2

I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? I.I.AIAIIIEUeOess

OAeE 616.613-007.63+616-008

EEOAEIAOeUe ?aaai Aioiiiae/

II?OIOOIEOe?IIAEUeI? CI?IE IA?AIO?IE OA I?E?IOeE?EOEssOI?IIAI ?ONEA
IE?EE I?E A?Ae?IIAO?IOE*I?E O?AINOI?IAOe??

14.03.01 — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aiaoii?? ethaeeie ?aaii-O?aie?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee ae?y/
iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, Oooea Aiaaeai Aaneeueiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
aiaoii?? ethaeeie ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iinia Aiaoie?e
Oeiio?eiae/ — caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi??? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? ?inoeoooo
iae?io??o?a?? ?i aeaae. A.I. ?iiiaeaiiaa AII Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, *i?iieoeuenueeee Na?a?e Oeiio?eiae/ — aeioeaio
eaoaae?e aiaoii?? ethaeeie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao
I.I.Aiaiiieueoey aiaoii?? ethaeeie, IIC Oe?a?ie i.Oa?e?a.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «_15__»_____04____1999?. i13;30
___aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.003.04
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey (252057,
Oe?a?ia, i.Ee?a-57, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 34, ii?oieia?/iee ei?ion, aoae.
?3).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey (252057, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Ciieia?/ia,1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «_26__»_______02_____1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
A.A.*a?eania

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

A?ae?iiao?ioe/ia o?ainoi?iaoe?y (AO) — caoai?thaaiiy ie?ee, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?ia?anoth/ei ?icoe?aiiyi /aoa/eiai-ieneiai? nenoaie a
?acoeueoao? ii?ooaiiy a?aeoieo na/? ?c iine?aeoth/ith iinooiiaith
ao?io??th ia?aio?ie ? iia??oaiiyi an?o iniiaieo ooieoe?e. Aeaia
iaoieia?y cono??/a?oueny, a iniiaiiio, a in?a c??eiai a?eo, i?ioiaeeoue
/a?ac aeae?eueea ee?i?/ieo noaae?e ? i?e aeaionoi?iii?e iaoieia??
?icaeaa?oueny ie?eiaa iaaeinoaoi?noue, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei
?iaae?aeecaoe?? oai?iai, a a oa?i?iaeuei?e noaae?? ? aei eaoaeueiiai
e?ioey.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

Inoaii?i /anii ?ioa?an i?aeoe/ieo e?ea??a ? ii?oieia?a aei ieoaiiy
a?ae?iiao?ico cia/ii c??n a ca’yceo c aeinyaiaiiyi a?aeiiaii? o??o?a??.
Iie?auaiiy iaoiae?a iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy, iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaii
ai?ioenue c ?ioaeoe??th noai?eee ia?aaeoiiae aeey oeeo aeinyaiaiue. Aea
a?eueo oe?oa aeei?enoaiiy a?aeiiaieo iia?aoe?e, a?aeiiaa a?ae
iao?aeoii?e, iaa?oue o aeiaaeeao caiouaii? a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? i?eaaee aei aeayeiai ?ic/a?oaaiiy. Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui
iaa?oue i?e ?aeaaeueiiio a?aeiiaeaii? i?io?aeiino? ieneiai-na/ia?aeiiai
naaiaioo ia caaaeaee aaea?oueny aeinyaoe cieeiaiiy noaco a ienoe? ?
a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? iioeiaeaeaii? ie?ee. Ioaea, oni?o ei?aaoth/iai
iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee a?ae iaenoa?iino? o??o?aa ?
ai?iiy aea?aoe iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoiee aeey aeaiiai aeiaaeeo aa??aio
ieanoe/ii? iia?aoe??, aea ? a?ae ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i, ye?
ianooieee a ie?oe? ? aa?oi?o na/iaeo oeyoao aei iiiaioo iia?aoe??.

A?eueo?noue aeine?aeaeaiue ii oe?e i?iaeai? i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi
iaoiaaiaco oa e?eoaaiiy (A.O.Eenaeaaa, 1974; N.Ae.Aieeai?neee, 1975;
TH.E.Aeaenei, 1984; A.A.Aaaooaaeea, 1984; ss.?.Eeeie/, 1987;
A.N.Ea?iaiei, 1991; A.A.Oiean, 1993). I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui a iaoai?ci?
?icaeoeo oeueiai caoai?thaaiiy aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue ci?ie a
e?iaiiiniiio ? e?ioaoe/iiio ?one? ie?ee, ye? iinooiiai i?eaiaeyoue aei
ao?io?? iiceiai?, a iio?i ? e??eiai? ?a/iaeie. Aea a aeeiai?oe? ?icaeoeo
a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? caeeoathoueny ua iaeiaea/aieie
no?oeoo?i? ci?ie ??cieo a?aeae?e?a iao?iia oa i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
?onea, iniaeeai ia aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iiio ??ai?. Iaia? /?oei
aeae?eaieo iinoaae?eieo ci?i ia?aio?ie ? aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
ie?ee i?e ee?i?/iiio a?ae?iiao?ic?, ii??aiyiiy ii?oieia?/ieo oa
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i ia aoaiao ?icaeoeo caoai?thaaiiy.

Ee?i?ei-aenia?eiaioaeueia, eiiieaenia aea/aiiy aeacaieo ieoaiue c
aeei?enoaiiyi na?oeiiioe/iiai, aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iiai,
ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?iiai iaoiae?a aeicaieeoue ?icoe?eoe oa iiaeeaeoe
oyaeaiiy i?i noai ia?aio?ie oa aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ie?ee ia
??cieo noaae?yo a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii ?aaii-O?aie?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ? ? /anoeiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie
eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? ethaeeie ? eo?no o?ieia?? A.I.03.01.040.95
«Ee?i?ei-aenia?eiaioaeueia aea/aiiy ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea oa ia?aio?ie ie?ee i?e a?ae?iiao?ioe/i?e
o?ainoi?iaoe??».

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c aeacaieo aeua i??eoaaiue, canoinoaaaoe eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae
aei aea/aiiy ii?oiaaiaco AO, iinoaaeee ca iaoo aecia/eoe a ee?i?oe? oa a
aenia?eiaio? noai ia?aio?ie, aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ie?ee a
ii?i? ? ia aoaiao ?icaeoeo aeaiiai caoai?thaaiiy, ii??aiyoe ii?oieia?/i?
oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie i?e aeai?e iaoieia??.

A ?iaio? iinoaaeai? ianooii? eiie?aoi? caaea/?:

1. No?oeoo?i? a?aeiioaiiy iao?ii?a ? aaiieai?ey??a ie?ee ethaeeie oa
a?eiai uo?a a ii?i?.

2. Ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie ia?aio?ie ? aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
ie?ee ethaeeie i?e ??cieo noaae?yo AO.

3. Oa?aeoa? ci?i ??cieo a?aeae?e?a iao?iio ? aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
?onea ie?ee ia aoaiao ?icaeoeo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai a?ae?iiao?ico.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia, ee?i?ei-aenia?eiaioaeueia, na?oeiiioe/ia,
aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ia, ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaiaio?a ie?ee ? i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
a ee?i?oe? oa i?e iiaeaethaaii? AO. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe iathoue
cia/aiiy aeey iiaeeaeaiiy ?icoi?iiy no?oeoo?ieo iniia ii?oi- oa
iaoiaaiaco oeueiai caoai?thaaiiy a aeeiai?oe? eiai ?icaeoeo.
Aeine?aeaeaiiyi noaio aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ie?ee, eiai
aeiia?oey?ieo ? ia?eooaoey?ieo eai?ey??a ?ice?eaa?oueny cia/aiiy
noaeeiiiai oaeoi?a a iaoai?ci? eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueii?
ia?aaoaeiae i?aaio i?e ??cieo noaae?yo a ee?i?oe? ? ia aoaiao ?icaeoeo
aenia?eiaioaeueii? AO. Aecia/ai? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo a?aeoai?aii? a
aenia?eiaio? AO, aea/aii oiie? ? ?aii? iioeiaeaeaiiy ??cieo a?aeae?e?a
iao?ii?a oa aaiieai?ey??a ie?ee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

?acoeueoaoe ee?i?ei-aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeaiiai ia
na?oeiiioe/iiio ? aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iiio ??aiyo iathoue cia/aiiy aeey
iiaeeaeaiiai ?icoi?iiy no?oeoo?ieo iniia ii?oi- ? iaoiaaiaco AO a
aeeiai?oe? ?? ?icaeoeo. Aeine?aeaeaiiyi noaio i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
ie?ee ? ?? aeiia?oey?ieo ? ia?eooaoey?ieo eai?ey??a i?e AO
?ice?eaa?oueny cia/aiiy noaeeiiiai oaeoi?a a iaoai?ci? eiiiainaoi?ii?
ia?aaoaeiae i?aaio ia aoaiao caoai?thaaiiy.

Aeei?enoaiee eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aeicaieea aea/eoe oiie? ? ?aii?
iioeiaeaeaiiy, i?ioean ia?inoaiiy ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i a
eaiaeueoeaai-noaeeii?e nenoai? ie?ee a ee?i?oe? oa i?e iiaeaethaaii? AO,
ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie i?e ??cieo noaae?yo AO.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe i?i no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniiae iaoai?cio
AO aoaeooue ni?eyoe iiaeeaeaiith iniia iaoiaaiaoe/iiai e?eoaaiiy AO,
aeai?o aaeaeaaoiiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy i?e ??cieo noaae?yo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

Aianie aaoi?a a iaea?aeaii? ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o aeai?? iai?yieo,
ianyao, iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, a iinoaiiaoe? iaoe oa oi?ioaaii?
caaaeaiue, i?iaaaeaii? ee?i?/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a
aiae?c? oa ocaaaeueiaii? ?o ?acoeueoao?a, iaa?oiooaaii? aeniiae?a
?iaioe, a oaeiae i?aeaioiaoe? aeaieo aei ioae?eaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?ai? ia 29-e iaeani?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo — iaaeee?a (1997), ia V? eiia?an?
o?ieia?a (Oa?e?a, 1998); ia can?aeaii? ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiai oiaa?enoaa
aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a ? aia??ieia?a (1997/1998) oa ia can?aeaii? iaeanii?
anioe?aoe?? o?ieia?a (1998).

Ioae?eaoe??.

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 3 noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 1
noaooy a iaoa??aeao V? I?aeia?iaeiiai eiia?ano o?ieia?a ? 1-a iaoa??aeao
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??.

Aeena?oaoe?y iaae?oeiaaia ia 176 noi?. iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, iaienaiiai
/a?ac 2 ?ioa?aaee. Ia? anooi ? 5 ?icae?e?a: iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??aee
? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
iiae?eai? ia 3 ?icae?ee ? 8 i?ae?icae?e?a, iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeniiae?a, ui neeaaeathoueny c 8 ioieo?a. Aeena?oaoe?y
?ethno?iaaia 84 ?enoieaie, 1 noaiith ? 8 oaaeeoeyie. Nienie aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e ai?uo? 271 aeaea?aei a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ? ia?aio?ie ie?ee ethaeeie
i?e ??cieo noaae?yo AO aea/aee ia eoni/eao oeaieie ie?ee, acyoeo i?ae
/an i?aaiicaa??aath/eo iia?aoe?e oa iao?aeoii?e o 37 oai?eo c aeaiith
iaoieia??th. Eiio?ieai aoei 5 ie?ie, caa?aieo ia naeoe?? a 5 in?a, ye?
caaeioee a?ae /a?aiii-iiceiai? o?aaie ? a yeeo ia aoei aeyaeaii
caoai?thaaiiy ? iaoieia?? ie?ie.

