EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

OAeE 17:130.2

AAIE?IA Oaoyia Aai?a??aia

Ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a a eiioaeno?

nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? aeeiai?ee

(o?einionueei-aoe/iee aiae?c)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.07 — Aoeea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aoeee, anoaoeee oa eoeueoo?ieia??

Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: Eaa/oe Ea?ena Oeiio??aia –

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aoeee, anoaoeee oa eoeueoo?ieia?? Ee?anueeiai

iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe

Caai?iaeithe Aaea??e Iao?iae/ — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe,

i?ioani?, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo

o?einio?? ?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie

Ia?aoiinueeee Ai?en Ieaenaiae?iae/ — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo

iaoe, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii Iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?inoeoooo

oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei ?IAIO

N?aa?n Aaea??e Aiaoie?eiae/ — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe,

aeioeaio, aieiaiee eiinoeueoaio oi?aae?iiy c

aoiai?oa?ieo ieoaiue Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa —

eaoaae?a o?einio??, oaeoeueoaoo nioe?ieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “EI?”

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “25” __eenoiiaaea___1999 ?ieo i “15” aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.28 i?e Ee?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio

oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith:

252001, Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, aoaeeoi??y ?

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

(aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 24 ”__aeiaoiy___1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee
I.A.Oeiea?aiei

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioyaii an??? ?noi??? ethaenoaa
?aaeueia ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a eiie?aoieo noni?euenoa ? iniaenoinoae
caaaeaee aoea oiiaith nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino? ? iieacieeii iayaiino?
aeooiaieo iniia eiinie?aeaoe??. C?inoaiiy aii?ae?cio ?
caeiiii??iith oaiaeaioe??th aoaeue-yei? iaaeeoo?caeaoii? nioe?aeueii?
nenoaie, a ii?aeuei?nia aeaa?aaeaoe?y iniaenoino? ??aiicia/ia
ethaenueeiio naiicieuaiith. Aeoea?caoe?y ?ie? ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e a
nenoai? iniiaieo i?eioeei?a i?aai?caoe?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? caaaeaee
i?ecaiaeeea aei ciyooy aai cieaeaiiy aino?ioe noia?a/iinoae a
noni?eueiiio oa iniaenoiio aeeoo?.

A ?aae?yo noni?eueiiai aeeooy OO noie?ooy c?inoa? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
ii?aeuei?niiai aniaeoo naii?aae?caoe?? ethaeeie, yeee aeiea?
?ic??aai?noue ?noeiii? ii?aeueii? ii?ie ? ae?yiiy, nioe?aeueii?
?aaeueiino? ? naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy iniaenoino?. Eia?/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy o???
oi?ie ii?aeueiino?, ui a?aeiia?aea? an?e iiaiio? ethaenueeiai aoooy
aia?oa c?iaea Aaaaeue – “ii?aeuei?noue ? ?aeay naiaiaee ye aeeaa
aeia?i… ui noaei iayaiei na?oii ? i?e?iaeith naiina?aeiiino?”.

Caeaaei?noue oaii?a aeoiaeo noni?euenoaa c ia??iaeo e?ece a?ae iiyae
iiaeo ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae, oi?ioaaiiy ?oiuei? nenoaie ? iaei??th c
iaea?eueo caaaeueiiaeciaieo ?noei a aaeoc? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe. ?acii c
oei, inoaii? 20-30 ?ie?a iaoeia? aeniiaee e ocaaaeueiaiiy noiniaii
ii?aeuei?niiai aeeooy ethaeae iathoue ia?aaaaeii eiie?aoii-iaoeiaee,
i?eeeaaeiee oa?aeoa?, ??aeei i?aei?iathoueny aei caaaeueiioai?aoe/iiai
??aiy. Aei iaaieo iaae oaea iaa?aaei?noue ? ?icoiiith ? aei?aaaeaiith,
ai noa? ia caaaae? ooo/iei, iaaei??ii aano?aeoiei eiioeaioe?yi.

A?aeiiaa a?ae ii?ae?caoi?nueeiai oai?aoecoaaiiy a?ae?a?aea aaaeeeao
?ieue ia oeyoo noaiiaeaiiy iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei
aeiaaeueieo i?iaeai no/aniiai noni?euenoaa. A oie aea /an, i?aai?coth/a
? ?aaoethth/a ae?yeuei?noue nioe?aeueieo noa’?eo?a iiaea a aooe a?eueo
aoaeoeaiith, yeui a aeoeai?oa nie?aeanue ia ocaaaeueithth/? oai?aoe/i?
ciaiiy.

A neooaoe?yo aeooiaii-na?oiaeyaeieo e?ec aeyaeythoueny cia/i?
aeeoo?ai-i?aeoe/i? iiaeeeaino? an?o “iaoe i?i eoeueoo?o” (A.??eea?o).
Iniaeeao ?ieue a i?ioeanao oi?ioaaiiy naiina?aeiiino? ? naiii?ciaiiy
ethaeeie caaaeaee a?ae?a?aaaea aoeea ye i?aeoe/ia o?einio?y. A no/aniiio
na?o? iiaeieaiiy aeano?oeoeaieo i?ioean?a cia/iith i??ith
cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? nioe?aeueiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy ? iiaeaethaaiiy
c aeei?enoaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo,
nioe?ieia?/ieo, iie?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. ?o aoaeoeai?noue aaaaoi a
/iio caeaaeeoue a?ae o?einionueei? iaoiaeieia??, aeeiiaiiy aoeeith ye
o?einionueeith aeenoeeie?iith nai?? oai?aoeei-i?ciaaaeueii? ooieoe??.
C?inoath/a noia?a/eea?noue o aaeoc? ethaenueeeo aca?iia?aeiinei
coiiaeth? aeii?ioaaiiy aoe/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee a caaaeueiiio iioioe?
o?einionueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Oeae i?ioean oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ciaioaiiyi
e?eueeino? ii?iaoeaii-aeeaeaeoe/ieo aoe/ieo i?aoeue ? aaaea aei
?icoe?aiiy aoe/ieo iiooe?a ?noeie, aeoiaey/e c ona?aeiieaiiy
iniaeeainoae ethaenueeiai aoooy, aeooiaieo iioaioe?e ethaeeie,
aeeoo?aiai na?oo iniaenoino?. Oei naiei, a?aeiia?ae? ia a?aie/i? ieoaiiy
aoe/ii? oai??? cia/iith i??ith ca?aathoueny c i?iaeaiaoeeith
o?einionueei? aio?iiieia??, yea ?icaeyaea? oi?eaeueio i?e?iaeo ethaeeie,
ye?nii? nai???aeiino? ?? ?nioaaiiy. Niaoeeo?ea o?einionueei? aoeee
iieyaa? o aea/aii? ii?aeuei?nii? naii?aae?caoe?? ethaeeie, ui oieono? a
nia? iioieia?/i?, oaiiiaiieia?/i?, aen?ieia?/i?, nioe?ieia?/i? oa
ia?niiae?nonuee? aei??e oaiiiaia ethaeeie.

A ia??iaee, eiee iniaeeai aeoeaii ?ic?iaey?oueny no?aoaa?y noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo, naiii?ciaiiy noa? aaaeeeaei eoeueoo?ioi?ioth/ei /eiieeii, yeee
aea? ciiao aena?oeeoe ae?enii aoiaiiee ia??e ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano,
aeoiaey/e c aeeaeiieo iio?aa aioo??oiueiai na?oo ethaeeie. Aeey oaeiai
?iaeo ae?yeueiino? aaaeeeaei ? ona?aeiieaia ii?aeuei?nia naiiaecia/aiiy.
I?e oeueiio ia iiaeia ia a?aoiaoaaoe oa, ui iaai? oa?e aeooiaieo i?iya?a
ethaeeie ye noa’?eoa ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e iaaeoi neeaaeii
aa?aae?cothoueny, a noa?o ii?aeuei?nieo a/eie?a iai?aaey? ?ioo?oeaia
inyaiaiiy niene?a, yea ia caaaeaee eia?/ii iiynith?oueny, a nenoai?
iioeaaoe?? ia?aaaaea? iaona?aeiieaia a?aeaeaiiy ia?aaaa. ?acii c oei,
ona?aeiieaiiy cia/oueo oe?iiinoae, ui /ooo?ai ni?eeiathoueny, i?aei?ia?
ethaeeio ia ye?nii iiaee ??aaiue aioo??oiuei? naiaiaee, aecia/ath/e
oe?ii?noue iniaenoino?, iine?aeiai?noue ? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ??
iiaaae?iee. Ii?yae ?c ao?eaiiyi ii?aeuei?nii? i?aaaee a ia?acao,
neiaieao eoeueoo?e nooo?ao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? oe?ii?nia na?aeii?noue ?acii
c ?aoe?iiaeueii-eia?/iei ?? iaa?oiooaaiiyi. Aeciath/e aeeeth/io
aaaeeea?noue oeeo iaoai?ci?a ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e, ia iiaeia
i?ioenoaaeyoe ?o, noaaeoe a iiceoe?th aca?iiaeeeth/aiiy i? iii?ae
niaith, i? ii a?aeiioaiith aei oai?aoe/iiai i?ciaiiy.

A no/anieo oiiaao o?einionueei-aoe/iee aiae?c ii?aeuei?niiai
aeeooy noni?euenoaa aeaaeae? a?eueoa ii?aeio?oueny c iio?aaith
ia?iaeaeaiiy iiaeo aeooiaii-oe?ii?nieo i???ioe??a ethaenoaa. Aoeea ia?
na?e naiino?eiee iioaioe?ae aeeth/aiiy a iiooe ?noei c iaaecae/aeii
aenieei na?oiaeyaeiei iaoinii, iacaaaeath/e ia iaiiaeeea?noue onoiaiiy
i?iaeaiiino? ? iaiao?aei?noue iiai? a?aeiia?ae? ia “a?/i?” ieoaiiy
aeeooy i?e nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ci?iao. ?aoe?iiaeueii-oai?aoe/ia
a?aoiaioaoe?y, ui canoiniao?oueny a ?aaeuei?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, ?
aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aca?ii?icoi?iiy, ae?aeiao, eiinainono a
eoeueoo??.

A iao /an aoe/ia oai??y i?ioiaeeoue aeoaea neeaaeiee i?ioean iiaeieaiiy
o?aaeeoe?eii? ii?iaoeaiino? ? nooi oe?ii?niiai iaa?oiooaaiiy eia?ee
ii?aeueii? na?aeiiino?. Ua ia aeinoaoiuei i?aenoaa aeey oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i
iayai?noue noi?iiaaii? iiai?noth iinoeeane/ii? aoeee. Aiaeii/an , aaaaoi
?aeae, eaoaai??e ? iiiyoue o?einio?? XX noie?ooy aeicaieythoue
?aoe?iiaeueii inieneeoe oae? ?aaeuei? i?iyae aoooy ethaeeie a na?o?, ye?
aei oeueiai /ano ao?ethaaeenue eeoa a ?ae?a?eii-o?einionuee?e aai
o?einionueei-i?noe/i?e oi?iao. A no/ani?e o?einio?? ii?aeuei?nia
eoeueoo?a ?icaeyaea?oueny ye a ?aeiino? oae ? a ??ciiiai?oiino? ?? oi?i,
ui yaeythoue niaith “i?aaiaoe/ia, aoe/ia ? ii?aeueia aeei?enoaiiy
i?aeoe/iiai ?icoio” /TH.Oaaa?ian/.

Oaeei /eiii, o?einionueei-aoe/iee aiae?c nooiino? oa ?noi?e/ieo oi?i
ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ? ni?iaith oai?aoe/ii? a?aeiia?ae? ia ?yae
aeooaeueieo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c ona?aeiieaiiyi ye no/anieo i?iaeai,
oae ? oeo, ui aeieeaee a eii? ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ieioeiai ?
a?aeiia?ae? ia ye? aeaaaeeny a i?oieia??, ?ae?a??, ienoaoeoa?. Oeae
iai?yiie aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeoue i?aeiyoeny aei oai?aoe/ieo
iiaeaeae oaeiai ??aiy ocaaaeueiaiiy, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo iiaeia aoei a
neioacoaaoe /eneaii? iaoeia? aeniiaee, oai???, eiioeaioe?? ? ia
i?ioenoaaeyoe ?o oi?iaeueii, oieeath/e noa’?eoeaii? iaeiinoi?iiiino?,
noai?thth/e oei naiei oai?aoeei-na?oiaeyaei? i?aenoaae aeey aeooiaii?
a?aee?eoino? oa oiea?aioiino?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ye
oi?aa?naeueiiai oaiiiaia ?noi?e/iiai naii?icaeoeo noni?eueiiai oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai noa’?eo?a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ia iniia? aeae?eaiiy ??
niaoeeo?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa aiae?co eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oi?i iiaea
noaoe iniiaith iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo o?einionueei-aoe/ii? aeoiee,
caa?aaeaiiy ?? iniaeeaino? oa iacai?iiino? a eiioaeno? o?einionueeiai
ciaiiy a oe?eiio.

Noai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie. Iaai? aniaeoe ? i?iyae ii?aeuei?nii?
eoeueoo?e caaaeaee aeine?aeaeoaaeenue o eeane/i?e o?einio??. Ethaenueea
ii?aeuei?noue noaea iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo ia’?eo?a aea/aiiy aaaaoueio
iai?yie?a ? oai??e iaeeane/ii? o?einio?? (o?einio?y aeeooy,
oaiiiaiieia?y, aen?ieia?y, o?einionueea aio?iiieia?y, o?einionueea
aa?iaiaaoeea, o?einio?y eoeueoo?e, ia?niiae?ci oa ?i.). A eiie?aoieo
aoiai?oa?ieo iaoeao aiae?cothoueny iaai? i?ioeane ye eieaeoeaii?, oae ?
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e.

Aeey aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy o?einionueea eeaneea ? iaea?eueo aaaeeeaith
ia?o ca ana oei, ui eiaeiee cia/iee eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iee aoai ?icaeoeo
o?einio?? noaei caa??aaa o i?iaeaiaoeoe? aiae?c i?e?iaeii? ii?aeueiino?,
i?aa?a, ii?ae? ye oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaieo nenoai iaaieo nioe?oi?a, ?aeaaeo
iaeaaeiiai oa aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy aioo??oiuei? naiaiaee ?
naiiaeinoaoiino? ethaeeie, ?? ii?aeuei?niiai aeai?o ?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. O?einionueei-aeooiaiee niaaeie Ieaoiia, A??noioaey,
Ai?eo?a, Naiaee, Aaaonoeia Aeaaeaiiiai, Iiioaiy, Ianeaey ? aaaaoueio
?ioeo ieneeoae?a caeeoa?oueny iaia?an?/ii aeooaeueiei naia a nai?e
aoe/i?e /anoei?. Oai?aoe/ia niaaeueia ?.Eaioa neeaea aaaeeeao
ni?yiiaoth/o a?nue iiaeaeueoiai aiae?co niaoeeo?ee ii?aeuei?nii?
eoeueoo?e ia?o ca ana /a?ac oa, ui a eiai ?iaioao aia?oa aoee aeae?eai?
caaaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ii?aeueiino?, ?icaeyiooa ?? a?aei?ii?noue a?ae
cae/ath, i?aaa, ?ae?a??. Cia/io ?ieue a iiaeeaeaii? aoe/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee
a?ae?a?a? eia?ea ? iaoeiai-iiiyo?eiee aia?ao ?yaeo ?ia?o A.A.O.Aaaaey. A
ia?oo /a?ao oea noino?oueny a?aoiaioaoe??, iia’ycaii? c iaiao?aei?noth
iiiyo?eiiai ?icaaaeaiiy oa?i?i?a “ii?aeue” ? “ii?aeuei?noue”. A ??cieo
?iaioao Aaaaey, a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaea/, ?o
iiiyo?eiee ci?no ? oa?aeoa? aca?iicaeaaeiino? ia caaaeaee ?
oioiaeieie. Nooo?aei aeey eeane/ii? o?aaeeoe?? noaei ana iiiyo?eia
aaaaonoai ci?noo ye “ii?ae?”, oae ? “ii?aeueiino?”, a?aei?aoeueiaaia
Aaaaeai a i?ioean? ae?aeaeoe/iiai ?icaeyaeo ethaenueeiai aeooo, ?noi???,
i?aaa.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey iiaoaeiae eia?ee aeine?aeaeaiiy iaee ?iaioe
aoee?a a N?N? 70-80 ?ie?a ( A?oaiaaeuenueeiai E.I., Ai?anyia ?.A.,
Aaeooaiianueeiai A.?., Aonaeiiaa A.A., Aieiaei I.A., Aeoaei ?.E.,
Ae?iaieoeueeiai I.A., AEyiaeoena A., AEeaaeoena ?., ?aaiiaa A.A.,
Eiaeyeiaa A.I., Eiiiaaeiai? E.A., Eaioaiea N.Ae., Ianaaana A.,
Niaiiiiiaa TH.A., Noioeona E., Oeoa?aiea I.?., Oa?aeaeiaa A.A. oa ?i.).

Aeiooaia ?aeaieia?/ia ni?yiiaai?noue aoe/ieo ?ia?o, aeaeaieo aei 1985
?ieo, iacaaaaeeea oiio, ui a oe?eiio a ieo aoee ocaaaeueiai? ? aeeaiei
i?iaiae?ciaai? oae? oa?aeoa?enoeee ii?ae?, ye caaaeueiiethaenueea
ianooaai?noue ?? aeiia, ia?inoeoooe?iiaeuei?noue, anai?iieeath/ee
iaoai?ci ioe?iee, ?iia?aoeai?noue, ?noi?e/i?noue. Iniaeeai ie?aeieie
aeey cae?eniaiiy iaoeiaiai iiooeo, ni?yiiaaiiai ia aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae
aeaii? ?iaioe, noaee ianooii? iiiyooy “ii?aeueia oai?/?noue – e?eoa??e
ii?aeuei?niiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?” (I.?.Eaaeoeueea), “ii?aeuei?nia
na?oia?aeiioaiiy” (A.A.Iaeaoia), “ii?aeuei?niee niin?a inai?iiy
ethaeeiith ae?eniino? ye i?aaeiao aoeee” (I.?.Oi?oiaa), “ii?aeuei?nia
ni?eeoaaiiy ye aaeaeaaoiee niin?a inai?iiy eoeueoo?e” (?.N.Aaeaoe?ia).
Aeeaie? ? ci?noiai? ocaaaeueiaiiy noiniaii ye nooi?nieo i?iya?a
ii?aeuei?niiai aeeooy, eiai ?noi?e/ieo oi?i, ii?aeueii? eoeueoo?e a
eiioaeno? nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a cae?eniai? a i?aoeyo Aa/ei?ia A.A., ,
Ai?ceo A.A., Ao?a A.?., Aea?aa’yiei O.I., ??iieaiea A.I., Eaci??aiei
A.I., Een?eueiai? I.I., Ea??iiiai? A.E., Eaaeoeueei? I.?., E?i/oe I.I.,
Iaeaoiaa A.A., Iia/ai A.N., N?aa?na A.I., Oi?oiai? I.?., ssoeaiei A.A.
oa ?i.

