I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey

Aeoa?i?i Na?a?e ?aaiiae/

OAeE: 611.32:616.366-002-092.9

II?OI-OOIEOe?IIAEUeIEE NOAI IA*?IEE,

AEIA*IIAI I?OO?A OA IAA?NO?AEUeIEO AEIA*IIAEA?AeIEO I?IOIE A OIIAAO
AENIA?EIAIOAEUeIIAI

AINO?IAI OIEAOeENOEOO

14.03.01 — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inuee?e iaaee/i?e noiiaoieia?/i?e aeaaeai?? IIC
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Ne?eii?eia Ieeiea Na?a?eiae/, Oe?a?inueea iaaee/ia
noiiaoieia?/ia aeaaeai?y, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa
oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eiaaeuenueeee Ieoaeei Iaaeiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii??
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC
Oe?a?ie.

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Neii?io Ieeiea ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?ith ee?i?/ii? oa iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe IIC Oe?a?ie.

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaeueei Aieiaeeie? ?iiie?oiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? Ee?anueeiai iaaee/iiai
?inoeoooo Oe?a?inueei? anioe?aoe?? ia?iaeii? iaaeeoeeie IIC Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao (eaoaae?a ii?iaeueii?
aiaoii??) IIC Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «2» aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 13 aiaeei? 30 oaeeei ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.003.04 i?e
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie.

Aae?ana: 252057, i.Ee?a, i?ini.Ia?aiiae, 34

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie (Aae?ana:
252057, i.Ee?a, i?ini. Ia?aiiae, 34)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «21»ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee,

ae.i.i., i?ioani?
A.A.*a?eania

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A inoaii? ?iee ?iaioaie I.A.I?eiiiaa (1982),
A.N.Oaa/aiea (1982-1996); I.I.Aoooniaa (1989); I.A.A?aa??ianueei? oa
ni?aaao. (1990); I.A.Pift et al (1981) oa ?io. c’yniaaii, ui ?yae
caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a aaiaoia?e?a?ii? nenoaie cia/ii iia’ycai? c
ii?ooaiiyie, ye? aeieeathoue a ??cieo a?aeae?eeao aiane?aeie aieeao
/eneaiieo oaeoi??a: ?ioaeoe??, oieae?o?aco, caoai?thaaiue i?aai?a
oeoieiai-eeoeiaiai o?aeoo oa ?io..

Ia nueiaiaei? aeia?a a?aeii? o?ni? ca’ycee ??cieo aeaea?ae ?iia?aaoe??
i?aai?a ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie c aaoiiiiiith oa oeaio?aeueiith
ia?aiaeie nenoaiaie, iayaiino? iie?naaiaioa?ii? ?iia?aaoe?? oeeo i?aai?a
? aeineoue ??ciiiai?oieo a?noea?ia?noea?aeueieo ia?aiaeo ca’yce?a i?ae
ieie (A.?.Ia/ae oa ni?aaao., 1986; ?.A.?niaeeia oa ni?aaao., 1988;
I.A.A?aa??ianueea, A.A.I?aaiue, 1990; O.E.Aeoaiaa oa ni?aaao., 1990;
I.N.Ne?eii?eia oa ni?aaao., 1991 oa ?io?).

??ci? oeyoe iiina?aaeithaaiiy iiae?aciaiue iaoiiaeththoue ianooii?
aoaeoe, ui i?iyaey?oueny a ioneiaeo /e ei?aaoth/eo aieeaao ia ooieoe?th
?iai/eo i?aai?a. Aaaaoi c oeeo aoaeo?a aoa?aioieo iiae?aciaiue
iaoiiaeththoue aaiaoe/io niieo/io caeaaei?noue, aei oiai ae aeaye? c ieo
iiaeooue aeieeaoe ia?aeiii, caeo/ath/e aoi?eiii a naith eaieo ?io?
i?aaie /e nenoaie, iaoiiaethth/e ?icaeoie a ieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo /e
i?aai?/ieo ci?i (I.E.?aae?iiia, 1953; I.O.Oai?aeiaa, 1964;
A.N.Oaa/aiei, 1982, 1995; H.Agerup, 1950; Y.Albot et al, 1960;
P.Mallet-Ouy, 1966 oa ?io?).

sse a?aeiii, i?e oieaoeenoeo? caiaeueiee i?ioean ??aeei eiee
iaiaaeo?oueny iioeiaeaeaiiyi eeoa no?iee aeia/iiai i?oo?a. Aeineoue
/anoi a ia?ei?ioean caeo/athoueny i?aaie, o?nii iia’ycai? c iei ye
aiaoii?/ii, oae ? ooieoe?iiaeueii. Ni?aae?oaei? caeo/aiiy a ia?ei?ioean
i?e oieaoeenoeo? ia/?iee iaoiiaeaii o?niei ?? aiaoii?/iei ?
ooieoe?iiaeueiei ca’yceii c iaa?no?aeueieie aeia/iiaea?aeieie i?ioieaie,
a naia: aiaae?iiy i?oo?aai? aaie a nenoaio ai??oii? aaie, e?ioaoe/ieo
noaeei aeia/iiai i?oo?a a e?ioaoe/io nenoaio ai??o ia/?iee c cia/iei
aianoiiicoaaiiyi iii?ae niaith ?, ia?aoo?, iayai?noue /enaeueieo ?
?icaaeoaeaieo aeia/ieo i?ioie ia/?iee c o?niei ?o ca’yceii c
iaa?no?aeueieie aeia/iiaea?aeieie i?ioieaie oa ?io?aio?aeueiei ia?aiaei
aia?aoii, ui a oe?eiio neeaaea? ?aeeio aaiaoia?e?a?io nenoaio
(I.A.Ai?iiia, 1986; A.N.Oaa/aiei, 1993; F.J.Mller, 1990; E.Delpte, 1990
oa ?io?).

C /an?a B.Riedel (1888), aia?oa caa?ioaoiai iaoo oaaao ia niieo/ia
iioeiaeaeaiiy ia/?iee i?e oieaoeenoeo?, ia nueiaiaei? oea ia aeeeeea?
noii?ao. ?acii c oei, a e?oa?aoo?? i?iaeiaaeothoue caeeoaoeny iaei
aea/aieie ieoaiiy ?ie? ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo a aaiac? oeeo
ci?i, a iiaeeeainoyo iiaeaeueoiai ?aa?ano oeeo ci?i oa onoiaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue a i?aaiao aaiaoia?e?a?ii? nenoaie,
iaoiiaeaieo caiaeueiei i?ioeanii a aeia/iiio i?oo?aa?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie: Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue Oe?a?inueei?
iaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?/ii? aeaaeai?? “Caiaeuei? oa iacaiaeuei? oai?iae
i?aai?a ? nenoai ethaeeie, ui oi?iothoueny i?ae aieeaii aeieia?/ieo,
no?aniaeo, ?ioiieo, iaoaaie?/ieo, ?iaeaioe?noieo oaeoi??a. Noai
aaiinoaco, aaiiaeeiai?ee i?e canoinoaaii? o?aaeeoe?eieo ”oa
iao?aaeeoe?eieo cania?a e?eoaaiiy” (? aea?aea?no?aoe?? 0198v 0013)

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: aea/aiiy ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i?aai?a
aaiaoia?e?a?ii? nenoaie oa ?o ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae i?e
oieaoeenoeo?, c’ynoaaiiy ?ie? ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo a
aaiac? oeeo ci?i a oiiaao aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo.

C oe??th iaoith a ?iaio? ia?aaeaa/a?oueny aeei?enoaiiy iiaeae? aino?iai
oieaoeenoeoo o niaae c ianooiiei aea/aiiyi a aeeiai?oe? aenia?eiaioa ia
3,5 oa 7 aeiae (? a?oia c 30 niaae c aino?ei oieaoeenoeoii) oa
ia?aianaii? oieaoeenoaeoii?? ia 3,5,7 oa 14 aeiae (?? a?oia c 30 niaae)
ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ia/?iee, iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo
i?ioie c aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno ii?oieia?/ieo, a?noio?i?/ieo,
iae?ia?noieia?/ieo oa a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Eiio?ieueio a?oio
neeaee 10 niaae, o yeeo aoei i?iaaaeaii aiaeia?/iee eiiieaen
aeine?aeaeaiue ca oiia ii?ie.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aea/eoe ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ia/?iee oa iaa?no?aeueieo
aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie a aeeiai?oe? aenia?eiaioa, aeei?enoaaoe iiaeaeue
aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo o niaae.

2. Aecia/eoe ?aaa?e?oaoe?ei? iiaeeeaino? oeeo i?aai?a nenoaie o niaae ca
oiia ia?aianaii? oieaoeenoaeoii?? ia i?ioyc? niinoa?aaeaiiy.

3. Aeey caaacia/aiiy ia’?eoeaiino? a ioe?ioe? ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
noaio oa ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie a
oiiaao iiaeaethaaiiy aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo oa ia?aianaii?
oieaoeenoaeoii??, aeei?enoaoe a ii??aiyii? eiiieaen caaaeueieo
ii?oieia?/ieo, a?noio?i?/ieo, iae?ia?noieia?/ieo oa a?io?i?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oeaiei oeeo i?aai?a ai?iaeiaae aenia?eiaioa.

4. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ni?anoaaeoe c ee?i?/iei ia?aa?aii
aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo oa i?ney ia?aianaii? oieaoeenoaeoii?? a aeeiai?oe?
aeine?aeo.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaaeaaeooue ciiao
c’ynoaaoe oa?aeoa? ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i oa ?o ?aaa?e?oaoe?ei?
iiaeeeaino?, ooi/ieoe i?e oeueiio ?ieue ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai
aia?aoo a aaiac? aeyaeaieo ci?i a i?aaiao ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a: iieyaa? o anaa?/ii
iaa?oioiaai?e ioe?ioe? ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai?
nenoaie a oiiaao iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo oa ia?aianaii?
oieaoeenoaeoii??, aecia/aii? ?ie? ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo a
aaiac? oeeo ci?i, ui iaaea? iiaeeea?noue cia/ii ooi/ieoe iaoiaaiac
aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo, eiai /eneaiieo oneeaaeiaiue. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
iaaeathoue ciiao iie?ioeoe iaoiaaiaoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy e?eoaaiiy oai?eo
ia aino?ee oieaoeenoeo oa i?io?eaeoeeo eiai /eneaiieo oneeaaeiaiue, ui a
oe?eiio ni?eyoeia iie?auaiith ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy oeeo oai?eo.

I?aeoe/i? cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a: iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? ioe?iee
ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie ia i?aenoaa?
aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaeno ii?oieia?/ieo, a?noio?i?/ieo, iae?ia?noieia?/ieo
oa a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoiaaiaoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii?
cai?iiiiiaaieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e oieaoeenoaeoii?? (A.N.Oaa/aiei, 1974), ui
ni?eyoeia cia/iiio iie?auaiith aaciina?aaei?o oa a?aeaeaeaieo iane?aee?a
i?ney ia?aianaii? oieaoeenoaeoii??.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy: aieiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e i?iaaaeaii? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia
eaoaae?ao iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? ? oiiia?ao?/ii?
aiaoii??, o?aaiaoieia??, i?oiiaae?? oa a?enueeiai-iieueiai? o??o?a??,
oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? Oe?a?inueei? iaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?/ii?
aeaaeai??, Oa?e?anueeiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii aeaaaeoeyoue o?noue iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, c
ieo aea? iiiia?ao?? («Yenia?eiaioaeueiue oieaoeenoeo», ni?aaao.
I.N.Ne?eii?eia oa A.N.Oaa/aiei, Iieoaaa, 1991 oa «Oe?o?aey iauaai
aeae/iiai i?ioiea (a aenia?eiaioa e eeeieea)», ni?aaao. A.N.Oaa/aiei,
I.N.Ne?eiieeia, Iieoaaa, 1993), o?eiaaeoeyoue noaoae, iioae?eiaaieo o
aeaeaiiyo, caoaa?aeaeaieo iinoaiiaith i?aceae?? Aeui? aoanoaoe?eii?
eii?n?? Oe?a?ie a?ae 11 aa?aniy 1997?. ? 217.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i aeena?oaoe??: iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy
?acoeueoao?a eiiieaeniiai ianoaaeaiiy ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio
ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie niaae ca oiia aeei?enoaii? iiaeae? aino?iai
oieaoeenoeoo oa a iiaeaeueoiio ia?aianaii? oieaoeenoaeoii?? a aeeiai?oe?
aeine?aeo (anueiai 60 niaae). Eiio?ieueio a?oio neeaee 10 niaae, yeei
aeeiioaaeany eeoa eaia?ioii?y c i?iaaaeaiiyi, ?aeaioe/ieo oaiaoe/iei,
aeine?aeaeaiiy e?ia? oa oeaiei i?aai?a ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 237 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, caeo/a?
anooi, aeaao “Iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e” c i’youeia i?ae?icae?eaie, aeaao
«Iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy» c i’youeia i?ae?icae?eaie
?acoeueoao?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e,
aeniiae?a, caeeth/aiiy, oa iieaciee aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, na?aae yei?
172 ?iaioe a?o/eciyieo oa 85 ?ia?o ?iicaiieo aaoi??a. ?iaioa
?ethno?iaaia iaei??th oaaeeoeath oa ni?iea /ioe?ueia i?e?ioioia?ao?yie.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: iieyaa? a oiio, ui iei iniaenoi i?iaaaeaii
aeeiiaiiy iiaeaethaaiiy aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo oa oieaoeenoaeoii?? o 60
niaae, cae?eniaii ii?oieia?/i?, a?noieia?/i?, iae?ia?noieia?/i? oa
ie?ai? a?io?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeaii iae?e oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aea/aii ? i?iaiae?ciaaii oaiaoe/io e?oa?aoo?o.
Iiaeaeueo? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aeine?aeieie oa eiio?ieueiith a?oiaie
oaa?ei aaoi? cae?enithaaa naiino?eii.

Iaoa??ae oa iniiai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy:

A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeaii anaa?/ia aea/aiiy ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao
aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo oa eiai oneeaaeiaiue o 60 niaae c aeei?enoaiith
iiaeaeeth oeueiai caoai?thaaiiy (A.N.Oaa/aiei, 1974) c iiaeaeueoith
eiiieaeniith ioe?ieith a aeeiai?oe? ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio
ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi ia?aaeoaaei ??ciiieaiiaa aea/aiiy
ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ia/?iee, aeia/iiai i?oo?a, iaa?no?aeueieo
aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo niaae (10), ui iaaeaaaei
iiaeeea?noue neeanoe oyaeaiiy i?i ii?iaeueio aoaeiao ia?aiaiai aia?aoo
oeeo i?aai?a oa cae?enithaaoe ia’?eoeaio ioe?ieo io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
i?e ni?anoaaeaii? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo. Aea/aiiy
ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio oa ioe?iea ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai
aia?aoo i?aai?a cae?enithaaeeny eiiieaeniei iaoiaeii ?c caeo/aiiyi
iaoiae?a iae?i-i?e?ineii?/iiai i?aia?oaaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy aeaeoeaiiai
caaa?aeaiiy aeaiaio?a ia?aiai? nenoaie iaoeeaiiaei nei?i, oa
acioii-eeneei n??aeii iae?ia?noieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii-ii?oieia?/iiai aiae?co. Naia oeae eiiieaen iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiue iaaeaaaa iiaeeea?noue anaa?/ii aea/eoe
ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai?
nenoaie niaae a oiiaao ia?aianaiiai aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo ia an?o
??aiyo: a?ae iae?ineii?/iiai aei i?e?ineii?/iiai.

Oaa?eie ia i?ioyc? aeanyoe ae?a aeo?eioaaeeny a ea?aioeiieo oiiaao, aei
ii/aoeo aeine?aeo cae?enithaaeiny ?o caaaeueia ianoaaeaiiy oeyoii acyooy
e?ia? aeey caaaeueieo oa a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Nooue iiaeaethaaiiy aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo o niaae (A.N.Oaa/aiei, 1996):
iieyaaea a ia?aaeiia?aoe?ei?e i?aeaioiaoe? c aeei?enoaiiyi 1% ?ic/eio
ii?o?ia a?ae?ioei?eaea i?aeoe??ii /e aioo??oiueii’yciai? ?i’?eoe??
oaioai?eo ?c ?ic?aooieo 0,05 ia ?a/iaeie ia ea iane niaaee. Caaaeueia
cia/oeaiiy caaacia/oaaeiny aioo??oiueiaaiiei aaaaeaiiyi aaenaiaeo ?c
?ic?aooieo 0,1 a? nooi? ?a/iaeie ia ea iane. A iiaeaeueoiio a
noa?eeueieo oiiaao iia?aoe?eii? c aeei?enoaiiyi einiiiia?a/iiai ?ic??co
N.I.Oaaei?iaa /e Eioa?a a i?aaiio i?ae?aaa?’? ?icoeiaee oeaieie
ia?aaeiuei? /a?aaii? no?iee. I?ney ?aoaeueiiai a?aeiaaeoaaiiy i?aai?a
/a?aaii? ii?iaeieie a?ae aeaiaio?a ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie
ia?eueiaeie na?aaoeaie, oaeaaaeeny aei e?aeiai? a?iin?? oeaieie ia/?iee
aeey caaaeueieo ii?oieia?/ieo oa niaoe?aeueieo iae?ia?noieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue c ianooiiei ooeooyi aeaoaeoo “I”-iiae?aieie eaoaooiaeie
aoceiaeie oaaie, ?ieiee c aeei?enoaiiyi iania naeueieea. Oneeaaeiaiue,
iia’ycaieo c a?iin??th ia/?iee, a aeiaeiiio niinoa?aaeaii? iaie ia
aeyaeaii.