A aenia?eiaio? AO aea/aee ia 35 a?eeo uo?ao iaio noaoae. Ia i?ioyc?
anueiai aenia?eiaioo oaa?ei oo?eioaaee o a?aa??? ia iaoo?aeueiiio ei?i?.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo a ?iaio? caaea/ canoiniaai? ne?aeoth/?
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. A?noieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aio?ie ie?ee ? ??
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea.

2. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?iee aiae?c oeaieiieo aeaiaio?a ie?ee ?
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea.

3. Ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ia, ?aioaaiieia?/ia oa oeueo?acaoeiaa ianoaaeaiiy
oai?eo a aeiiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?.

4. Iiaeaethaaiiy a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a aenia?eiaio?.

A?noieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aio?ie ie?ee ? ??
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea.

Eoni/ee ie?ee o?enoaaee a 10% iaeo?aeueiiio oi?iae?i? ia i?ioyc? 2-3
oeaei?a c o?ueio?aciaith ci?iith o?enaoi?a, iaacaiaeithaaee a nie?oao
c?inoath/i? eiioeaio?aoe?? ? caeeaaee a ia?ao?iia? aeiee. C??ce
oiaueiith 5-7 iei. caaa?aethaaee aaiaoienee?i — aiceiii ii Aaeaa?oo c
aeioa?aiaoaaiiyi ii Aai-A?ciio.

Aeey a?aooaaiiy ci?i ia?aiao??a ie?eiaeo eaiaeueoe?a aei??yee ?o
ciai?oi?e ae?aiao?, oiaueio no?iee, ae?aiao? i?ina?oo. I?iaiaeeee
i?e?iii?oiiao??th ie?eiaeo o?eaoeue ? ?o eeoai/e?a. Ieiuo ie?eiaeo
o?eaoeue ? eeoai/e?a aecia/aee ii oi?ioe?:
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aea /4=0,785;

D — aaeeeee ae?aiao?;

d — iaeee ae?aiao?.

Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaia ia ia?niiaeueiiio
eiii’thoa?? ii i?ia?ai? STAT 10 (aecia/aiiy na?aaeiueiai iieacieea (I),
na?aaeiuei? eaaae?aoii? iioeaee (m), eiao?oe??ioa aa??aoe?? (Cv),
e?eoa??th Nouethaeaioa (t) oa nooiaiy aeinoia??iino? ??cieoe?
ii??aithaaieo aaee/ei (P).

Oeueo?ano?oeoo?iee aiae?c oeaieiieo aeaiaio?a ie?ee ?
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea.

Aeey aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iao?ii?a ?
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea a ??ci? oa?i?ie a?ae?iiao?ico caae?aee
eoni/ee ie?ee i?ae /an i?aaiicaa??aath/eo iia?aoe?e oa iao?aeoii?e o
oai?eo c aeaiith iaoieia??th oa a aenia?eiaio? o a?eeo uo??a. Caa??
iaoa??aeo i?iaiaeeee ii caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo i?aaeeao. Eoni/ee ie?eiai?
oeaieie o?enoaaee ia i?ioyc? 1,5-2 aiae. c o?e?aciaith ci?iith ?ic/eio
ini?th. I?ney o?enaoe?? oeaieii? aeiee a?aeieaaee a?ae iaaeeeoe?a
o?enaoi?a 0,1 I oinoaoiei aooa?ii c iine?aeoth/ith aeaa?ae?aoaoe??th a
nie?oao c?inoath/i? eiioeaio?aoe??. I?ney cae?i/aiiy aeaa?ae?aoaoe??
aeiee iine?aeiaii i?ini/oaaee a o?ueio ci?iao aiiio c a?aeae?oii (ii 1
aiae. a eiaeiiio). I?ney oeueiai iii?uaee a eainoee ? caeeaaee niieith c
iine?aeoth/ith iie?ia?ecaoe??th i?e oaiia?aoo?? +560N ia i?ioyc? 1
aeiae. Iai?aoiie? c??ce c ieo, oiaueiith 1-2ii, caaa?aethaaee 1%
?ic/eiii iaoeeaiiaiai neiueiai aeey na?oeiiioe/iiai aea/aiiy. I?ney
oeueiai ia oeueo?ai?e?ioii? Tesla BS 490 A iaea?aeoaaee c??ce ?
eiio?anooaaee ?o ii ?aeiieueaeno. Aea/aiiy ? oioia?aooaaiiy iaoa??aeo
i?iaiaeeee ia i?e?ineii? ia?ee AI-100 AE i?e onei?thth/eo iai?oaao 75,
100 ea c iine?aeoth/ei oioici?iaiiyi i?e ca?eueoaii? a?ae 2000 aei 50000
?ac.

Ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ia, ?aioaaiieia?/ia oa oeueo?acaoeiaa ianoaaeaiiy
oai?eo a aei iia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?.

On?i oai?ei, a yeeo i?ae /an iia?aoe?? caae?aany iaoa??ae aeey
ii?oieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeiiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? i?iaiaeeeinue
ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?ia, ?aioaaiieia?/ia oa oeueo?acaoeiaa ianoaaeaiiy.
?aioaaiieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/aei a naaa i?iaaaeaiiy iaeyaeiai?,
aene?aoi?ii? o?ia?aie oa ?aioaaiioaeaneii?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy. I?e
aeyaeaii? ia aene?aoi?ieo o?ia?aiao iaooieoe?iioth/i? “i?ii?” ie?ee,
i?iaiaeeeanue ?ao?ia?aaeia i??eio?aoa?ia?ao?y. ?aioaaiianoaaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeinue ia aia?ao? Turd — 800-1. 8-ie oai?ei aeeiiaia eiii‘thoa?ia
oiiia?ao?y. Oeueo?acaoeiaa ianoaaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue ia aia?ao? AU — 530
(Biomedica). E??i oeueiai on?i oai?ei i?iaaaeaii caaaeueiii?eeiyoa
eaai?aoi?ia ianoaaeaiiy a ee?i?/i?e eaai?aoi??? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii?
e?ea?i? (caaaeueiee aiae?c e?ia? c oi?ioeith, caaaeueiee aiae?c na/?,
aiae?c na/? ii Ia/eii?aiei, i?iao ii Ceiieoeueeiio, a?io?i?/iee aiae?c
e?ia? (a?eee, a?e??oa?i, na/iaeia, e?aaoei?i, aeaeo?ie?oe, oeoei?).

Iiaeaethaaiiy a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? a aenia?eiaio?.

I?ae ao??ii-ianeiaei ia?eicii oaa?eiai a noa?eeueieo oiiaao i?iaiaeeee
na?aaeeiio eaia?ioii?th ? ia?aa‘yceo e?aiai na/iaiaeo a aa?oi?e eiai
o?aoei? oiaeiaith e?aaoo?ith. A ??ci? oa?i?ie i?ney iia?aoe?? (1, 3, 7,
14, 30, 60 ae?a) i?ae ao??ii-ianeiaei ia?eicii oaa?ei caaeaaee.
A?ae?iiao?ioe/i? ie?ee aeaeaeyee, i?iaiaeeee ?o caaaeoaaiiy c na/ath ?
i?ney ?? aeaeaeaiiy, aei??thaaee ?o aeiaaeeio, oe?eio, oiaueio.

Ii?oieia?/ia aoaeiaa ie?ee ethaeeie oa a?eiai uo?a a ii?i?.