Iioieia?caoe?y iiiyooy “aeeooy” a o?einio?? XIX — XX no. ye i?ioeano
aoooy ethaeeie noai?th? iiaeeea?noue aeae?eaiiy i?e?iaeii? ii?aeueiino?
ye oi?aa?naeueiiai oaeoi?a, ui no?oeoo?o? aeeoo?aee i?ino?? ? /an
ethaeeie. ?iaioe A.Oiiaiaaoa?a ? O.I?oeoa aenooiathoue aaaeeeaith a?oith
ia oeyoo aei cia/iiai ?icoe?aiiy o?einionueeiai ci?noo iiiyooy “aeeooy”,
? i?e oeueiio nooo?aei ? oa, ui a?aeo?ae a?ae eeane/iiai o?aeooaaiiy
aeyaea iia’ycai?noue c e?eoeeith ii?ae?caoi?noaa ? oae /e ?iaeoa
ia?aiinea ieoaiiy i?iaeaie aeeooy o i?ino?? i?iaeai eoeueoo?e.
I?ioeeaaei?noue aeeoo?aiai, i?e?iaeiiai ooo/iiio, a oiio /ene? e
ia’?eoeaiaaiei ?acoeueoaoai aeooiaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa o E. Eeaaana ?
O.Eann?iaa, ciaeoea i?iaeiaaeaiiy a ?iaioao A.C?iiaey,
O.I?oaae-?-Aannaoa, N.E.O?aiea oa ?i. ?icaeyae A.Aa?aniiii aeeooy ye
aaniethoiiai, aeoeaiiai, oai?/iai ia/aea a ?aeiino? ?ioo?oe?? oa
?ioaeaeoo, ui i?enooi? a ?aeeiiio aeeoo?aiio ii?ea?, ? iaoiaeieia?/ii
aaaeeeaei aeey aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O oaiiiaiieia?? A.Aonna?ey ona?aeiieaiiy ?ioa?noa’?eoeaiiai
eiino?othaaiiy, oaiaoecaoe?? ?ioiai ? noni?euenoaa, aea ia?oueny ia
oaac? aeo?ae ca iaae? “y”, ca’ycie “y” c “?ioeie” oeyoii “a/ooo?aeaiiy”,
aeicaieeei i?ae?eoe aei eia?/ii? iiaeae? iieeaaeaiiy
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiei “aai” o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiai “aeueoa? aai”.
Oai?aoe/ii aaaeeeaei ? aeeth/aiiy a aiae?c oiai ??aiy aaciina?aaeiino?,
yeee aecia/aiee A.Aonna?eai ye “i?e?iaeia onoaiiaea”. Iiceoeaiee niene
oeueiai iiiyooy, ?ic?iaeaiee o oaiiiaiieia?/i?e nioe?ieia?? A.Othoea,
O.Eoeiaia, aeicaieea ?icaeyaeaoe i?e?iaeio ii?aeuei?noue a ?aeiino? c
aeeoo?ai-i?aeoe/iei aeina?aeii.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ia’?eoeaiiai ?icaeyaeo ii?aeuei?niiai
naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy ethaeeie o an?e eiai ?aaeuei?e neeaaeiino? ?
noia?a/eeaino? iathoue o?aeaeeci ? iaio?aeaeeci. A ?iaioao C.O?aeaea
oea?eia iana?aeiiiai aeine?aeaeo?oueny ye noa?a, ui aeeth/a? a naaa
i?ioeeaaei? iaeei iaeiiio ca nai?th i?e?iaeith aeaa ia?aeii? iioyae ye
aei aeeooy, oae ? aei nia?o?. O ooiaeaiaioaeueieo eiioeaioe?yo
iaio?aeaeecio ?ic?iaeai? ??ci? iiaeeo?eaoe?? iana?aeiieo nee ? onoaiiaie
(“eiiieaen iaiiaiioe?iiino?” A.Aaeea?a, “aeo?aeiee ia?ac” E.A.THiaa,
“o?aaia ia?iaeaeaiiy” I.?aiea, A.?aeoa oa ?i.), ui ciaoiaeyoueny o
iaai?e ca’ycaiino? c oaeeie neeaaeieie aeoieaie iioeaaoe?? iiaaae?iee,
ye? aieeaathoue ia caeaoi?noue ethaeeie aei oai?/iai ii?aeuei?niiai
naii?icaeoeo. A?eueo aeaoaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy A.O?iiiii ai?ioueae
??cieo iana?aeiieo ia?aaaa o eiioaeno? aeeoo?aeo i?ioean?a, ni?yiiaaieo
ia nioe?ieoeueoo?io aaeaioaoe?th ethaeeie, oaeiae aeicaiey? ia
iaiaaeoaaoe ii?aeuei?ni? iioaioe?? ethaeeie o?eueee na?aeiiei aeai?ii.

Iaaecae/aeii aaaaoa o?einionueei-aoe/ia niaaeueia ?in?? ae?oai? iieiaeie
XIX — ia?oi? /aa?o? XX no., ?in?enueeeo ? oe?a?inueeeo o?einio?a, ui
i?aoethaaee a ca?oa?aeae?, caeeaea iniiae i?ea?iaeueiiai ? nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e. ?icaeyae ii?aeueiino? ye
neeaaeiiai, oe?e?niiai ooai?aiiy a ?iaioao A.N.Nieiaeiaa, I.I.Aa?aey?aa,
E.I. Ea?naa?ia, ?ic?iaea iniiaiiieiaeieo iiiyoue “ana?aei?noue”,
“niai?i?noue”, “nio?y” o oai?ao N.I.Aoeaaeiaa, ?.I.O?oaaoeueeiai,
N.I.O?oaaoeueeiai, N.E.O?aiea, I.I.Oei?ainueeiai, I.I.Einnueeiai,
?.I.?eue?ia aeicaieythoue oo?eioaaoe, caa??aaoe ? ?icaeaaoe aeiaaeuei?
?aea? eeane/ii? o?einionueei? ia?aaeeaie. Nooo?ai caaaa/o? no/ani?
iaoeia? iiooee iiaa?iaiiy a iia?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie
I.ss.A?ioa, I.?.Eeieoeueeiai, ?.I.Neai?oeiaa, A.N.Neiai?iaee,
A.?.*aeiaiiaa, Ae.?.*eaeaanueeiai, I.Ae.TH?eaae/a oa ?i.

A cao?aei?e o?einio??, iniaeeai a NOA, ia?aaaaeathoue eiie?aoi? iai?yiee
aoe/ii? oai??? ( aoaeoeaii-aieueiaa oai??y ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae,
“aoiai?noe/ia” aoeea, oai??y ?ioa?ano, aoeea eini?/ii? oaeaieia??). Ua
a?eueo i?eeeaaeiee oa?aeoa? iathoue neooaoe?eia aoeea, aeieia?/ia aoeea,
oai??y “aoe/iiai nioe?ae?cio”, “oae?oeeoieia?y”.

Caaea/a aeae?eaiiy caaaeueieo aeey an?o ii?aeuei?nieo i?ioean?a
a?aie/ieo canaae iaa?oue ia noaaeeany a aaaaoueio aieeaiaeo oai?aoe/ieo
oeieao ? iai?yieao (iiceoea?ci, iaiiiceoea?ci, i?aaiaoeci), aai ae
i?eioeeiiai aeeeth/aeany. A eiioaeno? ?ae?a?eii-o?einionueeeo iiooe?a
ieoaiiy i?i i?e?iaeo ii?aeuei?nieo oe?iiinoae, ?o aeaea?aei ia iiaea
aooe iinoaaeaiei ye i?iaeaia, ai aecia/aia a??ith o aeua aiaeanoaaiia
ia/aei (i?aaineaaia aiaineia’y, iaioii?ci, iaii?ioanoaioeci oa ?i.).

I?eioeeiiai aaaeeea? i?aeoiaee aei ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i nooi?noue
ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e neeaeeny a ?aaioao I. Oaea?a ? I.Aa?oiaia, a
yeeo aiae?co?oueny na?o oe?iiinoae ethaeeie. Iaa?oiooaaiiy ia’?eoeaiiai
na?oo oe?iiinoae ? eiai ???a?o?? ye a aen?ieia?? I.Oaea?a, ? a
“iinooeaoi?iiio aoa?ci?” I.Aa?oiaia noai?th? iiaeeea?noue ii?aeiaiiy
aca?iicaaaa/aiiy iiiyoue ye eeane/ii?, oae ? iaeeane/ii? o?einio??, ui ?
aaaeeeaei aeey aen?ieia?/iiai iai?yieo aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aeey ?ic?iaee a no/ani?e aoeoe? iiaeo eiioeaiooaeueieo ??oaiue, ui
neioacothoue ??ci? aoe/i? oai??? ieioeiai ? no/aniiai, a oiio /ene? ?
ae?aiao?aeueii i?ioeeaaei?, aeoaea aaaeeeaei ? i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy iiai?
iaoeiai? ?aoe?iiaeueiino?. ?ice?eooy caaaeueieo oi?aa?naeueieo
iaoai?ci?a naiii?aai?caoe?? aeicaiey? ii-iiaiio oyaeoe i?noea
ii?aeuei?niiai aeeooy ethaeeie a ?? ae?yeuei?ni?e aeoeaiino?, oe?ii?nieo
aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?nieo i???ioaoe?e aeine?aeieea a i?ciaaaeuei?e
ae?yeueiino?. I?e aecia/aii? aeania ii?aeuei?nieo yaeu aeine?aeieoeueea
onoaiiaea, ui nie?a?oueny ia ?ioo?oeaia a?aeaeaiiy ia?aaaa aai ii?aeueio
ioe?ieo, ia caaaeaee ? ia?aiiiith i?inoaaiiy aei ?noeie, ye oea
i?eioneaeinue o iiceoea?nonueeeo ? noe??ioenonueeeo iiaeaeyo iaoeiaino?.
?acii c oei, i?ioenoaaeaiiy ??cieo iaoeiaeo ia?aaeeai oa ?o i?eioeei?a
iai?iaeoeoeaia aeey aiae?co ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e, yea ia? ??ci? ??ai?
oa oi?ie naiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Iiaeeea?noue nooo?aiai ?icoe?aiiy iiiyooy “ni?eeoaaiiy” oa aeei?enoaiiy
eiai ye iniiaiiieiaeiiai i?e aiae?c? niaoeeo?ee ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e
i?aeaioiaeaia oe?eei eiiieaenii oai??e, eiioeaioe?e, ?aeae.

Aio?iiieia?/i? ?aea? E.Oae??aaoa, yeee iiaoaeoaaa o?einionueeo oai??th
ni?eeoaaiiy “y” ? “oe”, ciaeoee i?iaeiaaeaiiy o aaaaoueio o?einionueeeo
iai?yieao XX no.

Cia/iee aianie o aeae?eaiiy nooo?aeo oa?aeoa?enoee noa?e “aeania
ethaenueeiai” aoooy ? ?ie? a iueiio ni?eeoaaiiy aoa aianaiee
o?einionueeith aio?iiieia??th. A ?iaioao I.Oaea?a, O.Ieania?a, A.Aaeaia,
A.?iooaeea?a, I.Eaiaeiaia, I.O.oii Aieueiiaa, I.Aoaa?a oa ?i.
cae?enithaaeeny coneeey uiaei iiyniaiiy ? naii? ethaeeie, ? ?? na?oo,
ae?iaeyeiny ?icoi?iiy ethaeeie ? ye oi?eaeueiiai i?iyao “aeeooy”, ? ye
oai?oey eoeueoo?e oa ?noi???. Na?oia?aee?eo?noue, iniaeeaa iiceoe?y a
na?o?, ui i?eiooo? ethaeeio ooeaoe oeaio? naiai ?nioaaiiy iica niaith,
i?e??ea? ?? ia a?/iee iiooe, ?iaeoue ethaeeio ?noioith aaaaoiaei??iith,
ui iio?aao? aace?/? “?ioeo”, “?ioee-y”, “nai? ?ioa”, “ia-y”, “oe”,
“aiii”. Ethaenueea aeooiai?noue i?iaoaeaeo?oueny aei iniaeeaeo oi?i
ni?eeoaaiiy, i?aai?/iiai ca’yceo c ethaeueie, ni?eueiino? “ie”. I.Aoaa?
aa/ea nooue ethaeeie ? ?? ca’ycie c ?ioei o ethaey/?e a?aee?eoino?
na?oo, yea ?aae?co?oueny a ae?aeic? “ss-OE” ye oiia? ?noeiii?
ni?aethaenueeino?.

Oeoia/aiiy ni?eeoaaiiy ye i?ioeano ciaoiaeaeaiiy caaaeueiiai nieneo o
aca?iiiaoiiaeaieo i?ioeanao ?icoi?iiy, iiyniaiiy, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ia
o?eueee a i?yieo, aea ia?o ca ana o iai?yieo, iiina?aaeeiaaieo oi?iao
cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? ?aeae o?einionueei? aa?iaiaaoeee. Oei naiei
i?iaeaiaoeea aoeee ye i?aeoe/ii? o?einio?? iiaea aooe cia/ii
ia?ainieneaia. Ca eiioeaioe??th A.A.Aaaeaia?a o ?icoi?ii? ye
oi?aa?naeueiiio niinia? inai?iiy na?oo ethaeeiith, ii?yae c oai?aoe/iei
nooo?ao ?ieue a?a? aaciina?aaei? ia?aaeeaaiiy (“aeina?ae aeeooy”). Aeey
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ye a?aee?eoi? nenoaie, ui
caa??aa? aaeain aaniethoieo ? a?aeiinieo ia/ae ii?aeueiiai aeeooy,
cia/iee ?ioa?an aeeeeea? iinooethaaiiy A.A.Aaaeaia?ii aaiaoe/ii?
aei??iaiino? ethaeeie a o?aaeeoe?? a o?niiio ca’yceo c ?ioa?i?aoaoe??th
oa canoinoaaiiyi. ?ic?iaea ai?noaiieia?/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee a
aa?iaiaaoe/i?e o?einio?? I.??ea?a aeicaiey? oieeiooe ?ethc?? i?i
iiaeeea?noue ?ioo?oeaiiai i?ciaiiy “y” aac iiia?aaeiueiai i?iieeiaiiy o
ana aaaaonoai neiaie?a, ui ia?aaeathoueny /a?ac eoeueoo?o.

Ie?aeio niaaeueio, ui ?ice?eaa? niaoeeo?eo aaciina?aaeiuei a?ae/ooo?aeo
i?iya?a ethaeeie ye noa’?eoa i?aeoeee ? ni?eeoaaiiy, ?? anoaoe/ii?
ni?eeiyoeeaino? aei iaeaeueo oe?iiinoae .ethaenueeiai aeooo eeoeee
A.N.Eaia?nueeee, Ae. Eoea/. Aeoiaey/e c ona?aeiieaiiy ni?eeoaaiiy ye
ae?aeiao, a yeiio a?aeaoaa?oueny aeayea ni?aci?iaiiy noa’?eo?a,
cae?enith?oueny aca?ii?icoi?iiy ? ni?aciaiiy (I.I.Aaooei, A.N.Aaoeuaa),
noaei iiaeeeaei ?ioa?i?aooaaoe ni?eeoaaiiy ye a?eueio, oai?/o
ae?yeuei?noue ii oai?aiith ethaenueeiai aoooy, ia?aoai?aiith aeeooy,
iiaeieaiith aeano?oeoeaiiai ?ic’?aeiaiiy, a?aeie?aieaiiy.

O aecenoaioe?ae?ci?, ooiaeaiaioaeuei?e iioieia?? I.Oaeaeaaaa?a,
a?aeaoeiny noai?aiiy oe?e?nii? eiioeaioe?? ethaeeie ia iniia? aiae?co
ni?eueiiai i?eeo/aiiy aei aoooy, ??cieo oi?i aca?ii?icoi?iiy i?e aiae?c?
iiaieo no?oeoo? ? neiaie?/ieo oi?i eoeueoo?e. Iiiyooy ae?aeia
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aecia/aiiy oaei? yeino? eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?ioeano,
yea icia/a? iniaeno?nia ii?aeiaiiy o/aniee?a eiioi?eaoe?? (eiioeaioe?y
?iciiae I.Oaeaeaaaa?a; ni?eeoaaiiy a “?noei?” ye iniia? naiaiaee,
“aooo? c” (?ioeie) a oai??? aecenoaioe?aeueii? eiioi?eaoe??
E.ssnia?na; “oa?iie/?noue” o aca?iia?aeiineiao “y” ? “ia-y” ?
aeanoeaa ?i “ni?ao/anoue” a ?iaioao A.Ia?naey). Nioe?ieia?/i? ?
nai?ioe/i? aniaeoe ae?aeia?/ii? eiioi?eaoe?? a?oioiaii ?ic?iaeythoueny a
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeuei?e i?aaiaoeoe? a aeine?aeaeaiiyo E.-I.Aiaey,
TH.Oaaa?iana, A.Eoeueiaia, O.Aaae?iaa, I.Oeue??oa oa ?i.

?yae iaoeiaeo oai??e ? eiioeaioe?e, ui ?oeiothoue oa?aeoa?io aeey
?aeaaeo I?ina?oieoeoaa aecia/ai?noue, aeai?noue ethaeeie, i?aeaiooaaee
a?oio aeey aeeth/aiiy a aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oeo aei???a ethaeeie, yeeo
oieeaea ii?iaoeaia aoeea (ia?a?iaeuei?noue, aiii?y, aeano?oeoeai?
eiiieaene). I?iaeaii?noue “y” ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai nai?oieoeoaa
(aeano?oeoe?y noa’?eoa o Oaeaeaaaa?a, “aeaoeaio?aoe?y” noa’?eoa a
no?oeoo?ae?ci?, e?eoeea aaieia?? ? caa?iaiiy aei “?ioiai” o
iinoiiaea?i?nonuee?e aaoa?ieia??) aeooae?cothoue ieoaiiy i?i ii?aeiaiiy
??cieo o?aaeeoe?e ? iiaaoi?noai, oi?ie aca?iiae?? ? iiao
aca?ii?icoi?iiy, aeeth/aiiy an?o ??aiioe?iieo a i?eioeei? noa’?eo?a
eoeueoo?e a aacia?a?aii o?eaath/ee ae?aeia eoeueoo?, nioe?aeueieo
ni?eueiio, ooaeiaei?o, iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a, ?ae?a?eieo ?oo?a.

A aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iaoeiaee iiooe cae?enithaaany ye ia
iniia? i?aoeue c eoeueoo?ieia??, ui noaee aaea eeane/ieie, iniaeeai c
ia?a?nii? eoeueoo?e Ae.O?aca?, A.Oaeei?, E.Eaa?-No?in, I.I?ae, oae ?
i?aoeue c o?einio?? eoeueoo?e A.A?iaeaeueaaiaea, A.??eea?oa,
A.Aeeeueoay, A.Ceiiaey, ?.E?iia?a, I.Oiaiaea?a, A.Eanne?a?a, A.Aaaa?a,
A.O?ueieue/a oa ?i.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey ?icoi?iiy nooiino? eoeueoo?e, ie?aieo ?? aoai?a ?
oi?i, eia?ee ?icaeoeo iathoue no/ani? aeine?aeaeaiiy a/aieo Oe?a?ie
Aeaenaiae?iai? I.A., Aeno?eoeueeiai ?.E., Ae/ei ?.A., Aoeaoiaa I.I.,
Ai?nueeiai A.N., Aieiaea A.I., ?aaiiaa A.I., Eiy A.I, Ia?aoiinueeiai
A.I., Oa?anaiea I.O., Oaaa/eianueeiai A.A., Oeiea?oea A.?., ssoeaiea
I.?. oa ?i.

Eoeueoo?ieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui i?enay/ai? ??ciei oeiai ? aeaeai
ethaenueeiai “aeeooy a eoeueoo??”, ?o iniaeeainoyi, aaaaoiiai?oiino? oa
naiioe?iiino?, aeeiiothoue aaaeeeao ?ieue a oiio, ui noaaeyoue ia?aiiie
iaaei??i?e aano?aeoiino?, eia?/iiio oi?iae?cio. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
Aaa??ioeaaa N.N., Aaoo?ia I .I., Aa?aa I.A., Aaoe?ia E.I., A?aea?a A.N.,
Ai?ooieaey A.O., Ao?aae/a A.ss., Eanneae? O.O., Einaaa I.O., Eioiaia
TH.I., Eeoa/iaa Ae.N., Iaei?iaa A.A., Noaae?i-Eaiainueeiai I.?.,
Oaoi-Aiae? A.A., Oeieiai? A.E. oa ?i. ?icoe?eee oyaeaiiy i?i iniaeeaino?
na?oo eoeueoo?e, aaiethoe?th ? iiaoaeiao eiai ?aaeueieo ?noi?e/ieo oi?i.

Cia/iee aianie a ocaaaeueiaiiy aeinyaiaiue a aaeoc? ?noi??? oa oai???
eoeueoo?e cae?eniaiee a i?aoeyo Ae/ei A.E., A?eoeaiei A.N., Eenaeueiaa
N.?., Eaa/oe E.O., Ein?aa ?.A., Iai/aiei A.?., Iiai?aeiai A.?., ?on?ia
I.TH. oa ?ioeo.

Aeinyaiaiiy a aaeoc? nioe?ieia??, nioe?aeueii? ineoieia?? noai?ththoue
iniiao aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy ii?ae? ye noni?eueiiai
?aeaaeo ? aeaeo ?aeaieia??. I?aoe? I.Aaaa?a, ?.Aeth?eaaeia, A.Eaaiia,
?.Ia?oiia, N.Iineiae/?, A.Ieii?oa, I.?iee/a, O.Oueiii?na, A.Oa?aea oa
?i. caeeaee iniiae aiae?co ??cieo nioe?aeueieo ooai?aiue ? i?ioean?a.

Nooo?aeie aeey aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie noaee ni?iae aeae?eaiiy
oi?aa?naeueieo nieneiaeo eiiieaen?a eoeueoo?e, ia yea i???ioo?oueny
aoaeue-yea nioe?aeueia ae?y ? oeoia/aiiy oeeo aca?iica’yce?a,
neeaaeieo oi?i ae?? a “?icoi?th/?e”, “?ioa?i?aoaoeai?e”
nioe?ieia?? eoeueoo?e (O.-O.Oaia?oe, A.E?ii, O.-I.Oo?i, I.Ao?aeue? oa
?i.), a aioe?aaeoeoe?iienonuee?e nioe?ieia?? eoeueoo?e.