Ia aeii aeia/iiai i?oo?a, aeei?enoiaoth/e oiae /e eaanai, iaeeaaeaee
aea? o?eiaeee oa iii?ae ieie c oeueiai ae iaoa??aeo eenaoiee oia.
Aieeith aaeeeiai ae?aiao?o (oeia Aethoi) i?ae o?eiaeeaie a ae?eyioe?
eenaoiiai oaa cae?enithaaee ioieoe?th aeia/iiai i?oo?a, io?eiaio i?e
oeueiio aeia/ a iiaeaeueoiio aea/aee i?e?ineii?/ii oa a?io?i?/ii. A
i?ina?o aeia/iiai i?oo?a /a?ac aieeo aaiaeeee caaenue 2 ie?ae i?e?iaieo
o?e aeiaiai? aaa?iai? eoeueoo?e noao?eieieo ooaio-209 ia o?c?ieia?/iiio
?ic/ei? oei?eaeo iao??th, ci?oaiiai c noa?eeueiei ??/eiaei i?neii.
Ae?eyieo ioieoe?? ia?eoii?coaaee ?ai?oa iaeeaaeaiei eenaoiei oaii. C
iaoith noai?aiiy oieanoaco a aeia/iiio i?oo??, i?oo?iao i?ioieo
ia?a’ycoaaee eaoaooii. ?aio ia?aaeiuei? /a?aaii? no?iee iioa?iai
ie?aieie aoceiaeie oaaie caoeaaee iaaeooi. Aei ae?aioaaiiy /a?aaii?
ii?iaeieie ia oaeaaaeeny.

A i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? aeine?aei? oaa?eie aeo?eioaaeeny ca
iaeiaeiaeo oiia ?aaeeio oa oa?/oaaiiy. Ia e?iaoeue 5-7 aeiae
aenia?eiaioaeueii? iiaeae? ?icaeaaeany ee?i?/ia neiioiiaoeea aino?iai
oieaoeenoeoo — niaaee aoee iaeiaeoeaieie, a?eueoo /anoeio aeiae
i?iaiaeeee eaaea/e, a?aeiiaeyeeny a?ae ?ae?, ia ni?iao iaeueiaoe??
/a?aaii? no?iee aaee naaa aa?aneaii, oaiia?aoo?a a i?yi?e eeooe? aoea
aeuith ca ii?io ia 2,6 N°. A ie?aieo niaae a ia?o? aea?-o?e aeiae
niinoa??aaeeny iiiaeeiie? aethaioe, /ano?oa — i?iiine. Ia 5-7 aeiao
aenia?eiaioa c /?oei ae?aaeaieie iciaeaie aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo niaae
iia?oaaee aae?oaa — aeeiioaaee oieaoeenoaeoii?th, i?ae /an yei?
?aoaeueii aea/aeeny iae?ineii?/i? ci?ie i?aai?a /a?aaii? oa
ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie, ?o oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i? aca?iia?aeiioaiiy.

Oieaoeenoaeoii?y a iiaeeo?eaoe?? A.N.Oaa/aiea (1974): caeo/eea aeeiiaiiy
?? aeaiaio?a a ne?aeoth/?e iine?aeiaiino?: i?ney iiia?aaeiuei?
noana?icii? a?ae?aae?/ii? ?io?eueo?aoe?? 0,25% ?ic/eiii iiaiea?io,
aeae?eyee aeia/iee i?oo? ?c eiai ai?noeeeua aei oeeee c i?oo?iaith
i?ioieith. I?oo?iao a?oa??th ia?a’ycoaaee ia i?ioyc? aea?/? oiaeiaith
e?aaoo?ith. I?ney oa?iaeieia?/ii? aeaia?aaoe?? 1% ?ic/eiii iiaiea?io
i?oo?iai? i?ioiee (a iaaeao ia?aaeaa/aiiai ?? aeaeaeaiiy) iaeeaaeaee
caoenea/ N.I.Oaaei?iaa, ieae/a caoenea/a ia i?ioyc? i?ioeaaee ? aea?/?
ia?aa’ycoaaee /anoeio i?oo?iai? i?ioiee, yea caeeoaeany. Ieoee e?aaoo?
ia c??coaaeeny ? a iiaeaeueoiio neoaoaaee ca o?eiaeee. Noai?i ii
ieaeiueiio e?ath caoenea/a aino?ei neaeueiaeai ia?an?eaee i?oo?iao
i?ioieo, aeia/iee i?oo? aeaeaeyee /e oi aioa?ia?aaeii, /e oi
?ao?ia?aaeii a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o caaaeueiiai ia?ei?ioeano c
aieo aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa ia/?iee.

Eoeno i?oo?iai? i?ioiee eaaeue i?aeoyaoaaee ca o?eiaeee ? a iaaeao
na?icii-i’yciaiai i?ioa?eo ?io?eueo?oaaee 1% ?ic/eiii iiaiea?io, i?ney
/iai o?eiaeee c??coaaeeny. ?ieiee eoeno ia?eoii?coaaee. Oneeaaeiaiue,
iia’ycaieo c iienaiith iiaeeo?eaoe??th oieaoeenoaeoii??, iaie ia
niioa??aaeiny a aeiaeiiio niinoa?aaeaii?.

A iiaeaeueoiio ia 3, 5, 7, 14, 30 aeiao oa /a?ac ??e i?ney ia?aianaii?
oieaoeenoaeoii?? cae?enithaaee aea/aiiy ai?noo a?e??oa?ia, caaaeueiiai
a?eea oa eiai o?aeoe?e, oeoe?o, ae?eiaaio, NAeA, IAeA, EAeA-5, eoaiai?
oinoaoace, AeO oa AnO.

C iaoith aea/aiiy aecia/aii? iaie ?ai?oa i?iaeaie aeine?aei? oaa?eie
aeaiaeeeeny c aenia?eiaioo oeyoii aaoaiac?? ca aeiiiiiaith aaaaeaiiy
ao??o a na?oeaao noieo a cai?ia?aiiaai? oa?i?ie aeine?aeo, ui
noai?thaaei ie?ai? i?aea?oie ii 30 oaa?ei a eiaei?e, a naia: ? i?aea?oia
c 30 oaa?ei c aino?ei oieaoeenoeoii oa ?? i?aea?oia c 30 oaa?ei i?ney
ia?aianaii? oieaoeenoaeoii??.

I?e ?icoei? niaae i?iaiaeeee iae?ineii?/ia aea/aiiy i?aai?a
ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie: ia/?iee oa iaa?no?aeueieo
aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie cae?enithaaee a?iin?th, i?ney /iai a?iin?ei?
oeaieie oeeo i?aai?a i?aeeyaaee i?iieaoe?, o?enaoe??, i?iaiaeoe?,
i?aeaioiaoe? aeie?a oa iiaeaeueoiio aeei?enoaiith ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiaeee
caaa?aeaiiy aeey caaaeueieo ii?oieia?/ieo oa niaoe?aeueieo
iae?ia?noieia?/ieo /e aiceiio?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

AEia/iee i?oo? i?iieaaany 12% ?ic/eiii iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iae?io. Ca
aeiiiiiaith eaithe?, aaaaeaii? /a?ac i?oo?iao i?ioieo, aeia/iee i?oo?
caiiaithaaany oeei ?ic/eiii c ianooiiith ia?aa’yceith i?oo?iai? i?ioiee.
Iae?ii?aia?ao caio?thaaany a 12% ?ic/ei iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iae?io ia
oa?i?i a?ae iaeiiai aei aeaaiaaeoeyoe i?nyoe?a.

?io? i?aaie oe??? nenoaie i?iieaaeeny i?ioi/iith oieiaeiith aiaeith c
ianooiiith o?enaoe??th a 12% ?ic/ei? iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iae?io ia oae?ae
oa?i?ie. Iaoa??ae a iiaeaeueoiio i?aeeyaaa ia?iaoe? c aeei?enoaiiyi
caaa?aeaiiy ca A?eueoianueeei-A?in a iiaeeo?eaoe?yo oeiee eacainueeeo
a?noieia?a. C??ce oiaueiith 30-60 i?e?ii aiooaaee ia caii?iaeoth/iio
i?e?ioii? c ianooiiei caio?aiiyi i?aia?ao?a a eaiaaenueeee aaeuecai.

C iaoith a?noieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaie aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
aaiaoieneeei-aicei, ca Iaei??, noaeai-III, ?ii?aaiaoe?y acioieeneei
n??aeii ca Oooii; aeey a?noio?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaee
iaoeeiaee caeaiee-i??ii?i ca A?aoa, caaa?aeaiiy ca Oaeueaaiii, ?aaeoe?th
O?E, ?ieoaaoe?th a na?aaeiaeu? Aiii?? aeey aeyaeaiiy eenei? oinoaoace
(EO).

*anoeio i?aia?ao?a, caaa?aeaieo ca Oaeueaaiii aeey aeyaeaiiy ai?noo AeIE
a yae?ao ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei niaeo?ioioiiao?e?oaaee ia aia?ao? IOO-5.

C iaoith aeyaeaiiy aeaea?ae ?iia?aaoe?? i?aeeyaath/eo oaiaoe/iiio
aea/aiith oeaiei i?aai?a, iaie aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
aenia?aiaioaeueii-ii?oieia?/i? iaoiaee, caniiaai? ia caeiiii??iinoyo
aeaaaia?aoe?? aeaiae?eo?a ? aenii?a c ooai?aiiyi ieie e?ioeaaeo
no?oeoo?, a?aeie?aieaieo a?ae naiai o?io?/iiai ia?aa — o?ea iae?iia.
Naia oe? iaoiaee iaaeaaaee ciiao aeyaeoe ca’ycee i?aai?a c
oeaio?aeueiith ia?aiaith nenoaiith, aeyaeoe i?e?iaeo eiiiiiaio?a
?io?ai?aaiiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo, i?inoaaeeoe i?aeiae?iii? oa
iae?ioeaieii? aca?iia?aeiioaiiy.

Oiaoi/ee oeaiei i?aai?a a?aee c oeeee, o?ea oa aeia aeia/iiai i?oo?a,
i?oo?iai? i?ioiee. Caaaeueio aeia/io i?ioieo aea/aee ia anueiio ??
i?ioyc?, /anoi/eia? i?ioiee ae??caeeny ae?eyieaie. I?ney n??aeaiiy
/anoeia i?aia?ao?a i?aecaaa?aethaaeany oei?iei cieioii /e ea?i?iii.

?acoeueoaoe caaaeueieo ii?oieia?/ieo oa niaoe?aeueieo iae?ia?noieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oeaiei ia/?iee, aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa iaa?no?aeueieo
aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie ni?anoaaeyee c ee?i?/ieie neiioiiaie aino?iai
oieaoeenoeoo oa a?io?i?/ieie iieacieeaie a aeeiai?oe? aeine?aeo.

Ne?ae caoaaaeaoe, ui ee?i?/iee i?iya aino?iai caiaeueiiai i?ioeano a
aeia/iiio i?oo?o o aeine?aeieo oaa?ei, ia aeeaey/enue ia oioiaei?noue a
aeei?enoaii? aenia?eiaioaeueii? iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo oa oiia
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai aaaeaiiy oaa?ei, aoa ??ciei — a?ae eaoa?aeueieo aei
aeano?oeoeaieo oi?i, ia??aeei c oi?ioaaiiyi i?aeia/?ieiaeo aanoean?a.

O an?o niinoa?aaeaiiyo aoea ae?aaeaiith ?aaeoe?y c aieo aiaoii?/ii ?
ooieoe?iiaeueii iia’ycaieo c aeia/iei i?oo?ii i?aai?a — ia/?iee,
iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie, i?aeoeoieiai? caeice. Iaeaea
iino?eii niinoa??aaany /?oei ae?aaeaiee niaeeiaee ia?ei?ioean c /anoei
caeo/aiiyi ae?eyiie /aioey, ia/?iee, aeaiaio?a
ia/?ieiai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? ca’ycee, oeoieo, aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee,
?ieiee ai?eciioaeueii? a?eee iaiaeiai? eeoee.

A ie?aieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo i?ine?aeeiaoaaeanue iaa?aeiia?aei?noue i?iyao
ee?i?/ieo iciae aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo iae?ineii?/iei aeaiei, ui
aeyaeyeeny i?ae /an naeoe??. O iaeieo aeine?aeieo oaa?ei ee?i?/ii
caaaeueiee noai aoa a?aeiinii caaeia?eueiei, ia naeoe?? ae ciaoiaeeee
aino?? aeano?oeoeai? oi?ie oieaoeenoeoo, o 5 niaae iaa?oue c i?i?eaii
no?iee aeano?oeoeaii ci?iaiiai aeia/iiai i?oo?a c iaiaaeaiei
ia?eoii?oii; o ae?oaeo — ee?i?/iee ia?aa?a a?aeiia?aeaa aino?iio
aeano?oeoeaiiio oieaoeenoeoo, a ia naeoe?? ae ci?ie aoee i?eoaiaiieie
aeey eaoa?aeueiiai i?ioeano. Aiaeia?/iith aoea neooaoe?y ? c
?acoeueoaoaie a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue — i?e a?aeiinii caaeia?eueiiio
ee?i?/iiio noaiia? o ie?aieo aeine?aeieo oaa?ei a?io?i?/i? iieacieee
aoee cia/ii ci?iaieie ?, iaaiaee, i?e oyaeeiio noai? aiie /anii
caeeoaeeny aai ae iaei ci?iaieie, aai ae iaaeeaeaeeny aei ??aiy
iieaciee?a ii?ie. An? oe? aeai? na?ae/eee i?i ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? caoeni?
iiaeeeaino? /ooeeaino? i?aai?cio aeine?aeieo niaae aei aieeao
noao?eieieiai? ?ioaeoe??.

?acoeueoaoe a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue e?ia? ia?iaeyeeny noaoenoe/ii
oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co oa ioe?iee ??cieo na?aaei?o o
aeiaaeeao iia’ycaieo iii?ae niaith aeaieo (E.N.Ea- i?inueeee,1964;
A.E?aia?,1975 oa ?io?).

Ii oaaeeoe? Nothaeaioa aecia/aee eiia??i?noue ??cieoe? (?). ?acoeueoaoe
aaaaeaeeny aeinoia??ieie, yeui aeia??/ee ?ioa?aae aoa ia iaioa 95%
(?=0,05).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue:

Iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo iaoiae?a ioe?iee noaio ia/?iee a oiiaao
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai oieaoeenoeoo aaaaea?ii iaoiae i?eaeeoo?aiai
a?noieia?/iiai aea/aiiy ?? oeaieie ca aeiiiiiaith ioieoe?eii? a?iin??.

Ia nueiaiaei? a?aeii? o?e iaoiaee aeiaoaaiiy iaoa??aeo c ia/?iee: 1)
o??o?a?/iee, aai oae caaiee a?aee?eoee iaoiae a?iin??; 2) eaia?ineii?/ia
a?iin?y oa, ia?aoo?, 3)»ne?ia» ioieoe?eia a?iin?y.

Iaie a oiiaao iiaeaethaaiiy aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo o niaae a ?iaio?
aeei?enoiaoaaeany o??o?a?/ia oa «ne?ia» a?iin??. Inoaiiy aeeiioaaeany ca
iaoiaeeeith O.O.Iaino?iai? c aeei?enoaiiyi ioieoe?eii? aieee A?i
N?eueaa?iaia. Io?eiaiee ioieoe?eiee iaoa??ae oeaieie ia/?iee
?iciiae?eyee ia aea? /anoeie: iaeei oiaoi/ie oeaieie o?enoaaee a ?ic/ei?
Ea?ioa c ianooiiei caeeooyi a ia?ao?i; ae?oaee — a 10% ?ic/ei?
iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iae?io. A iiaeaeueoiio io?eiai? c ia?ao?iiaeo aeie?a
c??ce, oiaueiith aei 3-5 iie, a caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia?iaeyee ??cieie aa?aieeaie c ianooiiei a?noieia?/iei aea/aiiyi.

C??ce, io?eiai? ia caii?iaeoth/iio i?e?ioii? oiaueiith aei 12 iie,
caaa?aethaaee noaeaiii ???-?V c iaoith aeyaeaiiy aee?o a ia/?ieia?e
oeaiei?.

O eiio?ieueii? a?oie niaae (10) aeeiioaaee eaia?ioii?th c iiaeaeueoith
e?a?aith a?iin??th oeaieie ia/?iee a ae?eyioe? aeia aeia/iiai i?oo?a c
ianooiiei ooeaaiiyi ooai?aieo aeaoaeo?a I-iiae?aieie eaoaooiaeie
aoceiaeie oaaie. Oneeaaeiaiue, iia’ycaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi oeueiai
iaoiaeo a?iin??, a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? iaie ia niinoa??aaeinue.

I?e aea/aii? caaaeueii? a?noiii?oieia?/ii? ea?oeie oeaieie ia/?iee
i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo niaae, iaie niinoa??aaeany /?oea no?oeoo?ia aoaeiaa
ia/?ieiaeo /anoi/ie oa o?aaaeoey?ia ?icoaooaaiiy aaiaoioeeo?a. Inoaii?
iae/ano?oa aoee iie?aiiaeuei?, iaee ia?aaaaeii iaeia yae?i c aeaiia /e
o?ueiia yaea?oeyie. A ie?aieo aaiaoioeeoao iaie niioa??aaeeny iacia/i?
aeeth/aiiy e?iioonoeeio. Ia?eeai?ey?i? i?inoi?e aoee ia ?icoe?aieie, a
ie?aieo ae?eyieao i?inoaaeoaaeeny i?inoi?e Ae?na. Eoioa?ianuee? ee?oeie
aac iii?oii? ?aaeoe??. Iaaeiei ie?aieo e?iaiiinieo noaeei niinoa??aaeeny
iacia/i? e?ioia?no?ioeeoa?i? iaeiie/aiiy, ye? ia?aoiaoaaee aeanue 10-15
ee?oeiieo oi?i. Aiaeioae?e oeaio?aeueii? aaie aoa ia ci?iaiee,
ai?oae?aeuei? ee?oeie aeia/iaea?aeieo i?ioie aac aoaeue-yeeo no?oeoo?ieo
iniaeeainoae.