sse a?aeiii, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiith iaeeieoeath ie?ee neoaeeoue
iao?ii. A?i neeaaea?oueny c aeaiono?ieiai? eainoee, yea ioiieth?
a?oa??aeueiee eeoai/ie, i?ieneieueiiai caeaenoiai, i?ieneiaeueiiai
i?yiiai eaiaeueoey, iaoe? iao?iia, yea ia? ieco?aeio ? aeno?aeio
/anoeie, aeenoaeueiiai i?yiiai ? aeenoaeueiiai caeaenoiai eaiaeueoey.
Iine?aei?e ia?aoiaeeoue a ca??io ie?eiao o?oai/eo. Eainoea eeoai/ea ia?
ciai?oith ? aioo??oith no?iee. Inoaiiy ooai?aia ieineeie ai?oae?aeueieie
ee?oeiaie iai?aaeeueii? oi?ie — iiaeioeeoaie, ye? ioiieththoue eai?ey?e
eeoai/ea. Ciai?oiy no?iea eainoee neeaaea?oueny c aacaeueii? iaia?aie,
ia aioo??oi?e iiaa?oi? yei? a iaeei oa? ?ici?uothoueny ai?oae?aeuei?
ieine? ee?oeie. Ii?iaeieia eainoee ia?aoiaeeoue a eaiaeueoeaaee iiethn,
yeee aaciina?aaeiuei c‘?aeio?oueny c i?ina?oii i?ieneiaeueiiai
caeaenoiai eaiaeueoey, yeee aenoaeaiee i?inoei eoa?/iei ai?oae??i. A
ai?oae?? i?ieneiaeueiiai eaiaeueoey ?ic??ciythoue 3 ciie: ai?eaeueio,
i?ii?aeio ? aacaeueio. Ai?eaeueia ciia i?aaenoaaeaia u?oi/eiaith
iaeyi?aeith. I?ii?aeia ?ici?uaia i?ae oe??th iaeyi?aeith ? ai?eaeueiith
ciiith i?oioiiae??e. I?oioiiae??? ?acii c eaia?aie, a yeeo aiie
ciaoiaeyoueny, neeaaeathoue aacaeueio ciio. U?oi/eiaa iaeyi?aea
i?aaenoaaeaia aaeeeith e?euee?noth oeeoiieaciaoe/ieo i?e?iai?neiie.
ssae?i ai?oae?aeueii? ee?oeie ?ici?uo?oueny a oeaio?? ?? i?ii?aeii?
ciie, aeeae/a aei a?eueo oe?iei? iniiae. Aiii ia? iaaeueio oi?io ?
ioi/aia ea??ieaiith, yea neeaaea?oueny c ciai?oiuei? ? aioo??oiuei?
iaia?aie. Oe? iaia?aie ?icae?eai? ia?eioeeaa?iei i?inoi?ii. A
oeeoiieaci? ee?oeie aecia/a?oueny aeia?a ?icaeiooa a?aioey?ia
oeeoiieaciaoe/ia n?oea c oa?aeoa?ieie ae??aieie eaiaeueoeyie ?
oeenoa?iaie. A ia?eioeeaa?i?e oeeoiieaci?, aeeae/a aei ai?eaeueii?
/anoeie ee?oeie, ciaoiaeeoueny ieanoei/anoee eiiieaen Aieueaeae?.
Aaeee? i?oioiiae??? ?ici?uai? a aacaeuei?e cii? ee?oeie acaeiaae ??
aeiaai? in?. Aiie aeoyaiooi? oi?ie ? ioi/ai? ciai?oiueith ?
aioo??oiueith u?eueieie e?iii?ioa?aeieie iaia?aiaie. A?ae aioo??oiuei?
iaia?aie a?aeoiaeyoue /?oei i???ioiaai?, ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei aeiaaeeie
i?oioiiae??? e?enoe. I?oioiiae??? ?ici?uothoueny a eaia?ao —
eiiia?oiaioao, ooai?aieo aeeaieeie, /anoi ia?aeaeueieie o?aaaeoey?ieie
?iaaa?iaoe?yie aacaeueii? iaia?aie ee?oei. Ii/aoeiaee a?aeae?e
ieco?aeii? /anoeie iaoe? iao?iia neeaaea? aaciina?aaei? i?iaeiaaeaiiy
i?yii? /anoeie i?ieneiaeueiiai eaiaeueoey. Ii i??? iaaeeaeaiiy aei
oiiei? /anoeie iaoe? ai?oae?ioeeoe iinooiiai nieiuothoueny, u?oi/eiaa
iaeyi?aea noa? aonoith, e?euee?noue i?e?iai?neiie ciaioo?oueny.
Oeeoiieacia ee?oei i?noeoue iaioo e?euee?noue i?aaiae, cie?aia,
i?oioiiae??e, ye? aei?i/othoueny ? ie?oaeythoueny. I?e ia?aoiae? a
oiieee naaiaio i?ina?o eaiaeueoey cia/ii caoaeo?oueny, a ee?oeie, ye?
eiai aenoaeythoue ??cei nieiuothoueny. Iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iith
iniaeea?noth niaoe?ae?caoe?? ieineeo ee?oei ? aaaaoi/eneaii? a?ae?inoee,
ye? iaaeathoue ?i oi?io ii?nueei? c??ee. A?ae?inoee ?ici?uai? ia
aacaeuei?e iaia?ai?, ceaaea c?aioo? oa ?ioaa?othoue c oaeeie ae
non?aei?o ee?oei. Oeeoiieacia ieineeo ee?oei oiieiai eaiaeueoey na?oea,
i?noeoue ae??ai? ie?oae? aai iaaeuei? i?oioiiae???, ??aee?, aocuee? ?
i?noeyie ?icoe?ai? oeenoa?ie c i?ee??ieaieie aei ?o i?io?e?a
?eainiiaie. ssae?a e?oaei? aai iaaeueii? oi?ie, caeiathoue oeaio?aeueia
iieiaeaiiy. Eiiieaen Aieueaeae? ia? ia?aioeeaa?io eieae?caoe?th,
i?aaenoaaeaiee a?oiith ae??aieo aaeoieae ? i?oo?oe?a. Aeenoaeueiee
eaiaeaoeue neeaaea?oueny c i?yiiai (oianoee aeno?aeiee naaiaio) ?
caeaenoiai a?aeae?e?a. I?ina?o eaiaeueoey aenoaeaiee cna?aaeeie
ee?oeiaie eoa?/ii? oi?ie, ye? ia iathoue u?oi/eiai? iaeyi?aee.
Ai?eaeueia iiaa?oiy ee?oei aeno?aeii? /anoeie eaiaeueoey ia??aia, ?c
neaai oaeeynoeie eiioo?aie. Aiia iie?eoa iiaa?oiaaith iaia?aiith ?
i?noeoue iaaaeeeo e?euee?noue iaeaiueeeo aocueeeo ? ei?ioeeo
i?e?iai?neiie. Na?aae ieo cono??/athoueny ? a?eueo aeiaa?
oeeoiieaciaoe/i? ae?inoe c aocueeeie i?aeeaie ? ?icoe?aiith /anoeiith,
yea iiaa?iooa a i?ina?o eaiaeueoey. A ai?eaeuei?e oeeoiieaci?
aecia/a?oueny aaaaoi ooaoey?ieo ?iaaa?iaoe?e, ae??aieo i?oo?oe?a,
aaeoieae. ssae?a ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oei e?oaei? aai iaaeueii? oi?ie. A
eiiieaen? Aieueaeae? ia?aaaaea? aaeoiey?iee eiiiiiaio. A aacaeuei?e
/anoei? ee?oeie i?ae yae?ii ?ici?uothoueny aaaaoi i?oioiiae??e
ia?aaaaeii aeiaaanoi?, ceaaea c?aiooi? oi?ie, i???ioiaai? a
iiacaeiaaeiueiio iai?yi?. Aiie onooiathoue a /ene? ee?oeiai
i?ieneiaeueiiai eaiaeueoey ? iathoue iaio? ?ici??e. Caeaenoa /anoeia
aeenoaeueiiai eaiaeueoey a oiio i?noe?, aea aiia iaaeeaea?oueny aei
noaeeiiiai iiethno eeoai/ea, anooia? /anoeiith nai?? no?iee a o?niee
eiioaeo c i?eiiniith eeoai/eiaith a?oa??ieith ? ?ici?uaieie iiaeeco
thenoaaaneoey?ieie ee?oeiaie. Ee?oeie oe??? /anoeie eaiaeueoey aocuee?,
?ici?uai? a?eueo eiiiaeoii, yae?a ?o ?aeue?oii aenooiathoue, eiiieaen
Aieueaeae? eaaeeoue i?ae yae?ii. Oey ae?eyiea eaiaeueoey a?aeiia an?i
i?ae iacaith u?eueii? ieyie.

Ca??i? ie?eia? o?oai/ee. Aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii
iayai?noue na?aae ai?oae?ioeeo?a, ye? aenoaeythoue oe?ieee i?ina?o
o?oai/ee, na?oeeo ? oaiieo ee?oei. Na?oe? ee?oeie iathoue eoa?/io
oi?io, caaacia/ai? ia ethi?iaeuei?e iiaa?oi? ei?ioeeie, ??aeeeie
i?e?iai?neieaie. A?aeiieacia iecueei? aeaeo?iiii? u?eueiino? i?noeoue
iaaaeeeo e?euee?noue i?aaiae. I?oioiiae??? ae??ai?, ia?aaaaeii e?oaei?
aai iai?aeii? oi?ie, ?icae?eythoueny a?eueoa a aacaeuei?e /anoei?
ee?oeie i?ae neeaaeeaie, ca‘ycaieie c ee?oeiiith iaia?aiith. Iianthaee
a oeeoiieaci? na?aae ??aeeeo caieiooeo i?io?e?a aeaaeeieiioo?ieo iaia?ai
cono??/athoueny a?euei? ?eainiie ? iie?niie. ssae?i e?oaei? oi?ie
ci?uaia aei aacaeueii? /anoeie ee?oei, aea aecia/athoueny ei?ioe?
aacaeuei? ?ioa?ae?a?oaoe?? ? neeaaeee. Eiiieaen Aieueaeae? neeaaea?oueny
c ae??aieo aeeeo?inii, ?ici?uaieo ia?eioeeaa?ii. Oaiieo ee?oei iaioa,
i?ae na?oeeo. Aiie i?noyoue aeaeo?iiiiu?eueio ini?io?eueio oeeoiieacio c
aaeeeith e?euee?noth i?ee??ieaieo a?eueieo ?eainii ? iie?nii. Aenioa
oaiieo ee?oei ??cia ? aiie ?ici?uai? i?ae na?oeeie ee?oeiaie. Ia
iiaa?oi? oaiieo ee?oei iayai? ei?ioe? ia?aaoey?i? i?e?iai?neie. A
ethi?iaeuei?e /anoei? oeeoiieacie aaaaoi ae??aieo i?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe.
Ooo ? i?ae yae?ii ?ici?uai? i?oioiiae??? noa?e/ii? oi?ie c na?aaei?i
ae?aiao?ii. Ieanoei/aoee eiiieaen ?icoe?aiee, eieae?co?oueny i?ae
yae?ii. I?ae na?oeeie ? oaiieie ee?oeiaie cono??/athoueny “i?ii?aei?”
ee?oeie, ye? ii oeueo?ano?oeoo?i?e i?aai?caoe?? caeiathoue ia?ao?aeia
iieiaeaiiy. ??cieoey a eieuei?? caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaeo?iiii? u?eueiino?
oeeoiieacie, e?euee?niiai ai?noo a i?e i?aaiae.

Eeoai/eia? e?iaiiini? eai?ey?e neeaaeathoueny c aiaeioae?ioeeo?a ?
aacaeueii? iaia?aie, aei yei? i?eieeathoue oeeoiiiae?? iiaeioeeo?a. A
aiaeioae?ioeeoao eeoai/eiaeo eai?ey??a oiiaii aeae?eythoue yae?iai?nio ?
ia?eoa?e/io /anoeie. ssae?i ? iniiaia iana i?aaiae ?ici?uo?oueny a
ae?eyioe? ia??ea??iio aiaeioae?aeueii? ee?oeie. Oeeoiieacia a ??
a?eyyaea?i?e /anoei? ia? iaea?eueoo oiaueio, a ia ?ioiio i?ioyc? cia/ii
aeoii/aia ? i?iiecaia aaeeeith e?euee?noth ii??a. ssae?a oeeo ee?oei
iathoue iaaeueio oi?io. Ioeeaiieacia aeaeo?iiiiu?eueia, o?iiaoei a i?e
?ici?uo?oueny aeeoocii, yaea?ia iaieiiea i?noeoue aaaaoi/eneaii? ii?e.
Aiaeiieaciaoe/ia n?oea i?aaenoaaeaia oiieeie eaiaeueoeyie, aei iaia?aie
yeeo i?ee??ieai? ?eainiie. E?euee?noue i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aaceeoe
ie?oaei? oi?ie ii??aiyii aaeeea. Eiiieaen Aieueaeae? ?ici?uaiee a
ia??ea??ii? ? neeaaea?oueny ?c nieiuaieo i?oa/e?a, iaaeiei yeeo
a?oiothoueny ae??ai? aaceeoee ? aaeoie?. I?oioiiae??? iaaeueii? oi?ie c
iau?eueiei iao?eenii ? iiiaeeiieeie e?enoaie iaaaeeeiai ?ici??o.
Iiaeioeeoe iathoue ceaaea aeoyaiooo iai?aaeeueio oi?io. A?ae ?o o?ea
a?aeoiaeyoue aaeee? aeiaa? a?ae?inoee — oeeoio?aaaeoee, ye? a?ey no?iee
eai?ey?a ae?eyoueny ia ae??ai? a?ae?inoee — oeeoiiiae??. A?ae iaeiiai
iiaeioeeoa a?ae?inoee aoiaeyoue aei 2-3 non?aei?o eai?ey??a. I?ae
oeeoiiiae?yie iayai? a?euei? i?inoi?e. ssae?i iiaeioeeoa iai?aeii?
oi?ie, ia eiai iaieiioe? iayai? aeieiaiiy ? ?iaaa?iaoe??. I?oioiiae???
ae??ai?, ie?oaei? aai iaaeueii? oi?ie, iathoue iaaaeeeo e?euee?noue
e?eno. Eiiieaen Aieueaeae? ia ia? iino?eii? eieae?caoe??, i?noeoue
aaeeeo e?euee?noue ae??aieo aaceeoe, aaeeeeo aaeoieae ? oeenoa?i.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae eeoai/eiai? eai?ey?ii? n?oee, yea caaacia/o?
niaoeeo?/io ooieoe?th ie?ie, ia?eooaoey?ia aaiieai?ey?ia n?oea ia?
ia?aaaaeii o?io?/ia ? ?aci?aoeaia cia/aiiy. No?oeoo?ia i?aai?caoe?y
no?iee ia?eooaoey?ieo eai?ey??a a iniiaiiio a?aeiia?aea? aoaeia?
eeoai/eiaeo eai?ey??a. ?o aacaeueia iaia?aia iiaa?iooa aei aocueeiai
ia?eooaoey?iiai ?ioa?noeoe?aeueiiai i?inoi?o. I?ina?oe aaaaoi/eneaiieo
ia?eooaoey?ieo eai?ey??a iathoue iie?aiiaeueio aai aeoyaiooo oi?io, a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy i?iaaaeaiiy /a?ac ie?eo ?ic??co ? eieaeueiiai
aca?ii?ici?uaiiy noi?aeieo eaiaeueoe?a. A ia?eooaoey?iiio eai?ey??
oiiaii aeae?eythoue yae?iai?nio /anoeio, ae?eyieo ia??ea??iio ?
aeoii/aiee ia?eoa?e/iee a?aeae?e. ssae?i ia? iai?aeio oi?io c ia??aieie
?aeue?oaie ea??ioaee aiane?aeie /a?aoaaiiy a i?e ?iaaa?iaoe?e. Aeeaee
o?iiaoeio ?icn?yi? a ea??iieaci?. Ia?eioeeaa?iee i?ino?? aocueeee. A
a?eyyaea?i?e /anoei? aiaeioae?ioeeo?a ?ici?uo?oueny iniiaia /anoeia
i?aaiae (aeaiaioe ca?ienoi? oeeoiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee, eiiieaen
Aieueaeae?, i?oioiiae???, ?eai- ? iie?niie). Ia?eoa?e/iee a?aeae?e
aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? ee?oeie ??cei noiioaiee, i?aaenoaaeaiee ie?aieie,
??cii? aeiaaeeie ei?ioeeie ? aeaui aenooiath/eie a i?ina?o ae?eyieaie
oeeoiieacie. Aiie ?icae?eai? aaaaoi/eneaiieie oaiano?aie c ae?ao?aaiaie,
ui ? niaoeeo?/iith i?eiaeaaei?noth ia?eooaoey?ieo eai?ey??a.