I?aoe? a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a c nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? ? nioe?ieia??
(Aiae?ouaiea A.I., Ai?ae A.?., Aoaa?nueeiai E.A., Eiycaaa A.I., Iiaeeiaa
A.?., Iaaeieueiiai ?.O., Ianueei I.?., ssuoe O.?. oa ?i.) noai?ththoue
iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeey ?icaeyaeo eiie?aoieo ?aaoeyoeaieo
nenoai, aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ianiai? na?aeiiino?.

?icoi?iiy ii?aeuei?nii-ineoieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iniaenoino?,
aeoiaey/e c i?aoeue Aaoeueoaiiai?-Neaanueei? E.A., Aiaeaeaaa A.A., Eiia
?.N., E?n?iie I.?., ?iiaioey A.A., ?oa?iooaeia N.E. oa ?i. aeicaieythoue
aianoe a eiioaeno aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeuei? ia?aiao?e iniaeno?niiai aoooy
i?e aecia/aii? iniaeeainoae oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo iniaenoino? ye noa’?eoa
ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e.

Oaeei /eiii a XX noie?oo? aeinyaioo? iaai? oni?oe ia oeyoo oai?aoe/iiai
ona?aeiieaiiy nooo?aeo oa?aeoa?enoee ethaenueei? i?e?iaee, iaeiae ??
ii?aeuei?niee aniaeo caeeoeany iaeiei ?c iaea?eueo
i?iaeaiaoe/ieo. Ii?aeuei?nia nooue ? noni?eueiiai, ? iniaeno?niiai aoooy
a?aeaeca?eaeth?oueny o e?aei?o, /anii ianoi?nieo oi?iao: aai o oi?i?
aiaeyoe?? aei aeayei? aoaeaiii? naiii/aaeaeiino?, aai aei
oaoiieia?/ii-iia?aoe?iiaeueii? noi?iie a/eieo, aai aei
iaaa?aae?ciaaieo ?ioo?oeaieo inyyiinoae ? niene?a.

I?eioeeiiai iiaei iiaea noaoe ?icaeyae ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ia
iaaiiio ae?eniiio aeeoo?aiio ooiaeaiaio?, aeaoeaio?oth/iio
no?oeoo?o ii?aeueiiai aeeooy a oeo eiai aeoieao, ye? iaaeathoue eiio
a?aee?eoino?. ?acii c oei caa?oaiiy aei ia?oiaeaea?ae aca?iiae?? ethaeae
? aei iiiyooy “aeeoo?aee na?o” ye ia’?eoeaiiai ei?aeyoo
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueii? noa’?eoeaiino? ia nie?a?oueny a a?eueoino?
aeine?aeaeaiue ia ci?noiaio aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th oe?ii?niiai na?oo
ethaeeie, ia caeeaaea? i?aeoiaee aeey aeyaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee
ii?aeuei?niiai aeeooy, eiai iniaeeai? eia?ee. Ni?iaa aeae?eaiiy
ia’?eoeaieo canaae naiiaeinoaoiuei? aeooiaii? na?oii?enooiino? ethaeeie
aeicaieeoue aanoe iaoeiaee iiooe o iai?yieo aiae?co o??? i?iaeaiiino?
ethaenueeiai aoooy, yea i?iyaey?oueny o iani?aiaaeaii? ii?aeuei?nieo ?
ooee?oa?enonueeeo i???ioaoe?e aae aei ?o aioaaii?noe/iiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oi?iao eoeueoo?e.

A no/ani?e aoeoe? aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy ni?eueieo aeoie?a i?e?iaeii?
ii?aeueiino? oa aoe/iiai na?oia?aeiioaiiy ia ?nio? ia?ao?aeieo iiiyoue
i?ae caaaeueiei oaa?aeaeaiiyi i?i i?ioenoiyiiy ne?ii?, aea iiaooiuei?
aeeoo?ai? aia?a?? ? aacneeiai aeooo oa aeania ii?aeuei?nieie
oe?iiinoyie. A?aeiiaa a?ae oe?ii?nieo iiiyoue a eiiaaioe?iiaeuei?e
aoeoe?, oo?e?oa?eci?, aiae?oe/i?e o?einio??, iaoa??ae?ci? oa ?i.,
i??i?eoao a?aeiiniiai, ioe?ii/iiai oeoia/aiiy “aeia?a” ? “cea” a
iinoeeane/i?e o?einionuee?e ia?aaeeai? aeooae?co? iiooe oi?aa?naeueieo
aeooiaieo ? noni?eueieo a?oaoei?a na?aeiiino?, ui aeicaieythoue ia iia?e
iaoeia?e iniia? caa?aaoe a eoeueoo?? iioieia?/ia, ?ioo?oeaii-ai??i?ia
?icoi?iiy i?e?iaee oe?iiinoae.

Aanue niaeo? iaoeiaeo ocaaaeueiaiue ? aeniiae?a noai?th? eeoa
ia?aaeoiiae aeey cae?eniaiiy ua ia ?aae?ciaaiiai aein? oai?aoe/iiai
neioaco an?o iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e a
eiioeaioe?th, ui ia’?aeia? an? aniaeoe “i?aeoe/iiai ?icoio” /Eaio/, ye?
inienethaaeenue ??cieie iai?yieaie aoe/ii? aeoiee. Aeii?ioaaiiy iaaii?,
?noi?e/ii iaiaaeaii? oe?ii?nii-na?oiaeyaeii? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei?
ai?noaie aieeaa? ia oa, ui iiiyooy “ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a” ia ia? ua
oi/iiai oai?aoe/iiai noaoono, ia aeeaey/enue ia eiai oe?iea
caaaeueiieoeueoo?ia aeei?enoaiiy ? iaoeiaa cia/aiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a ye oe?e?nia, nenoaiia ooai?aiiy, ui
ia? aioo??oith no?oeoo?o ? ci?ith?oueny ia eiaeiiio aoai?
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano, ia aeine?aeaeoaaeanue o a?o/eciyi?e
o?einionueei-aoe/i?e aeoioe?. Aeey ca?oa?aeii? ye eeane/ii? oae ?
iaeeane/ii? o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe?? oaeee ocaaaeueithth/ee i?aeo?ae
oaeiae ? ia oa?aeoa?iei. An?i iiia?aaei?i iaoeiaei aei?iaeii
i?aeaioiaeaia aeineoue ??ciiieaiiaa, aaaaoiiai?oia iaii?aia
iniaeeainoae, ?en, i?iya?a ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e , ye? iiaeia ii/aoe
nenoaiaoecoaaoe eeoa ia no/aniiio aoai? eoeueoo?iiai naiinoaiiaeaiiy
ethaenoaa, ai an? eiiiiiaioe ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e aeinyaee iaaii?
c??eino?, ?aaeueiino? ? ae?eniino?.

Ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a ye oi?aa?naeueiee oaiiiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy
ethaeeie, ui ?aae?co? na?e noa‘?eoiee iioaioe?ae a eiioaeno?
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? aeeiai?ee. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iniiai?
niaoeeo?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e oa ??
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo oi?i.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aiae?c
ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ye nenoaiiiai ooai?aiiy a ?aeiino? an?o aniaeo?a
aeei?enoaiiy i?aeoe/iiai ?icoio, aeyaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee ?? ?noi?e/ieo
oi?i, ?ice?eooy ?o aioo??oiuei? no?oeoo?e oa i?aai?/ii? oe?e?niino?.

Aeey cae?eniaiiy oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeiei aoei ae??oaiiy ianooiieo
caaaeaiue.

?icoe?eoe aeine?aeieoeueeee i?ino?? aoeee ye o?einionueei? iaoee, ia
iniia? eiioeaiooaeueiiai aecia/aiiy ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e, yea
aeaiaeeoue ?? ca iaae? oe?ii?nii-?aoe?iiaeueiiai iiyniaiiy oa aeicaiey?
cae?enieoe iaa?oiooaaiiy iayaiino? anacaaaeueiiai aeaiaioo ethaenueeiai
aeeooy, ui iaoiiaeth? aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?nio naii?aae?caoe?th ethaeeie.

I?iaiae?coaaoe ?ieue aaciina?aaei?o aeeoo?aeo i?iya?a, i?e?iaeieo
onoaiiaie, iaona?aeiieaieo aaaeaiue ethaeeie a noaiiaeaii? aeeaeiiiai
??aiy ?? aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?niiai aoooy, ia’?eoeaii? oe?ii?nii? iniiae
aeooiaii? oai?/ino?.

Aeae?eeoe oi?aa?naeuei? i???ioaoe?? ethaeeie a i?inoi?? eoeueoo?e, ye?
aecia/athoue oi?ie ae?yeueii-oai?/iai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy ethaeeie a
oea?ei? ni?eeoaaiiy, ni?eyth/e iiaeieaiith noia?a/iinoae “ia’?eoeaii?
noa’?eoeaiino?”.

Aeyaeoe iniiai? no?oeoo?i? eiiiiiaioe ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ye
aaaaoi??aiaaiai, nenoaiiiai ooai?aiiy; ?ice?eoe caeaaei?noue oei?a
ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e a?ae aeii?ioaaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai c oeeo
eiiiiiaio?a.

Cae?enieoe aeae?eaiiy iniiaieo ?noi?e/ieo oi?i ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e
ia iniia? inieneaiiy oaeeo iiaeaeae, ye? o?enothoue oeeee?/io ci?io
oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e a oiae? nioe?i-eoeueoo?ii? aeeiai?ee.

?icaeyiooe ?ieue iniaeno?nieo oai?/eo coneeue a ae?yeueiiio iiaeieaii?
noia?a/iinoae aca?iiae?? “y” c “ia-y”, “oe” “?ioei”, “ie”.

7. Aecia/eoe niaoeeo?eo ii?ae? ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie ii?aeuei?nii?
eoeueoo?e, i?iaiae?coaaoe ia’?aeioaaeueiee iioaioe?ae nioe?aeueii?
ii?ae? a iaaeao eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo ni?eueiio, a oaeiae o eiioaeno?
iio?aae o anaethaenueeiio ieaiaoa?iiio ?aeiaii?.

8. Aeie?aieoe iniaeeaino? oai?/iai ae??oaiiy ii?aeuei?nieo i?iaeai
iniaeno?noth ia oe? ii?iioai?/iai iioaioe?aeo ianiai? ii?aeueii?
na?aeiiino? oa oa?aeoa? ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy

Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaee eaoaai??? ? iiiyooy eeane/ii? ? no/anii? ?a?iiaenueei?
o?einionueei? aeoiee, ui ocaaaeueiththoue ?icoi?iiy ethaenueei?
i?e?iaee, ii?aeueiino?, iniaeno?niiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy ethaeeie. C
eeane/iiai niaaeeo iaea?eueo cia/oueie aeey ?iaioe ? ooiaeaiaioaeuei?
caeiaooee aioe/ii? oa eeane/ii? i?iaoeueei? o?einio??. A iaeeane/i?e
o?einio?? a?aeiinii naiino?eiee aeooiaiee naii?icaeoie ethaeeie
inieneth?oueny a eiioeaioe?yo, ni?yiiaaieo ia aiae?c iioieia?/ii?
oe?e?niino?, aeeoo?i?enooiino? ethaeeie, niaoeeo?ee “aoooy ethaeeie a
na?o?”, oaiiiaiieia?/ii? caeaoiino? na?aeiiino? ioiiethaaoe aanue
ai?eciio “aeeoo?aiai na?oo”, ia?niiae?nonueeiai oa?aeoa?o na?oiaoaaiiy,
caeaoiino? ethaeeie aei o?ainoeaiaeoaaiiy. Naia oeae niaeo? iaoeiaeo
i?aeoiae?a noai?ea iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae aeei?enoai? ?ic?iaee o?einionueei? aa?iaiaaoeee,
o?einionueei? aio?iiieia?? oa aen?ieia?? oaeiai ??aiy ocaaaeueiaiiy,
yeee ? aecia/aeueiei a?aeiinii niaoeeo?ee ii?aeuei?niiai aeeooy
ethaeeie. Aaoi?nuee? eiioeaiooaeuei? aeniiaee iia’ycai? c neioacii oeeo
iai?yie?a no/anii? o?einio?? ye iaa?ae’?iii? neeaaeiai? /anoeie
ethaenueeiai naiii?ciaiiy, ui aaaea aei inieneaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
iioieia?/ieo i?aeaaeei ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy, nooo?aeo aeey ?icoi?iiy
ii?aeuei?nii? naii?aae?caoe?? iniaenoino?.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaaee caa?iaiiy aei
o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo, nenoaiii-no?oeoo?ieo oa
?noi?eei-o?iiieia?/ieo iaoiae?a aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoa??aeo.

O i??o i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaeaieo aaoi?ii canaae
aeey aiae?co ii?aeuei?nieo i?iya?a ethaenueeiai aeeooy oaeiae noaaaee
oai?aoeei — iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ?iaioe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaeaaaeeea?oith oai?aoe/iith iiaeciith
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ianaiia?aae iinoaiiaea i?iaeaie —
“ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a” a eiioaeno? nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? aeeiai?ee — yea
ia ?ai?acaioiaaia a no/ani?e aoe/i?e oai???. Aia?oa cae?eniaia ni?iaa
iaa?oiooaaoe iayai?noue ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ye oe?e?niiai,
i?aai?/iiai ooai?aiiy, ui noaei caa??aaoe nai? nooo?a? oa?aeoa?enoeee a
eiioaeno? nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? aeeiai?ee. A?aeooiaooth/enue a?ae ?aeae
eeane/ii? aoeee, ia iniia? no/anieo o?einionueeeo eiioeaioe?e eoeueoo?e,
ii?ae?, i?e?iaee oe?iiinoae, a oaeiae eiie?aoieo eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo,
nioe?ieia?/ieo oa ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, cia/ii ?icoe?aii ?
iiaeeaeaii ?icoi?iiy oaeiai neeaaeiiai yaeua eoeueoo?e ye ii?aeuei?noue.

Iiiyooy “ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a” ia‘?aeio? iioieia?/i? i?iyae i?e?iaee
ethaeeie a ?o aeeoo?a?e aaciina?aaeiino? c aeooiaiei aeina?aeii,
aenieith /ooo?a?noth iniaenoino? ye ae?yeueii-oai?/i? ?noioe. Ii?aeueia
oa aoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy i?aeoe/iiai ?icoio noa? oaiiiaiii ii?aeuei?nii?
eoeueoo?e a ii?aeiaii? c oe?ii?niei oi?aa?noiii iniaenoino?.
O?einionueei-aoe/iee aeeneo?n c i?eaiaeo oi?aa?naeueieo oe?iiinoae iiaea
aooe ie?aeiei ia iniia? o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueii? ?aaeoeoe??.

Niaoeeo?ea ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e iia’ycaia c oaeeie aeaiia
ethaeeiioi?ioth/eie i?ioeanaie, ye “ni?eeoaaiiy – ?aeiaiiy” oa
“ni?eeoaaiiy — ?ic’?aeiaiiy”. Iioieia?/ia ooiaeaiaioaeuei?noue oeeo
i?ioean?a a iaaeao eoeueoo?iiai naii?icaeoeo ethaeeie ??aiicia/ia
i?ioeanai aio?ii?? ? aa?iii?? a i?e?iae?.

Ae?yeueii-oai?/a “aeeooy a eoeueoo??” ethaeeie ia iniia? ?aea?
naiioe?iiino? ethaenoaa ye oe?e?niino?, ?aeeiiai i?aai?/iiai oe?eiai, ui
?icaeaa?oueny, iaoiiaeth? niaoeeo?/io eia?eo inai?iiy na?oo —
ni?eeoaaiiy ethaeeie ?c cia/ouei ?ioei. Ni?eeoaaiiy ye
oi?aa?naeueii-?aaeueia noa?a ia’?eoeaaoe?? ni?eueiioiino? ao?eth?
ii?aeuei?nia ia/aei, ui aecia/a? nooi?noue ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e, yeui
cae?enith?oueny o oi?i? “a?aeiaoiaeaeaiiy naaa a ?ioiio”, “i?enooiino? a
?ioiio”.

Ii?aeuei?nia ia/aei ni?eeoaaiiy aeieea? a neooaoe?yo ?noeiiiai ?icoi?iiy
? oai?/iai ni?eeiyooy “?ioiai” a oiae? ae?aeia?/iiai eiioi?eaoeaiiai
i?ioeano iniiaith yeiai ? “aa?iaiaaoe/ia eiei”, ui ii?aeio? ethaeae
ni?ai?e/aoi?noth aei aeineiiaei? ?aeiino? nieneo. Ii?aeuei?niee oai?/ee
iioaioe?ae ethaeeie aeyaey?oueny a caeaoiino? cae?enithaaoe aeo
aioo??oiueiai aeai?o ? a?aeaeaiiy ia?aaaae oaeee ae?yeuei?ni?e
ni?ao/ano?, yea aai ni?ey?, aai ia?aoeiaeaea? eiie?aoiei i?ioeanai
ni?eeoaaiiy.

Ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie “aeey ?ioiai, c ?ioei, i?ioe ?ioiai”
ioe?ith?oueny, aeoiaey/e ?c ??cii? eia?ee “aeia?a” ? “cea”. A e?ioeaaiio
?acoeueoao? oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie caaaeueiii?eeiyoieo
ioe?iie a iaaeao eiie?aoieo ni?eueiinoae ethaeae, ui noathoue
oe?ii?niith iniiaith eiie?aoii? nioe?aeueii? ii?ae? ye ?aeaaeo oa
?aeaieia??.

Iniiaieie no?oeoo?ieie eiiiiiaioaie ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ?:

i?e?iaeia ii?aeuei?noue, yea ao?eaia o aaciina?aaeiueiio i?aa? ethaeeie,
neeaaea?oueny a i?ioean? i?aeoe/iiai, aeina?aeii-?aaeueiiai
naiiaecia/aiiy;

aeniea ii?aeuei?noue, ui ii?iaeaeo?oueny a i?ioean? ?iaeiaiai
naiii?ciaiiy ? oi?io? aoe/ia noaaeaiiy aei na?oo;

iaeaaeia ii?aeuei?noue, yea oi?io?oueny a eiioaeno? eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo
oi?i nioe?aeueii? naiina?aeiiino? ? ocaaaeueith? aeina?ae i?e?iaeii? ?
aeniei? ii?aeueiino?.

Oeei eiiiiiaioai ia ??ai? aeooaaii-aeooiaii? i?aai?caoe?? aioo??oiueiai
na?oo iniaenoino? a?aeiia?aea? a/eiie, ui cae?enith?oueny aeoiaey/e
c eia?ee cae/ath (ye an?), eia?ee iiaeaeao (iaiiaeeeaiai aeey ao?eaiiy
an?ia aeeoo?aiai c?acea), eia?ee ?aeaaeo (iaeaaeiiai aeey an?o).

Ia’?eoeaia ?aaeuei?noue aioo??oiueiai na?oo ethaeeie
aeaoaeiao?oueny ia oae?e eiai oe?ii?ni?e ia?oiiniia? (“aeeooy ? aeaai”),
yea iaoiiaeth? iniaeeao cia/ou?noue aeey ethaeeie i?aai?/iiai ceeooy
an??? aaaaoiiai?oiino? oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e ? iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoii
ao?eaia a neie?aoe/iiio i?e?iaeii-aeooiaiiio ?aeiaii?, a?aeaeaii?
ia?aaaae oe?e?niiio na?oia?aeiioaiith. Eia?/ia ioi?ieaiiy oe???
aeo?aeii? ?ioo?oe?? a nenoaiiee aeeneo?n a?aeaoaa?oueny a i?ioean?
?ic?iaee ci?noo eaoaai??? “ana?aei?noue”, yea a?aeaeaa? i?eioeei
aeooiaii? naiii?aai?caoe?? aioo??oiueiai na?oo ethaeeie.

Ia?oi?aei?noue ci?noiaieo aniaeo?a “aeeooy ye aeaaa” o neio?ii?/iiio ?
ae?ao?ii?/iiio aei??ao ?oeio?oueny a nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e aeeiaieoe?, ui
ia?aaeeaa?oueny ethaeeiith ye ao?aoa aa?iii?? ethaenueeiai aeeooy.
Iio?aaa ethaeeie a “o?ain?aoe?iiaeuei?e ?aeiino? ?icae?eueiino? ?
aca?iii?iieeiaiiy” iaoiiaeth? iniaeeaa i?noea ?aea? “aa?iii??” a
aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?ni?e eoeueoo??, yea ao?aoeea neie?aoe/i?noue a oiae?
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei cai?ie an???
iiaiioe aeeoo?aiai aeaaa ooee?oa?ii-aoaeaiiei, caaaeueiiai aeaaa —
iaiaaeaii-ei?ii?aoeaiei, aeuiai aeaaa — anaethaenueeei.

A oiae? nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? aeeiai?ee neeaaea?oueny oeeee?/ia ia?aaaaeaiiy
aeeoo?ai-ii/ooo?aeo, ?aeaaeueii-noni?eueieo ? aeooiaii-oi?aa?naeueieo
oi?i ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e, ui niiioea? aei iiaoaeiae aoiai?noe/iiai,
eieaeoea?nonueeiai aai ?ae?a?eiiai ii?aeueiiai ?aeaaeo, ?o nai???aeiiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy.

Ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a i?ioenoi?oue ao?ao? ia?aeiii? aa?iii?? aoooy ?
i?iyaai iai?aaaee, noa’?eoeaii? naaaie?, aeano?oeoeaiiai ?ic’?aeiaiiy.
Aicc’?aeiaiiy an?o ci?noiaieo aeaiaio?a ?aea? aeaaa c? caa?aaeaiiyi
cia/ouino? eiaeiiai ?c ieo a eiie?aoiiio eoeueoo?iiio eiioaeno?, ?o
i?aai?/iee neioac noai?ththoue iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiee oei ii?aeuei?nii?
eoeueoo?e.

Ia’?eoeaia ae?aeaeoeea nioe?aeueiiai aoooy aeeeth/a? ?icaaaeaiiy
i?ioean?a ia’?aeiaiiy ? ?ic’?aeiaiiy ca i?ioeeaaeieie iiethnaie aeia?a ?
cea, cai?iaaaeaeoth/e iiaeeea?noue ae?aeaeoe/iiai aca?iiia?aoiaeo
ii?aeueii? ioe?iee nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a ? yaeu. Eiie?aoii-?noi?e/i?
iiaeae? aeei?enoaiiy aaniethoieo e?eoa???a noiniaii ie?aieo nioe?aeueieo
oaiiiai?a iathoue ?aeaieia?/iee oa?aeoa?.

Iniaeno?noue caeia? iaaio iiceoe?th (i?eeiyooy aai iai?eeiyooy) uiaei
o??? oe?ii?nii? iiaeae?, yea aeii?io? a eoeueoo?iiio na?aaeiaeu? ?
iaoiiaeth? ni?aiaaeaiiy aai iani?aiaaeaiiy ?? ioe?iie c ianiaeie.
Ioe?ii/i? noaeaeaiiy ca eia?eith ei?eno?, ni?aaaaeeeaino?, aeia?a a ?o
a?aeiioaii? aei yaeu ciai?oiuei? nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino? iathoue
a?aeiiniee oa?aeoa?, yeui ia nie?athoueny ia iaaa?aaeueia
iniaeno?nii-?ioo?oeaia inyaiaiiy ia?oiniene?a ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy.

Aieeaia?noue o noni?euenoa? ii?aeueii-iaeaaeieo ?iia?aoea?a caeaaeeoue
a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ae?enii? ii?iioai?/i? i?iaeoeoeaiino?, yei?
aeinyaa? ae?oa a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a i?ioean? eiioi?eaoeaiiai
aeeneo?no c onoaiiaeaie ianiai? ii?aeueii? na?aeiiino? oa na?oii
nioe?aeueieo oyaeaiue.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?iaaaeaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiea? caoaeaia ?icoi?iiy oe?eae o?einionueei? aoeee, yea
ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio ?ie?a ii?iaeaeoaaei iai?iaeoeoeai? aeeneon??,
ine?eueee iaoeiaoe? aeoiaeeee c ?icoi?iiy ii?ae? eeoa ye oi?ie
noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?. ?ic?iaeaiee i?aeo?ae aei oaiiiaia ii?aeuei?nii?
eoeueoo?e i?aai?/ii ii?aeio? i?iyae noni?eueii? ? aeooiaii? i?e?iaee
ethaeeie a eiie?aoiiio ?noi?e/iiio eiioaeno?, ye o oi?i?
aaciina?aaeiueiai ao?eaiiy a i?e?iaei?e ii?aeueiino?, oae ? o aeaeyae?
na?aeiii? oai?/ino?. Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe
canoiniaai? a oeo eiie?aoii-iaoeiaeo noa?ao, aea noai?ththoueny iia?
iiaeae? nioe?aeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? oi?aae?inueeiai ?aaoethaaiiy
??cieo aaeocae eoeueoo?e, i?aai?caoe?? ina?oiueiai oa aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano.

Aeniiaee ? ocaaaeueiaiiy aaoi?a iathoue na?oiaeyaeio ni?yiiaai?noue ?
aeicaieythoue oieeiooe iaeiia?/iinoae ? i?ioenoiyiiy, a ieoaii?
i?i i??i?eoao ?ae?a?eiiai /e na?onueeiai aeooiaii-aeoiaiiai aieeao.

Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee na?e iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie o
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ani??aio?a, iaoeiaa ea??aieoeoai yeeie cae?enith? aaoi?.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a o/aiai-iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? i?ia?ai, iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e,
iin?aiee?a ? /eoaii? ii?iaoeaieo ? niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a c o?einionueeeo
? nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? i?aenoaae
aeey ?ic?iaee eiie?aoii-ineoieia?/ieo iaoiaeee aea/aiiy oe?ii?nieo
i???ioaoe?e ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?, oae ? ianiai? ii?aeueii? na?aeiiino?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe: Iniiai? iaoa??aee cai?iiiiiaaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
ai?iaiaai? o iaaeaaia?/i?e ?iaio? aaoi?a ia o?einionueeiio oaeoeueoao?,
oaeoeueoao? ineoieia?? oa nioe?ieia?? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea i?e /eoaii? eo?no “Aoeea”, niaoeeo?n?a “?noi??y ?icaeoeo
ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e”, “Oai?/?noue ye ia‘?eo aoe/iiai aiae?co”,
“I?e?iaeia i?aai a no/aniiio aoeei-i?aaiaiio aeeneo?n?”, o iaoeia?e
ni?yiiaaiino? eaiaeeaeaonueeeo aeena?oaoe?e ani??aio?a oa aeeieiiieo
?ia?o nooaeaio?a c aoeee. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai?
a iaeiiin?ai?e iiiia?ao??: “Enoi?e/aneea noaeueau i?aanoaaiiinoe
(oeeinioneee aiaeec i?aanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u” (Ee?a, “Eea?aeue”, 1992);
eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?yo: “Eaeaieiaey, ii?aeue, eneonnoai” (Ee?a?,
“Eea?aeue”, 1991), “Enoi?ey oeeinioee e eoeueoo?a” (Ee?a, Iaoeiaa
aeoiea, 1991), “Aoe/i? ii?ie ? oe?iiino?: i?iaeaia iaa?oiooaaiiy” (Ee?a,
“Noeein”, 1997); o a?ioo?ao, noaooyo iaoeiai-ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue oa
aeiiia?aeyo ia i?aeia?iaeieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo oa i?aeaoc?anueeeo
eiioa?aioe?yo oa neiiic?oiao: “I?iaeaiu i?aanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u iauaiey”
(A?eueithn, 1986), “Eoeueoo?a oa aoiiaoeea” (Ee?a, 1994), “Oaeaiiaeoa
iniaeno?noue: n?i‘y, oeiea, aea?aeaaa” (Ee?a, 1995), “Iaoeia? /eoaiiy c
iaaiaee 60-??//y A.N.Eaia?nueeiai” (Ee?a, 1996), “Aoeea oa anoaoeea a
no?oeoo?? no/aniiai aoiai?oa?iiai ciaiiy” (Ee?a, 1997), “Ae?oa?
i?aeia?iaei? Aa?aey?anuee? /eoaiiy” (Ee?a, 1999) oa ?ioeo.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia oai?aoe/ieo
nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e aoeee, anoaoeee ? eoeueoo?ieia?? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe: Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, eiaeiee c yeeo ae?eeoueny ia i?ae?icae?ee, oa aeniiae?a oa
noaio aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

IA?OEE ?ICAe?E “Eaoaai??aeuei? iniiae aiae?co ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e”
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a. O I?Ae?ICAe?E? 1.1. “Ii?aeuei?nia
eoeueoo?a ye oaiiiai ethaenueeiai aeeooy” caii/aoeiaothoueny oae?
oai?aoe/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?aeuei?niino?, ye? aeaiaeyoue
o?einionueei-aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ca iaae? oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaieo, aai
aocueei-nioe?ieia?/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue. Aeey cae?eniaiiy aiae?co, ui ?
a?eueo caaaeueiei a?aeiinii eiie?aoieo oi?i ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e
aeei?enoiaothoueny oae? iiiyooy iaeeane/ii? o?einio?? ye “aeeooy”
(O.I?oeoa, A.Ae?eueoae, A.C?iiaeue, A.Aa?anii, O.I?oaaa-?-Aannao oa
?i.), “iiiaaeaeeooy” (Oaey? aea Oa?aeai). Aecia/aiiy I.Oaea?ii ethaeeie
ye aeooiaii? ?noioe, o yei? ? na?o, a oaeiae iiiyooy “aeeoo?aee na?o
ethaeeie” (A.Ae?eueoae, A.Aonna?eue) aeicaieythoue cao?enoaaoe
iioaioe?eio ii?aeuei?nio aia?a?th ethaenueeiai aeeooy, yea o nai?o
aeo?aeieo iiceoe?yo ooai?th? iaaio oe?e?ni?noue, oai?eoue na?e iniaeeaee
na?o. ?acii c oei, ethaeeia ye ?noioa ui caeaoia aei naiaiaee, noa? o
“aeenoaioe?eiaaia a?aeiioaiiy aei ioi/oth/iai na?oo”. (A.A.Aaaeaia?).
Ia oe?e iniia? a aeeooy ethaeeie aoiaeeoue “ia-ss”, ua ia ??ai?
“aeii?aaeeeaoeaiiai aeina?aeo” (?.Aonna?eue). Aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?nia
naiiaecia/aiiy ethaeeie aeia?aaeaea? ?? “a?aee?eo?noue na?oo”, ia?aeiia
aaciina?aaeiy ?ioa?noa’?eoeaia aeeoo?aa onoaiiaea ?nio? o aeaeyae?
“i?eeiyooy aeeooy”. AEeoo?noaa?aeaeoth/a ia/aei i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyae?
“a?io?eueii? i???ioaoe??” (A.O?iii), ye?e iaona?aeiiethth/e oea
a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao, ui ? cia/ii aaaii?oith neeith, i?ae ?inoeieo
naiicaa?aaeaiiy. Aiia aeeth/a? i?eeiyooy “ia-ss” a i?ino?? aeeoo?aiai
na?oo ethaeeie. A oaiiiaiieia?/i?e nioe?ieia?? iiiyooy “i?e?iaeiy
onoaiiaea” (A.Othoe) aeeeth/a? a?ae/oaeaia ni?eeiyooy “?ioiai”, a ??
eiioaeno? a?i aecia/aeueii ia ? i?iaeaiith. Oea aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe
aeeoo?aee i?ino??, aeeoo?a? aeoe ye ni?eyoeea? ii?aeuei?ni?e eoeueoo??,
ui a iiaeaeueoiio aeaoaeiao?oueny, oai?eoueny ethaeeiith.

Cia/ei?noue anueiai nouiai neeaaea?oueny ia iniia? “e?ioeaaeo
nieneiaeo noa?” aeeoo?aiai na?oo. Iniiai? aeeoo?a? nienee ao?eththoueny
a no?oeoo?? na?oi?icoi?iiy, a neiaieao eoeueoo?e, noai?ththoue aeeaeiio
iniiao aai?aeueieo oai??a ienoaoeoaa, ciaoiaeyoue nai? ao?eaiiy a ?aeayo
o?einio??, ia?ic?eaii iia’ycai? c i?noe/ii-ia?aciei na?oia?aeiioaiiyi.
Iioieia?/ia “aooo?aa aei??iaii?noue na?aeiiino?” (I.Iaia?aeaoa?e?)
aeia?aaeaea? aeeiai?/iee i?ioean inai?iiy anueiai nouiai, a oiae? yeiai
ethaeeia cono??/a?oueny c ?iciaae?iiyi oe?eiai ia /anoeie, ae?iaeai?noth
na?oo, ?ic’?aeiaiiyi, aii??e/iei oainii (“iiiaeeiia” o a?ae?ea? a?ae
“?aeeiiai”). Iiiaaecaaaeaiiy ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ? i?ioenoiyiiy oeei
i?ioeanai.

Iaea?eueo aeeaeiiee ??aaiue aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?niiai aoooy ethaeeie
iia’ycaiiee c i?eeiyooyi an?o aeeoo?aeo i?iya?a a eiioaeno? eiai
“aeeoo?aiai na?oo” ye neeaaeii? a?aee?eoi? nenoaie, ui ii?iaeaeo?
onoaiiaeo ia anaioaaoio iiaiioo aeeooy. Oaea “ni?yiiaaia aei aeaaa
aeeooy” ? aeaea?aeii iio?aae “o aeineiiae?e ?aeiino? iiiaeeiiiai”, ui
ao?eth? iaeaeuee oe?ii?niee niene a aeeoo? ethaeeie ye aeooiaii? ?noioe
ca aeiiiiiaith a??e, iaae??, ethaia?. Iiyniaiiy iioyao ethaeeie aei
anainyaeiiai ii?aeiaiiy cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? iiiyooy Aaoa
“i?aoaiiiai” oa iiiyooy “aecia/aeueiee ia?ac na?oo” (E.A.THia). Oey
oe?ii?nia ia?oiiniiaa aoooy ethaeeie a na?o? iaoiiaeth? aieeaia?noue a
eoeueoo?? ioioiaeiaiiy aaniethoiiai aeaaa c ?aeiaiiyi iii?e
aec?noaioe?ei? oa ?noi?e/i? i?ioe??//y ethaenueeiai aeeooy. Inoaii?
ii?iaeaeothoue niaeo? ethaenueeiai ?ic’?aeiaiiy c “?ioei”, “?iaeoei”,
“aiii”.

Oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa? ?aea? ?aeeiiai ia a?aei?io a?ae eiie?aoieo oi?i
?aeiaiiy o iia’ycaiino? c oaiiiaiii ethaenoaa, aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe
iniaeeao cia/ei?noue ni?eeiyooy “ethaenoaa ye ?aeeiiai oe?eiai”.
Ii?aeuei?nia inai?iiy na?oo i?ieeaaeaei nia? aei?iao, ye iniaeeaa neea
?aeiaiiy, ye aeieeiaiiy ae?enii? ni?eueiino?, caaeiaai aei oi?ioaaiiy
?aaeueieo iiaeeeainoae caaaeueiiethaenueeiai ?aeiaiiy. C?inoaiiy
ia’?aeioaaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo eoeueoo?e, ui a?aeiia?aea? “anacaaaeuei?e
iio?aa? a?aonoaa” (Oaey? aea Oa?aeai) a?aeaoaa?oueny iinooiiai ? iaaiith
i??ith ei??aeth?oueny c aeina?aeii ia?an?/ii? ethaeeie, yeee
iaaoaa?oueny iath a iaaeao n?i’?, iaueie, aea?aeaae. ??ciee ci?no
ocaaaeueithth/iai “ie” ia iniia? yeiai cae?enith?oueny ii?aeueia
ioe?iea, iaoiiaeth? iani?aiaae?iiy ii?aeueieo ? aoe/ieo oe?iiinoae
aeeooy. Aeaeaoi? iniaenoino? caeaoi? aei aeooiaii-aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue,
ye? nooo?ai aeia?aaeaeathoue iaiaaeaiee nioe?aeueiee aeina?ae. Iiiyooy
“ana?aeiino?” (A.Nieiaeia) ? iiiyooy “niai?i?noue” o?enothoue iayai?noue
aaiaoe/ii? ia?oiiniiae noni?eueiiai aoooy ? caie?aeiththoue iiooee
iaia?an?/ieo oe?iiinoae. Aieiae?iiy oeei aeina?aeii oe??ieth? ?aeath
aecia/aeueii? ?iaeiai? ?aeiino? ethaeae, caaaa/o? oi?ie ?? ?aaeueiiai
ao?eaiiy ia ??ai? eiie?aoieo oi?i ni?eeoaaiiy, ocaaaeueith? oaeo oi?io
ni?eueiioiiai ?aeiaiiy, ui ia ? i?yiei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi cao?oiaaiino?,
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, nie?aea?iino?, ni?aae?oaeiino?.

I?ioe??//y i?ae “oaiiiaiieia?/iei aeina?aeii” (I.Oaea?) oa aii??e/iei
aeina?aeii ethaeeie i?iaoaeaeo? iaiao?aei?noue niaoeeo?/ii ethaenueeiai
aeooiaii-?aaeueiiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy, i?ioenoiyiiy aeooo
“o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueii? noa’?eoeaiino?” ?ic?iaethth/ei neeai ciai?oiueiai
? aioo??oiueiai na?oo. ?ic’?aeithth/? i?ioeane noathoue iaieio/ith
?aaeuei?noth ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai, oae ? noni?eueiiai aoooy, oiio ?o
inoae, ni?iae iiynieoe, aai iaa?oue i?aeaeaoe nae?ae?caoe?? iaa?ae’?ii?
a?ae ia’?aeioaaeueieo i?ioean?a. Iaea?eueo caaaeueiee ci?no iiiyooy
“aoin” ae?aaea? ia’?eoeaio i??o ia’?aeioaaeueieo oa ?ic’?aeioaaeueieo
i?ioean?a aoaeue-yeiai oe?e?niiai nenoaiiiai ooai?aiiy a iaaeao
ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, ui aecia/a? oaiaeaioe?th aei
caa?aaeaiiy, noaa?eueiino? nenoaie, aai aei ?? ?oeioaaiiy, ci?iaiiy.
Iiaeeea?noue iiceoeaii?, aai iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee “aoina” iniaeno?noth ?
aeai?o a?aeiia?aeiiai oeio ae?yeueii? aeoeaiino? iaoiiaeaia iayai?noth
ae?enii? naiaiaee. Ia?icae?euei?noue ?iaeiaeo oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
i?iya?a ii?iaeaeo? o aioo??oiueiio na?o? ethaeeie ?icoi?iiy iath nai??
noni?eueii? i?e?iaee o aeaeyae? oe?ii?nii? onoaiiaee ia “ni?eueia
aeaai”, ?aeiaiiy a iaaeao ?iaeiai? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, iaeaeuei ao?eaiiy
yei? ? anaethaenueea ni?eueiioi?noue, ?aeay a?aonoaa an?o ethaeae. Aeey
iicia/aiiy oeeo i?ioean?a o ?o ?aaeuei?e aca?iiiia’ycaiino? a ?iaio?
?ai?acaioo?oueny o?einionueei-aoe/iee ci?no iiiyooy “aoin”. Oeei
iiiyooyi aecia/a?oueny ia’?eoeaia i??a ia’?aeioaaeueieo oa
?ic’?aeioaaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e ethaenueeiai aeeooy ia ??cieo ??aiyo eiai
aoooy oa nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? i?aai?caoe??. ?aaeueiee noai aoino ni?ey?
aeai?o ethaeeiith ye ia’?aeiaiiy oae ? ?ic’?aeiaiiy. Naiaiaea aeai?o
aoaeue-yei? c oeeo oaiaeaioe?e ii?iaeaeo? iniaeno?nio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca oeae aea??, iaoiiaeth? noaiiaeaiiy ethaeeie ye
noa’?eoa ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e. Ii?aeuei?niei iiaea aooe ? ia?oee, ?
ae?oaee aea?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ao?eaiiy a iiina?aaeeiaaiiio e?ioeaaiio
i?aenoieo ia’?eoeaii? iio?aae a i?aai?/i?e aeooiai?e anaethaenuee?e
?aeiino?, yea noai?th? oiiae aeey ?icea?oo iniaenoino?. Ia ii?aeuei?niei
aoaea ae?yiiy, ui caaino?th? aecenoaioe?eia i?ioe??//y i?ae niai?i?noth
oa iniaeno?niei einiinii ethaeeie.

A I?Ae?ICAe?E? 1.2. “Aca?iica’ycie i?ioean?a ni?eeoaaiiy-?aeiaiiy ?
ni?eeoaaiiy-?ic’?aeiaiiy” aaiaeeoueny iniiaiiieiaeia iiiyooy aeey
aecia/aiiy niaoeeo?ee ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e. Ethaeeia ye noa’?eo
ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ? a?eueo oi?aa?naeueiith ii nai?e ?ioaioe??
?noioith, i?ae ethaeeia ye noa’?eo ii?ae?, noa’?eo ?noi??? ? oaea ?ioa.
I?ciaaaeueiith iniiaith oaei? caeaoiino? ? aaciina?aaei? ?icoi?iiy oiai
?aeiaiiy c “ia-y” ? iaaii? naiiaeinoaoiino? “y”, yea iaoiiaeth?
aaaeeea?noue ni?eeoaaiiy a eiioaeno? ?icai?oaiiy aeeoo?aeo nee ye
o?ainoeaaeaiooaaiiy. “Iaaeeeoie” ethaenueeiai ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aa/aiiy
na?oo (I.I.Aaoo?i), ui i?eaea? aoooth iaiiaoi?io “ni?aaooo?a?noue”,
ii?aeio? ethaeae ? ?ic’?aeio? ?o. A i?ioean? aca?iiae?? “?ioee” iiaea
ni?eeiaoenue o aeaeyae? “Oe” aai “Aiii” (I.Aoaa?). ?icoi?iiy “?ioiai”,
iacaaaeath/e ia iayaia /anoeiaa iani?aiaae?iiy, iiaea iaoe ??ci? ??ai?.
I?eioeeiiaeie aeey aecia/aiiy noo? ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ? caeaoi?noue
aei a?aeiaoiaeaeaiiy naiai “y” a “?ioiio”, aai ia?ai?uaiiy naiai “y” a
“?ioiai”. Aeuee ??aaiue aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?niiai ?aeiaiiy ? i?enooi?noue
“?ioiai” a aeeaeiao iiai “y” ? iaaiaee, caaaeyee /iio a?aeaoaa?oueny
iiaeieaiiy “?ioino?”, “?iinooiino?” ? aeciaiiy aecia/aeueii? ?aeiino?.
Oe? i?ioeane nooue iniiai? neeaaeia? aeeaeiiiai aca?ii?icoi?iiy ia
iniia? ni?eeoaaiiy, ae?aeiao ? ae?aaeathoue aeu? oai?/? iiaeeeaino?
naii?aae?caoe?? ethaeeie a oea?ei? ii?aeueiino?.

