii/aoeo XVI noie?ooy (ca aeaieie
?iaeia?aeii? iaiyo? i?i eiyc?a Aeeinueeeo) // A?niee Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. ?noi??y.- Aeione 35.- Ee?a: ?AOe
«Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao», 1997.- N.13-19.

5. Eacaeia I.I. Anoaiiaeaiiy ?in?enueei-eeoianueeiai ei?aeiio
ia?aie?iith a?aiioith 1503 ?. // A?niee Ee?anueeiai ?inoeoooo
«Neiayinueeee oi?aa?neoao».– Aeione 1.– Ee?a: Iie?a?ao?/ia ae?eyiea
E?NO, 1988.– N.169-176.

6. Eacaeia I.I., Eiceoeueeee I.TH. Ai?ioueaa Iineianueei? aea?aeaae c
Aaeeeei eiyc?anoaii Eeoianueeei ca oe?a?inuee? caie? a e?ioe? XV – ia
ii/aoeo XVI no. // Noi??iee ?noi???.- Ee?a: III «Iiiieiio», 1994.-
Ei.2.- *.1.- N.111-116.

Aiioaoe?y

Eacaeia I.I. Iineianueei-eeoianueea ai?ioueaa ca aeaaiuei?onuee? caie? a
e?ioe? XV – ia ii/aoeo XVI no. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02 – anana?oiy ?noi??y.- Caii??cueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Caii??aeaey, 1998.

A aeena?oaoe?? ia oe?ie?e aeaea?aeuei?e aac? aeine?aeaeothoueny i?e/eie,
oa?aeoa? oa ia?aa?a iineianueei-eeoianueei? ai?ioueae ca aeaaiuei?onuee?
caie? ia iaae? XV-XVI no., aecia/athoueny ?? ?acoeueoaoe ? iane?aeee
aeey aea?aeaa No?aeii? ?a?iie. C?iaeaii ni?iao iaoeiaiai aiae?co iiae?e
iineianueei-eeoianueeeo a?ei oa aecia/ai? aoaie ai?ioueae i?ae
Iineianueeith aea?aeaaith ? Aaeeeei eiyc?anoaii Eeoianueeei. Ia iniia?
nenoaiaoecaoe?? oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aoee oaeineiiaeai? aaiaaeia?/i?
noaie ?iaeiaiae?a eiyc?a. Ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iie?oeei-i?aaiaa ? eiioan?eia
noaiiaeua neiayinueeeo caiaeue o neeaae? Eeoianueei? aea?aeaae oa
i?iaiae?ciaaii i?iaeaio iie?oe/iiai aeai?o i?ae Iineaith ? A?eueii.
Ia?aaeyiooi ?yae canoa??eeo iieiaeaiue oa ioe?iie, ui iaee i?noea a
?noi??ia?ao??, ii-iiaiio ?ioa?i?aoothoueny iiae?? ? aeniiaee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Iineianueea aea?aeaaa, Aaeeea eiyc?anoai Eeoianueea,
i?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie, a?enueeiaa ai?ioueaa, aa?an?y, ie?iee aeiaia??,
aiaen?y, aea?aeaaiee ei?aeii.

Aiiioaoeey

Eacaeia A.A. Iineianei-eeoianeay ai?ueaa ca ae?aaia?onneea caiee a
eiioea XV– ia/aea XVI a. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 – anaie?iay enoi?ey.- Caii?iaeneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Caii?iaeuea, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee ia oe?ieie enoi?e/aneie aaca enneaaeiaaiu i?e/eiu,
oa?aeoa? e oiae iineianei-eeoianeie ai?ueau ca ae?aaia?onneea caiee ia
?oaaaea XV–XVI aa., ii?aaeaeaiu aa ?acoeueoaou e iineaaenoaey aeey
ainoaea?noa Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu. Naeaeaia iiiuoea iao/iiai aiaeeca niauoee
iineianei-eeoianeeo aiei e ii?aaeaeaiu yoaiu ai?ueau iaaeaeo Iineianeei
ainoaea?noaii e Aaeeeei eiyaeanoaii Eeoianeei. Ia iniiaa nenoaiaoecaoeee
oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea auee oniaa?oainoaiaaiu aeiaaeiae/aneea noaiu
eiyaeaneeo ?iaeineiaiuo. I?iaaaeai aiaeec iieeoeei-i?aaiaiai e
eiioanneiiaeueiiai iieiaeaiey neaayineeo caiaeue Eeoianeiai ainoaea?noaa
e i?iaiaeece?iaaia i?iaeaia auai?a iaaeaeo Iineaie e Aeeueii.
Ia?aniio?ai ?yae onoa?aaoeo iieiaeaiee e ioeaiie, eiaaoeo ianoi a
enoi?eia?aoee, ii-iiaiio eioa?i?aoe?othony niauoey e auaiaeu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Iineianeia ainoaea?noai, Aaeeeia eiyaeanoai Eeoianeia,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey, aiaiiay ai?ueaa, aa?anney, ie?iue aeiaiai?,
aiiaeney, ainoaea?noaaiiay a?aieoea.

Annotation

Kazakow A.A. The Struggle between Moscow State and Lithuania for the
Ancient Russ lands in the end of XVth and by the beginning of XVIth
centuries.- Manuscript.

The dissertation for Candidate’s (Master’s) degree of History by
speciality 07.00.02.- World History.- Zaporozhye State University,
Zaporozhye, 1998.

In this dissertation the reasons, character and course of struggle
between Moscow State and Lithuania for Ancient Russ lands on boundary
of XVth — XVIth centuries are investigated upon wide historical base.
The results and effects of this research work are determined for the
countries of Eastern Europe. It is made the attempt to carry out
scientific analysis of warfare between Moscow State and the Great
Lithuanian Princedom, and to define their main periods. On the ground of
systematized factual material were improved genealogical schemes of the
Princes’ families. The analysis of political, legal and religious
conditions of Lithuanian lands is carried out, also the problem of
choice between Moscow and Vilno is analyzed. A great number of
out-of-date statements and estimations having appeared in the
historiography are reconsidered; events and conclusions are newly
interpreted.

Key words: Moscow State, Great Lithuanian Princedom, international
relations, military struggle, aggression, peace treaty, annexation,
state border.

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