Aoaeiaa ie?ee a?eiai uo?a ii caaaeueiiio ?iciiae?e? e?iaiiinieo noaeei
iaaeeaea?oueny aei aoaeiae ie?ee ethaeeie, aea ie?ea a?eiai uo?a ?
iaeii/anoeiaa.

Ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie ia?aio?ie oa i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ie?ee
ethaeeie i?e ??cieo noaae?yo a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

I?e aea/aii? ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i i?e AO aeyaeaii, ui oaea i?e ? noaae??
caoai?thaaiiy i?iyaey?oueny iioeiaeaeaiiy ie?eiaeo eaiaeueoe?a,
eeoai/e?a ? i?ii?aeii? niieo/ii? oeaieie. Ia a?noieia?/ieo i?aia?aoao,
cie?aia, a ca??ieo ie?eiaeo o?oai/eao ai?oae?aeuei? ee?oeie aeaui
nieiuai?, ae?aiao? i?ina?oo ca?eueoaiee. Iniaeeai oea iii?oii ia
oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiio ??ai?. Oae, a ca??ieo ie?eiaeo o?oai/eao oeeoiieacia
ai?oae?ioeeo?a ia? na?aaeith aeaeo?iiio u?euei?noue, yae?a a ee?oeiao
aeoyaioo? a ai?eaeueii-aacaeueiiio iai?yi?. Ia ea??ioaoe? iaaaeee?
aei’y/oaaiiy ? aaeaaeaiiy. A?aioee o?iiaoeio ca?oiiaai? a aeeaee.
Eaiaeueoe? ? oeenoa?ie a?aioey?ii? aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee ?icoe?ai?.
Eiiieaen Aieueaeae? i?aaenoaaeaiee aeae?eueeiia niethuaieie i?oo?oeyie.
I?oioiiae??? c i?ina?oeaiei iao?eenii ? iiiaeeiieeie e?enoaie. A
aeenoaeueieo eaiaeueoeyo iao?ii?a a?noieia?/ii ia?aaaaeathoue yaeua
ca?ienoi? aeeno?io??. A ie?aieo ee?oeiao ?icaeaathoueny yaeua
a?ae?ii?/ii? aeeno?io??, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth a oeeoiieaci?
aaeoieae. I?e aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? oeeoiieacia
eoa?/ieo ee?oei neaai? aeaeo?iiii? u?eueiino?. Ai?eaeuei? iiaa?oi?
ee?oeie iaa?yee?, ia??aeei ceeaathoueny i?ae niaith. ssae?a ca?eueoai? a
?ici??ao. ?o ioeeaiieacia iii??ii? aeaeo?iiii? u?eueiino?, o?iiaoei a
ieo ?ici?uo?oueny ??aiii??ii. Oeenoa?ie ? eaiaeueoe? a?aioey?ii?
oeeoiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee ?icoe?ai?. Eiiieaen Aieueaeae? neeaaea?oueny c
aaeeeeo i?oo?oe?a. I?oioiiae??? ciaoiaeyoueny a ??cieo
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo noaiao a iaeieo ?c ieo i?ioiaeeoue aiiiaai?caoe?y
iao?eena ? cieeiaiiy e?eno, a ?ioeo eiai iaa?yeaiiy ? aei?i/aiiy e?eno.

A ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oeiao ieco?aeii? /anoeie iaoe? iao?iia ia?inoathoue
iciaee a?ae?ii?/ii? aeeno?io??, a oeeoiieaci? ee?oei iiyaeythoueny
aaeoie?. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?iee aiae?c aeaa iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe, ui a
ai?oae?ioeeoao ieco?aeii? /anoeie iaoe? niinoa??aathoueny ci?ie
aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo no?oeoo?. ssae?a iaa?yee?, iai?aaeeueii? oi?ie,
ea??ioaea ia??aia, a ea??iieaci? a?aei?/a?oueny aeaci?aai?caoe?y
o?iiaoeio. I?io?e? a?aioey?ii? aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee ?icoe?ythoueny.
I?oioiiae??? iaa?yee?, e?enoe a ieo oei?i/ai?. E?euee?noue a?eueieo
?eainii ? iie?nii ciaioothoueny. A ai?eaeuei?e cii? ee?oei
ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue i?iioeeoicieo i?oo?oe?a ? oeeoiieaciaoe/ieo
aeieiaiue.

A oeeoiieaci? ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oei i?ieneiaeueieo caeaenoeo eaiaeueoe?a
?icaeaathoueny yaeua ca?ienoi? aeeno?io??. Ciai?oi?e ae?aiao?
eaiaeueoe?a ? ae?aiao? ?o i?ina?oo a ii??aiyii? c ii?iith ia
ci?ith?oueny. I?e aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? a
ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oeiao i?ieneiaeueieo caeaenoeo eaiaeueoe?a i?ioiaeeoue
iaa?yeaiiy u?oi/eiai? iaeyi?aee, ?? aeaoi?iaoe?y. Oeeoiiaia?aia a?ey
iniiae u?oi/eiai? iaeyi?aee i?noeoue cia/ia /enei i?e?iaaceeoe. Iao?een
oeeoiieacie ao?a/a? aeaeo?iiio u?euei?noue. ssae?a iaa?yee?, aeoyaiooi?
oi?ie, caeiathoue a ai?oae?ioeeoao oeaio?aeueia iieiaeaiiy. O?iiaoei a
ioeeaiieaci? a noai? ia?a?iaeueii? aa?aaaoe??. A?aioey?ia
aiaeiieaciaoe/ia n?oea i?aaenoaaeaia ?icoe?aieie oeenoa?iaie c
i?ee??ieaieie aei ?o iaia?ai ?eainiiaie. I?noeyie o aacaeueii? iaia?aie
i?io?e? oeeoiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee ?icoe?ai?. Eiioo?e oeenoa?i eiiieaeno
Aieueaeae? ia ci?iai?. A a?eueoino? i?oioiiae??e niinoa??aa?oueny
aiiiaai?caoe?y iao?eeno ? aeeneiiieaenaoe?y e?eno. A oeeoiieaci? aaaaoi
aaeoieae, ?ici?uaieo ia o?eueee a ai?eaeuei?e, aea ? aacaeuei?e /anoei?
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a. Niinoa??aathoueny oaeiae ci?ie ? a ie?eiaeo o?eueoeyo.
Ia a?noieia?/ieo i?aia?aoao i?e ? noaae?? caoai?thaaiiy ii?yae c
ii?iaeueieie ie?eiaeie o?eueoeyie ? o?eueoey ciaioai? a ia’?i? c
?icoe?aiith eainoeith oa eieaaiaaieie eeoai/eiaeie eai?ey?aie. I?e
aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? a eeoai/eao eai?ey??a
oeeoiieacia aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei iaa?yeea, a i?e i?noeoueny cia/ia
e?euee?noue i?iioeeoicieo i?oo?oe?a. A ?o ia?eoa?e/i?e /anoei?
niinoa??aa?oueny ?icoe?aiiy ae?aiao?o ii??a ? oaiano?. Ia i?e
iiyaeythoueny aeiaa? oeeoiieaciaoe/i? a?ae?inoee o aeaeyae? ieoie, ye?
i?iieeathoue a i?ina?o eai?ey?a. Oe?e?ni?noue ethi?iaeueii? ieaciieaie
i?noeyie ii?ooo?oueny, niinoa??aathoueny yaeua i?e?ieeaciaoico. ssae?a
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a iaaeueii? oi?ie, a?aioee o?iiaoeio eiiaeainothoueny
ia?a?iaeueii. ssaea?oey ?ici?uothoueny aeeae/a aei ia?eoa??? yaea?.
Aacaeueia iaia?aia eeoai/eiaeo eai?ey??a ia??aiii??ii iioiauo?oueny, ??
aeaeo?iiia u?euei?noue aeaui ciaioo?oueny. Oeeoiieacia iiaeioeeo?a
neaaei? aeaeo?iiii? u?eueiino?. ssae?a ca?eueoothoueny a ?ici??ao, c
aeaaeeith ea??ioaeith. O?iiaoei ?ici?uo?oueny acaeiaae aioo??oiuei?
iaia?aie yae?a. Aiaeiieaciaoe/ia n?oea ae?aaeaia neaai. Eiiieaen
Aieueaeae? i?aaenoaaeaiee ae??aieie aaceeoeaie ? oeenoa?iaie.
I?oioiiae??? c aiiiaaiiei iao?eenii ??cii? u?eueiino?. A oeeoiieaci?
cono??/athoueny u?euei? a?aioee ? e?ciniiiiiae?ai? no?oeoo?e.
Oeeoiiiae?? i?noeyie ceeaathoueny, ooai?thth/e ?aeeiee oyae.

A ia?eooaoey?ieo eai?ey?ao niinoa??aa?oueny noac, aaiicia iiaiie??a‘y.
?icoe?aiiy eai?ey??a e??eiai? ?a/iaeie ci?ith?oueny ?o caoaeaiiyi. A
nieiuai?e /anoei? aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei, e??i aaeeei? e?eueeino?
oeeoiieaciaoe/ieo ino??aoe?a niinoa??aathoueny ae?inoe aioo??oiuei?
ieaciieaie. Ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue oaiano?, a a ie?aieo ae?eyieao
iiyaeythoueny ii?e. I?noeyie aiaeioae?aeuei? ee?oeie a?aeoa?iaothoueny
a?ae aacaeueii? iaia?aie. ssae?a ee?oei ca?eueoothoueny. Aeeaee
o?iiaoeio ?icn?yi? ii an?e ioeeaiieaci?, a ie?aieo ee?oeiao ia?aaaaea?
?o e?a?aa ?ici?uaiiy. Iaia?aie eiiieaeno Aieueaeae? a noai?
aeac?ioaa?aoe??. I?oioiiae??? c i?ina?oeaiei iao?eenii ? iiiaeeiieeie
e?enoaie. Aacaeueia iaia?aia ia?eooaoey?ieo eai?ey??a ?icoe?aia.