A iaaeao ineoieia?/ieo, nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ie??i
aoiai?noe/iiai iai?yieo ineoieia??, ni?eeoaaiiy aiae?co?oueny aai i?ae
eooii ci?o eiai ?ino?oiaioaeueieo, ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae, aai o
aeaeyae? ?eooaeueieo, ianiai-oeiiaeo oi?i. Aoe/iee ci?no oeueiai iiiyooy
aaiaoe/ii iia’ycaiee c eiioeaioe??th “oe?e?niiai na?oia?aeiioaiiy”
(A.Iaeaoia) ? aeiiiaith?oueny iaa?oiooaaiiyi a aeena?oaoe??
ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai cia/aiiy aeey ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e
“ni?eeoaaiiy-?aeiaiiy” ? “ni?eeoaaiiy-?ic’?aeiaiiy”. A ?icae?e? c
iaeiiai aieo, a?aeaea?oueny iaeaaeia i?aoe? I.N. Eaaaia “Na?o
ni?eeoaaiiy” c iiceoe?e ?icaeyaeo iiiyooy “ni?eeoaaiiy” ia
o?einionueeiio ??ai?, a c ?ioiai, e?eoe/ii ?icaeyaea?oueny aiae?c a
oeueiio eiioaeno? iiiyooy “ii?aeuei?noue”. Iaea?eueo aeecueeith aei
aaoi?nueei? eiioeaiooaeueiith iiceoe??th noiniaii iiiyooy “ni?eeoaaiiy”
noaea i?aoey Ceiiaey “Ni?eeoaaiiy, i?eeeaae /enoi? aai oi?iaeueii?
nioe?ieia??”. A ?iaio? i?iaiaeeoueny a?aeie?aieaiiy “i?e?iaeii?
cao?oiaaiino?” ? “i?aai?ciaaii? cao?oiaaiino?” ethaeae (A.Oa?ae), oa
aecia/a?oueny ye?nii ??cia i??a a ieo ii?aeuei?niiai iioaioe?aeo.

Aecia/aiiy ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ye niiniao iiaeieaiiy aecenoaioe?eieo
? nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ a iaaeao aeeoo?aiai na?oo iniaenoino? aeicaiey?
a?aeaeaaaoe iaeaaeia ia o?eueee ?icaeoeo oi?i eoeueoo?e, iiaaoe?yi, aea
e noaa?aeaeoaaoe naiioe?ii?noue o?aaeeoe?eieo oi?i eoeueoo?iiai aoooy
(“iiaee aoiai?ci” E.Eaa?-No?ina). Oaeiae cae?enith?oueny e?eoe/iee
aiae?c ??cieo oi?i eeaneo?eaoe?? oa ia??iaeecaoe?? ii?aeuei?nii?
eoeueoo?e (A.A.O.Aaaaeue, I.Aa?aey?a, A.Ianaaan, A.Iaeuenii, A.Eiaeyeia
oa ?i.). Ia i?aenoaa? oiai, ui aeiaeia c ?icaeyiooeo iiaeaeae ia
a?aeooiaoo?oueny a?ae anacaaaeueii? iniiae, ui aecia/a? niaoeeo?eo
ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e, i?iiiio?oueny eiioeaiooaeueia ae??oaiiy oe???
i?iaeaie. ?noi?e/i? oi?ie ?aeiaiiy ? ?ic’?aeiaiiy ethaeae ia iniia?
ni?eeoaaiiy iathoue oe?ieee ye?niee ae?aiacii a?aeiinei. Ni?eeoaaiiy
neeaaea?oueny c aaaaoueio ??ai?a, aiii ?ooa?oueny a?ae
ni?eeoaaiiy-cono??/? aei ae?aeiao i?ae “y” ? “oe”, yea cae?enith?oueny
ia ethaenueeiio ??ai?, aei ethaia? , yea iiaeeeaa eeoa ia iniaeno?niiio
??ai?. Iniiai? eiiiiiaioe ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e – i?e?iaeia
ii?aeuei?noue, iaeaaeia ii?aeuei?noue, aeniea ii?aeuei?noue –
iaa?ae’?ii? neeaaeia? /anoeie ii?aeuei?niiai aeeooy. ?noi?e/ii
ci?ith?oueny eeoa ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, aai aeii?ioaaiiy iaeiiai c ieo. A
oiae? nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? aeeiai?ee neeaaea?oueny oeeee?/ia ia?aaaaeaiiy
aeeoo?ai-/ooo?aeo, ?aeaaeueii-noni?eueieo, aai aeooiaii-oi?aa?naeueieo
oi?i ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ?o a?aeiinii?
naiino?eiino?, c?inoath/iai caaaa/aiiy aoiai?noe/ieo, eieaeoea?nonueeeo,
aai ?ae?a?eieo ?aeae.

Ii?aeueia (ii?aeue ye ?aeaae ? ii?aeue ye ?aeaieia?y) ? aoe/ia
(ii?iaoeaia aoeea ? ii?aeuei?nia o?einio?y) naii?aae?caoe?y ethaeeie
ii?aeiaia c i?e?iaeii-ii?aeuei?nieie aai aeniei-ii?aeuei?nieie ??
iioyaaie ? iaea?eueoith i??ith a?aeiia?aea? eia?/iiio ocaaaeueiaiith
ii?aeueiino?, yea aeaa Aaaaeue: “Ii?aeuei?noue ? ?aeay naiaiaee ye aeeaa
aeia?i…, ? iiiyooyi naiaiaee, ui noaei iayaiei na?oii ? i?e?iaeith
naiina?aeiiino?”.

A I?Ae?ICAe?E? 1.3. “Iniaeeaino? naiii?ciaiiy ethaeeie a ii?aeuei?ni?e
o?einio??” ?icaeyaeathoueny iiaeeeaino? aoeee aooe neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
eoeueoo?ioai?aiiy ? iniaeeaino? ?? ye eiiiiiaioa ii?aeuei?nii?
eoeueoo?e.

C iaeiiai aieo, ?noi?e/ii ae/a?iaee naaa iaiaaaiiy i?eai?eaoe noeo?th
aeeooy ca aeiiiiiaith o?einionoaoaaiiy ? iia/aiiy, c ae?oaiai,
aeiaaeuei? i?iaeaie no/aniino? iaaeathoue iaa?oue iaiaaeaiei oi?iai
ae?yeueiino? ii?aeuei?nii-aoe/iee aei??. Aeooiaii-na?oiaeyaeiee
iioaioe?ae o?einio?? noai?th? iiaeeeaino? a?aeiaoiaeaeaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aea?aaeaioa a/eiea ye ?noeiiiio aeia?o, ia
i?ioenoaaeyth/e eiai aeeaiio aeia?o, /ooo?aiio, niiioaiiiio,
???aoe?iiaeueiiio. Ethaeeiioai?/a, aoiai?noe/ia aeooaeuei?noue aoeee
iia’ycaia c oeie iiaeeeainoyie, ye? aiia iaaea? ethaeei? aeey ae??oaiiy
nooi?nieo i?ioe??/ ?? aoooy. Naiii?ciaiiy ethaeeie o eiai
aeooiaii-oai?aoe/i?e oi?i? caeeaaea? iniiae aoeee ye ii?aeuei?nii?
o?einio??.

Aeae? a i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? oi?ie
aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?niiai ocaaaeueiaiiy eoeueoo?e a
oe?ii?nii-?aoe?iiaeuei?e oi?i?: “i?aaeaoeea”, “ii?iaoeaia aoeea”,
“i?aeoe/ia o?einio?y”, “iia/aeueia ii?ae?coaaiiy”. Ii?yae c
caaaeueiiaeciaieie aeia?i/eiiinoyie eia?ea aeuiai aeia?a ye ??ciiaeaeo
nioe?aeueiiai neoae?iiy eiie?aoeco?oueny a eaoaai??yo a?aeiino?, /ano?
oa iaia’yceo. Iayai?noue a no?oeoo?? o?einionueeiai ciaiiy aoeee ye
i?aeoe/ii? o?einio?? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui i?ciaiiy ethaenueei? i?e?iaee
ua ia aeeoei ca iaae? oe?ii?nieo ocaaaeueiaiue. ?icaaaeaiiy iia/aeueii?
e?oa?aoo?e ? iicaoe?ii?niiai oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ii?aeuei?nieo
canaae iaia’yceo a?aeaoeinue aeineoue i?cii (XVIII – XIX no.) .
Oaieia?/iei ??ciiaeaeii i?aeoe/ii? o?einio?? aoee ia i?ioyc? aaaaoueio
noi??/ o?enoeyinueea aio?iiieia?y oa aoeea. Naeoey?ecaoe?y na?aeiiino?
? iiaeaeueoa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y aeooiaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaoiiaeee
aeieeiaiiy oaeiai ??ciiaeaeo ii?iaoeaii? aoeee ye aoeea i?eioeei?a, ui
yaeyea niaith iiaee ??aaiue ocaaaeueithth/eo ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo
i???ioe??a.

?icaaaeaiiy aen?ieia?? oa aeaiioieia??, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eaoaai??e aeia?a
? aeaaa noaee iniiaieie oaiaie aeeneon?e ae?oai? iieiaeie XIX no. —
ii/aoeo XX no. A oeae /an cia/iiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaaoee oai??? , ui
nie?aeeny ia iaai? oe?ii?ni? ?ethc?? naiai /ano, oae? ye ooee?oa?eci a
aoeoe?, oai??? aai?cio, ?ioa?ano, ii?aeueii? aeia?ioe.
Oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeai? aniaeoe ? aeineoue nooo?aeie a “aoiai?noe/i?e
aoeoe?”, aoeoe? naii?aae?caoe??, aoeoe? eini?/ii? oaeaieia??,
“oae?oeaioieia??” oa ?i. ?acii c oeei, aeineoue aieeaiaei noa?
caia?a/aiiy ii?iaoeaiino? ye oa?aeoa?enoeee aoe/ii? oai???. A
caeaaeiino? a?ae aeo?aeieo iaii?ooieo ii?aeueieo i?eioeei?a (aoiai?ci,
iao??ioeci, eieaeoea?ci oa ?i.), ui noathoue aen?iiaoe/iith ii?iith,
caeiiii, aaco?oueny oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia eia?ea ii?aeueii?
na?aeiiino?, yeo iaiaaathoueny i?ioenoaaeoe c?inoath/?e ?aeyoea?caoe??
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oa ianiai? ii?aeueii? na?aeiiino?. ?icoe?aiiy i?inoi?o
a?eueiiai aeai?o, ciaioaiiy eiio?ieth noni?eueii? aeoiee iaae
iiaaae?ieith ?iaeea?ae?a, ioi?iia caeiiii naiaiaee aeoiee, nia?no? ,
?ae?a??, ia?aeiiaiue i?ecaaee aei ciaioaiiy nioe?aeueii? cia/ouino?
eiiaaioe?eii? ii?iaoeaii? aoeee. Oaea oi?ia ao?eaiiy ii?aeuei?nii?
i?e?iaee ethaeeie aoiaeeoue a i?ioe??//y c ?aeaaeii ae?yeueiiai oai?/iai
naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy iniaenoino?, ui ? aecia/aeueiei a XX no. Ii?iaoeaia
aoeea ?icaeyaea?oueny ye a?oa?/iee eiiiiiaio o?einio?? a iaie?aa?ae?ci?,
ye ?ai?aneaia nioe?aeueia neea (aiane?aeie i?iiaaaiaeenonueeeo
ceiaaeeaaiue aoe/iith ii?iaoeai?noth, ui aoee oa?aeoa?i? aeey
oioae?oa?ieo ?aaeei?a). I?e oeueiio ii?iaoeaia aoeea caeeoa?oueny
aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith a ina?oiuei-aeoiai?e ?iaio?, a oi?ioaaii?
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee uiaei cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa eiioi?eaoe??,
a iania?e eoeueoo??, a i?ioan?ei?e oa noni?euei?e ae?yeueiino?. ?acii c
oei, iaa?oue iaiaaaiiy noai?eoe “ii?aeue aac ii?i” a aec?noaioe?ae?ci?
(AE.I.Na?o?), neooaoe?ei?e aoeoe? (I.Oeao/a?) i?eiee ia aeiaiaeeeany aei
iiaiiai aeaoeeneii?cio.

A oe?eiio an? aoe/i? iai?yiee, ye? i?iaieiooaaee na?e iicaii?iaoeaiee
noaoon (iaoaaoeea, iiceoea?ci, aeane?eioea?ci, aii??e/ia aoeea oa ?i.)
ia iiaee ia?eoe ieoaiiy i?i aeaea?aea ? i?ciaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai ye iioeao
aoe/ii a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai a/eieo. A 70-90 ?iee a oiiaao c?inoath/i?
aiii??, eaaae?caoe?? ia?a?iaeueiino?, ciaioaiiy ii?iaoeaii-?aaoethth/i?
ooieoe?? cae/a?a, o?aaeeoe?e, iayaiino? e?aeiiu?a ? cai/aiue a
inaaaeiiiaaoi?nuee?e ii?iioai?/ino? aeieeathoue oiiae aeey iaaiiai
iiai?ioo aei ii?iaoeaii? aoeee. Oe?ieia?aeiieie noaee ci?noiai?
ii?iaoeai? iaeneie oai??? ni?aaaaeeeaino? Ae.?ioena. Caii/aoeiaaia
I.Aaaa?ii aoeea a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ciaeoea i?iaeiaaeaiiy a
iaieiina?aaoeai?e aoeoe? O.Eiiana, A.Ethaaa, A.-E.Eaeueoaia?oia?a oa ?i.
Iia? iniiae ii?iaoeaiino? a iaaeao iaeeane/ii? o?einio?? caeeaaeathoueny
a aeeneo?neaii-eiioi?eaoeai?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? i?aeoe/iiai ?icoio a
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeuei?e i?aaiaoeoe? (E.-I. Aiaeue, TH.Oaaa?ian,
O.Aaae?ia). Aeieeiaiiy ? caaino?aiiy aeiaaeueieo ieaiaoa?ieo i?iaeai
aeooae?coaaee ?ic?iaeo iiaeo i?eioeei?a ii?iaoeaii? aoeee (no?eioaaiiy,
iaiaaeaiiy, ia?anoi?iae). Oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaaoea aeieia?/ia
aoeea. C?inoa? iio?aaa a iiaeo oi?iao oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy, iniaeeai a noa?ao aeiiii?/ii?, iie?oe/ii? oa iaoeiai?
ae?yeueiinoae. A no/ani?e ii?iaoeai?e aoeoe? iaeneeaaei?oei ? ieoaiiy
i?i iaa?oioiaai?noue ?? ii?i a ?ioa?noa’?eoeaiiio nain?, oa a?aieoe?
aoeee a iaaeao ethaenueeiai aoooy ye aeooiaiiai oaiiiaio.

A Ae?OAIIO ?ICAe?E? “Naii?aae?caoe?y iniaenoino? a ii?aeuei?ni?e
eoeueoo??” i?aaeiaoii aiae?co noaee aaaaoiiai?oi? i?iyae aeniei?
ii?aeueiino? a?ae iaona?aeiiethaaieo iioya?a aei ao?eaiiy “e?ioeaaeo
nieneiaeo noa?” aeeoo?aiai na?oo ? aaciin?aaeiueiai inai?iiy
oi?aa?naeueieo niene?a ethaenueeiai aoooy a iianyeaeaiiiio ni?eeoaaii?
aei aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?niiai ia/aea ?aeiaiiy o aeueo oi?iao
i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a.

A I?Ae?ICAe?E? 2.1. “A?aie/ia oe?ii?nia naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy iniaenoino? ye
noa’?eoa ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e” ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy i?i aieea oa
ae??a?noue ye iaia?an?/ieo o?aaeeoe?eieo oe?iiinoae, oae ? oaeeo, ui
iathoue aeoieii nueiaiaeaiiy. Aeooaeuei?noue oe??? i?iaeaie iaoiiaeaia
c?inoaiiyi caaeaeoae?eino? ethaeae aei ?aeaae?a, ui ? neiioiiii ao?aoe
?o aaciina?aaeiuei /ooo?ai?, a ioaea ? oe?ii?nii? oi?ie ?nioaaiiy. I?e
oeueiio aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia iaiao?aeiino? aeyaeyoe i?eoiaaio eia?eo,
iaona?aeiiethaaio oe?ii?nio noeeuei?noue naiiai aeine?aeieea, ui
aecia/a? iiooee oa aea?? a?aeiia?aeieo oai?aoe/ieo iii?. Aaaeeeaith
aeo?aeiith iiceoe??th noaei ?icoi?iiy o??? iniaeeai? oei??iaiiino? ?aeae
a no?oeoo?? iniaenoino?, yea aeicaieeea A.O?iiio aeie?aieoe aeaye?
ethaenuee? ?aaeueiino?, ui aecia/athoue iaai? nenoaie ieneaiiy.

C iiiyooyi “na?oea” a o?aaeeoe?ei?e o?einionuee?e oa ?ae?a?ei?e aeoieao
iia’ycaia ia o?eueee iecueea, ???aoe?iiaeueia oa?iieoey aeoo?, a e
iaea?eueo aeniea ?? /anoeia, ui iia’ycaia c “aeooii” ? ? i?aaiii oeueiai
aeooo (A.I.Aeoaneaaoeaa). Ia?aaaaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaii?,
aeeoo?noaa?aeaeoth/i? , “a?io?eueii?” i???ioaoe??, ui i?ioenoi?oue on?i
oi?iai “ceiye?nii? aa?an??” (A.O?iii) aeicaiey? noaaeoe ieoaiiy i?i
ni?yiiaai?noue aei aeaaa, oa a iiaeaeueoiio aei aeia?a ye aeii?ioth/o
oaiaeaioe?th aioo??oiueiai aeeooy ethaeeie.

Aiae?c iinoaiiaee ? ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie oe?iiinoae a eeane/i?e oa
iaeeane/i?e o?einio?? aeicaieea aeae?eeoe ?o nooo?a? a?aei?iiino?,
ianaiia?aae, aiane?aeie oiai, ui iaoeiaee iiooe cae?enith?oueny a
i?eioeeiiai ??cieo, iani?aiaaeath/eo eoeueoo?ieo eiioaenoao. Ii?yae c
aeae?eaiiyi oeo iaeiia?/iinoae, ui aeanoea? oaeei iai?yieai aen?ieia??,
ye iaoo?ae?noe/iee ineoieia?ci, eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iee ?aeyoea?ci oa
nioe?ieia?ci aeae?eai? o? ocaaaeueiaiiy a ?one? oaiiiaiieia?/ii?
aen?ieia??, o?einionueei? aio?iiieia??, oi?aa?naeueii? i?aaiaoeee, a
yeeo cae?enith?oueny iaiaaaiiy aeineoue oe?iei ?icaeyaeaoe
noa’?eoii-/ooo?ao oai?/o i?iaeoeoeai?noue ethaeeie aeey ?icoi?iiy
i?e?iaee oe?iiinoae. Iaea?eueo aaaeeeaith aeey cae?eniaiiy iiaeaeueoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea eia?ea ia?niiae?nonueeiai iioieia?cio noiniaii
ia’?eoeaiino? oa aaniethoiino? na?oo “ia?oioe?iiinoae” ethaenueeiai
aeeooy, ye? aecia/athoue na?o aeooiaii-aoe/ieo oe?iiinoae.

Iaoiaeieia?/ii aaaeeeaith ? aeey aoeee i?iaeaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy “aeeooy”
? “aeooo”, ii/eiath/e a?ae ia?oiai, caaino?aiiai i?ioenoiyiiy ?o a
i?aoeyo E.Eeaaana, aei iaaii? aca?iiiia’ycaiino? o I.Oaea?a. Ia iaoo
aeoieo, naia nooi?nia cia/ou?noue aeey ethaeeie oe?ii?niiai aeooiaiiai
na?oia?aeiioaiiy ia’?eoeao?oueny a eeane/i?e aoeoe? ?ic?iaeith ci?noo
eaoaai??? “aeua aeaai”.