Aeyaeai? a ie?aieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo cae?oaeaiiy oa iacia/i?
a?aeie?aieaiiy eoioa?ianueeeo ee?oei c iii?oiith a?ia?o?ii??th ?o yaea?,
iaie ?icaeyaeaeeny ye i?iya ianiaoeeo?/ii? ?aaeoe?? aeaiaio?a
?aoeeoei-aiaeioae?aeueii? nenoaie ia o??o?a?/ia ao?o/aiiy o aeaeyae?
eaia?ioii??.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe caaaeueieo oa niaoe?aeueieo a?noieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a iiaeaeueoiio neoaoaaee ii??aiyiiyi c ?acoeueoaoaie,
io?eiaieie a aenia?eiaio? ia 60 niaaeao c iiaeaeeth aino?iai
oieaoeenoeoo.

Ii??aithth/e ?acoeueoaoe a?noieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oeaieie ia/?iee c
??ciiiai?oieie a?io?i?/ieie oanoaie, o ian c’yaeeanue iiaeeea?noue
aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iino?, — yea iieyaa? a oiio, ui aeeaeia
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?iceaae?a ciaoiaeeoueny a i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae
nooiaith aeeno?io?/ieo ci?i a ia/?ieiaeo ee?oeiao /e i?iyao iae?ico
inoaii?o. Aeyaeai? aa??aioe ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i ia/?iee i?e
aino?iio oieaoeenoeo? iaie nenoaiaoeciaai? a ne?aeoth/? o?e a?oie, a
naia:

? nooi?iue — noaee?i?/ia — oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany iayai?noth iaeiiii?oieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?iceaae?a aac ee?i?/iiai i?iyao (15 niaae);

?? nooi?iue — ee?i?/ia — ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?iceaaee iaee ae?aaeaiee i?iya
c iciaeaie caoai?thaaiiy ia/?iee (35 niaae);

??? nooi?iue — aeenooieoe?eieo ?iceaae?a c ae?aaeaieie ee?i?/ieie
iciaeaie i?aaiii? iaaeinoaoiino? oa iayai?noth aioeaoaeiiao?? (10
niaae).

Aeineoue iino?eiith iaoieia?/iith iciaeith aoea e?oiiie?aiaeueia
?io?eueo?aoe?y ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei iaeo?aeueiei aee?ii. Nooi?iue iaee??iiy
ia/?iee aoea aeineoue ??ciiiai?oiith o aeaeyae? ina?aaeeiaeo /e
aeeoocieo ci?i. Iaeiie/aiiy aee?iaeo e?no /e e?aieeiie aee?o iaie
niinoa??aaeiny iae/ano?oa a oeaio?aeueieo /e ?ioa?eiaoey?ieo ciiao
ia/?ieiai? /anoi/ee, ??aeoa — ia ?? ia?eoa???.

Aeyaeaiee noaeaiii ieeiiiae?aiee aee? ia/?iee iaie ia a?aany aei oaaae ?
?icoe?ithaaany ye ii?iaeueiee eiiiiiaio ooieoe?iioth/iai aaiaoioeeoa. O
oaa?ei c aeano?oeoeaieie oi?iaie aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo ia 14 aeiao i?ney
ia?aianaii? oieaoeenoaeoii?? ia??aeei niinoa??aaee ca?eueoaiiy
e?oaeiee?oeiieo ?io?eueo?ao?a ii?oaeueieo o?aeo?a, iacia/i?
eaeeioeeoa?i? oa e?ioi?aei? iaeiie/aiiy iaaeiei aeio/eo ee?oei c
iaee??iiyi, neea?ic oa a?ia?o?io?th i’yciai? iaieiiee a?oa??aeueieo
a?eie, i?ie?oa?aoe?th aeia/ieo i?ioie, ia?aoo?, aioo??oiuei/anoi/eiaee
o?a?ic iaaeiei aee?iaeo e?no oa aac’yaea?ieo caaeaeeo aaiaoioeeo?a.

Aeyaeai? iaie no?oeoo?i? ci?ie o?aeooaaeeny ye ia?aaeoee?ioe/i? /e
i?eoaiaii? o?ii?/iiio aaiaoeoo,ai aiie iae/ano?oa ia?aaeoaaee ?icaeoeo
aee?iai? aeeno?io??, a a iiaeaeueoiio ? oee?ico ia/?iee.

AEe?ia?e ?io?eueo?aoe?? ia??aeei ia?aaeoaaee ? ?io? iaoieia?/i? ci?ie
ia/?iee. Na?aae oaeeo ci?i iae/ano?oa iaie niinoa??aaeany a?eeiaa
aeeno?io?y. Aeey ia? i?eoaiaiieie aoee iaaooaiiy yaea? e?oiieo
aaiaoioeeo?a o caeaa?eueoiio ii ia?eoa??? ia/?ieiai? /anoi/ee, ?o
o?iiaoeiiaa noanoaioe?y oa aaaao? ia ?IE yaea?oey aoee i?eoeniooeie aei
yaea?ii? iaieiiee. O aeayeeo yae?ao aeyaeyany ae?eiaai. Oeeoiieacia
ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei aai ae aoea iaci?iaiith, aai ae iaea aaeoie?. Aeyaeoe
/?oeo caeaaei?noue i?ae iaaooaiiyi yaea? oa aaeoie?caoe??th oeeoiieacie
iai ia aaeaeiny. Nei??oa ca ana, iiae?ai? ci?ie yaea?ii? noanoaioe??
ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye ii/aoeiaee i?iya a?eeiai? aeeno?io?? c?
noeeuei?noth aei a?ae?ii??. Aaeoieueia aeeno?io?y cono??/aeany aeineoue
/anoi ? iaea ae??aiiina?aaeeiaee oa?aeoa?. Iaaaeee? a?oie ?c
aeaio-o?ueio aaeoie?ciaaieo ee?oei iae/ano?oa ?icoaoiaoaaeeny o
oeaio?aeueiiio /e ?ioa?iaae?aeueiiio a?aeae?e? ia/?ieiai? /anoi/ee.
Ci?iai? ia/?ieia? ee?oeie aoee ca?eueoaieie a ?ici??ao, iaee
iie?aiiaeueio oi?io c iacaaa?aeaiith oeeoiieaciith. Iaaeiei yae?a
niinoa??aaeiny i?ina?oeaia ioi?i/aiiy. Ia ia?eoa??? ee?oei
iae/ano?oa niinoa??aaeeny e?oii? aaeoie?. A ae?eyieao aaeoieueii?
aeeno?io?? cono??/aeeny ie?ai? aaiaoioeeoe c cia/ii iaa?yeeith
oeeoiieaciith (oae caaia «aaeiiia aeeno?io?y»).

?io? ia/?ieia? ee?oeie oaae aoee aac yae?a /e c niioai?aiith
aiceiio?eueiith oeeoiieaciith (ieacii?aenen, aoeeaeio?eueiee iae?ic).
Caaeae? ia/?ieia? ee?oeie aoee ioi/ai? naaiaioiyaea?ieie eaeeioeeoaie oa
e?ioioeeoaie, i?iieeath/eie aei na?aaeeie naii? ee?oeie. Iae/ano?oa oe?
ci?ie iaie niinoa??aaeeny ia iaiaaeaieo ae?eyieao, a ?o i?iya ia
caeaaeaa a?ae nooiaiy aee?iai? ?io?eueo?aoe??.

A ie?aieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo a aeeiai?oe? aeine?aeo ia 7 oa 14 aeiao i?ney
ia?aianaii? oieaoeenoaeoii?? iaie niinoa??aaeany iacia/ia /e ae?aaeaia
?io?eueo?aoe?y ia?eii?oaeueii? niieo/ii? oeaieie iae/ano?oa
e?ioi?aeieie, ieaciaoe/ieie ee?oeiaie oa a?no?ioeeoaie. Iaeaea
iino?eieie a ioieoaoao aoee iaeiie/aiiy naaiaioiyaea?ieo eaeeioeeo?a. A
ie?aieo i?aia?aoao niinoa??aaee ?io?eueo?aoe ii?oaeueii? niieo/ii?
oeaieie c yaeuaie neea?ico.

Aaaaea?ii ca iaiao?aeia caoaaaeeoe, ui aee?iaee aaiaoic iaie ?icoi?any
cia/ii oe?oa, i?ae o?eueee ye iaeiie/aiiy aee?o a oeeoiieaci? ia/?ieiai?
ee?oeie. Ii?yae c oeei yaeuai niinoa??aaany ?icaeoie a?eeiai? aeeno?io??
ia oe? ?aaaia?aoi?ieo i?ioean?a. Iae/ano?oa iayai?noue aee?iaiai
aaiaoico na?ae/eea i?i caeo/aiiy a iaoieia?/iee i?ioean niieo/ii?
oeaieie. Ia/?ieia? ee?oeie c iaee??iiyi iae/ano?oa aoee a?aeieie ia
ae?eiaai, oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny ?icia?ooyi a ?ici?uaii? oa e?eueeino?
aaiaoioeeo?a, a?eueieo /e c iaeiie/aiiyi iie?naoa?eae?a.

Aeey ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ia/?iee oa i?aai?a
ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie cai?iiiiiaaia /eneaiia e?euee?noue
??ciiiai?oieo oano?a. Oe?e i?iaeai? i?enay/aii aaeeeo e?euee?noue
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, aea ia nueiaiaei? ia ?nio? aeiaeii? i?iae, yea
a iiai?noth a?aeoai?thaaea ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ia/?iee a oe?eiio.

sse i?aaeei, eiaeiee oano oa?aeoa?eco? eeoa yeonue iaeio ooieoe?th ? oi
ia??aeei a ii??aiyii? oa aeiiiaiaii? ?ioeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie. ?acii c
oei, aeia?a a?aeiii, ui iaa?oue i?e oyaeeeo caoai?thaaiiyo ia/?iee
ie?ai? ooieoe?iiaeuei? oanoe iiaeooue aooe iaaaoeaieie ? iaaiaee.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, ne?ae aaaaeaoe ca aeioe?eueia aeei?enoaiiy naia
eiiieaeno i?ia, iai’yoath/e, ui cia/ia e?euee?noue aaiaoia?e?a?ieo
caoai?thaaiue iathoue nai? ooieoe?iiaeuei? ? no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? c
??ciith i??ith ?o ae?aaeaiino?; no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a a?eueoino? nai?e
iaoiiaeththoue ?iceaae aeae?eueeio ooieoe?e ?, ia?aoo?, iaeaea an?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? oanoe ca ie?aieo oiia caeaoi? aeaaaoe iiceoeai?
?acoeueoaoe i?e a?aenooiino? caoai?thaaiiy ia/?iee (oae caai?
«a?ieia?/ii inaaaeiiiceoeai? ?aaeoe??»).

C iaoith ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ia/?iee oa i?aai?a
ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie iaie aoee i?iaaaeai? ??ciia?/i? a?io?i?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy e?ia? o caei?iaeo niaae (10), io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe yeeo a
iiaeaeueoiio neoaoaaee iio?aeiei iieacieeii a ioe?ioe? ?acoeueoao?a
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ia/?iee oa i?aai?a ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie
a oiiaao aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo.

Na?aae aaaeeeaeo ooieoe?e ia/?iee ne?ae cacia/eoe ?? o/anoue a iai?i?
aeia/ieo i?aiaio?a. Ca ??aiai a?e??oa?io oa oa?aeoa?ii eiai ?aaeoe??
iiaeeeaa aecia/aiiy aaiaco aeiaoyieoe?, i?inoaaeaiiy aeeiai?ee ??
?icaeoeo, c’ynoaaiiy i?e/eie, i?iaaaeaiiy ioe?iee e?eoaaiiy.

Ca io?eiaieie iaie aeaieie o oaa?ei eiio?ieueii? a?oie ??aaiue
caaaeueiiai a?e??oa?io aei??aithaaa 8,06 ± 0,54 ie iieue/e i?e iai?yi?e
?aaeoe??. ?c noai?aiiyi iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo niinoa??aaeany
noeeuei?noue aei iii??ii ae?aaeaii? a?e??oa?iai??, iniaeeai o a?oi?
oaa?ei c aeano?oeoeaieie oi?iaie aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo c caeo/aiiyi a
ia?ei?ioean aeaiaio?a ia/?ieiai-aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? ca’ycee. Ca iaoith
aeoieith, iaei??th c i?e/ei a?ia?a?e??oa?iai?? ne?ae aaaaeaoe ?iceaae
ianaaeo aeia/? aei i?ina?oo aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei? eeoee aiane?aeie
iino?eiiai iaa?yeo oeaiei ca’ycee, oa naia oeei noai?aiith ia?aoeiaeith.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy a?e??oa?io a
e?ia? a?aeaoaaeiny, ye i?aaeei, ca ?aooiie i?yiiai, ??aeoa — iai?yiiai
a?e??oa?io. A?ia?a?e??oa?iai?y /ano?oa aeyaeyeany ia oe? iayaiino?
a?eeiai? aeeno?io?? /e aee?iai? ?io?eueo?aoe??. Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui a
niinoa?aaeaiiyo ia/?ieiai? ?aaaia?aoe??, i?eoaiaiiith aoea ii?iae?caoe?y
ai?noo a?e??oa?io. Oea iaaea? iai i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui a?ia?ieac?y
aeaiaio?a ?aoeeoei-aiaeioae?aeueii? nenoaie ia i?e/aoia aei
a?e??oa?iai??. Inoaiiy a?aeoai?th? eeoa aeeno?io?/i? i?ioeane ?
ei?aao?oueny ?aaaia?aoi?ieie noaiaie.

A?noieia?/ii aeyaeyee no?oeoo?i? ci?ie c aieo ia/?iee o aeaeyae?
ca?ienoi? aeeno?io??, oieaia?oo, ??aeoa — o?a?ico. Ca iaoith aeoieith,
oe? ci?ie noai?thaaee ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?iceaaeo ia/?ieiaeie
ee?oeiaie aene?aoe?? a?e??oa?io aei aeia/ieo eai?ey??a, c iaeiiai aieo
oa eiai iiaa?iaiiy o aeaeyae? eii’thaiaaii? oi?ie aei e?ia? — c
ae?oaiai. I?iaaaeaiiy oieaoeenoaeoii?? ni?eyei ii?iae?caoe?? ai?noo
a?e??oa?io a ne?iaaooe? e?ia?, ui na?ae/eei i?i ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
a?aeiiaeaiiy oa ii?iae?caoe?? i?aiaioii? ooieoe?? ia/?iee.

I?e aea/aii? i?ioa?ineioaoe/ii? ooieoe?? ia/?iee niinoa??aaee cia/i?
ii?ooaiiy a a?eeiaiio niaeo?? ne?iaaoee e?ia?, ye ia aenio? noai?aii?
iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo, oae ? a aeeiai?oe? i?ney ia?aianaii?
oieaoeenoaeoii??. sseui o niaae eiio?ieueii? a?oie ai?no caaaeueiiai
a?eea noaiiaea 78,4 ± 4,2 a/e, oi ia aenio? iiaeae? caoai?thaaiiy
??aaiue eiai cieaeoaaany aei 61,2 ± 1,4 a/e. Ii?yae c ci?iaie a ??ai?
caaaeueiiai a?eea, niinoa??aaeany noeeuei?noue aei ?aceaaeo
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiai eiiiiiaio?a, a naia — cieaeaiiy ae??aiiaeenia?nieo
oa ca?eueoaiiy a?oaiaeenia?nieo o?aeoe?e. I?e oeueiio caa?oaea ia naaa
oaaao a?aenooi?noue ia?aeaeecio a oeeo a?aeoeeaiiyo. Aeineoue /?oeith
aoea a?iiaeueaoi?iai?y, ye ia aenio? iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo (52,4
± 0,5% i?ioe ii?ie 64,02 ± 0,24%), oae ? a aeeiai?oe? aeine?aeo — ia 3,5
oa 7 aeiao (a?aeiia?aeii 51,0 ± 0,6; 51,04 ± 0,2 oa 52,1 ± 0,3%%). Oe?
ci?ie na?ae/eee i?i cieaeaiiy neioaco ne?iaaoeiaiai aeueaoi?io a
ia/?ioe?. Oeueiio cia/ii ni?eyee oae? /eiieee ye ciooaia aieiaeoaaiiy
oaa?ei c aino?ei caiaeueiei i?ioeanii a aeia/iiio i?oo?o c
?ioieneeaoe??th oa a?aenooi?noue iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaoiiaeaiiai e?eoaaiiy,
ca?aeii ia?aaeaa/aii? iaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeineoue iii?oieie aoee a?aeoeeaiiy c aieo iieaciee?a a?oaiaeenia?nieo
o?aeoe?e a?eea, iniaeeai b -aeiaoe?ia oa -aeiaoe?ia. sseui o oaa?ei
eiio?ieueii? a?oie ?o ??aaiue a?aeiia?aeii aei??aithaaa 6,28 ± 0,01% oa
9,62 ± 0,02%, oi ia aenio? iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo oeae iieaciee
neeaaeaa a?aeiia?aeii 5,41 ± 0,02 oa 7,5 ± 0,01%%. Ai?no d-aeiaoe?i?a
caeeoaany iaeaea aac nooo?aeo ci?i.

sse a?aeiii, ia/?iea caaaeaee ?aaao? ia caaaeueia aieiaeoaaiiy /e
iaiaaeaia iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ??cieie oeyoaie a?ee?a a i?aai?ci, ui a oe?eiio
iaoiiaeth? cia/io ao?aoo ?? ?aca?aieo a?ee?a. A oiiaao aenia?eiaioo
c’yniaaii, ui ia i?ioyc? aeiooaiiai oeaeiaaiai aieiaeoaaiiy oaa?ei
ia/?iea ao?a/aea aei 40% nai?o aeanieo ?ano?n?a. I?e oeueiio iaeaea
iino?eii niinoa??aaeiny ?oeioaaiiy aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo no?oeoo?.
A?noieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeieoiaiooaaee oeth ao?aoo ca ?aooiie
i?e?inii oe?oiieacie oa i?oioiiae??e. Cia/ii aeniaaeoaaeeny caiane
ae?eiaaio, iii?oii ciaiooaaeanue e?euee?noue ?eainii, o?ainii?oii? ?IE
oa oinoaoeae?a. Iiai?noth aeieoaaeanue ieneaeaca. ?acii c oei, ai?no
AeIE i?e oeueiio nooo?ai ia ci?ithaaany.