I?e ?? noaae?? caoai?thaaiiy ci?ie, i?i ye? iienaii aeua, ia?inoathoue.
Iineeththoueny aeeno?io?/ii-ao?io?/i? i?ioeane a ia?aio?i? ?
iiyaeythoueny iciaee neea?icoaaiiy ? ii/aoeiaiai o?a?ico a no?ii? I?e
oeueiio aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie caoiieththoue ana a?eueo? ae?eyiee oeaieie,
iineeththoueny ? iaaoaathoue ?iciianthaeaeaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Aea ?acii c
oei iayai? ? eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeuei? ci?ie a nenoai? eaiaeueoe?a ?
eeoai/e?a.

I?e ??? noaae?? AO niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia noiioaiiy e??eiai? ? ao?io?y
iiceiai? ?a/iaeie. An? ca??i? ie?eia? o?oai/ee ?icoe?ai? c ??cei
nieiuaieie ai?oae?aeueieie ee?oeiaie. ?o i?ina?o ca?eueoaiee, caiiaiaiee
a?eeiaeie ianaie. I?e aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii?
oeeoiieacia ee?oei ca??ieo o?oai/ie iaaoaa? iaeiaeiao aeaeo?iiio
u?euei?noue. ??cieoey i?ae na?oeeie ? oaiieie ee?oeiaie ia
aecia/a?oueny. ssae?a ciaioai? a ?ici??ao, yaea?oey ia eiioo?othoueny,
o?iiaoei ca?oiiaaiee a aeeaee. I?ioiaeeoue ?iciaae i?io?e?a
aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee ? eiiieaeno Aieueaeae?. Ciai?oi? iaia?aie
i?oioiiae??e a a?eueoino? c?oeiiaai?, e?enoe cieeathoue. Iiyaey?oueny
aaeeea e?euee?noue aaeoieae ? aoi?eiieo e?cinii. Oeeoiieacia a?aeia
?eainiiaie ? iie?niiaie.

A ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oeiao aeenoaeueieo eaiaeueoe?a iao?ii?a,
ia?aaaaeathoue aeano?oeoeai? ci?ie. Oeeoiieacia ai?oae?ioeeo?a noa? ua
a?eueo aeaeo?iiiiu?eueiith. A ai?eaeuei?e /anoei? niinoa??aa?oueny
ii?ooaiiy oe?e?niino? ee?oeiii? ieaciieaie, a a aacaeuei?e — aei?i/aiiy
neeaaeie ee?oeiii? iaia?aie. ssae?a ciaioai? a ?ici??ao, ci?uothoueny a
ai?eaeueio /anoeio ee?oeie, ioeeaiieacia ?o iaiaeeiaeiai? aeaeo?iiii?
u?eueiino?, o?iiaoei a?oio?oueny a ie?ai? aeeaee ? eiioeaio?o?oueny ii
oiaeo aioo??oiuei? iaia?aie. A?eueo?noue i?oioiiae??e noa?
ini?io?eueieie, ae??aieie, e?enoe ia aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny. I?io?e?
a?aioey?ii? aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee ? eiiieaeno Aieueaeae? c?oeiiaai?. A
ieco?aei?e /anoei? iaoe? iao?iia oaeiae i?ioiaeyoue aeano?oeoeai? ci?ie
aae aei iiaiiai cieeiaiiy a i?e ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oei. Aiie aiaeia?/i?
oei, ui niinoa??aathoueny a ai?oae?? i?ieneiaeueieo eaiaeueoe?a iao?iia.

I?e ??? noaae?? caoai?thaaiiy ci?ie a ee?oeiao i?ieneiaeueieo
eaiaeueoe?a iao?iio iinyoue aeano?oeoeaiee oa?aeoa?. Aaeeea e?euee?noue
ee?oei i?ieneiaeueii? /anoeie aac u?oi/eiai? iaeyi?aee. ssae?a
i?e/oaeeeai? oi?ie. Ea??ioaea ooai?th? aeeaie? aaeaaeaiiy ? aeieiaiiy. A
ioeeaiieaci? o?iiaoei a?oio?oueny a ie?ai? aeeaee. Oeenoa?ie
aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee ??cei ?icoe?ai?, ?o iaia?aie o?aaiaioiaai?.
I?io?e? eiiieaeno Aieueaeae? aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny iiaaii. A oeeoiieaci?
aaaaoi oaaie?cinii. I?oioiiae??? neaai? aeaeo?iiii? u?eueiino?,
e?enoe c?oeiiaai?. Oe?e?ni?noue ciai?oiuei? iaia?aie ii?ooaia. A ?ioeo
ee?oeiao yae?a ciaioothoueny a ?ici??ao, noathoue a?eueo oaiieie,
ci?ith?oueny ?o oi?ia. Ou?eueith?oueny oeeoiieacia, e?euee?noue i?aaiae
a i?e caa??aa?oueny.

Ie?eia? o?eueoey i?e ??? noaae?? AO i?aeaeathoueny iaoieia?/iiio aieeao
ua a a?eueo?e i???, i?ae i?e ?? noaae?? oai?iae, i?ioiaeeoue ao?io?y ?
caiono?iiy eeoai/e?a. Eeoai/eia? eai?ey?e niaaeathoueny. Aiaeioae?ioeeoe
ao?ioiaai?, aacaeuei? iaia?aie eai?ey??a aiiiaai?ciaai?. A oeeoiieaci?
iiaeioeeo?a iiyaeythoueny i?ae?iiiiae?ai? no?oeoo?e. Oeeoio?aaaeoee
iiaeioeeo?a i?noeyie aeoiioothoueny ? i?aaenoaaeai? o aeaeyae? ieoie.
Oaeiae i?e ??? noaae?? a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? niinoa??aa?oueny
iiaia aeano?oeoe?y no?iee ia?eooaoey?ieo eai?ey??a.

Ioaea, aea/aiiy i?aia?ao?a iieacaei, ui oaea i?e ? noaae?? caoai?thaaiiy
i?iyaey?oueny iioeiaeaeaiiy eeoai/e?a, eaiaeueoe?a ? i?ii?aeii?
niieo/ii? oeaieie. Aacoth/enue ia aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e ? aeanieo
iaoa??aeao, iiaeia aeoiaoe, ui ae?enii aaaeo/ei i?ioeanii ? ao?io?y
ai?oae?th. Ae?aaeai?noue ao?io?? ??cia ? a ia?oee ia??iae a?ae?iiao?ico
aiia iineoue iii??iee oa?aeoa?. I?e ae?oa?e noaae?? a a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a i?e?aeio?oueny ?ioaeoe?y, aeieea? caiaeaiiy, yea ??cei
iineeth? oai?iao, aeeeeeath/e a?oa? ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie. Aiaieuaa?
aeeno?io?/i? ? ao?io?/i? i?ioeane a ia?aio?i? ? i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiio
?one? ia?inoathoue. I?e o?ao?e noaae?? a?ae?iiao?ico ii?yae c ao?io??th
ia?aio?ie, ui caeeoeeany, niinoa??aa?oueny o?a?ic ? a?ae?iic no?iie,
ia?aaoaeiaa ? caiono?iiy noaeei ? a?eueoi? /anoeie aeiia?oe. A e?ioeaa?e
oac? oai?iae caa??aathoueny eeoa iaaaeee? ino??aee ooieoe?iioth/i?
oeaieie ie?ee, aea ? aiie i?e iae?ea?aeiaai?e iaoo?aoe?? na/iaea?aeieo
oeyo?a ? i?e ?ioaeoe??, ui i?e?aeiaeany, i?aeaeathoueny aeeno?io?? ?
ao?io??. Ao?ioo?oueny ia o?eueee iiceiaa, aea ? e??eiaa ?a/iaeia, yea
i?aaenoaaeaia oiieei oa?ii ia?aio?ie.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? aiae?co ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?iiai, ?aioaaiieia?/iiai oa
oeueo?acaoeiaiai ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo c ??cieie noaae?yie
a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, a yeeo caae?aany iaoa??ae aeey
ii?oieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii ianooii? aeai?. I?e
?aioaaiieia?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeyaeaii, ui o oai?eo c ia?oith
noaae??th caoai?thaaiiy ooieoe?y iioeiaeaeaii? ie?ee caaeia?eueia,
niinoa??aa?oueny iioe?aiiy oa ca?eueoaiiy ienee, oiaueia ia?aio?ie a
iaaeao ii?ie, i?e ?aioaaioaeaa?c?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aecia/athoueny
aeeaie? ? i?enei?ai? nei?i/aiiy ienee — a na?aaeiueiio 5-7 a oaeeeio. O
oai?eo c ae?oaith noaae??th a?ae?iiao?ico aeyaeaii cieaeaiiy aeae?eueii?
ooieoe?? oai?i? ie?ee. Ienea ca?eueoaia, ?icoyaiooa, eoeynoi? oi?ie,
/aoa/ee ca?eueoai?, ie?oaei? oi?ie. I?e aene?aoi?i?e o?ia?ao?? ienea
/?oei eiio?anoo?oueny eeoa /a?ac 40-60 oaeeei i?ney aaaaeaiiy
?aioaaieiio?anoii? ?a/iaeie. I?e ?aioaaiioaeaneii?? nei?i/aiiy /aoa/ie ?
ienee a?eoi?/i?, aeeaie? ? i?enei?ai?. I?e o?ao?e noaae?? AO ia
aene?aoi?ieo o?ia?aiao ooieoe?y oai?i? ie?ee aai a?aenooiy aai ??cei
cieaeaia. Ii?iaeienoo nenoaio aaea?oueny eiio?anooaaoe o?eueee i?e
?ao?ia?aaei?e o?aoa?ii??eia?ao?? aai iiaa/eoe i?e eiii’thoa?i?e
oiiia?ao??. Aeai? oeueo?acaoeiaiai ianoaaeaiiy iieacaee, ui o oai?eo i?e
? noaae?? AO ie?ea ii?iaeueieo ?ici???a, ia?aio?ia ?? caa?aaeaia , a a
ae?eyioe? ?? ai??o aeyaey?oueny aoia?eueia ae?eyiea ie?oaei? oi?ie, ui
a?aeiia?aea? ?icoe?ai?e ienoe?. O oai?eo c ?? noaae??th a?ae?iiao?ico
aei aeuaaeacaii? aoieia?/ii? ea?oeie aeiaaaeythoueny ie?oaei? oi?ie
aoia?euei? ino??aee a ae?eyioe? ca??ii? nenoaie ie?ee, ye? ?iiae?
ceeaathoueny o aeaeyae? ae?ini?aeaeueii? aoia?eueii? ciie, ui
a?aeiia?aea? ?icoe?aiei /aoa/eai ie?ee. Oaeiae aaea i?inoaaeo?oueny
noiioaiiy ia?aio?ie. O oai?eo c ??? noaae??th caoai?thaaiiy ca?eueoaia a
?ici??ao ie?ea a?coae?co?oueny o aeaeyae? iaei??? aai /enaeueieo
aoia?eueieo cii, ii e?ayo yei? i?inoaaeothoueny aoineaiaee a?ae ??cei
noiioaii? ia?aio?ie.

I?e aea/aii? eaai?aoi?ieo aiae?c?a ie iiaa/eee, ui o oai?eo c ?-oith oa
??-aith noaae?yie AO iieacieee caaaeueiiai aiae?co e?ia?, na/?,
a?io?i?/i? iieacieee a iaaeao ii?ie. O oai?eo c ??? noaae??th
caoai?thaaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny iacia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy e?aaoei?io-
187,3±6,1 ieiieue/e, na/iaeie aei 9,2±1,56 iiieue/e, oaeiae iayaia
iii??ia a?ii?cinoaio??y (a?aeiinia aonoeia na/? 1,004-1,012),
iiyaeythoueny i?iyae aiai?? (a caaaeueiiio aiae?c? e?ia? a?aei?/aii
ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? a?eo?ioeeo?a oa cieaeaiiy aaiiaeia?io). Oaeiae
niinoa??aa?oueny a?oa??aeueia a?ia?oaic?y.