I?ioe??//y i?ae oaiiiaiieia?/iei oa aii??e/iei ethaeeie i?iaoaeaeo?
iaiao?aei?noue niaoeeo?/ii ethaenueeiai aeooiaii-?aaeueiiai
naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy, i?ioenoiyiiy aeooo “o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueii?
noa’?eoeaiino?” ?ic’?aeioth/ei neeai aioo??oiueiai na?oo. Ie?aeiith aeey
oaeiai i?aeoiaeo noaea aeoiea Ae.*eaeaanueeiai noiniaii oiai, ui iaeaeua
iiceoeaia oai?/?noue iiai?noth ciaoiaeeoueny a noa?? aoe/ii?
“neiaie?ee”, a ia a noa?? “aoe/ieo iiiyoue”. A.Eann??a? aaa/aa ae??oaiiy
i?iaeaie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeooo ? aeeooy o a?aeaa?oaii? aeooo a?ae aeeooy
aeey oai?aiiy “neiaie?/ieo oi?i eoeueoo?e” c iiaeaeueoei iiaa?iaiiyi aei
aeeooy. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c canaae aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy iayaiino?
ia’?eoeaiiai na?oo oe?iiinoae o I.Oaea?a ? a “iinooeaoi?iiio aoa?ci?”
I.Aa?oiaia aeicaieea e?eoe/ii ?icaeyiooe aeaye? aeo?aei? iiceoe?? oeeo
eiioeaioe?e, ia i?ioeaaao yeei cai?iiiiiaaia aaoi?nueea ??oaiiy ieoaiiy
i?i caaaeuei? aeo?aei? oe?ii?ni? onoaiiaee iniaenoino? ? ??cia ?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o ?? aioo??oiueiio na?o? (“aeeoo?aa aeaai”, “caaaeueia
aeaai”, “aeua aeaai”). Oaeiae e?eoe/ii ?icaeyaeathoueny canaaee
o?einionueei? aen?ieia?? a i?aoeyo no/anieo a?o/eciyieo aoee?a.

I?e?iaea ethaenueeiai “y” ?icaeyaea?oueny ia iniia? eiioeaiooaeueieo
??oaiue eeane/ii? oa iaeeane/ii? o?einio??, a oaeiae iai?aoethaaiue a
aaeoc? noni?eueii? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ineoieia??. Iniiaith oaeiai
i?aeoiaeo noaei iieiaeaiiy Aaaaey i?i ona?aeiieai?noue naiaiaee naiai
aioo??oiueiai noaio, yea na?ae/eoue, ui “y” ? iniaeno?noue, a ??
naiina?aeii?noue aeinyaa? ??aiy ia o?eueee eiie?aoiiai, a e aano?aeoiiai
“y”. Iniaeeaa oe?ii?noue ethaeeie, yea ? iniaeno?noth, i?iaieioaia
ia?niiae?ciii (I.Aa?aey?a, Ioiue? oa ?i), o o?einionuee?e aio?iiieia??
I.Oaea?a. I?ioean a?aeiaoiaeaeaiiy ethaeeiith naii? naaa, iiooee naaa ?
aaaeaiiy cono??/? c niaith iaiiaeeeaa aac ni?eeoaaiiy. Oea i?aeianaiiy
ieoo?aino? aeeooy aei ae?enii? iiae?? (“ni?a-aooo?aino?”), iane/aiiy
ethaenueeiai ni?a?nioaaiiy aia?a??th ii?aeuei?nieo nain?a – aeoie
i?e?iaeieo ii?aeuei?nieo onoaiiaie na?aeiiino?. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo,
a?aei?/a? Aa?aey?a, iniaeno?noue ia?aaeaa/a? ?ioeo iniaenoinoae ?
ni?eueiioo iniaenoinoae, ethaeeia iiceoeaii iaeaooiaaia ia “?ioiai”,
niiaiaia ?ioo?oeaii? iaona?aeiieaii? a??e aei iueiai (O. Aaia?,
A.N.Aao?u?a, A.A.Iaeaoia). A ?iaio? aeei?enoai? ie?aei? ?aea?
iniaeno?nii? iioieia??, ui iiaoaeiaaia E. Ea?naa?iei. Iaoai?ci
aeeiai?/iiai ?nioaaiiy ? naiiaecia/aiiy “y” /a?ac iiiyooy “noyaiaia”,
ia?icae?euei?noue /anoeie ? oe?eiai, “?aeeiiai” ? “iiiaeeiiiai”,
aeiiiaiaiiy noaoe/iiai i?eioeeio “ana?aeiino?” aeeiai?/iei i?eioeeiii
“o?e?aeiino?” (“ia?oi?aei?noue” — “?ic’?aeiai?noue — aic’?aeiai?noue”)
aeicaiey? Ea?naa?io iinooethaaoe, ui “ia?aaaaeaiiy ?ic’?aeiaiino? iaae
?aei?noth ona?aeiieth?oueny ye iaoa oie?aiiy ? iaae?iiy”. Ii?yae c
aeciaiiyi o??? aaeeei? ?ie? ?noi?e/ii? oi?ie iniaeno?niiai “y”, ui
neeaeanue a Iiaee /an aiae?cothoueny ?io? ?noi?e/i? oi?ie iniaeno?nii?
naii?aae?caoe?? (aioe/i?noue, na?aaeiueia?//y) c ?o ??cieie ci?noiaieie
nieneiooai?thth/eie oeaio?aie. sseui a aioe/i?e eoeueoo?? aeiey ? i?aa –
?iaia iaei??? ?aea?, oi a na?aaeiueia?/i?e Aia ? aeia?i oea oioiaei? ?
aeo?aei? ?aea? ii?aeuei?niiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy iniaenoino?. Iniaeea?
aniaeoe oaiiiaio ni?eeoaaiiy oa?aeoa?i? aeey i?ioean?a naiii?ciaiiy,
aioo??oiueiai ae?aeiao, ui noi?iaiaeaeothoue aeooiai? iiooee, noii?ae.
Aiie i?aai?/ii iia’ycai? c aenieith ii?aeuei?noth, aoe/iei iiaeaeaii,
“ii?aeueiith ?ice?ooth”, ca aeneiaii I.Ni?ie?ia.

Iiaeeea?noue i?iyao oaeiai aei??o aeooiaii? aeoeaiino? ei??ieoueny a
?ioo?oeaiiio i?iieeiaii? a nooi?noue oaiiiai?a, cae?enith?oueny a
“aeaeaeoe/iiio niiaeyaeaii?” (A.Aonna?eue), “aaciina?aaeiueiio
i?iieeiaii? a nooi?noue i?aaeiao?a” (A.Aa?anii), “iaona?aeiiethaaiiiio
ia?oii?eioeei? oai?/ino?” (C.O?aeae). I?aai?/iei aeiiiaiaiiyi oaei?
?ioo?oe?? ? “aii??e/ia” niiaeyaeaiiy (?.Eaio), ?ioaeaeooaeueia ?ioo?oe?y
(I.Aa?oiai), /ooo?aa ?ioo?oe?y (E.Oaea?aao), aaciina?aaei? ciaiiy
(Aaaaeue).

Ao?eaiiy oe?iiinoae o aeaeyae? aeoo naiaiaee, ui ia iaoiiaeaiee eia?eith
“ye an?”, “ye iaeaaeeoue”, iieyaa? o aeie?aieaii? aoe/iiai ??aiy aoooy
ii?aeueiino? “o eiai ???a?o?/ii iaea?eueo c??e?e oi?i? — “aoeoe?
oai?/ino?” (I.Aa?aey?a). ?acii c oei, ?ic??ciaiiy “aeey-naaa-aoooy” ?
“aeey-?ioiai-aoooy” (I.Einnueeee) a?aeaoaa?oueny ia o?eueee o aeaeyae?
ona?aeiieaiiai aeai?o. Aaaeeeaei ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy yaeythoueny
oae? aioo??oi? cae?aiino? ethaeeie, ye “aeaeaeoe/ia” niiaeyaeaiiy
(A.Aonna?eue), i?noe/iee, ?ioaeaeooaeueiee, /ooo?aee i?iyae ?ioo?oe??.

Aeoeai?noue na?aeiiino?, ?? i?aaeiaoiee oa?aeoa? a?aeoai?th?oueny a
ni?eeoaaii? i?ae ethaeueie. Ii?aeuei?nia ia/aei iaeyne?aa?oa i?iyaey?
naaa a ni?eeoaaii? ethaeae, a ae?aeic?. ?icaeiaiee i?ioean ieneaiiy ?
cai?iooei ae?aeiaii, a ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ?icaeoeo ethaenueei?
na?aeiiino? oaeei ii oi?i? ? ni?eeoaaiiy c on?i ioi/oth/ei na?oii.

Ii?aeuei?nia ia/aei ni?eeoaaiiy ii a?aeiioaiith aei eieaeoeaiiai oe?eiai
nii/aoeo aenooia? /a?ac ia?nii?o?eaoe?th eiai o eiie?aoi?e inia?(iiia?o,
aiaeaeue, oaiai, ae?aoeue). A iao /an – oea oa?eciaoe/iee eiiiiiaio
iie?oeee ye iieeeeaiiy (I.Aaaa?).

?acii c oei, aaoi?nueea iiceoe?y, noiniaii i?aaeiaoiino? ethaenueei?
na?aeiiino? ia iaiaaeo?oueny aeciaiiyi ?? ?ioaioe?iiaeueii?
ni?yiiaaiino?. ?aaeueiee i?aaeiao, a eiioaeno? oeio aeeooy, ui ia
oniaaeeiao?oueny aaiaoe/ii ? oi?io?oueny ia iniia? cia?yaeue i?aoe?
ii?iaeaeo? i?ino?? anacaaaeueiicia/oueo i?aaeiao?a ethaenueei?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? a iaaeao eiie?aoieo eoeueoo?. Oaeee i?aaeiao ye
ia‘?aeioth/a eaiea, iina?aaeiee a ni?eeoaaii? i?ae ethaeueie iino?eii
a?aeoai?th? iniiae aeey ii?aeuei?niiai ?aeiaiiy ?aaeueieo ethaeae.
Ii?aeiaiiy oaeeo i?aeoiae?a aeicaiey? cae?enieoe a?aeiinia
a?aeie?aieaiiy oaeeo ye?nieo nooiai?a ii?aeuei?niiai i?ioeano ye
aaciina?aaei?, iaona?aeiiethaai? i?iyae ii?aeuei?niiai ia/aea
ni?eeoaaiiy a noeo?? aeeooy ? ii?aeuei?nia ni?eeoaaiiy ye na?aeiia
ae?yeuei?nia oai?aiiy ia oe?e iniia? ae?oaeae ? ethaia?.

A I?Ae?ICAe?E? 2.2 “Aaciina?aaei? inai?iiy oi?aa?naeueieo niene?a
ethaenueeiai aoooy a iianyeaeaiiiio ni?eeoaaii?” aeey a?eueo
i?aaeiaoiiai aiae?co ??ciiiai?oieo ? i?ieeaeo yaeu ii?aeuei?nii?
eoeueoo?e aeei?enoiao?oueny oaea iiiyooy ye “ii?aeuei?nia ia/aei
ni?eeoaaiiy” a yeino? e?eoa??th oaeiai ?aeiaiiy, ui caaaey/o? nai?io
aeieeiaiith noa’?eoiei coneeeyi ethaeeie ii oai?aiith ? a?aeoai?aiith
naiioe?eueiiai ?aeiaiiy iniaenoino? c ??ciiiai?oieie oaiiiaiaie a iaaeao
aeeoo?aiai na?oo ? ia i?ioyc? anueiai “aeeoo?aiai oeyoo”. Aeey
aeaaaeaiiy caeaoiino? ethaeeie aei ii?aeuei?niiai ?aeiaiiy ca iaae?
i?inoi?o a?aeie?aieaieo noa? aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy ethaeeie
(ienoaoeoai, o?einio?y, ?ae?a?y) nooo?aa cia/aiiy ia? eaoaai??y
“aaciina?aaeiueiai” (A.Eaia?nueeee). Naii?aae?caoe?y ethaeeie a i?iyaao
aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?niiai ia/aea ni?eeoaaiiy, ui ia?iaeaeo?oueny a
aaciina?aaeiuei-aeina?aei?e aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, a iianyeaeaiiiio aeeoo?
? “aoooyi — a nia? — ii?aeueiino?”. Iaona?aeiiethaai?noue oeueiai
nooo?aiai iiiaioo ethaenueeiai aeeooy ? neaaeith noi?iiith
ii?aeuei?niiai ia/aea ni?eeoaaiiy, yea noaa?aeaeo?oueny a i?aaao, ui
oi?iothoueny noeo?eii. ?acii c oei, aeiaie? aaaaoi eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo
aeaea?ae, ye? na?ae/aoue, ui iaa?oue a iaaeao i?inoeo, a?oa?/ieo i?aa?a
?nio? aeaiaio aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?niiai ia/aea, i?yia inyaiaiiy
?aeiaeueiino? ye aeui? oe?iiino?. Ii?aeuei?nia ia/aei ni?eeoaaiiy, ui
aeinyaa? oi?ie “aeey naaa nouiai — aoooy — ii?aeueiino?”, noa?
i?aea?oioyi aeey na?aeiieo iiooe?a ?noeiiiai “aeia?a”, iniiaith
na?aeiiino? ethaeeie, caeaoii? cae?enithaaoe aoe/io naii?aoeaen?th.
Ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a, yea iinoa? o cae/ayo, o?aaeeoe?yo, iania?e
i?oioai?/ino?, oieueeei??, ia?iaei?e eoeueoo??, iia’ycaia c
eoeueoo?ioai?/ei iioaioe?aeii aoaeaiii? na?aeiiino?, yea ua ia cia?
i?ioenoiyiiy ?aeaaeo ? ?aaeueiino?. Oiio ca iaaieo oiia ?nio?
iiaeeea?noue i?aeoe/ii?-iiaaae?ieiai? oi?ie ii?aeuei?niiai iiaaoi?noaa,
oa a?eueo ?noeiii? ii?aeueii? ioe?iee ia ??ai? ianiai? na?aeiiino?, i?ae
a oea?ei? aeniei? eoeueoo?e, iaoee, ?aeaieia??. A e?ioe? i?ae?icae?eo
aiae?cothoueny ??ci? eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/i? iiaeeo?eaoe?? ii?aeuei?nieo
iiaaoe?e, iiooiaoii aei aeieeiaiiy yeeo noathoue iaai?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?, iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeueii-i?aai?caoe?ei?,
aeooiaii-eoeueoo?i? c?ooaiiy, ye? i?iyaeythoueny a iiaiio noee? aeeooy
iaaieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi ( eoiaoeueei-ath?aa?nuee? i?ioa?ee oa aoiai?noe
aiioe A?ae?iaeaeaiiy; ?aoi?iaoe?ei? oaiaeaioe?? a?aonueeiai ?ooo ia
Oe?a?i?, ae?oa?i? a?oie a noa?? iaoa??aeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
iino?iaeono??aeueiiai na?oo (iaiaaeaea?e, aeaoie?aoe oa ?io?),
noni?euei? aenia?eiaioe ii noai?aiith iiaeo noee?a aeeooy, noai?aiiy
“caaaeueiiai aeeoo?aiai i?inoi?o”, noaa?aeaeaiiy aeiaaeueiiai aoiai?cio,
iiooee a aaeoc? “eoeueoo?iiai aoino”, oe?iiinoae aeeooy a aeiaaeueiiio
ianooaa?).

A I?Ae?ICAe?E? 2.3. “Aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?nia ia/aei ni?eeoaaiiy o aeueo
oi?iao i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a” aiae?c ii?aeueiiai ni?eeoaaiiy ye
iaea?eueo iiaii? aeooiaii-ae?yeueii? i?enooiino? iiai “y” a “ae?oaiio”
aeoiaeeoue ia oaea ?aeiaiiy, ui noaei naiioe?iiei i?ioeanii, niiniaii
noa’?eoiiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy a ni?eeoaaii?.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey eoeueoo?e oaeiai ??aiy ia?
?icaeiaia caeaoi?noue aei ?aoeaen?? o ?ae?a?ei?e, o?einionuee?e oi?i?,
aai o oi?i? aeeoo?ai? ioae?ino?. Oaea naiii?ciaiiy i?aai?/ii iia’ycaia c
ii?aeuei?niei ni?eeoaaiiyi o aeaeyae? ae?oaeae. I?iia?acii iniaeno?nii?
oi?ie oaeeo noinoie?a a na?onuee?e eoeueoo?? ? nii/aoeo no?aeia
o?aaeeoe?y o?aineyoe?? eoeueoo?e o aeaeyae? a?aeoai?aiiy a o/iaa?
iniaenoino? a/eoaey, a iio?i ? o?enoeyinueea o?aaeeoe?y ae?oaiai,
na?aeiiiai aeooiaiiai ia?iaeaeaiiy. O?einio?y a?ae?a?a? cia/io ?ieue a
oi?ioaaii? ni?eeoaaiiy ??aieo ? naiiaeinoaoi?o iniaenoinoae ia
?a?iiaenueeee eoaeo. Aeooiaia ae?oaeaa ? ethaia ye aoe/i?
aca?iia?aeiineie nooo?ai caeaaeaoue a?ae aeo?aeii? oe?e?niino?
aioo??oi?o na?o?a eiaeii? c noi??i, a oaea “naii” ? “ni?a” oai?aiiy
iaiiaeeea? aac iiaeeaeaiiai naiii?ciaiiy. Ia?ao?ae a?ae a?oa?/ieo,
?eooae?ciaaieo oi?i ae?oaeae aei a?eueieo i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a ?
iaeii/aniei c?inoaiiyi aioo??oiuei? iio?aae a onai?oiaii?, yea ? ia
iaio aaaeeeaith i?ae iio?aaa o ni?eeoaaii?. A aioe/i?e o?einio?? aoei
?ic?iaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy “ae?oaeae ye aeaae oe?e?niino?” (Ieaoii),
“aeineiiaei? ae?oaeae” (A?enoioaeue).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiiia’ycaiino? ?noi?e/ieo oi?i ii?aeuei?niiai
ni?eeoaaiiy c aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iei ?icaeoeii “y”, ui ? caeaoiei aei
naiii?ciaiiy, cae?enith?oueny a eiioaeno? i?iaeaie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
aii??e/iei oa /enoei “y”, yea aeineoue aaaiii i?aaenoaaeaia a ?noi???
o?einio??. A i?e neeaany aeoae?noe/iee i?aeo?ae ?o ?ic??ciaiiy, i?e
yeiio i?ae /enoei “y” ?icoi?any aaniethoiee oi?aa?naeueiee noa’?eo, a
i?ae aii??e/iei “y” ethaeeia ?icaeyaeaeany o noeoiiino? ??
a?inioe?aeueieo ooieoe?e. I?e oeueiio e?enoae?caoe?y iiiyooy /enoiai “y”
i?ioiaeeea aiane?aeie oioaeueii? naii?cieyoe?? noa’?eoa. I?ae /enoei “y”
aeineoue /anoi ?icoi?einy aaciina?aaei? oai?/a ia/aei, aei??iaia iica
/anii.