Ca oiia iayaiino? iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo, iaie iaeaea iino?eii
niinoa??aaeiny niioai?aiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy A/A, iniaeeai i?e a?eeia?e /e
aee?ia?e aeeno?io??, ??aeoa i?e a?ia?ieac?? ?aoeeoei-aiaeioae?aeueii?
nenoaie ? ua ??aeoa i?e ?aaaia?aoe?? ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei.

I?e a?eeia?e aeeno?io?? aeineoue cia/ii no?aaeaeaea i?io?iia?ineioaoe/ia
ooieoe?y, /iai ia niioa??aaeiny i?e aee?ia?e ?io?eueo?aoe??. I?e
?aaaia?aoe?? ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei ??aaiue i?io?iia?io iaeaea ia
ci?ithaaany.

Aecia/aiiy ??aiy caaaeueiiai oieanoa?eio ca iaoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie ia
iiaea neoaoaaoe oanoii ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ia/?iee. ?acii c
oei, iieaciee anoa?eo?eaoe?? oieanoa?eio iae/ano?oa ci?ithaaany ca oiia
iayaiino? a?eeiai? aeeno?io??. ?aaaia?aoi?i? i?ioeane a ia/?ioe? eiai
??aaiue ia ii?iae?coaaee. Iaie caa?iooi oaaao ia oa, ui i?e a?ia?ieac??
?aoeeoeiaiaeioae?aeueii? nenoaie aeineoue iino?eii ca?eueooaaeanue OCA.

C i?iaaaeaiiyi oieaoeenoaeoii?? ? ioaea onoiaiiyi aeaea?aea caiaeueiiai
i?ioeano oa ?ioieneeaoe??, iaie niinoa??aaeiny iia?eueia iaaeeaeaiiy
oeeo iieaciee?a aei ii?ie. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/eee i?i nooo?aee
?iceaae i?ioa?ineioaoe/ii? ooieoe?? ia/?iee a oiiaao noai?aii? iiaeae?.

sse a?aeiii, ooieoe?y ia/?iee a aoaeaaiaeiiio iai?i? iieyaa? a ooai?aii?
aetheice c ae?eiaaio, neioaco ae?eiaaia c aetheice oa iiei/ii? eeneioe ?
ooai?aii? aoaeaaiae?a ?c iaaoaeaaiaeieo ?a/iaei, a oaeiae iaeiie/aiue
aoaeaaiae?a a ia/?ioe? o aeaeyae? ae?eiaaia. Oeth aeineoue neeaaeio
ooieoe?th ia/?iea cae?enith? i?ae aaciina?aaei?i aieeaii
iae?i-aoii?aeueiiai iaoai?cio.

?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue a aeeiai?oe? ai?noo oeoe?o a e?ia? oa
ae?eiaaio a oeaiei? ia/?iee ia aenio? iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo oa a
??ci? oa?i?ie i?ney i?iaaaeaiiy oieaoeenoaeoii?? na?ae/eee i?i
a?aenooi?noue a?ia?ae?eai?? o a?eueoino? aeine?aeieo niaae. Oae, yeui o
e?ia? niaae eiio?ieueii? a?oie ??aaiue oeoe?o neeaaeaa 6,5 ± 0,02
iiieue/e, oi ia aenio? iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo ai?no eiai
aei??aithaaa 5,72 ± 0,01 iiieue/e. ??aaiue eiai a iaaeao ieae/eo
iieaciee?a ii?ie i?iaeiaaeoaaa caeeoaoenue o?eaaeee /an ? i?ney
i?iaaaeaiiy oieaoeenoaeoii??. ?acii c oeei, aeineoue iii?oieie aoee
ci?ie a eiioeaio?aoe?? ae?eiaaio a ia/?ioe?. sseui o caei?iaeo niaae
eiai ??aaiue neeaaeaa 0,62 ± 0,08 iiieue/e, oi ia aenio? iiaeae?
aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo a?i cieaeoaaany aei 0,46 ± 0,01 iiieue/e,
caeeoath/enue ia oeeo iieacieeao aeineoue o?eaaeee /an a ??ci? oa?i?ie
niinoa?aaeaiue i?ney oieaoeenoaeoii??.

A?aeiii, ui aieueiaa iiae?aciaiiy ni?e/eiy? a?ia?ae?eai?th, iineeth?
ia?aiao oa i’yciao ae?yeuei?noue, ca?eueoo? iio?aao oeaiei a
aoaeaaiaeao, ui a oe?eiio na?ae/eoue i?i i?enoinoaaeueio ?aaeoe?th
i?aai?cio aei iiaeo oiia eiai ?nioaaiiy. Aea o?aaa iaoe ia oaac? oa, ui
oey a?ia?ae?eai?y ? iane?aeeii iineeaiiai neioaco ia/?ieiaiai ae?eiaaio,
oiio o o?eaaei aieiaeoth/eo oaa?ei aiia iiaea aooe ? a?aenooiueith, i?i
ui na?ae/aoue ? iao? aeani? niinoa?aaeaiiy. Ciooaia o?eaaea aieiaeoaaiiy
niaae a oiiaao aino?iai caiaeueiiai i?ioeano a aeia/iiio i?oo?? c
?ioieneeaoe??th iaoiiaethaaei aeniaaeaiiy caian?a ae?eiaaio a ia/?ioe?.
Oeae i?ioean aoa ia?aeaeueiei ci?iai ai?noo ae?eiaaia a e?ia? ia i?ioyc?
anueiai aenia?eiaioa. O oaa?ei c iaei ci?iaiei ai?noii ae?eiaaia a
oeaiei? ia/?iee i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae ia?aa?aaa cia/ii eaaoa, niaaee
nei??oa i?enoiniaoaaeeny aei iacae/ieo oiia i?ney ia?aianaii?
oieaoeenoaeoii??. Cia/ia ca?aeiaiiy ia/?iee ??aiai ae?eiaaio
ii?aeioaaeiny, ye i?aaeei, c ae?aaeaieie ii?oieia?/ieie ci?iaie a
ia?aioei? i?aaia o aeaeyae? e?oiii- oa ae??aiie?aieeiiiai iaee??iiy
ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei iaaeiei oeaio?aeueieo aai, ina?aaee?a iae?ico
ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei, aaiiciiai noaco oa ?ioa.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/eee i?i cia/iee ?iceaae
ae?eiaaiiooai?thaaeueii? ooieoe?? ia/?iee a oiiaao iiaeae? aino?iai
oieaoeenoeoo, /iio a cia/i?e i??? ni?eyee ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie a ia?aioei?
i?aaia. Oey ooieoe?y i?iaeiaaeoaaea caeeoaoeny ii?ooaiith ia i?ioyc?
anueiai /ano aenia?eiaioo ee?oei, a ?o ?aaaia?aoe??, a aia?aaoe/iiio
i?ioean?, oiui. Aenieee ai?no ioeea?iiaeo eeneio noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
cia/iith aeoeai?noth ee?oeiiiai iaoaaie?cio.

Ca iaoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie a?io?i?/i? eiiiiiaioe ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei
(ai?no ae?eiaaia, ?IE, AeIE oa aee?o) caeaaeaee a?ae oyaeeino?
ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i a ia/?ioe?. I?e cia/ieo aeano?oeoeaieo oa
aeeno?io?/ieo ci?iao a ia/?ioe? niinoa??aaee cieaeaiee ai?no ae?eiaaio
oa ioeea?iiaeo eeneio c ??ciei i?iyaii aee?iai? ?io?eueo?aoe??.

?IE iaie aecia/aeany ca iaoiaeeeith A?aoa, aaeioe?ai?io?iiiaeie aaeoiaie
ca Aeia?niiii oa iaoeeaiiaei nei?i i?e ?I a?ae 2,6 aei 5,0 ca
Oaaaaeaoai, 1953. Aeaeaeyee ?IE ?eaiioeeaacith. Aeno?aeoe?y AeIE oa ?IE
a?aeaoaaeany a 5% aiaeiiio ?ic/ei? o?eoei?ioeoiai? eeneioe ia i?ioyc? 15
oaeeei oa a iaeiiii?iaeueiiio ?ic/ei? nieyii? eeneioe ia i?ioyc? 3-o
aiaeei.

AeIE aecia/aee ca Oaeueaaiii. O?eaae?noue a?ae?ie?ca iaeiiii?iaeueii?
nieyii? eeneioe i?e oaiia?aoo?? 60°N aei??aithaaea 8 oaeeeiai.
Aeoeai?noue NAeA aecia/aeany ca Iaoeanii. A yeino? aeoeaioi??a
aeaeo?ii?a aeei?enoiaoaaee i?o?inei?e oao?acie?e. O?eaae?noue ?ieoaaoe??
10 oaeeei i?e oaiia?aoo?? 37°N, a aeey aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie — 15, 20
oa 45 oaeeei. C??ce aeaioiaeyee a e?einoao? i?e oaiia?aoo?? -15°N. C
iaoith eiio?ieth aeei?enoiaoaaee ?ieoaaoe?eia na?aaeiaeua aac noano?aoa
oa eei’yo?iiy ia i?ioyc? 7 oaeeei.

E?i?aee aecia/aee eiei?aeiith noniaic??th noaeaia ??? oa ?V c iane/aiei
?ic/eiii noaeaia /i?iiai A a 70° aoaiie?. O?eaae?noue caaa?aeaiiy — 20
oaeeei. Ia?aaaaa noaeaio /i?iiai a?aeiinii noaeaio ???-?V caiaeeeany aei
a?eueo oe?ieeo iiaeeeainoae caaa?aeaiiy oa iieaaoaiiy iiaeaeueoi?
aeieoiaioaoe??. Iia’ycai? e?i?aee caaa?aethaaeeny 2% ?ic/eiii noaeaio
/i?iiai A a aoeaoii? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 37°N ca Aa?aiaaoiii. O?eaae?noue
caaa?aeaiiy aei??aithaaea 12 aiaeeiai.

?IE iaie aecia/aeany ca iaoiaeeeith A?aoa, aaeioe?ai?io?iiiaeie aaeoiaie
ca Aeia?niiii oa iaoeeaiiaei nei?i i?e ?I a?ae 2,6 aei 5,0 ca
Oaaaaeaoai, 1953 . Aeaeaeyee ?IE ?eaiioeeaacith. Aeno?aeoe?y AeIE oa ?IE
a?aeaoaaeany a 5% aiaeiiio ?ic/ei? o?eoei?ioeoiai? eeneioe ia i?ioyc? 15
oaeeei oa a iaeiiii?iaeueiiio ?ic/ei? nieyii? eeneioe ia i?ioyc? 3-o
aiaeei.

AeIE aecia/aee ca Oaeueaaiii. O?eaae?noue a?ae?ie?ca iaeiiii?iaeueii?
nieyii? eeneioe i?e oaiia?aoo?? 60°N aei??aithaaea 8 oaeeeiai.
Aeoeai?noue NAeA aecia/aeany ca Iaoeanii. A yeino? aeoeaioi??a
aeaeo?ii?a aeei?enoiaoaaee i?o?inei?e oao?acie?e. O?eaae?noue ?ieoaaoe??
10 oaeeei i?e oaiia?aoo?? 37°N, a aeey aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie — 15, 20
oa 45 oaeeei. C??ce aeaioiaeyee a e?einoao? i?e oaiia?aoo?? -15°N. C
iaoith eiio?ieth aeei?enoiaoaaee ?ieoaaoe?eia na?aaeiaeua aac noano?aoa
oa eei’yo?iiy ia i?ioyc? 7 oaeeei.

E?i?aee aecia/aee eiei?aeiith noniaic??th noaeaia ??? oa ?V c iane/aiei
?ic/eiii noaeaia /i?iiai A a 70° aoaiie?. O?eaae?noue caaa?aeaiiy — 20
oaeeei. Ia?aaaaa noaeaio /i?iiai a?aeiinii noaeaio ???-?V caiaeeeany aei
a?eueo oe?ieeo iiaeeeainoae caaa?aeaiiy oa iieaaoaiiy iiaeaeueoi?
aeieoiaioaoe??. Iia’ycai? e?i?aee caaa?aethaaeeny 2% ?ic/eiii noaeaio
/i?iiai A a aoeaoii? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 37°N ca Aa?aiaaoiii. O?eaae?noue
caaa?aeaiiy aei??aithaaea 12 aiaeeiai.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy ae?eiaaio aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiaeeeo Oaaaaeaoa, a
aeey ii??aiyiiy — ?aaeoe?th O?E. Eiio?ieue cae?enithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
ai?eace neeie.

A?aeiii, ui iniiaiei aeaea?aeii ooai?aiiy ae?eiaaio ? oeoei?, ui
aniieoo?oueny ?c eeoa/ieea. Oeae i?ioean a?aeaoaa?oueny ca o/anoth aeaio
oa?iaio?a — oinoi??eace oa ai?eio?ainaetheiceaeace. Ae?eiaai a ia/?ioe?
iiaea ooai?thaaoeny ? c i?iaeoeo?a neioaco aoaeaaiae?a, iiei/ii? oa
i??iaeiia?aaeii? eeneio. Ii?yae c iiiinaoa?eaeaie oa i?iaeoeoaie ?o
neioaco aeey ooai?aiiy ae?eiaaio a ia/?i oe? neoaothoue oaeiae a?eee oa
aee?e.

I?e aea/aii? ai?noo ae?eiaaia a ia/?ioe? ie niinoa??aaee eiai a
i?ioiieaci? ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oei o aeaeyae? ae??aii? ca?ienoino?,
ia??aeei ioiieth/i? anth i?ioiieacio. ?ieiee oey ca?ieno?noue aoea
iano?eueee cia/iith, ui ni?aaeyea a?aaeaiiy nooe?eueiiai ?ici?uaiiy
ae?eiaaia. Cia/ii ??aeoa iaie niinoa??aaeeny ina?aaeeiaa /e ?iceeaeaia
?ici?uaiiy ae?eiaaia. Caa?oaea ia naaa oaaao a?aenooi?noue ae?eiaaia a
yae?ao. A ?aoeeoey?ieo ee?oeiao ae?eiaai iae/ano?oa aoa a?aenooi?i.
Noiniaii iaeo?io?e?a ia/?iee, iaie aeyaeyeiny ?o ??aiii??ia ?ici?uaiiy
ii an?e oeeoiieaci?, ui noai?thaaei a?aaeaiiy ieeiiiae?aiiai caiiaiaiiy.
I?e ii??aiyii? ae?eiaai?caoe?? ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei c ae?eiaai?caoe??th
eaeeioeeo?a, caeiaooeo c ia/?iee, iaie aeyaeaia cai?ioii
i?iii?oe?iiaeueia caeaaei?noue: /ei cia/i?oa iane/ai?noue ae?eiaaiii
ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei, oei a?aei?oeie ia iueiai aoee eaeeioeeoe ? iaaiaee.

A ie?aieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo i?e cia/ii ae?aaeaieo yaeuao aeeno?io?? /e
?io?eueo?aoe??, ia/?iea aoea aeinoaoiuei iane/aia ae?eiaaiii ?, iaaiaee,
i?e ca?aei?eiio eiai ai?noo, ia/?ieia? ee?oeie ia caaaeaee aoee
ci?iaieie, ui na?ae/eei i?i caa?aaeaiiy eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae.

A?aeiii, ui ioeea?iia? eeneioe ?ici?uothoueny a ee?oeiao, ye o a?eueiiio
noai?, oae ? o aeaeyae? a?ee?a — ioeeaii?ioa?ae?a. ?o iiaeaeueoa ?ieue
caiaeeoueny aei o/ano? a i?ioeanao iai?io a?ee?a, a caaacia/aii? ?inoo,
a noai?aii? ee?oeiieo no?oeoo?, a ?iciiiaeaii? oa aeeoa?aioe?thaaii?.

sse a?aeiii, oa?iaioiee neeaae e?ia? o caei?iaiio i?aai?ci?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noaa?euei?noth, yea caaacia/o?oueny, c iaeiiai aieo,
iino?eiei ?oeioaaiiyi ee?oei c iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi oa?iaio?a aei e?ia?, c
ae?oaiai — aacia?a?aiei ?oeioaaiiyi oa?iaioa oa eiai aeaeaeaiiyi c
i?aai?cio. I?e ie?aieo caoai?thaaiiyo aeoeai?noue oa?iaio?a
ci?ith?oueny, aei e?ia? ii/eiathoue iaaeoiaeeoe oa?iaioe, ye? o
caei?iaiio i?aai?ci? aei oeueiai aoee a?aenooi?ie. Naia oey iniaeea?noue
o ye?enue i??? iaaea? iiaeeea?noue aeyaeyoe iaoieia?/iee i?ioean a
oeaiei?, ca?aeee ii/aa iaaeoiaeeoe oa?iaio. Aei oaeeo oa?iaio?a
a?aeiineoueny NAeA.