Ioaea, i?e ? noaae?? a?ae?iiao?ico ooieoe?y iioeiaeaeaii? ie?ee
caaeia?eueia, niinoa??aa?oueny ?icoe?aiiy ienee, oiaueia ia?aio?ie a
iaaeao ii?ie. I?e ?? noaae?? aeyaeaii cieaeaiiy aeae?eueii? ooieoe??
ie?ee, iiyaey?oueny ?icoe?aiiy ia o?eueee ienee, aea ? /aoa/ie, a oaeiae
niinoa??aa?oueny noiioaiiy ia?aio?ie. I?e ??? noaae?? a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ooieoe?y oai?i? ie?ee a?aenooiy aai ??cei cieaeaia,
ia?aio?ia ??cei noiioaia, a o aeayeeo oai?eo ? ia i?inoaaeo?oueny.
Oeueo?acaoeiaa neaioaaiiy aea? aeinoaoith ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i iayai?noue
a?ae?iiao?ico, aeiiiaith? ?aioaaiieia?/i? aeai?, c aaeeeith
aeinoia??i?noth i?iaiaeeoue ??cieoeth i?ae noaae?yie ?icaeoeo
iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano ? a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aeyaey? ? i?e/eio
a?ae?iiao?ico.

Ci?ie ??cieo a?aeae?e?a iao?iia ? eaiie i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea i?e
?icaeoeo aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Iae?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeaeaieo a?ae?iiao?ioe/ieo ie?ie
iieacaei, ui i?ney ia?oi? aeiae aeine?aeo ia’?i ie?ee ? ?? iana
ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,5 ?ace. Iaeneiaeueia ca?eueoaiiy iieaciee?a oeeo
ia?aiao??a a?aeaoaa?oueny ia 14 aeiao, ui ca’ycaii ?c cia/iei noacii
na/?, ?icoe?aiiyi ienee ? ?icoyaiaiiyi aioo??oiueiie?eiaiai neiona.
I?ney 30 aeiae aenia?eiaioo iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy ia’?io oa iane ie?ee
ia niinoa??aa?oueny a ?acoeueoao? cia/ii? ao?io?? ia?aio?ie ?
i?eai?/aiiy na/iooai?aiiy. I?ney aeaeaeaiiy na/? c a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii
?icoe?aii? ienee a ?aii? oa?i?ie ia?aa’ycee na/iaiaeo iana ie?ee
iinooiiai c?inoa?. Iaea?eueo aenie? ?? iieacieee ?a?no?othoueny ia 7
aeiao aeine?aeo. *a?ac 14 ae?a i?ney iano?oeoe?? na/iaiaeo ? aei e?ioey
aenia?eiaioo ianooia? ciaioaiiy iane ie?ee. Oea iiynith?oueny
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieie ci?iaie, ye? i?ioiaeyoue a ia?aio?i? ? a
noaeeiao ie?ee a ia?oee oeaeaeaiue aeine?aeo. Aiie i?iyaeythoueny
iaa?yeaiiyi ee?oeiieo aeaiaio?a ? aiaeioae?th noaeei ie?ee, noacii e?ia?
a e??eia?e ?a/iaei?. Ii i??? i?ia?anoaaiiy oai?iae iinooiiai ia?inoath/?
ci?ie a ia?aio?i? ie?ee i?eaiaeyoue a iiaeaeueoiio aei ciaioaiiy ??
iane. Oea ciaoiaeeoue a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ci?iao iieaciee?a oiaueie oa??a
ia?aio?ie ie?ee ia o?iioaeueiiio ?ic??c?.

Aea/aiiy ci?i ae?aiao??a eaiaeueoeaai? nenoaie ie?ee i?e
aenia?eiaioaeuei?e AO aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe, ui ca??i? ie?eia? o?oai/ee
ia?oeie aoyaothoueny a iaoieia?/iee i?ioean. I?i oea na?ae/eoue
aeinoia??ia ca?eueoaiiy ?o ciai?oiueiai ae?aiao?o ? ae?aiao?o i?ina?oo,
yea niinoa??aa?oueny ia i?ioyc? anueiai aenia?eiaioo. Iinooiiaa
?icoe?aiiy i?ina?oo i?ioiaeeoue o an?o /anoeiao eaiaeueoe?a iao?ii?a ?
iiaeiii ?icaeyaeaoenue ye i?iya eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueii? ?aaeoe??
eaiaeueoeaai? nenoaie ia noac na/? ? i?aeaeuaiiy oeneo a aa?oi?o
na/iaea?aeieo oeyoao ? ienoe?. Aeeeth/aiiy neeaaeathoue i?ieneiaeuei?
eaiaeueoe? iao?iia, aea ia i?ioyc? ia?oiai oeaeiy aeine?aeo i?ioiaeeoue
caoaeaiiy i?ina?oo eaiaeueoe?a. sse iieacaee iao? ii?oiiao?e/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaee/eia ieiu? ai?oae?th, yeee aenoaey? i?ina?o ca??ieo
o?oai/ie ? eaiaeueoe?a iao?ii?a (a on?o ?o /anoeiao, e??i
i?ieneiaeueii?) aaea i?ney 3 aeiae ieethc?? na/iaiaeo ciaioo?oueny, ui
aeaco? ia iinooiiaee ?icaeoie ao?io?/ieo ci?i. I?e na?oeiiioe/iiio
aeine?aeaeaii? i?aia?ao?a a ia?o? 3 aeiae ?icaeoeo AO a ai?oae?ioeeoao
ca??ieo ie?eiaeo o?oai/ie, aeenoaeueieo eaiaeueoeyo iao?iia ? oiie?e
/anoei? iaoe? iao?iia cia/ieo ci?i ia niinoa??aa?oueny. A a
ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oeiao i?ieneiaeueieo eaiaeueoe?a iao?ii?a
?icaeaathoueny yaeua ca?ienoi? aeeno?io??. I?e ca?eueoaii? oa?i?io
ieethc?? na/iaiaeo, yaeua a?iien?? ?iciianthaeaeothoueny ia ee?oeie ?
?ioeo a?aeae?e?a iao?iia ? ca??i? o?oai/ee, a yeeo aecia/athoueny iciaee
a?ae?ii?/ii? aeeno?io??. A a?eueo i?ci? oa?i?ie AO a ai?oae?ioeeoao
ca??ieo ie?eiaeo o?oai/ie a?aei?/athoueny yaeua ao?io??. E??i
aeeno?io?/ieo ci?i a ai?oae?? eaiaeueoe?a iao?iia i?ioiaeyoue ?
a?ia?o?io?/i? i?ioeane. A /anoeie ee?oei niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy
ia’?io oeeoiieacie, ia’?io yae?a, e?eueeino? a?eueieo ?eainii ?
?icoe?aiiy i?io?e?a a?aioey?ii? aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee ? eiiieaeno
Aieueaeae?.

E??i ci?i ye?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? ie?eiaeo
o?eaoeue, eeoai/eiaeo eai?ey??a ? i?ina?oo eainoe a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo AO
iaie aoa i?iaaaeaiee ?o ii?oiiao?e/iee aiae?c. Ci?ia ieiu? ie?eiaeo
o?eaoeue ? eeoai/e?a iao?ii?a iineoue ia/?oei ae?aaeaiee oa?aeoa?, oi/a
oaiaeaioe?y aei ciaioaiiy oeeo iieaciee?a niinoa??aa?oueny. Oea,
iaiaaii, iia’ycaii c aeeth/aiiyi a ?iaioo ?ai?oa ia ooieoe?iioth/eo
eeoai/e?a. I?ney 14 aeiae AO niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy ieiu? ?
ca?eueoaiiy ii?iaeieie eainoee, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ao?io?/i? yaeua a
ie?eiaeo eeoai/eao.

I?e aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeyaeaii, ui a i?ioean? AO
a?ae?iiao?ioe/i? ci?ie aeyaeythoueny a on?o a?aeae?eao iao?iio, aea aiie
aeieeathoue a ??ciee /an ? ae?aaeai? a iaiaeiaeiaiio nooiai?, ui
ca’ycaii c aaoa?iaaii?noth ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ?o ai?oae?th.
Iaeoaeaeoa aiie ianooiathoue a ca??ieo ie?eiaeo o?oai/eao. I?aeaeuaiee
oene na/? a aa?oi?o na/iaeo oeyoao, ienoe? i?eaiaeeoue aei ?iceaaeo
i?e?ioee?eoeyoe?? a iiceia?e ?a/iaei?, iaa?yeo i?ii?aeii? oeaieie ? ci?i
a ai?oae?? ca??ieo ie?eiaeo o?oai/ie. A ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oeiao
aeenoaeueieo eaiaeueoe?a iao?ii?a a oeae ia??iae aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie iaio
ae?aaeai?, aea ae?aiao? ?o i?ina?oo ca?eueoo?oueny. A oeeoiieaci?
eoa?/ieo ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oei i?ioiaeeoue i?ina?oeaiiy ie?aieo ??
/anoei. Oae? ae ci?ie iathoue i?noea a ieco?aeieo /anoeiao iaoaeue
iao?ii?a. Ai?oae?aeuei? ee?oeie i?ieneiaeueieo eaiaeueoe?a ?aaaothoue
a?eueo cai?oii. ?o oeeoiieacia noa? iaa?yeeith, i?e?iai?neiee
iioiauothoueny, i?oioiiae??? ca?eueoothoueny a ?ici??ao, a ieo
aecia/a?oueny ?aaeoeoe?y e?eno. I?ina?o i?ieneiaeueieo ie?eiaeo
eaiaeueoe?a ia anueiio i?ioyc? ciaioo?oueny. Ia ae?oaiio oeaei?
aeine?aeo iienai? aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie a ee?oeiao ia?inoathoue. A ai?oae??
ca??ieo ie?eiaeo o?oai/ie noa? a?eueoa ee?oeiieo oi?i c i?ina?oeaiith
oeeoiieaciith, ?icoe?aieie i?io?eyie aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee ? eiiieaeno
Aieueaeae?, ca?eueoaiei yae?ii ? aeaci?aai?ciaaiei o?iiaoeiii. Ii?yae c
oeei iiyaeythoueny ee?oeie ?c nieiuaiith aeaeo?iiiith oeeoiieaciith,
ca?eueoaieie a ?ici??ao yae?aie ? oaiieie iaeaiueeeie i?oioiiae??yie.
Oae? ae ci?ie i?ioiaeyoue a eoa?/ieo ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oeiao
aeenoaeueieo eaiaeueoe?a iao?ii?a. I?iaeiaaeothoue ?icaeaaoenue
aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie a ee?oeiao i?ieneiaeueieo eaiaeueoe?a. Aiie
ae?aaeathoueny a ca?eueoaii? oeenoa?i ? eaiaeueoe?a a?aioey?ii?
aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee, ciaioaii? e?eueeino? ?eainii, ca?eueoaii? /enea
e?ciniiiiiae?aieo o?eaoeue. Oe? aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie iineeththoue
iaoieia?/iee i?ioean ? na?ae/aoue i?i no?eea ii?ooaiiy iaoaaie?cio
ee?oei. Ia oeueiio oii? cono??/athoueny iiiaeeiie? ai?oae?ioeeoe c
ii?iaeueiith oeueo?ano?oeoo?ith, a?ia?o?ioiaai? ee?oeie a noai?
iae?ia?ico. A a?eueo i?ci? oa?i?ie ?icaeoeo AO (i?ney 14 aeiae) a
eaiaeueoeaa?e nenoai? i?ioiaeyoue aeeno?io?/ii-aeano?oeoeai? ci?ie, ye?
iaoiiaeththoue iica?/i?noue iioeiaeaeaiiy ia?aio?iaoicieo ee?oei. A
aaaaoueio c ieo ianooia? i?eiioecaoe?y yaea?, ?oeioaaiiy ee?oeiieo
iaia?ai ? i?aaiae oeeoiieacie. Ia oeueiio aoai? ?icaeaathoueny
neea?ioe/i? i?ioeane, ye? caoiieththoue ?ioa?noeoe?e nii/aoeo iiceiai?,
a iio?i ? e??eiai? ?a/iaeie.