Iaiaaaiiy ciaeoe cieioo na?aaeeio i?ae naiicaaeiaieai?noth ? ae?oaeaith,
i?ae aai?ciii ? aeueo?o?ciii, ?iaeea?aeii ? ni?eueiioith neeaaeathoue
aaaeeeao i?iaeaiaoeeo o?einionueeeo iiooe?a a iaaeao ??cieo
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo aiio. E??i oiai a ??cieo eiioeaioe?yo aaa/aeenue
??ci? caniae ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie. sseui a o?einionuee?e aoeoe?
Ieio?ia ia ia?oee ieai aenoaa?oueny naiaiaea, iaeaea ia iia’ycaia c
ciai?oiueith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth, oi Aaaonoei i?iaieiooaaa ia?aaaao
?ioo?oeaiiai ciaiiy iaae aeeneo?neaiei, a oiio naiii?ciaiiy o iueiai
aeciaaaeinue iaea?eueo aeineiiaeei aeaeii i?ciaiiy. Ii?aeuei?nia
ni?eeoaaiiy ? naiini?eeoaaiiy ii?aeioaaeenue o Aaaonoeia caaaeueiith
iniiaith, ai a?i aaaaeaa, ui aoe/ii cia/oua aca?iii?iieeiaiiy
na?aeiiinoae cae?enith?oueny eeoa ca o/anoth ? iina?aaeieoeoaii Aiaa. A
oi?iao ni?eeoaaiiy, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey i?noee?a XII no. (Aa?ia?
Eea?ianueeee, Ainaeuei Eaioa?aa??enueeee) ethaia aei Aiaa
ni?aa?aeiineeanue c ?ioaeaeooaeueiei naii?ice?eooyi a ae?oaea? c ?ioith
ethaeeiith. Aoiai?noe/iee aio?iiioeaio?eci i?iaeiaaeo? aioe/ia
aicaaee/aiiy ae?oaeae, iniiaaia ia ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio ni?eeoaaii? ?
ni?eueiino? aeooiaieo ?ioa?an?a. Iiaa aeaai/anoy XV no., ia aeoieo
E.Oaeceiae: “…oyaiaoueny aei iiaeo oi?i aeeoo?ai? iiaaae?iee, aei
a?eueoi? aioo??oiuei? caaeeaeaiino? ? ao?eeeinue a ae?yeueiino?
I?aea?eaiaenueeeo a?aonoa Ni?eueiiai aeeooy”. Iiae?ai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aoee aeanoea? a?aonoaai, ui ?nioaaee a Oe?a?i? a XVII no. A oiiaao
Iiaiai /ano ?aeaae ?iiaioe/ii? ae?oaeae noa? ii?aeueiei ?aeaaeii ?
aeeth/aa iaiaeiaiiy ae?oaa, ia?ainieneaia /a?ac ae?oaeao, i?ciaiiy
nooiino? aeeooy. A oe?eiio, aaoi?ii ?iaioe iiae?ey?oueny aeoiea, ui
?noi??y aoeee, yea aa?a aei oaaae an?o oeo, ooi ae?enii aoa i?e/aoiei
aei aaeeeeo ii?aeuei?nieo ia?aoai?aiue, ua ia iaienaia.

A XX no. ia ia?anoi?ic? aeooiai?e ae?oaea? noiyoue i?ioeane
aeao?enoeyiecaoe?? ? aeaaoiai?caoe?? eoeueoo?e. A “Naiii?ciaii?”
I.Aa?aey?a a?aei?/a?: “Iiy o?einio?y ? o?einio?y aeooo. Aeoo aea aeey
iaia ? naiaiaea, oai?/ee aeo, ni?eeoaaiiy ethaia?’. Ia aeoieo
A.Oaaeoea?a “aoeea, ui ? ?noeiiith, ioiieth? aanue na?o… Oa, ui ie
iaceaa?ii ethaia’th, ii noo? ? aeaaiaia?iiyi ia?aae aeeooyi”.

A O?AOUeIIO ?ICAe?E? “I?e?iaeia ii?aeuei?noue oa ?? i?iyae a
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiio i?ioean?” ci?no aeeeaaeaii a aeaio i?ae?icae?eao.
A I?Ae?ICAe?E? 3.1. “I?aae ye ia’?eoeaia ia?aaeoiiaa oi?ioaaiiy
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai oeio ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e” ?icaeyaeathoueny
?aoe?iiaeuei? iniiae na?oia?aeiioaiiy, ye? ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iiaeooue
aooe nooo?ai caaaa/ai? oai?/ei ia?ainieneaiiyi eeane/iiai o?einionueeiai
niaaeeo. I?aoey Aaaaey “O?einio?y i?aaa” ? iaei??th c iaea?eueo
iaeiia?/ii aeoeoia/oaaieo, a oiio ?nio? iaiao?aei?noue aeooae?caoe?? ??
a eiioaeno? no/anieo aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Oiio a ?icae?e?
aiae?cothoueny ie?aei? iiaeeeaino? iiiyooy “aeani?noue”, naia o
o?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/iiio aniaeo?. Naia aieiae?iiy ia?aaiaeeoue
naiaiaeo aie? o noai ae?eniino?, yea iaaaaaoi oe?oa niiaeeaaoeueeiai
noaaeaiiy aei nioe?i-eoeueoo?iiai i?inoi?o, ai “?noeia a oiio, ui c
oi/ee ci?o naiaiaee aeani?noue, ye ?? ia?oa iayaia aoooy ? nooo?aa
oe?eue aeey naaa”. A oiio aieiae?iiy ? aeani?noue ye oae?, ca nai?th
nooi?noth ia i?ioenoiyoue eoeueoo??, a eeoa a eiie?aoii-?noi?e/i?e oi?i?
noiyoue ia ia?anoi?ic? naiinoaa?aeaeaiith ? naii?icaeoeo ethaeeie.
Ni?eeoaaiiy nooo?ai iiaeeaeth?oueny oiae?, eiee ii?aeiaiiy c “?ioei”
a?aeaoaa?oueny o aeaeyae? aca?iiae?? aeaio aioo??oi?o na?o?a
iniaenoinoae, aea ii?aeuei?niee noai ie?aieo ?iaeea?ae?a oi?io?oueny
eieaeoeaiei aeina?aeii, a yeiio e?enoae?co?oueny ii?aeuei?nia ia/aei
ni?eeoaaiiy. A oie aea /an, noiniaii aa?aa?nueeiai noni?eueiiai noaio
iiaeia aiai?eoe ? i?i i?iya nai???aeii? aai?aeueii? iaoo?e
?iaeea?aeooi?a, ye? a naith /a?ao, cia/ii caaaa/oaaee noni?eueio
i?aeoeeo. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ae?yeuei?nieo caeaoiinoae ethaeeie
i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy iiina?aaeeiaaieo cania?a iiaeieaiiy
?ic’?aeiaiino?, aei oai?aiiy naiioe?eueiiai ni?eeoaaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee “i?aae” ye ia’?eoeaiaaia ii?aeuei?noue o
?? aioo??oi?o oa ciai?oi?o i?iyaao, ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueia oae ?
ni?eueiioia onoaeai?noue iaaiiai eoeueoo?iiai i?inoi?o. Niaoeeo?ea
aeei?enoaiiy iiiyooy “i?aae” a aoe/i?e oai??? iaoiiaeaia oei, ui aiii
ioiieth? noa?o aaciina?aaeiueiai aoooy ii?aeueiino?, iaona?aeiiethaaiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy o ethaenueeiio aeeoo? nooo?aeo ia?aaeoiia iiaeaeueoiai
aeooiaii-i?aeoe/iiai inai?iiy iath na?oo. Aeo?aeiei i?eioeeiii aiae?co
noa? aca?iiiia’ycai?noue nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ?aae?e ii?aeuei?niiai aeeooy
c oaoi?ei-oeea?e?caoe?eiei ? nioe?aeueii-i?aai?caoe?eiei ?icaeoeii
ethaenoaa. Ia?o? ?noi?e/i? oi?ie aeooiaii-ae?yeueiiai ?aeiaiiy ethaeae a
o?aaeeoe?eieo ni?eueiioao aeineoue aeeaiei aea/ai? a aoiia?ao??,
aoieia??, nioe?ieia?? ? ineoieia??. Naia a iaaeao oeueiai nioe?aeueiiai
i?inoi?o ua ia ?nioaaei oiai ?ic?eao, iaa?oue i?ioenoiyiiy, i?ae
oaoiieia?/ieie, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieie oa aeooiaii-eoeueoo?ieie
i?ioeanaie, yea aeieea? a iiaeaeueoiio ?noi?e/iiio i?ioean?. A oea?ei?
a?oa?/ieo i?aa?a ua iaiiaeeeaa oa ?icae?eaiiy “i?e?iaee”, “eoeueoo?e”,
“iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy”, yea c iaa?aeai?ioi?noth oi?io?oueny a
ianooiiiio eoeueoo?iiio ?icaeoeo. Ia’?aeioaaeueia aia?a?y i?aa?a a
iaaeao ia?a?nii? iaueie, ?iaeo, n?i’? a?oioo?oueny ia aca?iiaeiiiiic?,
ui a?aeoai?th?oueny ye oioaeueiee a?oaoei ethaenueeeo aca?iei ia an?o
??aiyo, o an?o iniiaieo oi?iao noni?eueiiai aoooy. Aii??e/ii-neooaoe?eia
eiioe?eoi?noue aoaa? aeoaea aenieith a oaeeo ni?eueiioao ? ? iniiaiei
ci?noii i?oieia?? oa aiino. Oa aeiey ia?a?iaea /aeaea eeoa oiai
?iaeea?aea, yeee ii?oooaaa oaao, iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai /e oea ?oei?aia
aeey eieaeoeao naaaiey, /e oea “ii?aeuei?nia aai?aeuei?noue
?iaeea?aeooi?a” (Aaaaeue). I?noea i?aa?a o oai?aii? ? a?aeoai?aii?
ni?eeoaaiiy ye niiniao naii?icaeoeo ? naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy ethaeeie
ci?ith?oueny i?e ao?eaii? aenie?oeeoieo (Oaia?oe) niene?a eoeueoo?e a
ii?aeue, yea i?ioenoi?oue i?aaai o aeaeyae? ?aeaaeo iaeaaeiiai. Ca oaeeo
oiia iiaeeeai aeieeiaiiy “aaoiiii?ciaaiieo eoeueoo?ieo noa?” ?
ii?aeuei?noue ie?aieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi, ?o i?aae, noeeue aeeooy
iiaeooue cia/ii a?ae??ciyoenue a?ae caaaeueiiai ii?aeuei?niiai oiio
(ia?o? o?enoeyie, aoiai?noe A?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ?in?enueea ?ioaeeaaioe?y
XIX).

Aiae?c niaoeeo?ee ciaeiaeo nenoai ? oa ia?i?noue ieneaiiy, yea ?
ia?aeiiith ii a?aeiioaiith aei iiey?ecaoe?? “aeia?a” ? “cea”,
cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? aeae?eaieo a nioe?aeuei?e ineoieia?? aoai?a
oi?ioaaiiy eieaeoeaii? naiina?aeiiino? a?ae “aiie” (ia ethaee) /a?ac
“ie” (ethaee) aei “Ae”, yeiio a?aeiia?aeaa iiae?e ia o?ao??? ana?aaeei?
aeaaiueiai aeoaeueiiai ?iaeo, iio?i “a?i” ? aeineoue i?ci? aeae?eaiiy
“y” c “ie”. Oaeiae ?icaeyaea?oueny i?eioeeiiaa ??cieoey i?ae
cao?ooaaiiyi ia aoaiao i?eaeanithth/iai ? ae?iaie/iai ainiiaea?noa, aeey
yeiai ? oa?aeoa?iei ia?ao?ae a?ae aeeeeo i?aa?a aei i?inoeo, ui
a?oioothoueny ia iayaiino? iiceoeaii?, nioe?aeueii? naieoe??
ii?aeuei?niiai ni?eeoaaiiy, caaaeyee /iio i?ino? ii?ie ii?aeueiino?
?icaeyaeaeenue ye iaa?ae’?iia i?e?iaeia /anoeia aeeooy. ? oi/ iaa?oue
non?aei? iaueie iiaee iaoe ??ci?, aeoaea ianoiae? i?aae, iaea?eueo
i’yeeie aoee i?aae ia?a?nii? iaueie c ?aii?i iaoa?einueeei ?iaeii. ?acii
c oei, aca?iiaeiiiiiaa a n?i’? ? cao?oiaai?noue a iaaeao iaueie, ?iaeo
ia o?eueee ?aeiaeuei? iaoai?cie, ai aiie aeeeeeathoue aei aeeooy
c?inoaiiy ?ic’?aeiaiiy c “ia-Ie”, a ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ana?aaeei? iaueie
iaoiiaeth? iayai?noue noia?ieoeoaa. Oaeiae aiae?cothoueny ia’?eoeai?
ci?ie a i?aaao i?e oi?ioaaii? iao??a?oaeueii? aaeeei? n?i’?,
iao??a?oaeueiiai ?iaeo, i?anaeyinueei? iaueie. I?noea i?inoeo ii?i
ii?aeueiino? ?aaeeeaeueii ci?ith?oueny i?e ?oeiaoe?? a?oa?/ieo oi?i
eieaeoeaiino?, oa a oe?eiio aiie caeeoaeenue i?ia?aeieie eiiiiiaioii
ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e a iaaeao anueiai aa?a?iiai oeio eoeueoo?e. A
iiaeaeueoiio, ia oi?ioaaiiy i?aa?a aieeaathoue oae? /eiieee ye ii?aeue,
i?aai, ?ae?a?y – oiio aiie noathoue neeaaeiaith /anoeiith nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy, oi?iothoueny neeaaei? i?aae,
ye? noathoue iniiaiith oi?iith aoooy i?e?iaeii? ii?aeueiino? a oiiaao
i?iieneiai? oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eoeueoo?.

A I?Ae?ICAe?E? 3.2. “Iniiai? oi?ie aeooiaii-ae?yeuei?niiai ?aeiaiiy a
o?aaeeoe?eieo ni?eueiioao” ?icaeyaea?oueny ae?yeuei?nia i?e?iaea
ethaeeie o ?? ethaeeiioai?/iio, aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iiio aniaeo?, ui
aecia/a? iniiai? oi?ie nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? aeeiai?ee. Iiiyooy “?icaeoie
eoeueoo?e” aeei?enoiao?oueny o iaea?eueo o?aaeeoe?eiiio, eeane/iiio
aeoeoia/aii?. Oaeee i?aeo?ae ? i?iaeaiiei noiniaii aiioe iiaea?io o ??
iaeno/ani?oeo i?iyaao, aea i?e aiae?c? o?aaeeoe?eieo ni?eueiio ?
aeineoue aoaeoeaiei. sse cacia/aa Oaeei?, ae?iaeaeaiiy ia iiaea o
aoeaaeueiiio ?icoi?ii? ni?aa?aeiineoenue c ieae/ith eoeueoo?ith
?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai, ai oea aoaea ??aiicia/iei “ii??aiyiith
c?oeiiaaiiai aoaeeieo c oei, ui o?eueee aoaeo?oueny”. ? oi/, ia iaoo
aeoieo, ia ni?aaa oai?aoeea a?aeaoaeiaoaaoe eoeueoo?io ???a?o?th,
iniaeeai c o?aooaaiiyi oai??? “iiaiai aoiai?cio” Eaa?-No?ina, oa?aeoa?
eoeueoo?iiai niaaeei?iieoeoaa ? aeoaea aaaeeeaei i?e aecia/aii?
cia/ouino? ia?aoiaeo a?ae iaei??? eoeueoo?ii? oi?ie aei i?eioeeiiai
iiai?. Iaaei??ia ?oeiaoe?y, ?aaeeeaeueia a?aeiiaa a?ae o?aaeeoe?e
iniaeeai iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ii?aeuei?nio eoeueoo?o. Oae, Aaaeaia?
a?aei?/aa, ui i?ina?oieoeueeee aeno?ai?ci, ui i?ioenoaaey? aaoi?eoao
naiaiae? ? ?icoio, naaa ia aei?aaaeaa, aaeaea “… i?aae ? aoe/i?
ianoaiiae ?niothoue cia/iith i??ith caaaeyee cae/ayi …naia i?aea?oioy
?o cia/ouino? ie ? iaceaa?ii o?aaeeoe??th”. Ieoaiiy caa?aaeaiiy
o?aaeeoe?e ? iaeiei c iaeaieth/?oeo ieoaiue XX noie?ooy, ai
aecia/a?oueny aeiey o?aaeeoe?eieo canaae i?e?iaeii? ii?aeueiino? –
iniiae eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeano. ??cia i??a naiaiaee i?aaenoaaeaia a
ae?yiiyo aecia/ieo iniaenoinoae, ii/eiath/e c i?o?a i?i aa?i?a. Aiia
?nio? ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia aa?i?/iiai ia/aea, ui ? i?aai?/ii i?eoaiaiiei
i?e?iaei?e ii?aeueiino? a o?aaeeoe?eieo ni?eueiioao.

Aoooy aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?nieo oaiiiai?a iiina?aaeeiaaia ianaiia?aae
iiaith. O?eueee cae??ieaiiy iaaiiai aeina?aeo a iia? noai?th?
iiaeeea?noue eiai anacaaaeueiiai ?nioaaiiy. O?einionueea ?icoi?iiy
i?aaeiaoo, eiai ethaenueea aeeaeia oaeiae iia’ycaia c ao?eai?noth a
neia? iiai ?aaeueiiai, aeeaiai, caoe?eaaeaiiai “y”. Oaea ao?eaiiy a
neia? ?icoi?iiy i?aaeiaoo A.O.Ein?a aecia/aa iiiyooyi “/enoa iiaia”.
Io?eiaiiy i?aaeiaoii ?iai? ? noai?aiiyi iniaeeaiai ?aeiaiiy, ui aenooia?
neeaaeiaith ii?aeuei?niiai i?ioeano. Iacaaaeath/e ia ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i?
iiaeeo?eaoe?? ?icoi?iiy “?ioiai” “caaaey/o? neiao, a eiai oa?iieoey a
oiio, ui aiii — can?a ni?eeoaaiiy c i?aaeiaoaie ? a?aia ?ioeiii? ?
na?aeiii? cono??/? c ?o aioo??oi?i aeeooyi”. Aeey ia?a?nii? ethaeeie
ana, ui ia? ?i’y, noa? cia/eiei (aeiaa? aaiaaeia?/i? ?yaee, ia?ae?e
?iai, nioi? iaca i?noeaainoae ? o.i.), oaeee i?aeo?ae aei neiaa
caeeoa?oueny nooo?aith iciaeith an??? o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e.

A i?ae?icae?e? cae?enith?oueny aiae?c no/anieo i?ioean?a a oea?ei?
noni?eueieo i?aa?a iino?iaeono??aeueiiai noni?euenoaa (eiio?eoeueoo?a,
iiaa?iaiiy aei aei?iaeono??aeueiiai niiniao aeeooy oa ?i.).

Oaeiae cae?eniaii e?eoe/ia inieneaiiy iaoeiai? oeiee oae caaiiai
“ae?yeuei?niiai ?aaeoeoe?ii?cio”, a yeiio iiiyooy “ni?eeoaaiiy”
?ic?iaeyeinue o iia’ycaiino? c iiiyooyi “ae?yeuei?noue” (TH.E.Ie?oi?eia,
A.A.Aeaaeaeia, A.I.Naaaoianueeee, A.A.A?ooe?inueeee oa ?i). A?eueo
aeecueeeie aeey eiioeaioe?? aeena?oaoe?? yaey?oueny ?ic?iaea i?iaeaie
?aeiino? ae?yeueiino?, ni?eeoaaiiy, na?aeiiino? a i?aoeyo N.?oa?iooaeia,
?icaaaeaiiy ae?yeuei?nii? aeoeaiino? ? oai?/ino? aeeaeiiiai ni?eeoaaiiy
ia an?o oe?ii?nieo ??aiyo o A.N.Aao?u?aa. ?acii c oei, eiioeaioe?y
aaoi?a aeena?oaoe?? aeeeth/a? iiaeeea?noue i?aeei?aiiy o?einionueei?
eia?ee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ae?a?eiei iaaeae?yeuei?niei i?eioeeiai, ui
ciaeoei ao?eaiiy a e?eoe/iiio ?icaeyae? iaaii? i?noe/ii? e?oa?aoo?e.

*AOAA?OEE ?ICAe?E “Ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a ye nenoaia
nioe?aeueii-iaeaaeieo oi?i ni?eeoaaiiy” neeaaea?oueny c aeaio
i?ae?icae?e?a. A I?Ae?ICAe?E? 4.1. “Iaeneie ni?aaaaeeeaino? o no/aniiio
ii?aeueii-i?aaiaiio aeeneo?n?” ?icaeyaea?oueny ii?aeuei?niee
ii?iaoeaii-?aaoeyoeaiee aniaeo, ye a eiioaeno? nioe?aeueii? ii?ae? ye
?aeaaeo, oae ? c oi/ee ci?o oeo iiaeeeainoae ii?aeuei?niiai eiiiiiaioo
?aeaieia??, yeee aeicaiey? ?e aeeiioaaoe o noni?euenoa? nai?
aeooiaii-?aaoeyoeaia iiiaaecaaaeaiiy. A i?ae?icae?e? iaa?oioiao?oueny
iieiaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii c yeei a?aeiinia naiino?ei?noue aen?ieia?/ii?,
oaeaieia?/ii? oa aeaiioieia?/ii? eia?e i?aeoe/iiai ?icoio ?
caeiiii??iith ca oiia aeineoue /?oeiai ?icae?eaiiy aeeoo?aii?aaiaoe/ieo,
nioe?aeueii-ii?aeueieo oa aeooiaii-aoe/ieo aniaeo?a ethaenueei?
naii?aae?caoe??. Ioe?ieia? nioe?aeuei? noaiaea?oe noiniaii ei?eniiai —
oe?aeeeaiai, ni?aaaaeeeaiai — iani?aaaaeeeaiai, aeia?a ? cea o
ciai?oi?e nioe?aeuei?e ae?eniino? c iaa?aeai?ioi?noth iathoue a?aeiiniee
oa?aeoa?, yeui ia nie?athoueny ia iaaa?aaeueia, iniaeno?nii-?ioo?oeaia
inyaiaiiy ia?oiniene?a ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy o ?o nooi?ni?e
ia?icae?eueiino?. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith oaeiai aiae?co iiaea aooe
a/aiiy Aaaaey i?i i?aai, ii?aeue, ? ii?aeuei?noue. Iniiai? oa?i?ie
th?eni?oaeaioe?? Aaaaeue aeei?enoiao? o aeoaea nai???aeiiio cia/aii?,
a?i coieiy?oueny ia “aeooiai?e nooiino?”, ia “aeooiaiiio” cia/aii?
i?aaiaeo ? ii?aeuei?nieo noai?a. I?e?iaei? i?aai a?i aecia/aa ye “aeoo o
aeaeyae? i?aaa” aai “i?aaiaee noai aeooo”, ui ? iaaiith iiaeeo?eaoe??th
aaniethoii? nooiino? na?oo acaaae?. A i?aa? Aaaaeue aa/eoue,
ianaiia?aae, iaaio oe?ii?noue, ui noaa?aeaeo?oueny. Aea oeth oe?ii?noue
a?i aa?a ia a aniaeo? o?eueee “iaeaaeiino?”, a a aniaeo? “aoooy”, ? i?e
oeueiio a yeino? aeeaiai oai?/iai ia/aea. I?aai aeyaey?oueny
ii?iaeaeaiiyi ae?enii? aeooiaii-aeooaaii? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ? aieueiai?
c??eino?.