A inoaii? ?iee aeine?aeieee iaaeathoue ae?aaiinoe/iiai cia/aiiy, oae
caaiei, i?aaiiniaoeeo?/iei oa?iaioai, i?aeaeuaia aeoeai?noue yeeo
aeyaey?oueny ia?aaaaeii i?e iaoieia?/iiio i?ioean? a ia/?ioe?.
A?aoiaoth/e iino?eio caeo/ai?noue ia?aioeie ia/?iee i?e aino?iio
oieaoeenoeo? ca aeanieie aeaieie oa aeaieie aaaaoueio aaoi??a
(A.N.Aaneeue’?aa, 1969, I.I.Aiiaea?aiei, 1977, A.N.Oaa/aiei, 1977, oa
?io.), ne?ae ia?aaeaa/eoe ci?io aeoeaiino? oeueiai oa?iaioo ca oiia
iiaeaethaaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/eee i?i oa,
ui o caei?iaeo niaae aeoeai?noue NAeA aoea iacia/iith, neeaaeath/e 0,86
± 0,004 iiieue/e.nae. Ia aenio? iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo
aeoeai?noue NAeA cia/ii i?aeaeuoaaeanue, iniaeeai o niaae c
aeano?oeoeaieie oi?iaie aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo, aei??aithth/e 3,64 ±
0,012 iiieue/e.nae. I?e ii?oieia?/iiio aea/aii? oeaieie ia/?iee oeeo
oaa?ei aeineoue /anoeie ciao?aeeaie aoee iayai?noue a?eeiai? oa aee?iai?
aeeno?io??, ?ieiee c ina?aaeeaie iae?ico, ui ? iaoiiaethaaei cia/ia
i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? NAeA. C i?iaaaeaiiyi oieaoeenoaeoii?? aeoeai?noue
oa?iaioa aeaui cieaeoaaeanue, aea oea cieaeaiiy aoei aeineoue
iia?eueiei, iaa?oue ia 14 aeiao i?ney oieaoeenoaeoii?? aeoeai?noue NAeA
caeeoaeanue aenieith (2,67 ± 0,02 iiieue/e.nae).

Iioiaeaeaiiy oa?iaio?a e?ia? ??ciiiai?oia ? oiio aiie ? aeineoue
/ooeeaeie ? oiieeie ?iaeeeaoi?aie ?icaeoeo ci?i a ie?aieo i?aaiao i?e
iaoieia?/ieo i?ioeanao. Aeineoue cia/ia i?noea caeiathoue oinoaoace.
Oeei oa?i?iii aecia/athoueny iaeei /e aeaa oa?iaioe, ye? i?eeiathoue
o/anoue a aeenei?eyoe?? oeoe?o, a neioac? ae?eiaaio, a ioeea?iiaiio
iai?i?. Aeaye? aoaie aee?iaiai oa e?ii?aeiiai iai?i?a oaeiae iia’ycai? c
i?ioeanaie oinoi?eethaaiiy oa aeaoinoi?eethaaiiy.

?ic??ciythoue aea? oi?ie oinoaoace — eoaiao aai oinoiiiiianoa?aco /e
ae?oea?ioinoaoaco (EO) oa eeneo aai oinoiai?aeaco (EO). Ia/?ioe?
iaaeathoue aieiaio ?ieue a iaoaaie?ci? oinoaoace. A ee?i?oe?
niinoa??aa?oueny ia iino?eiee ia?aeae?ci a iaeiie/aii? ia/?ieiaeie
ee?oeiaie eoaiai? oinoaoace oa ?IE. E?euee?noue oeeo oa?iaio?a
ciaioo?oueny i?e aeeno?io?/ieo i?ioeanao a ia/?ioe? ca oiia o?ii?/iiai
caiaeueiiai i?ioeano a inoaii?e, iayaiino? iaoai?/iiai aaiaco
aeiaoyieoe?, i?e ai?aeai?/iiio aaiaoeo?. Ca oiia ?iceaaeo ianaaeo aeia/?
c oieaaeioo a?aeaoaa?oueny cao?eiea EO c iiaeaeueoei iiiaaeaiiyi ?? aei
e?ia?. Aeniea aeoeai?noue oa?iaioa na?ae/eoue i?i cia/ia i?eai?/aiiy
ooieoe?? ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei. Niia?eueiaia i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? EO
niinoa??aa?oueny i?e aaiaoeoao oa oee??icao ia/?iee, ui iiynith?oueny
oieanoacii a ae??aieo aeia/ieo i?ioieao oa ?aaaia?aoi?ieie i?ioeanaie a
oeaiei? ia/?iee.

Ca iaoeie aeaieie aeoeai?noue EO o niaae eiio?ieueii? a?oie neeaaeaea
0,68 ± 0,02 iiieue/a.e. Ia aenio? iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo
aeoeai?noue oa?iaioo c?inoaea aei 2,26 ± 0,1 iiieue/a.e c iinooiiaei ??
ciaioaiiyi a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?.

I?e a?noio?i?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? oeaieie ia/?iee ia ai?no EO ca Aiii??,
niinoa??aaee iaea?eueoa caaa?aeaiiy a /i?iee eie?? yaea? oa yaea?aoeue
ia/?ieiaeo ee?oei. Oeeoiieacia ?aoeeoey?ieo ee?oei caeeoaeanue ia
caaa?aeaiith. I?e yaeuao ?aaaia?aoe?? e?euee?noue EO ca?eueooaaeanue o
yaea?oeyo ai?oae?aeueieo ee?oei ia/?iee, a ca oiia a?ia?ieac??
?aoeeoei-aiaeioae?aeueii? nenoaie — o yaea?oeyo ?aoeeoey?ieo ee?oei. Ca
iayaiino? a?eeiai? aeeno?io?? ca iaoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie ia/?iea
aeineoue a?aeia ia EO, oiae? ye i?e aee?ia?e ?io?eueo?aoe?? ai?no ??
aeaui ca?eueooaaany. I?e ae?aaeai?e ae?eiaai?caoe?? ia/?iee ai?no EO aoa
iacia/iei ? ca?eueooaaany ?c cieaeaiiyi ai?noo ae?eiaaia. Io?eiai? iaie
aeai? iiaeooue iaoe ae?aaiinoe/ia ? i?iaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy a ioe?ioe?
ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo.

Aei e?iac a?aeiinyoue a?ae?ie?oe/i? oa?iaioe, ui eaoae?cothoue ?aaeoe??
anoa?eo?eaoe?? i?aai?/ieo eeneio oa nie?o?a. Noano?aoaie aeey e?iac ?
ia?aaaaeii ao??e aeueo aee?ieo eeneio oa ae?oea?eio /e ?ioiai nie?oo.
?aaeoe?y ? cai?ioiith ? oeae oa?iaio eaoae?co? ye a?ae?ie?c, oae ?
neioac ao???a. Iaeo?aeuei? aee?e i?ae aieeaii e?iac ?icuaieththoueny aei
ae?oea?ei?a oa aee?ieo eeneio.

Ca iaoeie aeaieie e?iacia aeoeai?noue oeaieie ia/?iee niaae ia
i?aia?aoao, o?eniaaieo a aoeaoii? oa ai?uaieo a ia?ao?i, aeyaeyeanue
iaeaea o an?o aaiaoioeeoao, aea a oeaio?? /anoi/ie aiia aoea
iii?oi?oith. Ca iaoith aeoieith, oea cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaei a?ae
oa?aeoa?o ?icoaooaaiiy aee??a a /anoi/oe?. sseui aee?e ?ici?uoaaeeny ia
ia?eoa??? /anoi/ie, oi aeoeai?noue e?iac aoea ca?eueoaiith a
oeaio?aeueieo ciiao ? iaaiaee. Naiee iecueeee ??aaiue aeoeaiino? iaie
niinoa??aaany iaaeiei e?oiieo aee?iaeo e?aiaeue. A iaiueo?e i??? e?iacia
aeoeai?noue caeaaeaea a?ae oa?aeoa?o o?enaoi?a. Oae, i?e aeei?enoaii?
aoeaoiia iaie niinoa??aaeiny oeaio?aeueia ?ici?uaiiy e?iacii?
aeoeaiino?, a niinoa?aaeaiiyo c aeei?enoaiiyi oei?ioi?io a?aei?/aee
??aiii??io aeoeai?noue. Iaie aeiionea?oueny aeoiea i?i oa, ui aoeaoii
i?eai?/o? e?iacio aeoeai?noue a ia?eoa?e/ieo ae?eyieao /anoi/ie.

Ia nueiaiaei? a?aeiii, ui e?i?aee, ?acii ?c iaeo?aeueieie aee?aie,
aee?ieie eeneioaie, oinoaoeaeaie oa noa?ieaie, ?ici?uothoueny ii an?e
aee?ia?e oeaiei?. Iaeo?aeuei? aee?e neoaothoue aia?aaoe/iei ?aca?aii
i?aai?cio, aea ooieoe?iiaeueia ?ieue ?o inoaoi/ii ia c’yniaaia.
Aeae?eythoue «aeaeei? e?i?aee» oa «ianeiaai? e?i?aee». Ia?o? aeineoue
/?oei aeyaeythoueny i?e caaa?aeaii? noaeaiii. Ianeiaai? e?i?aee /anoeiai
iia’ycai? c? neeaaeiaeie aeaiaioaie /anoi/ee ia/?iee.

sse a?aeiii, ia/?iea ? aieiaiei ? ?aeeiei i?aaiii, a yeiio ca o/anoth
i’yoe oa?iaio?a noai?th?oueny na/iaeia a i?oioiiae??yo ee?oei ia/?iee
oa ?? oeeoiieaci?. Aeaoaeo oa?iaio?a, ye? caaacia/othoue neioac
na/iaeie, noa? i?e/eiith ?iceaaeo acioenoiai iai?io. Ca iaoeie aeaieie
ai?no na/iaeie a e?ia? caei?iaeo niaae neeaaeaa 5,2 ± 0,02 iiieue/e. O
aeine?aeieo oaa?ei iaie niinoa??aaeinue ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo na/iaeie ia
oe? cia/ii? a?iii?ioa?iai??. Inoaiiy aoea i?eoaiaiiith aeey
aeano?oeoeaieo oi?i aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo c ae?aaeaiith ?ioieneeaoe??th
ca oiia o?eaaeiai aieiaeoaaiiy, i?e oeueiio ??aaiue na/iaeie aeinyaaa
12,4 ± 0,04 iiieue/e c aeineoue iia?eueiei cieaeaiiyi a
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?.

Io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ia/?iee
oa i?aai?a ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie a ni?anoaaeaii? ?o c
ii?oieia?/ieie aeaieie na?ae/eee i?i iino?eio ?o caoe?eaaeai?noue i?e
aino?iio oieaoeenoeo?. Iae/ano?oa no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a oeeo i?aaiao
ia?aaeoaaee ooieoe?iiaeueiei ? ciaoiaeeeenue o aca?ii?e caeaaeiino?.
O?eueee ca oiia aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaa
ia’?eoeaia ioe?iea ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i?aai?a oe??? nenoaie c
iiaeaeueoei aecia/aiiyi iiaeeeaiai ?icaeoeo oneeaaeiaiue oa
iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaoiiaeaiiai e?eoaaiiy /e i?iaiico.

sse a?aeiii, yaeua o?c?ieia?/ii? aeaaaia?aoe?? ia?aiaeo aeaiaio?a ??cieo
i?aai?a a?aeiinii caaaeuei?, oiae? ye ?aaaia?aoeaiee i?ioean, ii?yae c
caaaeueieie caeiiii??iinoyie, ia? aeey eiaeiiai i?aaio nai? niaoeeo?/i?
iniaeeaino?.

Ia/?iea niaaee ia? aeineoue neeaaeiee ia?aiaee aia?ao, ui neeaaea?oueny
c ie?aieo i??e?iiaeo oa aaci??e?iiaeo ia?aiaeo aieieii c ?o aeiooeaie,
ie?aieie ia?aiaeie ee?oeiaie oa aaiae?yie, ??ciiiai?oieie ia?aiaeie
cae?i/aiiyie. Ie?ai? ia?aia? aieieia oa ?o aeiooee noai?ththoue
nieao?iiy.

C iaoith c’ynoaaiiy oa?aeoa?o ?aaeoeaieo ci?i ia?aiaeo aoaeia ia/?iee a
oiiaao aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo, ii?yae c caaaeueieie
ii?oieia?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, iaie i?iaaaeai? niaoe?aeuei?
iae?ia?noieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aiaiai aia?aoo ia/?iee, aeia/iiai
i?oo?a oa iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
ii??aithaaeeny c aeaieie a?io?i?/ieo, ii?oieia?/ieo oa
iae?ia?noieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, io?eiaieo o oaa?ei eiio?ieueii? a?oie
oa a aeine?aeieo i?aea?oiao, ui iaaeaaaei iiaeeea?noue cae?enieoe
ia’?eoeaio ioe?ieo aeyaeaiei ci?iai.

A?iin?th oeaieie ia/?iee i?iaiaeeee a ae?eyioe? eiaea aeia/iiai i?oo?a.
C??ce cae?enithaaeeny ia caii?iaeoth/iio i?e?ioii? c iiaeaeueoith
?ii?aaiaoe??th nieyie acioiieeneiai n??aea ca A?eueoianueeei-A?in a
iiaeeo?eaoe?? A.?.Eaa?aio’?aa. *anoeia i?aia?ao?a caaa?aethaaeany
aaiaoieneeei-aiceiii, ca Oi?eueia??ii oa I?neai.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oeaieie ia/?iee oaa?ei eiio?ieueii? a?oie
na?ae/eee i?i iacia/i? ?aaeoeai? ci?ie ia?aiaiai aia?aoo.

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue ia?aiaeo aieieii ciai?oi? ia a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae
ii?iaeueieo — aiie aoee oiieeie oa ii?iio?iiieie. Ie?ai? ci?ie
?aaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o niinoa??aaeeny a ia?aiaeo aieieiao oa aaiae?icieo
ee?oeiao, i?i ui na?ae/eee iaieeae oeeoiieacie oa ia??aiii??i?
iioiauaiiy. Aeaye? a?ae?inoee ie?aieo aaiae?icieo ee?oei caaa?aethaaeeny
ia??aiii??ii. Oea yaeua ae?no?ii?? niinoa??aaeiny iaie ? na?aae ia?aiaeo
aieieii, /anoeia yeeo aoea a?ia??ii?aaiiaaiith, ?ioa — c? neaaeei
caaa?aeaiiyi, c iioiauaiiyie oa caeaeiaie.

Ca ?icoaooaaiiyi aaeeeeo e?iaiiinieo noaeei oa aeia/ieo i?ioie ia?aia?
ee?oeie aeineoue iie?ii?oi? ye ca oi?iith, oae ? ?ici??aie. Aeaye? c ieo
?ioaineaii ?ii?aaiiaai?. Cia/ia /anoeia iae?ioeeo?a ii?iio?iiia,
iiiaeeiie? ae a?a??io?euei?. ?o eiiiiiaioe ceeaaeeny a nooe?eueio iano.
A oeeo aeiaaeeao ia?aia? ee?oeie iaee aeaeyae aacno?oeoo?ieo ooai?aiue c
i?aeaeuaiith ?ii?aaiaoe??th a?ae?inoe?a. Ie?ai? a?ae?inoee aoee
caaa?aeai? ia??aiii??ii. A i?aia?aoao cono??/aeeny iae?ioeeoe c
aoeaaiiiae?aieie iioiauaiiyie ia cae?i/aiiyo a?ae?inoe?a, ui na?ae/eei
i?i ?o iiae?aciaiiy.

Io?eiai? iaie aeai? iia’ycothoueny c aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e i?i oa, ui
i?ioeane aeaaaia?aoe?? oa ?aaaia?aoe?? ia?aiaeo aoaeia ia/?iee ae?aaeai?
neaaei. ?acii c oei, ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui ca nai?i ciai?oi?i
aeaeyaeii ia?aia? aieieia ia/?iee aeineoue ??ciiiai?oi?: /anoeia c ieo
oiiea, c ??aieie eiioo?aie oa ??aiii??iith ?ii?aaiaoe??th; ?io? —
iioiauai? aai ae i?aaenoaaeai? cia/ieie aa?eeiciinoyie.

Ioaea, o a?aeiia?aeue ia iia?aoe?eio o?aaio a?aeaoaaeeny ci?ie ia?aiaeo
aoaeia ia?aioeie ia/?iee ?aaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o. A aeiaeiiio
niinoa?aaeaii? iaie ia aeyaeaii yaeua aeaaaia?aoe??. Oe? aeai? a
iiaeaeueoiio neoaoaaee iai eiio?ieai i?e aea/aii? ?io?aio?aeueiiai
ia?aiaiai aia?aoo ia/?iee a ??ci? oa?i?ie aino?iai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
oieaoeenoeoo o niaae.

I?e aea/aii? ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo ia/?iee ia 3-5 aeiao
iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo, iaie niinoa??aaeeny ci?ie ia?aaaaeii
?aaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Ii?yae c ia?aiaeie aieieiaie, ca aeaeyaeii
iaci?iaieo, cono??/aeeny i??e?iia? ia?aia? aieieia a noai? a?a??io?e??,
ae?no?ii??, c ia??aiii??iith ?ii?aaiaoe??th. Ie?ai? ia?aia? aieieia aoee
iioiauaieie, ?io? — c iciaeaie a?ae?ii?/ieo ci?i. Iaee i?noea yaeua
ae?no?ii?? oa o?aaiaioaoe?? a?nueiaeo oeee?iae??a oa ia?aiaeo
cae?i/aiue.

I?e a?noieia?/iiio aea/aii? ?io?ai?aaiiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo ia/?iee a
oeae oa?i?i aeine?aeo niinoa??aaee noeeuei?noue aei iayaiino?
??ciiiai?oieo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i. Ii?yae c iaei ci?iaieie ia?aiaeie
aeaiaioaie, aeyaeyee no?oeoo?e c yaeuaie iiae?aciaiiy /e iaa?oue
aeano?oeoe??, ui ca iaoith aeoieith na?ae/eei i?i ia??aiii??ia
iioeiaeaeaiiy ia?aiaiai aia?aoo.