Ci?ie a eeoai/eiaeo eai?ey?ao ie aaea a?aei?oeee i?ney ia?oi? aeiae
aeine?aeo. Oeeoiieacia aiaeioae?ioeeo?a iioiauo?oueny, yae?a
ca?eueoothoueny a ?ici??ao. I?ioiaeeoue ?icoe?aiiy oeenoa?i ca?ienoi?
aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee. E?euee?noue ?eainii a oeeoiieaci? ciaioo?oueny.
I?oioiiae??? iaa?yeathoue. Cia/ii ae?aaeaiee i?e?ii?iioeeoic. A
iiaeioeeoao ci?ie ?aeaioe/i?. Aacaeueia iaia?aia iioiauo?oueny. I?e
ca?eueoaii? o?eaaeino? aeine?aeo ci?ie iinyoue a?eueo ae?aaeaiee
oa?aeoa?. Iiaeia a?aei?oeoe, ui no?iee ia?eooaoey?ieo eai?ey??a ye
e??eiai?, oae ? iiceiai? ?a/iaeie caciathoue cia/ii? ia?aaoaeiae.
I?ioiaeeoue iaa?ye oeeoiieacie aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei, yeee iinooiiai
caoiieth? ye ae?eyieo ia?eea??iia, oae ? ia?eoa?e/iee a?aeae?e ee?oei.
Iineeaiiy i?e?ioeeoico ? ?icoe?aiiy oaiano? i?ney ia?oi? aeiae
aenia?eiaioo ci?ith?oueny aei e?ioey 14 aeiae ciaioaiiyi /enea
i?e?iaaceeoe a oeeoiieaci? ? iiyaith aaeeei? e?eueeino? aaeoieae. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i ooieoe?iiaeueiee, eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueiee oa?aeoa?
ci?i a aiaeioae?? ia?eooaoey?ieo eai?ey??a i?ney ia?oi? aeiae
aenia?eiaioo ? iiaeaeueoiio aeniaaeaii? oeeo i?ioean?a, ye? i?eaiaeyoue
aei aeeaieeo ci?i a oeueo?ano?oeoo?? ee?oei..

Ca?aeii iaoeo aeaieo, a aeeiai?oe? ?icaeoeo aenia?eiaioaeueii? AO
i?ioiaeyoue cia/i? ci?ie ?ici???a, iane, ciai?oiueiai aeaeyaeo ie?ee.
Ci?iththoueny no?oeoo?ii — i?inoi?ia? a?aeiioaiiy ??cieo a?aeae?e?a
iao?ii?a, ia?inoathoue oa?aeoa?i? oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? ci?ie eiiiiiaio?a
ca??ieo ie?eiaeo o?oai/ie, aeenoaeueieo ? i?ieneiaeueieo eaiaeueoe?a,
ieco?aeii? /anoeie iaoe? iao?iia, eeoai/eiaeo ? ia?eooaoey?ieo
eai?ey??a. An? oe? ci?ie ciaoiaeyoueny a i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae
o?eaaeino? ieethc?? na/iaiaeo. Oaeaeea ia?inoaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a
i?ioiaeeoue aei 14-oi? aeiae, a aeaeueoa aiie ?icaeaathoueny a?eueo
a’yei.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueii-ii?oieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeia aecia/eoe ??? noaae?? ?icaeoeo aenia?eiaioaeueii?
a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??: ? — ii/aoeiaa aai ?aiiy (1-3 aeiaa),
?? — i?ii?aeia aai noaae?y ae?aaeaieo aeeno?io?/ieo ?
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e (7-14 aeiaa); ??? — i?ciy aai
oa?i?iaeueia noaae?y, c ia?aaaaeaiiyi aeano?oeoeaieo ci?i (i?ney 14-oi?
aeiae).

AENIIAEE

1. I?e aea/aii? ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i i?e a?ae?iiao?ioe/i?e o?ainoi?iaoe??
a ethaeeie a?aei?/aii, ui no?oeoo?e ie?ee aoyaothoueny a iaoieia?/iee
i?ioean a ??ciee /an a?ae ii/aoeo caoai?thaaiiy, aneio?iiii. A
ii/aoeiaiio ia??iae? oai?iae ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie iinyoue aiaieuaaee, a a
e?ioeaa?e noaae?? — aeeoociee, iioe?aiee oa?aeoa?.

2. I?e ? noaae?? a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aaea iiyaeythoueny
aeeno?io?/ii-ao?io?/i? ? a?ia?o?io?/i? i?ioeane ia an?o ??aiyo
no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? iao?iia, iniaeeai a i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiio ?one?.
Iaioa aiie ae?aaeai? a ie?eiaeo o?eueoeyo ? no?oeoo?ao i?ii?aeii?
oeaieie. Noaeeii? ci?ie iinyoue eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueiee oa?aeoa?
? ooieoe?y i?aaio nooo?ai ia ii?ooo?oueny.

3. I?e ?? noaae?? caoai?thaaiiy ia?inoathoue aeeno?io?/ii-ao?io?/i?
i?ioeane a ia?aio?i? ? iiyaeythoueny iciaee neea?icoaaiiy ? ii/aoeiaiai
o?a?ico a no?ii?. I?e oeueiio aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie iioeiaeaeothoue ana
a?eueo? ae?eyiee oeaieie, iineeththoueny ? iaaoaathoue
?iciianthaeaeaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Aea ?acii c oei, ?icaeaathoueny ?
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeuei? i?ioeane o aeaeyae?
a?ia?o?io?/ieo-a?ia?ieanoe/ieo ci?i a nenoai? eaiaeueoe?a ? ie?eiaeo
o?eaoeue ? iniaeeai a aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiio ?one?. Ooieoe?y i?aaio
ii?ooo?oueny iii??ii, oiio ua iieacai? ? aeioe?euei? i?aaiicaa??aath/?
ieanoe/i? iia?aoe??.

4. A ??? noaae?? a?ae?iiao?ico i?iaeiaaeo?oueny aeeno?io?y ? ao?io?y
ia?aio?ie, ui caeeoeeanue, niinoa??aa?oueny o?a?ic ? a?ae?iic no?iie,
ia?aaoaeiaa ? caiono?iiy noaeei ? ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? ie?eiaeo
o?eaoeue. Ao?io?y ai?oae?th aeinyaa? e?aeiueiai nooiaiy. A eeoai/eao
ao?ioothoueny aiaeioae?ioeeoe, ?oeiothoueny /anoeie ?o oeeoiiaia?ai ?
niaoe?ae?ciaai? i?aaiaee. Aeaye? eeoai/ee ia?aoai?ththoueny a
aacoi?iaii? ooai?aiiy. Oaeiae iiyaeythoueny yaeua o?ii?/ii? ie?eiai?
iaaeinoaoiino?, ii?ooo?oueny ooieoe?y aeaii? ie?ee. Oiio ie aaaaea?ii,
ui i?aaiicaa??aath/? iia?aoe?? a oe?e noaae?? ia aeathoue aaaeaiiai
?acoeueoaoo, a iieacaia iao?aeoii?y i?e caaeia?euei?e ooieoe?? ae?oai?
ie?ee.

5. A i?ioean? ?icaeoeo aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iana ie?ee a ia?o? 3 aeiae ca?eueoo?oueny ( c 750,3028,84
ia aei 1824,1416,22 ia), ia’?i ?? c?inoa? a 2,8 ?ace (a?ae 916,2030,18
ii3 aei 2728,0628,12 ii3). I?ney 7 aeiae ? aei e?ioey aenia?eiaioo iana
ie?ee iinooiiai ciaioo?oueny ? ia 60 aeiao noaiiaeoue 526,7826,13 ia. A
ia’?i ie?ee ca?eueoo?oueny o?eueee aei 14 aeiae (iaeaea a 10 ?ac), a
iiaeaeueoiio a?i ia ca?eueoo?oueny.

6. I?e ?icaeoeo aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
niinoa??aathoueny ye eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeuei? ?aaeoe?? a
eaiaeueoeaa?e nenoai? iao?ii?a, oae ? niieo/ai? a /an? ii?ooaiiy
no?oeoo?ii? oe?e?niino? ia?eooaoey?ii? eai?ey?ii? n?oee. Oe? ci?ie ii
/ano ia?aa?ao oa oa?aeoa?o ia?inoaiiy ii?oieia?/ieo c?ooaiue iiaeia
?icae?eeoe ia o?e noaae??: ii/aoeiaa aai ?aiiy (1-3 aeiaa), i?ii?aeia
aai ae?aaeaia (7-14 aeiaa) ? i?ciy aai oa?i?iaeueia (i?ney 14 aeiae).

7. A ii/aoeia?e noaae?? i?ioiaeeoue iinooiiaa ?icoe?aiiy i?ina?oo
eaiaeueoe?a iao?ii?a a on?o a?aeae?eao, e??i i?ieneiaeueieo. Ia?oeie a
i?ioean aoyaothoueny ca??i? ie?eia? o?oai/ee. A ai?oae?ioeeoao inoaii?o
oae naii ye ? a ai?oae?ioeeoao aeenoaeueieo ? i?ieneiaeueieo eaiaeueoe?a
iao?ii?a ? a aiaeioae?ioeeoao aaiieai?ey??a aeieeathoue aeeno?io?/i?
ci?ie (yaeua ca?ienoi? ? a?ae?ii?/ii? aeeno?io??). Aiie ae?aaeai? ia a
iaeiaeiaiio nooiai?, ui iia’ycaii c aaoa?iaaii?noth
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ai?oae?th ??cieo /anoei eaiaeueoe?a
iao?ii?a.

8. A i?ii?aei?e noaae?? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai a?ae?iiao?ico a
ai?oae?ioeeoao ? aiaeioae?? aaiieai?ey??a aeieeathoue a?eueo ae?aaeai?
aeeno?io?/i? ? aiaieuaa? aeano?oeoeai? ii?ooaiiy (i?ina?oeaiiy
oeeoiieacie ? iao?eeno i?oioiiae??e, aeaci?aai?caoe?y ?o e?eno,
?icoe?aiiy i?io?e?a aiaeiieaciaoe/ii? n?oee ? eiiieaeno Aieueaeae?,
ci?ia oi?ie yaea? ? aeaci?aai?caoe?y o?iiaoeio). A oa?i?iaeuei?e noaae??
a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ia?aaaaeathoue iae?ia?ioe/i? i?ioeane
(niinoa??aa?oueny ci?ia no?oeoo?e yae?a, iaa?ye oeeoiieacie,
aiiiaai?caoe?y ? ?iciaae i?aaiae), ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoueny cai?iith
ia?aio?iaoicieo aeaiaio?a niieo/iith oeaieiith.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. Ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ie?ie i?e ??cieo noaae?yo
a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??// Aaeeoeueeee e?ea?nueeee a?niee, 1998.
-o.5. -?1. -N.52-53.