*?oeeie aoee iiae?aciaiiy ia?eoa?e/ieo a?aeae?e?a ia?aiai? nenoaie c
yaeuaie ae?no?ii?? ia?aiaeo aieieii, ia??aiii??iei iioiauaiiyi a?nueiaeo
oeee?iae??a oa iaieeaaie oeeoiieacie. Cia/ia /anoeia ia?aiaeo aieieii
aoea o?aaiaioiaaiith, ui na?ae/eei i?i iacai?ioi?noue niinoa??aath/eo
iaie ci?i a ia?aiaeo aieieiao ia/?iee.

A iiaeaeueoiio i?ney ia?aianaii? oieaoeenoaeoii?? (14 aeiaa) yaeua
iiae?aciaiiy ia?aiaeo no?oeoo? ia?aioeie ia/?iee caa??aaeeny. Ii?yae c
iaci?iaieie ia?aiaeie aieieiaie, niinoa??aaee aoaeiae c
iciaeaie iioeiaeaeaiiy, i?i ui na?ae/eea iayai?noue ia?eaeniiaeueii?
?aaeoe?? o aeaeyae? ?icoe?aiiy ia?aoaao?a ?aia’? a i??e?iiaeo ia?aiaeo
aieieiao, ci?ie ian?/ie Oi?aeoa-Eaioa?iaia. A?nueia? oeee?iae?e
ia??aiii??ii iioiauai?, iiaeaeoaee c yaeuaie ae?no?ii??. Aeineoue /anoi
cono??/aeeny aeaoi?iiaai? iae?ioeeoe c ii?ooaiith nai?th no?oeoo?ith.
ssae?a iiaaii caaa?aethaaeeny, ia??aeei aoee ci?uaieie aei ia?eoa???
ee?oeie. Ia?inoee ia?aiaeo ee?oei /anoi aeyaeyee i?aeaeuaio
a?a??io?e?th.

Aiae?coth/e ?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ie aiaaieeeny, ui ca
nai?th aoaeiaith ia?aia? nieao?iiy aeia/iiai i?oo?a ia??aeei
a?ae??ciythoueny iaeia a?ae iaeiiai oi?iith oa ?ici??aie ia?aiaeo
ee?oei. Ia?oa, /e iniiaia ia?aiaa nieao?iiy, ia? ianeai? aeiooee
ia?aiaeo aieieii, ye? ia?aie?oath/enue, ooai?ththoue iaoe? iai?aaeeueii?
oi?ie. A?ae oianoeo ia?aiaeo oyae?a a ??ci? aiee a?aeoiaeyoue ia?aia?
a?eee ??cii? oiaueie. ?o oiaueia ciaioo?oueny ii i??? iaaeeaeaiiy aei
oeeee. Ia ae?eyieao ia?ao?anoo iaie ia??aeei aeyaeyeeny iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy
ia?aiaeo ee?oei, ye? a?aeiineeenue ca nai?th oi?iith aei ee?oeie ? oeio
Aeiaaey, a iaioino?- aei a?aaionueeeo ee?oeie oa ee?oei ?? oeio Aeiaaey.
Ia??aeei cono??/aeeny aaiae?? o?eeooii? /e iaaeueii? oi?ie, ye? iaee
a?ae 4 aei 12 ia?aiaeo ee?oei.

Ia?aia? aeaiaioe na?icii? iaieiiee iaee aeaye? iniaeeaino? a caeaaeiino?
a?ae a?aeae?ee?a aeia/iiai i?oo?a. Oae, ia?aia? ee?oeie a ae?eyioe?
oeeee i?oo?a ca nai?ie ?ici??aie aoee a?eueoeie a?ae iae?ii?a, ui
ciaoiaeeeeny a i’ycia?e /e neecia?e iaieiieao. A na?ici?e iaieiioe? o?ea
aeia/iiai i?oo?a ia?aia? aocee neeaaeaeeny ?c /ooeeaeo ee?oei ?? oeio ca
Aeiaaeai oa a?aaionueeeo ee?oei. A ae?eyioe? aeia ia?aia? ee?oeie
cono??/aeeny iaaaeeeeie neoi/aiiyie c ia?aaaaeiith e?euee?noth ee?oei ??
oeio. ?ieiee iaie cono??/aeeny ia?aia? ee?oeie c iae?io?a?eey?ieie
ieanoeieaie oa a?aaionuee? ia?aia? ee?oeie. Aeineoue /anoi ee?oeie ??
oeio ca Aeiaaeai ?icoaoiaoaaeeny ocaeiaae ia?aiaiai aieieia iiiaeeiiei
/e iaaaeeeeie neoi/aiiyie ia ae?eyieao ia?ao?anoy ia?aiaeo aieieii, aai
ae eaaeaee a niieo/i?e oeaiei?. Ia?aia? aieieia a a?eueoino? nai?e aoee
oaeeynoeie, c ?icieanoaiiyie.

I’yciaa iaieiiea iaea cia/io e?euee?noue ia?aiaeo aoce?a, aeineoue
??ciiiai?oieo ca oi?iith — a?ae eaioethaee?a aei aaaaoieooiee?a. Ia?aia?
nieao?iiy a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae ia?aiaeo aeaiaio?a na?iciiai iie?eao ? eeoa
a ae?eyioe? oeeee aeia/iiai i?oo?a iaee ianeai? ia?aia? oyae?, a ?ioeo
aea eiai a?aeae?eeao ?o oiaueia cia/ii ciaiooaaeany. Ia?aia? ee?oeie
i’yciai? iaieiiee iaie aeyaeyeeny /ano?oa ocaeiaae ia?aiaeo aieieii o
aeaeyae? iacia/ieo a?oi /e iiiaeeiieeo ooai?aiue ca oiaeith
aeaaeeii’yciaeo ee?oei. Aaiae?? ia??aeei iaee cia/io e?euee?noue
ia?aiaeo ee?oei. Ia?aia? ee?oeie, ye i?aaeei, aoee aeaui iaioeie a?ae
ia?aiaeo ee?oei na?icii? /e neeciai? iaieiiie, cono??/aeeny aai ae
iiiaeeiiei, aai ae o aeaeyae? iacia/ieo a?oi. Aaiae?? c iiiaeeiieeie
ia?aiaeie ee?oeiaie iaie aeyaeyeeny eeoa a ae?eyioe? aeia aeia/iiai
i?oo?a. Iae?iie i’yciai? iaieiiee aeia/iiai i?oo?a ia?aaaaeii aoee
ioeueoeiiey?ieie ? iaeaaeaee aei ? oeio Aeiaaey, aeineoue ??ciiiai?oieie
ca oi?iaie. Oeeoiieacia ee?oei iaea ae?aaeaio aieieieno?noue c
iia?eueiei ia?aoiaeii a aeia?a caaa?aeai? a?ae?inoee. ssae?a iaee e?oaeo
/e iaaeueio oi?ie, i?noeee yaea?oea ? ia??aeei aoee ci?uaieie aei
ia?eoa???. Ee?oeie ? oeio ca Aeiaaeai iaee aaaaoi ?icaaeoaeaieo
aeaiae?eo?a, ye? anooiaee a eiioaeo c ia?inoeaie ?ioeo ee?oei oa
ia?aiaeo aieieii ia?aiaeo oyae?a.

A no?ioe? aeia/iiai i?oo?a niaaee iaie /?oei aeyaeyeiny i?aeneeciaa
ia?aiaa nieao?iiy, noai?aia /eneaiieie ia?aiaeie aieieiaie, ye?
ia?an?eaeeny iii?ae niaith ? noai?thaaee ia/aaoi nioe aaaaoieooiai?
oi?ie. Ia ae?eyieao ia?ao?anoo ia?aiaeo aieieii /e ca ?o oiaeith
ia??aeei aeyaeyeeny ia?aia? aocee. A ae?eyieao aeia /e o?ea aeia/iiai
i?oo?a ia?aia? aieieia iaee oaeeynoo oiaeo. Oae? aoaeiae, ca
iaoith aeoieith, iia’ycai? c /anoeie ?icoyaaie no?iee aeia/iiai i?oo?a a
oiiaao i?neyiia?aoe?eii? aoii?? a ?aii? oa?i?ie i?ney oieaoeenoii??.
A?aaionuee? inaaaeioi?iiey?i? iae?iie a i?aeneeciaiio i?ioa?eo aeia/iiai
i?oo?a iaie aeyaeyeeny aeineoue ??aeei.

Ia?aiaee aia?ao neeciai? iaieiiee aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee ??aeeeie iaoeyie
ia?aiaeo aieieii. Ia?aia? aeiooee iae/ano?oa caeo/aee aei naaa 2-5
aieieiiaoeue c ??ciia?/ieie ?icaaeoaeaiiyie. Aaiae?? aoee i?eeeie,
neeaaeaeeny c 2-4-o aeiaaeo a?ae?inoe?a. Ia?aia? aocee a ae?eyioe? o?ea
?icoaoiaoaaeeny /ano?oa a ciiao ia?an?/aiiy ia?aiaeo aieieii ?
neeaaeaeeny c /eneaiieo ia?aiaeo ee?oei ? oa ?? oeio. Ii ia?eoa???
ia?aiaiai aocea ia iaiaaeaiiio i?inoi?? iaie aeyaeyeeny a?aaionuee?
ia?aia? ee?oeie, /anoi iai?aaeeueii? oi?ie, ye? ca ?ici??aie
ia?aaeuoaaee a 2-4 ?ace ?ici??e ia?aiai? ee?oeie.

A i?oo?ia?e i?ioioe? e?euee?noue ia?aiaeo oyae?a cia/ii ia?aaeuoaaea ?o
a no?ioe? aeia/iiai i?oo?a. Iii?ae e?oiieie oyaeaie iaie niinoa??aaeeny
iaio? aeiooee oa ie?ai? ia?aia? aieieia. sse i?aaeei, ia?aia? aaiae??
aeyaeyeeny a ae?eyieao ia?an?/aiiy oyae?a, ??aeoa — ca ?o oiaeith. Aiie
a?ae??ciyeeny iii?ae niaith ca ?ici??aie oa oi?iith. Ia?aaaaeii oea aoee
e?oii? aaiae??, ye? iaee aeae?eueea aeanyoe?a ia?aiaeo ee?oei ?? oeio ca
Aeiaaeai. ?acii c oei, iaie aeyaeyeeny ? iiiaeeiie? ia?aia? ee?oeie c
iacia/iith e?euee?noth a?ae?inoe?a. A oiau? ia?aiaeo oyae?a cono??/aee
i??e?iia? ia?aia? aieieia, a?ae yeeo a?aeiaaeiaoaaeeny a?/i? a?ei/ee,
ye? iieeaeaee oiauo oyaeo ? cae?i/oaaeeny a oeaieiao i?inoeie
eoueeiiiae?aieie ?aoeaioi?aie /e ie?aieie oaeeynoeie ieoi/eaie.

A no?ieao aeia/iiai i?oo?a niaaee iaie aeineoue /anoi niinoa??aaeany
iayai?noue aeaiyaea?ieo ia?aiaeo ee?oei oa ee?oei, ui iaee i?yi?
aianoiiice iii?ae niaith. Oaea ae caeiiii??i?noue iaie i?ine?aeaeoaaeany
? a no?ieao caaaeueii? aeia/ii? i?ioiee. Naia oea aeaei iai i?aenoaae
aeneiaeoe aeoieo i?i oa, ui a ?io?aio?aeueieo ia?aiaeo aaiae?yo
aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioieao ia?aia?
ee?oeie ? a?aaionuee? ia?aia? ee?oeie ooai?ththoue i?noeaa? aianoiiici?
ca’ycee.

?yni?noue ia?aiaeo aieieii, iayai?noue cia/ii? e?eueeino? ia?aiaeo
ee?oei ? aaiae??a, ia?aiaeo cae?i/aiue oa i?noeaaeo aianoiiic?a ca
iaoith aeoieith ? iiyniththoue o?nio caoe?eaaeai?noue ia?aiaeo ooai?aiue
iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie i?e caiaeaii? a aeia/iiio
i?oo?ia?. Ia??aeei no?oeoo?e ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo oae
?ioeiii ia?aie?oaeeny iii?ae niaith, ui aeae?eeoe ie?ai? ia?aia? aieieia
noaaaei i?inoi iaiiaeeeaei.

Ca oiaeith i?oo?iai? a?oa??? iaie iino?eii niinoa??aaeany iayai?noue
iaei??? /e iiaea?eii? a?eee iiaa?oiaiai ia?aiaiai ia/?ieiaiai nieao?iiy,
ye?, noi?iaiaeaeoth/e e?iaiiini? noaeeie an?o iaieiiie
aeia/iiai i?oo?a, noai?thaaee noaeeii? ia?aia? nieao?iiy. Ia?aia?
aieieia ia??aeei ia?an?eaee noaeeie i?ae ??ciei eooii c on?o aie?a,
ia/aaoi iaai?oath/e inoaii?. I?e ia?an?/aii? aioo??oiueii?oo?iai?
noaeeie, ia?aia? aieieia /anoi ?icieanoiaoaaeeny. Oea yaeua iaie
iiynith?oueny iino?eiei oeneii cano?eii? aeia/? ia ia?aia? noiaao?e c
ianooiiei ?icoyaiaiiyi inoaii?o oa ?icaaeoaeaiiyi ia?aiaeo aieieii ia
no?ieao aeia/iiai i?oo?a i?e ia?an?/aii? noaeei.

E?iaiiini? noaeeie no?iee aeia/iiai i?oo?a noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny aeaiia /e
o?ueiia ia?aiaeie aeiooeaie c eiaeiiai aieo. A ae?eyieao ?icaaeoaeaiiy
a?oa??e, eai?ey??a oa aaioe e?iaiiini? noaeeie oeueiai i?aaio
caaacia/oaaeeny ??cieie ca oi?iith a?eueiiai oeio /ooeeaeie ia?aiaeie
aia?aoaie. ?aoeaioi?e ia??aeei aoee ooai?ai? i??e?iiaeie ia?aiaeie
aieieiaie, ye?, i?aeoiaey/e aei no?iee noaeeie, ?iciiae?eyeeny ia ?yae
a?ei/ie, ui anooiaee aei aaeaaioeoe?th oa oiau? i’yciai? iaieiiee
noaeeie. *anoeia ia?aiaeo a?ei/ie, aoaey/e i??e?iiao iaieiieo,
cae?i/oaaeeny aeineoue oiieeie oa?i?iaeyie.

A ae?eyioe? ceeooy caaaeueii? ia/?ieiai? i?ioiee c i?oo?iaith, iaie
niinoa??aaeiny aeineoue cia/ii ae?aaeaia ia?aiaa nieao?iiy c aaeeeeie oa
na?aaeiueiai ?ici??o aaiae?yie. A no?ieao i?ioie aeyaeyeeny a?euei?
ia?aia? cae?i/aiiy, ooai?ai? ?icaaeoaeaiiyie oianoeo oa oiieeo ia?aiaeo
aieieii. Aeaye? c ieo, ia ?icaaeoaeoth/enue, aoaeeeny na?aae aeaiaio?a
neeciai? iaieiiee.

Caa?oaea ia naaa oaaao iayai?noue cia/ii? e?eueeino? ia?aiaeo aaiae??a,
ui ?icoaoiaoaaeeny na?aae iaoaeue ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai nieao?iiy
iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie. Iae/ano?oa ?io?aio?aeueia
?iia?aaoe?y i?ioie niinoa??aaeany iaie ia caaei?e no?ioe?
noi?aaeoiaeaiaeueiiai oa ?ao?iaeoiaeaiaeueiiai a?aeae?e?a. Ca?aene
ie?ai? ia?aia? noiaao?e i?yioaaee ye aei aeia/iiai i?oo?a, oae ? aei
?ioeo a?aeae?e?a iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie. I?e?ineii?/ia
aea/aiiy noi?aaeoiaeaiaeueii? /anoeie oieaaeioa na?ae/eei i?i oa, ui
naia a oe?e /anoei? eiioeaio?o?oueny iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
?io?aio?aeueieo aaiae??a.

A?eueo?noue ?io?aio?aeueieo aaiae??a iaei eieiiiae?aio oi?io. Oi?ia
aaiae?icieo ee?oei oaae aoea eieiiiae?aiith /e iaaeueiith. Ca
e?euee?noth a?ae?inoe?a oa ?o aeiaaeeiith ee?oeie ?io?aio?aeueieo
aaiae??a iiaeeeai aoei a?aeianoe aei ee?oei ?? oeio ca Aeiaaeai.

Ca /eneii ia?aiaeo ee?oei iaie cono??/aeeny aeineoue ??ciiiai?oi?
aaiae??. Oae, aaiae??, ui ?icoaoiaoaaeeny ia ii/aoeo oieaaeioa, i?noeee
aeineoue ?ynio e?euee?noue ia?aiaeo ee?oei. A aeenoaeueiiio a?aeae?e? oa
?ioeo ciiao e?euee?noue oeeo ee?oei ciaiooaaeany. Oa?i?iae? ia?aiaeo
ee?oei iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie iaeaea ia a?ae??ciyeeny
a?ae i?oo?iaeo. Ia?aia? cae?i/aiiy a i?ioieao, ye ? a aeia/iiio
i?oo?ia?, ?ici?uoaaeeny na?aae i’yciaeo aieieii ? ca oi?iith iaaaaeoaaee
caieooai? eeoaaeueoey. A neecia?e iaieiioe? ia?aia? cae?i/aiiy
cono??/aeeny iaie ia iino?eii.

Ia aenio? iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo i?e iae?ia?noieia?/iiio aea/aii?
no?iee aeia/iiai i?oo?a iaie niinoa??aaeeny cia/i? ci?ie
?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo, a iniiaiiio, ?aaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o.
Iae?ioeeoe oa ?o a?ae?inoee ?ioaineaii ?ii?aaioaaeeny, yae?a aoee
ca?eueoaieie, ci?uaieie aei ia?eoa??? ee?oei. Ia?aia? i?ia?aeieee
i?aaenoaaeai? ia?aaaaeii iioiauaieie aieieiaie. Ca oiaeith ia?aiaeo
aieieii iaie niinoa??aaeeny iioiauaiiy oa aa??eiciino?.

Ci?ie ?aaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o a ia?aiaeo no?oeoo?ao aeia/ieo i?ioie
aeyaeyeeny ? i?ney ia?aianaii? oieaoeenoaeoii?? a aeeiai?oe?
niinoa?aaeaiiy ia 7 oa 14 aeiae. A ?io?aio?aeueieo aaiae?yo iino?eii
aeyaeyee aeaoi?iiaai? iae?ioeeoe. Aieieienoa no?oeoo?a a ieo aoea
a?aenooiueith, oeeoiieacia caaa?aethaaeany ia??aiii??ii, yae?a
aeeoa?aioe?thaaeeny ia/?oei, aei oiai ae aoee ci?uaieie aei ia?eoa???
ia?aiaeo ee?oei. ?aaeoeai? ci?ie a?ae?inoe?a oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny ?o
iioiauaiiyi, ?ic?inoaiiyi oa ooai?aiiyi aeaiae?eoeaiae. Ia??aeei iaie
niinoa??aaeeny ci?ie ia?eiaa?aeueii? oa ia?eaaiae?iia?ii? n?oee — ia
oe? caaaeueiiai ?icoe?aiiy noaeei aeyaeyeeny ca?eueoaiiy ae?aiao?o
noaeei — a?oa??e oa aaiicieo noiaao??a — iaaeiei ia?aiaeo aeaiaio?a.

Ia 14 aeiao i?ney oieaoeenoaeoii?? a ia?aiaeo aoceao iaa?no?aeueieo
aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie ca?eueooaaeany e?euee?noue naoae?o?a. Ia?aia?
ee?oeie aoaeee nai? ?ene, noaaaee ae?no?ii?/ieie, a aeayeeo ?c ieo yae?a
aoee oaiieie, e?oiieie ia oe? na?oei? oeeoiieacie. Ca?eueooaaeiny /enei
a?ae?inoe?a c ?icaaeoaeaiiyie oa ie?aieie iioiauaiiyie. Aaaaoi ia?aiaeo
ee?oei iaee ae?inoe o aeaeyae? oe?ieeo ieanoei ??ciiiai?oii? oi?ie oa
?ici??o. Noaeeie, ui ioi/oaaee aaiae?? oa ie?ai? ee?oeie, aoee
ci?iaieie. A ie?aieo aoceao eai?ey?e cia/ii ?icoe?ai? ? nai?ie iaoeyie
ioiieththoue o?ea ee?oei oa ?o a?oie oae, ui ooai?ththoue nai???aei?
eiiiiceoe?? — noaeeiii-ia?aia? eeoaaeueoey. ?c ia?aiaeo aieieii cia/iei
ci?iai ?aaeoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o i?aeeyaaee oiano? ia?aia? aieieia, oiae? ye
oiie? aoee ii?iio?iiieie ? ?icoaoiaoaaeeny a aeiooeao no?oeoo?aie.

C aieo oeaiei eoene i?oo?iai? i?ioiee a oeae oa?i?i niinoa?aaeaiiy
aeyaeyeany noeeuei?noue aei neea?ioe/ieo ci?i. A?oa??iee oa i?aeai?ey?e
aoee cia/ii iioiioaieie, eaaeue oaeeynoeie, c cia/iith n?oeith
aianoiiic?a. A ie?aieo i?aia?aoao iaie aeyaeyeeny oe?ie? caeeyno? aaioee
oa i?ee? aaie iaaeiei aoce?a oa ia?aiaeo oyae?a. ?ieiee aaiae??
aoee noenioo? noaeeiaie ? aeoyaiooeie ca ?o oiaeith. Niinoa??aaeeny
aaiae?? c iacia/iith e?euee?noth noaeei. Noai?ai? ia?aia? aeiooee aoee
i?aaenoaaeai? ia?aiaeie aieieiaie c /?oei ae?aaeaiith aeeno?io??th.
Ioaea, o a?aeiia?aeue ia aino?ee caiaeueiee i?ioean a aeia/iiio i?oo?o
ii?oieia?/iei ci?iai i?aeeyaaee an? aeaiaioe ia?aiaiai aia?aoo oeeo
i?aai?a, aea aeineoue /?oeeie aoee ci?ie c aieo i??e?iiaeo aieieii o
aeaeyae? iaa?yeo, aa??eiciiai iioiauaiiy oa aaeoie?caoe??. Ia aenio?
iiaeae? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo, iniaeeai o niinoa?aaeaiiyo aino?iai
oeaaiiiiciiai oa aaia?aiiciiai oieaoeenoeoo, a aeia/iiio i?oo?o
i??e?iia? ia?aia? aieieia /ano?oa ia?aaoaaee a noai? aeano?oeoe??.
Ia?aia? ee?oeie /anoi aeyaeyeeny iiae?aciaieie, c yaeuaie aeano?oeoe??
oa ae?no?ii??.

C i?iaaaeaiiyi oieaoeenoaeoii?? i?e aeine?aeaeaii? a aeeiai?oe? iaie
aeyaeyany iie?ii?o?ci a ci?iao ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo
i?aai?a ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie. Ii?yae c aaci??e?iiaeie oa
i??e?iiaeie ia?aiaeie aieieiaie, ui caa?aaee naith no?oeoo?o, aeyaeyeeny
aieieia c?oeiiaai?, ie?ai? c ieo c iciaeaie ?aaaia?aoe??, i?i
ui na?ae/eee ?o oaeeyno?noue, i?ie?oa?aoe?y oaai?anueeeo ee?oei,
iayai?noue aieieii c eieaaie ?inoo.

An? oe? iniaeeaino? aeathoue iai i?aenoaao aaaaeaoe, ui i?e aino?iio
aenia?eiaioaeueiiio oieaoeenoeo? a?aeaoaathoueny ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie o
an?o a?aeae?eeao ia?aiaiai aia?aoo ia/?iee, aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa
iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie. Oe? ci?ie aeieeathoue, c iaeiiai
aieo, aiane?aeie caaaeueii? ?ioieneeaoe?? i?aai?cio niaaee, c ae?oaiai —
aiane?aeie ?aoeaeoi?ii? ?aaeoe?? c aieo ?aoeaioi??a aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa
iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie.

I?iaaaeai? iaie aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa iae?iii?oieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?i aoa?aioio ?iia?aaoe?th i?aai?a aeia/iiaeae?eueii? nenoaie a oiiaao
ii?ie oa iaoieia?? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui a caaacia/aii? /ooeeai?
?iia?aaoe?? oeeo i?aai?a, e??i oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie,
i?eeiathoue o/anoue ? aeaiaioe aaaaoaoeaii? ia?aiai? nenoaie, a naia —
ia?aia? ee?oeie ?-?? oeio ca Aeiaaeai, a?aaionuee?, inaaaeioi?iiey?i? oa
ia?aia? ee?oeie c iae?io?a?eey?ieie ieanoeieaie.

Aea/ath/e ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? oeeo ooai?aiue, iaie aoei
c’yniaaii, ui ?o iae?iie iathoue ei?ioe? aeaiae?eoe, ye? cae?i/othoueny
/ooeeaeie i?eai?aie, iiae?aii ?aoeaioi?ai nieiaeueiiai iioiaeaeaiiy.
E??i oeueiai, o ee?oei ?? oeio ca Aeiaaeai iathoue i?noea iayai?noue
aeiaaeo aeaiae?eo?a, ye? ooai?ththoue eoueeiiiae?ai? ?aoeaioi?e a
ae?eyioe? a?aeoiaeaeaiiy aeaiae?eoa a?ae o?ea ia?aiai? ee?oeie oa
aoa?aioi? cae?i/aiiy ia cia/i?e a?aenoai? a?ae iae?iia. A no?ieao
aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioieao iino?eii
cono??/athoueny ? ia?aia? ee?oeie c iae?io?a?eey?ieie ieanoeieaie. Ca
?ici??aie inoaii? a?eueo? a?ae ia?aiaeo ee?oei ? oa ?? oeio ca Aeiaaeai,
inaaaeioi?iiey?ieo ee?oei ?, ye i?aaeei, iaio? a?ae a?aaionueeeo ee?oei.
Iae?io?a?eey?i? ieanoeiee c’yaeythoue niaith /ooeea? iae?iie, ye?
i?eeiathoue o/anoue a noai?aii? i?noeaai? ?aoeaeoi?ii? aeoae. A
noai?aii? oe??? aeoae i?eeiathoue o/anoue ? ee?oeie ?? oeio ca Aeiaaeai,
a?aaionuee? oa inaaaeioi?iiey?i? ia?aia? ee?oeie.

Io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue
i?i oa, ui ooieoe?y i?aai?a aeia/iiaeae?eueii? nenoaie niaae
cae?enith?oueny ye aoii?aeueiei, oae ? ia?aiaeie oeyoaie. ?aoeaen, ui
aeieea? i?e iiae?aciaii? ciai?oi?o aiae?caoi??a, a oaeiae aioo??oi?o
?aoeaioi??a o?aaiiai o?aeoo ? iniiaith ae?yeueiino? oeo
?iia?aaoe?eieo iaoai?ci?a, ye? aieeaathoue ia ooieoe?th ia/?iee,
aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie. Ui
noino?oueny ia?eoa?e/iiai ?aoeaeno, oi a?i caeo/a?oueny aei nenoaie
ia?aiai? ?aaoeyoe??, ia /ie? yei? noi?oue oeaio?aeueia ia?aiaa nenoaia.
?iceaae ei?oeeaeueieo iaoai?ci?a ?aaoeyoe?? ni?e/eiy? iineeaiiy /e
iineaaeaiiy aoa?aioii? ?iioeuenaoe??, ui iaoiiaeth? i?aeaeuaiiy /e
i?eai?/aiiy ooieoe?? i?aai?a ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie, c ii/anoei
?iceaaeii ae?yeueiino? iioi?eee oa no?ieoa??a aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa
i?ioie, a oaeiae ?iceaaeo nae?aoe?? aeia/?, ui niinoa??aa?oueny iaeaea
iino?eii i?e oieaoeenoeo?.

O ca’yceo c oeeie ci?iaie ci?iththoueny ? cai?ioi? ca’ycee. Ca?eueoaiiy
/e i?eai?/aiiy aoa?aioii? ?iioeuenaoe??, ia??aeei iath/i? niioai?aiee
oa?aeoa? ?ioi?iaoe??, i?aeo?eiothoue iiceia? oeaio?e, ui iiaeeaeth? a
naith /a?ao ? i?aeo?eio? iaoieia?/iee noai i?aai?a, a oiio /ene? ?
i?aai?a ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie.

Aeyaeai? iaie ci?ie ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo i?aai?a
ia/?ieiaii?ioieiai? nenoaie aeaee ciiao i?eeoe aei aeoiee, ui
?io?aio?aeueia ia?aiaa nenoaia aeia/iiai i?oo?a, iaa?no?aeueieo
aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie oa ia/?iee iiaea aooe ?icoe?iaia ye niieo/aia
neeaaeia nenoaia, a ye?e aca?iiiaoiiaeai? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee.
Ioneiaei iaoai?ciii a oe?e nenoai? aacoiiaii ? ci?ie ia?aiaiai aia?aoo
aeia/iiai i?oo?a c ianooiiei ?iceaaeii e?iaiia?ao, iaoaaie?cio oa oeie
no?oeoo?ieie ci?iaie, eio?? iiaeooue aooe ?icoe?iaieie, ye noiooi?e
aia?ioie?o, aaiaoeo, ae?neaiac?y aeia/iaea?aeieo i?ioie.

Ni?anoaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a a?noieia?/ieo, a?noio?i?/ieo,
aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaaeathoue iiaeeea?noue
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a a?aeiia?aeue ia caiaeueiee i?ioean a aeia/iiio
i?oo?o niinoa??aathoueny ?iceaaee iaoaaie?cio anueiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo
i?aai?a ia/?ieiaii?ioieiai? nenoaie, ye? a iiaeaeueo? oa?i?ie
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue caa??aathoue ci?ie iie?ii?oiiai
oa?aeoa?a. *a?ac ??e ii?ooaiee iaoaaie?ci (aoaeaaiaeiee, aee?iaee,
ioeea?iiaee oa a?eeiaee iai?ie) ii?iae?cothoueny.

Io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue ciaoiaeyoue nia?
iiyniaiiy a caaaeuei?e ?ioieneeaoe?? i?aai?cio, c iaeiiai aieo, c
ae?oaiai — iayaiino? a?noea?i-a?noea?aeueieo ?aoeaen?a a i?aaiao
ia/?ieiaii?ioieiai? nenoaie. Oe? ci?ie a aeaiaioao ia?aiai? nenoaie
ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe a neeaaei?e eaioe? iaoiaaiaco aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo ?
aaaaeaoe i?e/eiith ?icaeoeo iiaeo iaoieia?/ieo noai?a
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo a?aeiinei.

AENIIAEE

1. Iioieia?/i? ci?ie ia/?iee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
caiaeueii-i?ie?oa?aoeaiei i?ioeanii a no?ii? oa aeeno?io?? (?ieiee aei
ina?aaeeiaiai iae?ico) — a ia?aioei?.

2. Ae?aaeai? ooieoe?iiaeuei?, ii?oieia?/i? oa a?io?i?/i? ci?ie ia/?iee
ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaiiio ca’yceo c ee?i?/iith neiioiiaoeeith; ?acii c
oei, /?oeiai ia?aeaeecio i?ae ooieoe?iiaeueieie oa no?oeoo?ieie ci?iaie
ia/?iee ia niinoa??aa?oueny.

3. sse?noue ae?aaiinoe/ii? ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio i?aai?a
ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie i?yii i?iii?oe?eia e?eueeino? i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aea /eneaii?noue iieaciee?a cia/ii iaoyaeith? oeth
ioe?ieo. Aaaaeaiiy ocaaaeueiaieo ioe?iie ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa
ii?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue nooo?ai i?aeaeuo? ye?noue oaei? ioe?iee, ??
ia’?eoeai?noue, aeieoiaiooaaiiy.

4. Ia/?iea, aeia/iee i?oo? oa iaa?no?aeuei? aeia/iiaea?aei? i?ioiee
iathoue neeaaeiee ?iia?aaoe?eiee iaoai?ci, ?aaoethth/ee oa
eiio?iethth/ee ?o ooieoe?th. Ii?ooaiiy ae?yeueiino? oeueiai iaoai?cio
iaoiiaeth? ??ciia?/i? ?iceaaee ?ooiai? ooieoe?? iacaaieo i?aai?a.

5. ?io?aio?aeueia ia?aiaa nenoaia i?aai?a aeia/iiaea?aeii? nenoaie
niaaee i?aaenoaaeaia o?ueiia aca?iiiia’ycaieie nieao?iiyie — iniiaiei /e
aaeaaioeoe?aeueiei, i’yciaei oa i?aeneeciaei a no?ieao aeia/iiai i?oo?a;
aaeaaioeoe?aeueiei, aeaniei oa neeciaei — a iaa?no?aeueieo
aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioieao. A oeeo nieao?iiyo i?noyoueny a ??cieo
e?eueeinoyo oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo ia?aia? ee?oeie ? oa ?? oeio ca
Aeiaaeai, a oaeiae a?aaionuee? ee?oeie. O an?o i?ioa?eao i?aai?a
aeia/iiaea?aeii? nenoaie aeyaeythoueny a?euei? aea?aai- /e
eoueeiiiae?aii? oi?ie ia?aia? ee?oeie.

6. A no?ioe? aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie
iathoue i?noea i?aeiae?iii? ca’ycee ia?aiaeo ee?oei ? oa ?? oeio ca
Aeiaaeai, ye? ooai?ththoue i?noeaa? ?io?aio?aeuei? ia?aia? iaoai?cie, ui
caaacia/othoue aaoiiaoeci nei?i/aiue.

7. Aoa?aioia eaiea ?aoeaeoi?ii? aeoae, ui aa?a ii/aoie a no?ioe?
aeia/iiai i?oo?a, i?aaenoaaeaia ?aoeaioi?aie o aeaeyae? eouee?a c
iacia/iith e?euee?noth aeiaaeo, iiaoi?ii ?icaaeoaeoth/eo ae?oioii?/ii,
oa?i?iaeae. Aoa?aioia eaiea oe??? aeoae ooai?th?oueny oiieeie
aaci’ye?oieie ia?aiaeie aieieiaie, ye? i?ioiaeyoue a i?ioiieaciaoe/ieo
oooey?ao oaai?anueeiai neioeoe?y ? cae?i/othoueny ia aeaaeeii’yciaeo
ee?oeiao aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa eiai noaeeiao.

8. I?e aino?iio oieaoeenoeo? an? ia?aia? aeaiaioe, a ia?oo /a?ao,
i’ye?oi? ia?aia? aieieia, caciathoue aeano?oeoeaieo ci?i, ui iaoiiaeth?
?icaeoie a?iiiioi?ii? ae?ne?iac?? /e aoii?? aeia/iiai i?oo?a. C?ea
ei?oeeaeueieo iaoai?ci?a ?aaoeyoe?? iaoiiaeth? iineeaiiy /e, iaaiaee,
iineaaeaiiy aoa?aioii? ?iioeuenaoe??, yea ni?e/eiy? i?aeaeuaiiy /e
cieaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino?, ia??aeei noai?thth/e
aeaci???ioiaaio iioi?eeo i?aai?a i?ioieiai? nenoaie, a oaeiae a?ia?- /e
a?iinae?aoe?th aeia/?.