2. Aeai? ?aioaaiieia?/iiai oa oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?eo c
a?ae?iiao?ioe/iith o?ainoi?iaoe??th // Aaeeoeueeee e?ea?nueeee a?niee,
1998. -o.5. -?1. -N.50-51.

3. A?ae?iiao?ioe/ia o?ainoi?iaoe?y: ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie ia
noaae?yo ia?aa?ao // O?ieia?y, 1998. -?3. -n.52-54.

4. Iaoieia?/i? ci?ie i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea oa ia?aio?ie ie?ee i?e
??cieo noaae?yo a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? //Ca??iee i?aoeue VI
I?aeia?iaeiiai eiia?ano ia oaio «Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy o?ieia??», Oa?e?a,
1998. N. 75-77.

5. A?ae?iiao?ioe/ia o?ainoi?iaoe?y : ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea // Ca??iee i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo
?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??, 1997. -N.38-39.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eeoaeiaoeue ?.A. Ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie ia?aio?ie oa
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ie?ee i?e a?ae?iiao?ioe/i?e o?ainoi?iaoe??. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.03.01 — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y. — Ee?anueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, Ee?a, 1999.

I?e ? noaae?? a?ae?iiao?ioe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aaea iiyaeythoueny
niinoa??aathoueny aeeno?io?/i? ? a?ia?o?io?/ii-a?ia?ieanoe/i? i?ioeane
ia an?o ??aiyo no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe?? iao?iia oa a
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiio ?one?. I?e ?? noaae?? ia?inoathoue
aeeno?io?/ii-ao?io?/i? i?ioeane a ia?aio?i? ? iiyaeythoueny iciaee
neea?icoaaiiy a no?ii?. I?e oeueiio aeeno?io?/i? ci?ie iioeiaeaeothoue
ana a?eueo? ae?eyiee oeaieie, iineeththoueny ? iaaoaathoue
?iciianthaeaeaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Aea ?acii c oei ?icaeaathoueny ?
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeuei? i?ioeane. Ooieoe?y i?aaio ii?ooo?oueny
iii??ii, oiio ua aeioe?euei? ? iieacai? i?aaiicaa??aath/? iia?aoe??. I?e
??? noaae?? i?iaeiaaeo?oueny aeeno?io?y ? ao?io?y ia?aio?ie ui
caeeoeeany, a?aei?/a?oueny o?a?ic ? a?ae?iic no?iie. Ie?ea ia
ooieoe?iio?, aai ae ?? ooieoe?y ??cei cieaeaia. Oiio i?aaiicaa??aath/?
iia?aoe?? a oe?e noaae?? ia aeaaeooue aaaeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo, a iieacaia
iao?aeoii?y i?e caaeia?euei?e ooieoe?? ae?oai? ie?ee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?ae?iiao?ioe/ia o?ainoi?iaoe?y, ia?aio?ia ie?ee,
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei.

Eeoaeiaoe A.A. Ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiua eciaiaiey ia?aioeiu e
iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ii/ee i?e aeae?iiao?ioe/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee.
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.01 — ii?iaeueiay aiaoiiey — Eeaaneee
iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao eiaie A.A.Aiaiiieueoea, Eeaa,
1999.

I?iaaaeaii ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiia eeeieei-yenia?eiaioaeueiia eco/aiea
aeae?iiao?ioe/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee. A eeeieea o 37 aieueiuo n aeaiiie
iaoieiaeae ai a?aiy i?aaiinio?aiythueo iia?aoeee e iao?yeoiiee
caae?aeenue eoni/ee oeaie ii/ee aeey ii?oieiae/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey, a a
aeiiia?aoeeiiiii ia?eiaea yoei aieueiui i?iaaaeaii eaai?aoi?iia ,
?aioaaiieiae/aneia e oeueo?acaoeiaia enneaaeiaaiea. A yenia?eiaioa
aeae?iiao?ic eco/aee ia 35 aaeuo e?unao iinea ia?aaycee eaaiai
ii/aoi/ieea a aa?oiae o?aoe /a?ac 1, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60 nooie. I?e
aiaiiaca ii?oieiae/aneeo eciaiaiee o /aeiaaea, ioia/aii,/oi no?oeoo?u
ii/ee aiaeaeathony a iaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann a ?aciia a?aiy io ia/aea
caaieaaaiey, aneio?iiii. A ia/aeueiii ia?eiaea aieacie eciaiaiey iinyo
i/aaiaue, a a eiia/iie noaaeee aeeooociue, ?ani?ino?aiaiiue oa?aeoa?.
I?e ? noaaeee aeae?iiao?ioe/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee oaea iiyaeythony
aeeno?ioe/anee-ao?ioe/aneea e aeia?o?ioe/aneea i?ioeannuia anao o?iaiyo
no?oeoo?iie i?aaiecaoeee iao?iia, iniaaiii a aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iii
?onea. Iaiaa au?aaeaiu iie a ii/a/iuo eaiaeueoeao e no?oeoo?ao
iaaeooi/iie oeaie. Ninoaeenoua eciaiaiey iinyo
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?eniiniaeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? e ooieoeey i?aaia nouanoaaiii
ia ia?ooaaony. I?e ?? noaaeee ia?anoatho aeeno?ioe/anee-ao?ioe/aneea
i?ioeannua ia?aioeia e iiyaeythony yaeaiea neea?ice?iaaiey e ia/aeueiiai
oea?ica a no?iia. I?e yoii aeeno?ioe/aneea eciaiaiey iia?aaeaeatho ana
aieueoea o/anoee oeaie, oneeeaathony e i?aia?aoatho ?ani?ino?aiaiiue
oa?aeoa?. Ii, aianoa n oai, ?acaeaathony e
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?eniiniaeoaeueiua i?ioeannu a aeaea aeia?o?ioe/aneeo
eciaiaiee a nenoaia eaiaeueoeaa, ii/a/iuo oaeaoe e, iniaaiii, a
aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iii ?onea. Ooieoeee i?aaia ia?ooaaony oia?aiii,
ii?oiio aua iieacaiu e oeaeaniia?aciui?aaiinio?aiythuea ieanoe/aneea
iia?aoeee. A ??? noaaeee aeae?iiao?ica i?iaeieaeaaony aeeno?ioey e
ao?ioeyinoaaoaeny ia?aioeiu, iaaethaeaaony oea?ic aeaiaiic no?iiu,
ia?ano?ieea e caionoaaaiea ninoaeia e iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoainoaa
ii/a/iuo oaeaoe. Ao?ioey yieoaeey aeinoeaaao e?aeiae noaiaie. A
eeoai/eao ao?ioe?othony yiaeioaeeioeeou, ?ac?ooaaony /anoue eo
oeeoiiaia?ai e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo i?aaiae. Ioaeieueiua eeoai/ee
i?aa?auathony a aanoi?iaiiua ia?aciaaiey. A oaeaea iiyaeythony yaeaiey
o?iie/aeie ii/a/iie iaaeinoaoi/iinoe. Iiyoiio iu n/eoaai, /oi
i?aaiinio?aiythuea iia?aoeee a yoie noaaeee ia aeaaeoo aeaeaaiiai
?acoeueoaoa, a iieacaia iao?aeoiiey i?e oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie ooieoeee
ae?oaie ii/ee.

I?e ?acaeoee yenia?eiaioaeueiie aeae?iiao?ioe/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee
iaaethaeathony eae eiiiainaoi?ii-i?eniiniaeoaeueiua ?aaeoeee a
eaiaeueoeaaie nenoaia iao?iia, oae e iaeiia?aiaiii ia?ooaiey no?oeoo?iie
oeaeiniinoe ia?eooaoey?iie eaieey?iie naoe. Yoe eciaiaiey ii a?aiaie
i?ioaeiiey e oa?aeoa?o ia?anoaiey ii?oieiae/aneeo naeaeaia iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia o?e noaaeee: ia/aeueiay eee ?aiiyy (1-3 nooee),
i?iiaaeooi/iay eee au?aaeaiiay (7-14 nooee) e iicaeiyy eee oa?ieiaeueiay
(iinea 14 nooie) A ia/aeueiie noaaeee i?ienoiaeeo iinoaiaiiia ?anoe?aiea
i?inaaoa eaiaeueoeaa iao?iiia ai anao ioaeaeao, e?iia i?ieneiaeueiuo.
Ia?auie a i?ioeann aiaeeeathony niae?aoaeueiua e ii/a/iua o?oai/ee. A
yieoaeeioeeoao iineaaeieo oae aea eae e a yieoaeeioeeoao aeenoaeueiuo e
i?ienaiaeueiuo eaiaeueoeaa iao?iiia e a yiaeioaeeioeeoao aaiieaieeey?ia
aicieeatho aeia?o?ioe/aneea eciaiaiey (yaeaiey ca?ienoie e aeae?iie/aeie
aeeno?ioee). Iie au?aaeaiu ia a iaeeiaeiaie noaiaie, /oi naycaii n
aaoa?iaaiiinoueth ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey yieoaeey ?aciuo
/anoae eaiaeueoeaa iao?iiia. A i?iiaaeooi/iie noaaeee a yieoaeeioeeoao e
yiaeioaeee aaiieaieey?ia aicieeatho aieaa au?aaeaiiua aeeno?ioe/aneea e
i/aaiaua aeano?oeoeaiua ia?ooaiey (i?inaaoeaiea oeeoiieaciu e iao?eena
ieoioiiae?ee, aeaci?aaiecaoeey eo e?eno, ?anoe?aiea i?ioeeae
yiaeiieaciaoe/aneie naoee e eiiieaena Aieueaeaee, eciaiaiea oi?iuyaea? e
aeaci?aaiecaoeey o?iiaoeia). A oa?ieiaeueiie noaaeee yenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aeae?iiao?ica i?aiaeaaeatho iae?iaeioe/aneea i?ioeannu (iaaethaeathony
eciaiaiey no?oeoo?u yaea?, ioae oeeoiieaciu, aiiiaaiecaoeey e ?aiaae
i?aaiaee) eioi?ua nii?iaiaeaeathony caiauaieai ia?aioeiaoiciuo yeaiaioia
niaaeeieoaeueiie oeaiueth.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeae?iiao?ioe/aneay o?ainoi?iaoeey, ia?aioeia ii/ee,
aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iia ?onei.

Lytvynets Ye.A. Morphofunctional Changes in Parenchyma and the Kidney
Microcirculatory Bed in Hydronephrotic Transformation. Manuscript.

A dissertation to obtain the scientific degree of Candidate of Science
(Medicine) in speciality 14.03.01 — Human Anatomy. — Kyiv National
Medical University named after O.O.Bohomolets, Kyiv, 1998.

In the first stage of hydronephrotic transformation one can of serve
dystrophic and hypertrophy-hyperplastic processes at all levels of the
nephron structural organisation as well as in microcirculatory bed. In
the second stage, though dystrophy — atrophic processes in parenchyma
increase and features of sclerosis in stroma appear compensatory
adjustive processes develop as well. So far as the organ function is
impaired moderately as yet, organ — saving operations are valid and
indicative. In the third stage, dystrophy and atrophy of the remaining
parenchyma continue, the stroma fibrosis and hyalinosis being observed.
The kidney does not function or its function decreases considerably.
Therefore in this stage organsaving operations don’t give a desirable
result nephrectomy in satisfactory function of the other kidney is
indicated.

Key Words: Hydronephrotic transformation, renal parenchyma,
microcirculatory bed.

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