9. O ca’yceo c oeeie ci?iaie ci?iththoueny ? cai?ioi? ca’ycee.
I?aeaeuaiiy /e cieaeaiiy aoa?aioii? ?iioeuenaoe??, ia??aeei iath/i?
oa?aeoa? niioai?aii? ?ioi?iaoe??, i?ae?eio? iaoieia?/iee noai i?aai?a
ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie.

I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??

1. Iii?ae ia/?ieiai-iaa?no?aeueieie aeia/iiaea?aeieie i?ioieaie oa
aeia/iei i?oo?ii ?niothoue o?ni? ??ciiiai?oi? oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i?
ca’ycee, ui ?iaeoue c?icoi?eei /anoo caeo/ai?noue ?o a ia?ei?ioean i?e
caiaeaii? aeia/iiai i?oo?a.

2. A ioe?ioe? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie i?e
aino?iio oieaoeenoeo? iaiao?aeii aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaena i?ia, ye?
a?aoiaothoue ?? ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? (i?aiaioia,
i?ioa?ineioaoe/ia, aoaeaaiaeia, aioeoiene/ia, oiui).

3. A?aoiaoth/e caeaoi?noue ie?aieo oa?iaio?a i?aeaeuoaaoe naith
aeoeai?noue ca oiia ?icaeoeo caiaeueiiai i?ioeano, iaiao?aeii aea/aoe
aeoeai?noue oaeeo oa?iaio?a ye ni?a?oieaeaa?ae?iaaeace (NAeA),
ania?oaoai?iio?ainoa?ace (AnO), aeai?iai?iio?ainoa?ace (AeO), eoaiai?
oinoioace (EO) oa ?eaiioeeaace (?IE), ui iathoue ae?aaiinoe/ia oa
i?iaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy i?e eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii? aino?iai oieaoeenoeoo.

4. ?acoeueoaoe a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeii? ni?anoaaeyoenue ?c
caaaeueieie ii?oieia?/ieie, a?noio?i?/ieie, iae?ia?noieia?/ieie oa
aiceiio?i?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie oeaiei i?aai?a ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai?
nenoaie, ui aeicaiey? cae?enieoe ia’?eoeaio ioe?ieo ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
noaio ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie.

5. Ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui i?e aino?iio oieaoeenoeo? iiaeooue
niinoa??aaoeny o?e a?oie ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ?iceaae?a:

? a?oia — noaee?i?/ia — oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth iaeiiii?oieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?iceaae?a aac ee?i?/iiai i?iyao.

?? a?oia — ee?i?/ia — ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?iceaaee iathoue ae?aaeaiee
oa?aeoa? c iciaeaie caoai?thaaiiy ia/?iee.

??? a?oia — aeenooieoe?eieo ?iceaae?a — c /?oeeie ee?i?/ieie iciaeaie
i?aaiii? iaaeinoaoiino? oa i?iyaii aioeaoaeiiao??.

6. I?e aino?iio oieaoeenoeo? a aenia?eiaio? niinoa??aathoueny niieo/aiiy
aeeno?io?/ieo, aeano?oeoeaieo oa ?aaaia?aoi?ieo ci?i a ?io?aio?aeueiiio
ia?aiaiio aia?ao? i?aai?a ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie. Ia?aaaaa
?aaeoeaieo ci?i ? ?aaaia?aoi?iiai iaoaii?oico a ?io?aio?aeueiiio aia?ao?
oeeo i?aai?a c? noeeuei?noth aei iineeaiiy aeoeaiino? AOO-ace a ia?aiaeo
aoaeiaao ia oe? iacia/ieo ?iceaae?a iaoaaie?cio a aeaiaioao ia?aioeie
ia/?iee neoaothoue a i?iaiinoe/i?e ioe?ioe? ooieoe?iiaeueii-no?oeoo?ieo
ci?i aaiaoioeeo?a.

7. ?acoeueoaoe aeanieo niinoa?aaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iayai?noue
ai?eii-caiaeueiiai i?ioeano a aeia/iiio i?oo?? ni?ey? ?icaeoeo /eneaiieo
eaaaiaaeo oneeaaeiaiue. Nai?/ania ? iaoiaaiaoe/ii iaoiiaeaia eiiieaenia
e?eoaaiiy c onoiaiiyi aeaea?aea caiaeaiiy oa naiaoe??th iaa?no?aeueieo
aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie noai?th? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey e?eoaaiiy
iiaaiii?? oa ?ioeo eaaaiaaeo oneeaaeiaiue.

8. A?aoiaoth/e iane/ai?noue ia?aiaeie aeaiaioaie oe?/ii-i?ioieiaiai
a?aeae?eo aeia/iiai i?oo?a, c iaoith onoiaiiy iioieo a?eueiaeo
iiae?aciee?a a ?aiiueiio i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?, iia’ycaieo c
oieaoeenoaeoii??th, iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe aeieaaeo oe??? ae?eyiee 1%
?ic/eiii iiaiea?io a iaaeao na?icii-i’yciaiai i?ioa?eo.

9. C iaoith i?io?eaeoeee caoai?thaaiue eoene i?oo?aai? i?ioiee,
iia’ycaieo c iaeeaaeaiiyi aeaio caoenea/?a i?e eeane/iiio aa??aio?
oieaoeenoaeoii?? oa a?aoiaoth/e ae?aaeaio ?iia?aaoe?th i?oo?aai?
i?ioiee, i?ae /an oieaoeenoaeoii?? ne?ae a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae iaeeaaeaiiy
caoenea/a ia eoeno, ui caeeoa?oueny, iaiaaeeaoenue iaeeaaeaiiyi i?ney
aeieaaee oa ianoaaeaiiy i?ioie aeaio e?aaoo?. Oieaoeenoaeoii?y a oe?e
iiaeeo?eaoe?? iiaeiia aooe iaoiaeii aeai?o i?e o??o?a?/iiio e?eoaaii?
oai?eo ia oieaoeenoeo.

NIENIE I?AOeUe, IIOAE?EIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1.Ne?uiieeia I.N., Oaa/aiei A.N., Aeoaeiei N.E. Yenia?eiaioaeueiue
oieaoeenoeo. Iiiia?aoey.- Iieoaaa,1991.- 52n.

2.Oaa/aiei A.N.,Ne?uiieeia I.N.,Aeoaeiei N.E. Oe?o?aey iauaai aeae/iiai
i?ioiea. Iiiia?aoey.- Iieoaaa,1993.- 146n. (a yenia?eiaioa e eeeieea).

3.Aeoa?i?i N.?. Ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ia/?iee oa i?aai?a
ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie i?e aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aino?iio
oieaoeeno?o? o niaae // Aanoiee i?iaeai aeieiaee e iaaeeoeeiu.-
Iieoaaa-Oa?ueeia,1997.- ?28.- N.76-84.

4.Aeoa?i?i N.?. Ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ia/?iee oa i?aai?a
ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie i?e aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aino?iio
oieaoeeno?o? o niaae // Aanoiee i?iaeai aeieiaee e iaaeeoeeiu.-
Iieoaaa-Oa?ueeia,1997.- ?31.- N.11-17.

5.Aeoa?i?i N.?. Ci?ie ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo ia/?iee oa
iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iiaea?aeieo i?ioie?a i?e aino?iio oieaoeenoeo? o
niaae // A?niee ii?oieia??.- A?iieoey,1998.- ?1.- N.44-45.

6.Aeoa?i?i N.?. Ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aai?a
ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie o niaae i?e aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aino?iio
oieaoeenoeo? a aeeiai?oe? // A?niee ii?oieia??.- A?iieoey,1998.- ?1.-
N.46-47.

7.Aeoa?i?i N.?. O??o?a?/i? aniaeoe aaiaoia?ey?ii? nenoaie //
Oe?a?inueeee iaaee/iee aeueiaiao.- Eoaainuee,1998.- ?2.- N.73-74.

8.Aeoa?i?i N.?. Ioe?iea i?aai?a ia/?ieiai- i?ioieiai? nenoaie i?e
aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aino?iio oieaoeenoeo? o niaae // A?niee
A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- A?iieoey,1998.-
?2.- N.308-309.

9.Aeoa?i?i N.?. O??o?a?/i? aniaeoe aenia?eiaioaeueii? iiaeae? aino?iai
oieaoeenoeoo // A?niee A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.- A?iieoey,1998.- ?5-6.- N.310-311.

10.Aeoa?i?i N.?. ?io?aio?aeueiee ia?aiaee aia?ao aaiaoia?ey?ii? nenoaie
// I?iaeaie aeieia?? oa iaaeeoeeie.- Iieoaaa,1998.- ?5-6.- N.81-82.

11.Aeoa?i?i N.?. Aaaaoaoeaia ia?aiaa nenoaia ia/?iee oa iaa?no?aeueieo
aeia/iaea?aeieo i?ioie?a // I?iaeaie aeieia?? oa iaaeeoeeie. — Iieoaaa,
1998.- ?5-6.- N.83-84.

12.Aeoa?i?i N.?. Iniaeeaino? ?iia?aaoe?? ia/?iee, aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa
aeia/iaea?aeieo i?ioie?a // Oe?a?inueeee iaaee/iee aeueiaiao.-
Eoaainuee,1998.- ?4.

13.Aeoa?i?i N.?. I?e?ineii?/ia aiaoii?y ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai
aia?aoo ia/?iee, aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iaea?aeieo
i?ioie?a i?e aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aino?iio oieaoeenoeo? // Oe?a?inueeee
iaaee/iee aeueiaiao.- Eoaainuee,1998.- ?4.

14.Aeoa?i?i N.?. Aoa?aioia ?iia?aaoe?y aaiaoi-a?e?a?ii? nenoaie i?e
aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aino?iio oieaoeenoeo? // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ?
iaaeeoeeie.- Iieoaaa,1998.- ?24.-N.60-63.

15.Aeoa?i?i N.?. Ee?i?/ia aiaoii?y ia?aiaiai aia?aoo aeia/iiaea?aeii?
nenoaie a aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aniaeo? // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ?
iaaeeoeeie.- Iieoaaa,1988.- ?24.-N.64-67.

16.Oaa/aiei A.N., Aeoaeiei N.E. Oe?o?ae/aneea aniaeou a ii?ia, i?e
iaoieiaee aiaia/aii/iuo aeae/iuo i?ioieia / Iiainoe nii?oeaiie e
iaaeeoeeineie aio?iiieiaee.- Iineaa,1991.- N.119.

17.Oaa/aiei A.N., Iaeee N.A., Aeoaeiei N.E., Oaa/aiei A.N.Ii?oiaaiac
aae?aia?ae/aneie e oieeia?ae/aneie eiia?aaoeee iaeioi?uo i?aaiia
a?thoiie iieinoe i?e aeae/iii ia?eoiieoa a yenia?eiaioa / O? nuacae
aiaoiiia, aenoieiaia e yia?eieiaia.- Niieaine, 1992. — N.278.

18.Aeoa?i?i N.?., Iae?e N.A. Aeaye? aa??aioe e?iaiiinoa/aiiy aeia/iiai
i?oo?a / ?iae?a?aeoaeueia aiaoii?/ia i?ie?a?noue i?aai?a,nenoai,oeaiei
ethaeeie oa ?? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy (aei 80-??//y c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy
Cieioa?ueiai? O.A.). Iaoa?. i?iaea?. eiio.- Iieoaaa, 1993.- N.87-88.

19.Oaa/aiei A.N., Aeoa?i?i N.?., Iae?e N.A. Oa?iaioiee niaeo?
iae?io?eueieo eaeeioeeo?a ia?aoa?e/ii? e?ia? niaae ?c aeia/iei
ia??oii?oii o aenia?eiaio? / ?iae?a?aeoaeueia aiaoii?/ia i?ieea?noue
i?aai?a, nenoai,oeaiei ethaeeie oa ?? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy (aei 80-??//y c
aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy O.A.Cieioa?ueiai?). Iaoa?.i?aeia?.eiio.-
Iieoaaa,1993.- N.280.

20.Aeoa?i?i N.?., Ne?eii?eia I.N., Oaa/aiei A.N., Aaooai A.I. E?eoa???
ioe?iee ee?i?/iiai ia?aa?ao ?aiaaiai i?ioeano a oiiaao aenia?eiaioo. /
I?aeia?iaeiee eiia?an c ?ioaa?aoeaii? aio?iiieia??-Oa?iii?eue, 1995.-
N.144-145.

21.Aeoa?i?i N.?. Ci?ie i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai aoaio aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaei?
eeoee i?e ?acaeoe?? oeoiea oa aaaioii?? a oiiaao aenia?eiaioo ia niaaeao
/ Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ooieoe?iiaeueii? aiaoii?? noaeeiii? nenoaie.-
Euea?a, 1995.- N.46.

22.Oaa/aiei A.N., Ne?eii?eia I.N., Aeoa?i?i N.?., Aaooai A.I. Eaaaiaa?
oneeaaeiaiiy i?ney iia?aoe?e ia iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/ieo i?ioieao i?e
aino?iio oieaoeanoeo? a aenia?eiaio? / Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy iaaeaaia?ee,
aenia?eiaioaeueii? oa ee?i?/ii? iaaeeoeeie.- Aeiiaoeuee,1995.-O.3,*.2.-
N.310-312.

23.Aeoa?i?i N.?. Ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueia ioe?iea ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai
aia?aoo iaa?no?aeuei?o aeia/ieo oeyo?a a oiiaao ia?aianaii? aaaioii?? a
aenia?eiaioa / I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y:Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??.-
Oa?iii?eue,1996.- O.1.- N.232-233.

24.Oaa/aiei A.N., Ne?eii?eia I.N., Aeoa?i?i N.?., Aaooai A.I., Iae?e
N.A. I?e?ino?oeoo?i? ci?ie ia/?iee oa iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/ieo i?ioie?a
i?ney oieaoeenoaeoii?? a aenia?eiaioa / I?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y:
Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??.- Oa?iii?eue,1996.- O.3.- N.698-699.

25.Aeoa?i?i N.?. Iniaeeaino? i?e?ineii?/ii? aiaoii?? ?io?aio?aeueiiai
ia?aiaiai aia?aoa aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa iaa?no?aeueieo aeia/iaea?aeieo
i?ioie / Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oiaaiaco.- *a?i?aoe?,1996.- N.110.

26.Ne?eii?eia I.N., Oaa/aiei A.N., Aeoa?i?i N.?. Ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueia
ioe?iea ?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoa ia/?iee oa aeia/iiai i?oo?a
ca oiia aeiaoyieoe? / Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oiaaiaco.- *a?i?aoe?,1996.-
N.303-304.

Aiioaoe?y

Aeoa?i?i N. ?. Ii?oi-ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie
a oiiaao aenia?eiaioaeueiiai oieaoeenoeoo. ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe.

14.03.01 — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y. Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee
oi?aa?neoao. Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei?e ioe?ioe?
ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie a oiiaao aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aino?iai
oieaoeenoeoo, noai?aiiai ia 60 niaaeao. A ?iaio? aeei?enoai? caaaeuei?
ii?oieia?/i?, a?noieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia/?iee, aeia/iiai i?oo?a oa
iaa?no?aeueieo i?ioie, io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/eee i?i oa, ui i?e
aino?iio oieaoeenoeo? a?aeaoaathoueny ii?oieia?/i? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei?
ci?ie a i?aaiao ia/?ieiai-i?ioieiai? nenoaie, o an?o a?aeae?eao
?io?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiaiai aia?aoo, noai?thth/e oiiae aeey ?icaeyaeo
ea?aeeiaeueieo iaoai?ci?a ?aaoeyoe?? ooieoe?? oeeo i?aai?a. Nai?/anii
i?iaaaeaia oieaoeenoaeoii?y ni?ey? a?aeiiaeaiith oeeo ci?i.

Aiiioaoeey

Aeoaeiei N.E. Ii?oi-ooieoeeiiaeueiua ninoiyiey ia/aii/ii-i?ioieiaie
nenoaiu a oneiaeyo yenia?eiaioaeueiiai ino?iai oieaoeenoeoa, nicaeaiiie
ia 60 niaaeao. A ?aaioa eniieueciaaiu iauea ii?oieiae/aneea,
aenoieiae/aneea, yiceiiaenoieiae/aneea, iae?iaenoieiae/aneea e
aeioeie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ia/aie, aeae/iiai iocu?y e iaaeno?aeueiuo
aeae/aauaiaeyueo i?ioieia. Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaee i
oii, /oi i?e ino?ii oieaoeenoeoa iaaethaeathony ii?oieiae/aneea e
ooieoeeiiaeueiua eciaiaiey a i?aaiao ia/aii/ii-i?ioieiaie nenoaiu, ai
anao i?aaiao eio?aio?aeueiiai ia?aiiai aiia?aoa, nicaeaaay oneiaey aeey
?anno?ienoaa ii?iaeueiuo iaoaieciia ?aaoeyoeee ooieoeee yoeo i?aaiia.
Naiaa?aiaiiay i?iaaaeaiiay oieaoeenoyeoiiey niinianoaoao ainnoaiiaeaieth
yoeo eciaiaiee.

Abstract

S.I. Dubinin. Morpho-functional state of liver-duct system in the
conditions of experimental acute cholesistitis. Manuscript. Thesis for
the scientific degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences to the speciality
14.03.01 — Normal Anatomy. — Kharkov State Medical University. Kharkov,
1998.

The thesis is devoted to the morpho-functional evalution of the
liver-duct system in the conditions of the experimental acute
cholesistitis, created in 60 dogs. Common morphological, histological
research of liver and gall-bladder and general bile ducts was used in
this work. The results achieved proved that in acute cholesistitis
morphological and functional changes in the liver-duct system organs
took place, they being present in all the parts of intramural nerve
apparatus, creating conditions for the disturbance of normal mechanismus
of these organs’ functioning regulation. Cholecystomy performed in time
promoted the reconstruction of these changes.

Key words: liver, bile ducts, cholesistitis.

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