A no/aniiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio noni?euenoa? a cia/aii? iaaeiiceoeaii?
iaaeii?iaoeaii? iniiae ii?aeueii-i?aaiaiai aeeneo?no aecia/athoue
“oai??th ni?aaaaeeeaino?” (Aeae.?ioec), ui na?ae/eoue i?i caeeaeaiiy
ii?aeueieo ? i?aaiaeo ?aaoeyoi??a.

A ?iaio? iaa?oioiao?oueny oaca i?i oa, ui naia iio?aaa o
ni?aaaaeeeaino?, iiooee ?? canaae noathoue niiioeaeueiei ia/aeii, yea
aeicaiey? ia oeyoo ii?aeueii? ?aoeaen?? aeieaoe aacci?noiai?noue aeia?a,
nia?no?, iaia’yceo. Oai?aoe/ia ioioiaeiaiiy ii?ae? ? ii?aeueiino?
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeaui ooo/ieo eiino?oeoe?e oiae?, eiee e?eoa???i
?aaeueieo neeaaeieo i?ioean?a ethaenueeiai aeeooy noa? iicaaaeaia
noia?a/iinoae ii?aeue. ?aaeueia ii?aeuei?noue ? oaeith onoaiiaeith, ui
aeeth/a? ?ic’?aeiaiiy, noia?ieoeoai, ai?iaeia/o. A oai???
“ni?aaaaeeeaino? ye iai?io” I.Aueiooa i?e aiae?c? oeeo a?aeiinei,
iniiaiei noa? aca?iia a?aeiiaa a?ae iaaaoeaieo oi?i aca?iia?aeiinei, yeo
a?i iaceaa? o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiei iai?iii. I?iaiicoth/e iai?yi ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii? aoeee OO? noie?ooy I.Aueiooa aaaaea?, ui ia?o, i?ae
aeiaaaoe ii/oooy nie?aea?iino?, noni?euenoai ia? aeio?eioaaoenue
i?eioeeio noanee?a?iino?. Oea icia/a?, ui nioe?aeueia ?aei?noue ?
ni?aaaaeeeaith ia naia ii nia?, a eeoa ye noaneae?y, ye aeiiiiiaa ?
i?aeo?eiea eiaeii? ethaeeie.

Iiaee, no/aniee aeeneo?n ni?aaaaeeeaino? aeaoaeiao?oueny ia iniia?
ii?aeiaiiy aoeee, i?aaa ? iie?oeee. A?i oi?io?oueny o aeaeyae? oe?ieeo
i?aeia?iaeieo aeeneon?e i?ae ??cieie i?aaenoaaieeaie aoiai?oa?iiai
ciaiiy, c aeei?enoaiiyi oai??? a?e oa oai??? ??oaiue, ui i?ecaaei aei
aeoiaeo ca iaae? o?aaeeoe?eiiai ii?ae?coaaiiy. Iayai?noue ii?aeuei?niiai
aniaeoo iaaea? ii?iaoeaiei ocaaaeueiaiiyi eiie?aoii? ii?ae? noaoon
?aaoeyoeaii? aieeaiaino?. Aaaeaiiy aeeoe ?acii, yea Oaiia A?aiaeo
iaceaa? aeaaeith, ui aeanoeaa iaai?e ?noi?e/i?e ni?eueiio?, noa?
iniiaith eaa?oeiiino? iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a, noaaeoue ia?aae ieie
caaaeaiiy cae??ieaiiy oeueiai aaaeaiiy o aeaeyae? noaa?eueiiai
nioe?aeueiiai na?oo, ui caeaoai aei naii?icaeoeo. O
aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iiio aei??? oi?aa?naeuei?noue ni?aaaaeeeaino? ye
??aiino? aei oeo i?? caeeoaeiny o noa?? iiaaaeaiue, aeiee ?aaeuei?
?ioa?ane ? i?aaa iaeaooi?o iieie?iue ia noaee neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
iie?oe/ieo no?aoaa?e. Ia i?ioeaaao oaa?aeaeaiiyi th?eaee/iiai
iiceoea?cio, ia iaoo aeoieo, ii?aeuei?noue ia ? oaeei aea aeaea?aeii
i?aaa ye cae/ae. Iaae a?eueoith ? oeaio?aeueiith /anoeiith i?aaiai?
nenoaie aeii?io? ?aaeueia ii?aeuei?noue. AEiaeai oai?aoeue
caeiiiaeaanoaa ia iiaea aeicaieeoe nia? ?aii?oaaoe noni?euei? iiaeyaee,
aai ii/oooy iani?aaaaeeeaino?, yeeie a ia?ai?iieie aiie ia aoee. Ua,
A.Nieiaeia aecia/aa i?aai ye i?i?ioi ii?aeueiino?. Ia aeoieo
aia?eeainueeiai o?einioa i?aaa Aeaea?iia Oieea, aaoi?a oa?i?io
“?ioaa?aoeaia th?eni?oaeaioe?y”, i?e?iaeii-i?aaiaa o?aaeeoe?y iiaea aooe
iiiaeaia ca ?aooiie ?? ii?aeiaiiy c aen?ieia?/iei i?aeoiaeii aei i?aaa.

Iniiaiith oaiaeaioe??th ni?aa?aeiioaiiy an?o oi?i ii?iaoeaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy yaey?oueny aeeaiea aca?iii?iieeiaiiy ? aca?iicaaaa/aiiy
an?o oi?i aeooiaii-i?aeoe/ii? aeoeaiino? ethaeeie, yea ii?aeio?
iiceoeaii-i?aaia? ii?ie c i?e?iaeieie oa aeooiaieie ?iia?aoeaaie.

A I?Ae?ICAe?E? 4.2. “Iniaeeaino? ioe?ii/ii-?iia?aoeaiiai inai?iiy
nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino? a eoeueoo?? iinoiiaea?io” a?aei?/a?oueny, ui
no/ani? neeaaei? iino?iaeono??aeuei? noni?euenoaa oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
a?aeiinii a?eueiith ii?iaoeaiith no?oeoo?ith, oe?ii?niei ieth?ae?ciii ?
aiii??th. A?aeoai?thaai?noue a nioe?ieoeueoo?iiio i?inoi?? i?inoeo oi?i
ii?aeueiino? na?ae/eoue i?i iioaioe?eio ie?aei?noue ianiai?
ii?aeuei?nii? ii?iioai?/ino?. A.Aonna?eue a?aei?/aa, ui aoaeue-yea
onoaiiaea, ui aa?eoea o cae/eo ii?iaeaeo? i?oeiee noeeue aieueiaiai
aeeooy. E.Oaeceiaa aaaaeaa naia ii?aeuei?nio na?aeii?noue e?eoa???i
aecia/aiiy o??? iaae?, yea ?nio? i?ae i?aeoe/iei ae?yiiyi ? a?ith. Ia
aeoieo TH.Eioiaia a eoeueoo?? caaaeaee aeieeathoue i?aaeea aeey
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee ? aiiiae?? iaiao?aei? aeey ii?ie. A naiaioeeo eiaeii?
eoeueoo?e aoiaeyoue o? oi?ie “aii?aeuei?niiai”, ye? a??aiiaaaeothoue
iaeiia?/i?noue iaea?eueo ?eai?enoe/ieo, iaeneiae?nueeeo aeiia.

Ca inoaii? 20 ?ie?a o ineoieia?? ii?ae? neeaaeaany neioac eiie?aoieo
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy c oai?aoe/ieie i?iaeaiaie aoeee, i?e oeueiio c
iaia’yceiaei aeoiaeii ia i?aeoeeo ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, ei?aeoe?th,
nioe?aeueia oi?aae?iiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy. A ?iaio? inieneth?oueny cia/aiiy
oai?aoe/ieo caeiaooe?a, ui noaee eeane/ieie (AE.I?aaea, E.Eieueaa?a)
aeey a?aeiaoiaeaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae nioe?aeueiiai aieeao ii aeoea?caoe??
? i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy c??eino? ii?aeuei?nieo cae?aiinoae ethaeeie. Ia
iniia? oeeo aeaieo, a oaeiae ia?ainieneaiiy ocaaaeueiaiue oa aeniiae?a
(A.Aeth?eaaei, ?.Ia?oiia oa ?i.) noiniaii aiii?? o aei??? ye
aeano?oeoeaieo oae ? eiino?oeoeaieo i?ioean?a, ui i?eoaiaii? iania?e
ii?aeuei?e na?aeiiino? cae?eniaii aecia/aiiy niaoeeo?ee ianiai?
ii?aeueii? aiii?? ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo. I?iaiae?ciaai? ii?aeuei?ni?,
oe?ii?ni? aniaeoe, ye? i?aeneeththoue aioo??oiuei-a?oiiaa ?aeiaiiy a
eiioaeno? aeine?aeaeaiue ii a?oiia?e aeeiai?oe? ? a?oiia?e aca?iiae?? oa
?i.

Eiinoaoaoe?y iayaiino? o noni?euenoa? ianiai? ii?aeueii? aiii??
aeooae?co? aaaeeea?noue ?icaeyaeo i?ioean?a i?eeiyooy ethaeeiith
oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaieo ianoaiia, ye? iaoiiaeththoue ii?aeuei?nio oi?io
nioe?aeueii-oeiiai? iiaaae?iee. Na?aae aaaaoiiai?oieo i?aeoiae?a ?
aeeneon?eieo ieoaiue iaea?eueo nooo?aei aeey aeaii? ?iaioe noaa oie
aniaeo aooeouethaeiiai aei??o ii?aeueii? na?aeiiino?, yeee a?aeiia?aea?
oei niaoeeo?/iei aniaeoai nioe?ae?caoe?? ?iaeea?aea, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei
eiai aaeaioaoe?? a eiioaeno? aeii?ioth/iai oeio ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e.

O a?o/eciyi?e aoe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? i?e aiae?c? ianiaeo
ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo oaiiiai?a ? iaaeinoaoiuei caae?yieie ?acoeueoaoe
aiae?co nioe?aeueieo oyaeaiue, yeee caii/aoeoaaa N. Iineia?/? c? nai?ie
iine?aeiaieeaie. Aea/aiiy oeo eiai?oeaieo ooai?aiue, ye? aaciina?aaei?i
/eiii aeaoa?i?iiaai? nioe?aeueieie oiiaaie aeeooy ? ooai?ththoue
nenoaie, ui iathoue iniaeeao iiao, eia?eo, no?oeoo?o ?iie?eaoe?e, oa
ioiieththoue nenoaie oe?iiinoae, nenoaie iiiyoue ? aeoaea aaaeeeaei aeey
no/aniiai noni?euenoaa.

Ca aeiiiiiaith aaaaeaiiy a i?ino?? aii??e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oaeeo
eiiiiiaio?a nioe?aeueieo oyaeaiue ye ?ioi?iaoe?y ? iiea oyaeaiiy,
i?iaeaiaoeea o?aoueiai eiiiiiaioo – onoaiiaee noa? a?eueo i?iaiiciaaiith
? i/?eoaaiith. Aea iniiaiee ei?aaoth/ee eoeueoo?iee aieea
cae?enith?oueny ia ??ai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? noaiiaeaiiy oyaeaiue.

Aoeei-ineoieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui iiaeaeththoue iiaeeea? aa??aioe
“a?coae?caoe??” ii?iaoeaieo oe?iiinoae, ye? ao?aoeee aaciina?aaei?
ia?aci? oi?ie ao?eaiiy, a c ieie ? ooieoe?th aieeao ia iiaaae?ieo
ethaeae, iiaeii? aooe iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith aoaeoeaiiai
nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. Oei naiei iiaea caeeanoenue i?aea?oioy aeey
aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i???ioiaaieo ia no/anio nioe?aeueio i?aeoeeo.

O AENIIAEAO i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee c?iaeai?e ?iaio?, oi?ioeththoueny
ocaaaeueithth/? aeniiaee, iaoeiaa iiaecia, oa aeae?eythoueny iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeai? aeey iiaeaeueoi? ?iaioe iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaei??th c ia?oeo ni?ia o a?o/eciyi?e
aoeoe? ?icaeyiooe ii?aeuei?nio naii?aae?caoe?th ethaeeie ye neeaaeia
aaaaoiaei??ia ooai?aiiy a?ae aeo?aeii? ?ioaioe?eii? ni?yiiaaiino?
na?aeiiino? ia cia/ei? ia’?eoe ethaenueei? ?aaeueiino? aei ia’?eoeaaoe??
aeina?aeo ni?eeoaaiiy c “ia-y” o ciai?oiueiio na?o? ? iiooeo ?noeie a
ii?aeuei?ni?e na?aeiiino?. Oeaio?aeueiei eiiiiiaioii ii?aeuei?nii?
eoeueoo?e aecia/a?oueny aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?nia naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy ethaeeie
a aeo? ni?eeoaaiiy-?aeiaiiy iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai /e eaeaoueny i?i
aeoeai?noue ni?yiiaaio ia aa?iii?caoe?th aioo??oiueiai na?oo, /e i?i
aaeineiiaeaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei. Aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?nia
naiiaecia/aiiy ethaeeie ? iiaeeeaei ia iniia? ia?aeiii? aaciina?aaeiuei?
?ioa?noa’?eoeaii? aeeoo?ai? onoaiiaee, yea ?nio? o aeaeyae? “i?eeiyooy
aeeooy”, “a?io?eueii? i???ioaoe??”, ye?e iaona?aeiieaii a?aeaeathoue
ia?aaaao. Ia oe?e iniia? “ia-y” i?eeia?oueny a i?ino?? aeeoo?aiai na?oo
ethaeeie, ooai?th? “aoooy c ?ioei”. Oei naiei iaoiiaeth?oueny
cia/ei?noue anueiai nouiai a eiioaeno? ni?eeiyooy na?oo ethaenueei?
?aaeueiino? ye “aeaaa”.

A ci?noiaiiio ieai? “aecia/aeueiee ia?ac” na?oo ye i?iya oai?/i? neee
aeooo ethaeeie yaey? niaith ia?icae?eueio ?aei?noue ia’?eoeaii cia/eieo
?aeae, ui oi?iothoueny ia eiai iniia? (“aeeoo?aa aeaai”, “caaaeueia
aeaai”, “aeua aeaai”). ?o niene inyaa?oueny ?ioo?oeaii ?
ona?aeiieth?oueny iiina?aaeeiaaii a oiae? oaiiiaiieia?/ii? ?aaeoeoe??
(ineoieia?/ii?, ?eaeaoe/ii?, o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueii?). Iioieia?/ia
ia?aeii?noue oeueiai oe?ii?niiai i?aea?oioy iaoiiaeth? eiai
aaciina?aaeith caae?yi?noue a on?o aeoao ae?yeueii-oai?/iai ni?eeoaaiiy
ethaeeie, i?iyaao aeniei? ii?aeueiino?. Ooaa?aeaeaiiy ethaenueeiai aoooy
o an?e eiai iiaiio? aeinyaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith ni?eeoaaiiy-?aeiaiiy ?
? oaeei iiaeieaiiyi ?ic’?aeiaiiy, ?iaeoino?, yea aeaiaeeoue nai?noue ca
iaae? i?inoi?iai-oaiii?aeueiiai oi?aa?noio o a?/i?noue, noai?thth/e
ia?aaeoiiao aeey oo?eiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo a eoeueoo?? caeaoiino? ethaeeie
aei aeooiaii? ethaia?. Iaea?eueo aeeaeiiee ??aaiue
aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?niiai aoooy ethaeeie ? iia’ycaiei ?c ni?eeiyooyi an?o
aeeoo?aeo i?iya?a a eiioaeno? eiai “aeeoo?aiai oeyoo” ye neeaaeii?
a?aee?eoi? nenoaie, ui ii?iaeaeo? onoaiiaeo ia anaioaaoio iiaiioo
aeeooy. Oaea “aeeooy, ui ni?yiiaaia aei aeaaa”, ? aeaea?aeii iio?aae a
“aeineiiae?e ?aeiino? iiiaeeiiino?”, yea ao?eth? a?aie/iee oe?ii?niee
niene aoooy ethaeeie ye aeooiaii? ?noioe. Oey oe?ii?nia ia?oiiniiaa
“aoooy ethaeeie a na?o?” iaoiiaeth? aieeaia?noue a eoeueoo??
ioioiaeiaiiy “aaniethoiiai aeaaa” c ?aeiaiiyi. Aiane?aeie oeueiai o
na?o? ia’?eoeaieo aeooiaieo oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e iaoao?ce/ia
i?ioenoaaeaiiy ? aca?iiaeeeth/aiiy “aeaaa” ? “cea” (“?aeiaiiy” ?
“?ic’?aeiaiiy”) neoaeeoue iniiaiith iiaeaeeth ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, oiae?
ye aeey na?oo ?aaeueieo ethaenueeeo a?aeiinei oaeee e?eoa??e ii?aeueii?
ioe?iee ? iaaaeaeaaoiei. Aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aoaeooue i???ioiaai?
ia oaeee ocaaaeueithth/ee i?aeo?ae, ciiaeooue noeioethaaoe ni?aoai?aiiy
eiiieaeno iaoe, ni?yiiaaieo ia aea/aiiy oaiiiaio ethaeeie, aeicaieyoue
aeeoe ca iaae? oiai ??ciiai i?ioenoiyiiy, yea neeaeiny o OO noi??//?
i?ae , c iaeiiai aieo, aen?ieia?/ieie, iioieia?/ieie, aa?iaiaaoe/ieie oa
?ioeie nooi o?einionueeeie i?aeoiaeaie oa, c ?ioiai aieo,
iiceoea?nonueeeie eiie?aoii-iaoeiaeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie. Aeei?enoaiiy
iaaaeaeaaoieo e?eoa???a ii?aeuei?nii? ioe?iee i?ecaiaeeoue aai aei
ioioiaeiaiiy, aai aei i?ioenoaaeaiiy ??cieo oe?ii?nieo aei???a
naii?aae?caoe?? ethaeeie, ui iaoiiaeth? iaeiino?oeoeai? oi?ie ai?ioueae
?aeae. I?ioe??//y i?ae “oaiiiaiieia?/iei aeina?aeii” ? aii??e/iei
aeina?aeii ethaeeie i?iaoaeaeo? iaiao?aei?noue niaoeeo?/ii-ethaenueeiai,
aeooiaii-?aaeueiiai naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy, i?ioenoiyiiy aeooo
“o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueii? noa’?eoeaiino?” ?icae??aethth/ei neeai
ciai?oiueiai ? aioo??oiueiai na?o?a. A eiioaeno? ??cieo oi?i
aeooiaii-ae?yeueiiai ia’?aeiaiiy ethaeeie c “?ioei” (aeeth/ath/e
oai?aiiy ceaaiaee c naiei niaith) ii?aeuei?nia ?aeiaiiy ae??ciy?oueny
ue?ith aa?i?/iith naiioe?euei?noth ? ? aeuith oi?iith a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai
noaaeaiiy aei nai?? aeoeaiino? o na?o?.

Aeeaeii? c?ooaiiy a noni?eueiiio aeeoo?, ye?nia ci?ia iniiaieo canaae
nioe?aeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiyae iiaeo
eoeueoo?ii-aeooiaieo ai?noai ? a?aeiia?aeieo ia?ai???ioaoe?e a nenoai?
ii?aeuei?nieo canaae aeii?ioth/iai oeio ni?eueiioiino?. Ae?aiacii oeeo
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ci?i a nenoai? ii?aeueiino? ? iiaeeea?noue ??ciiaeae?a
ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e iaiaaeaia aeo?aeieie ia?oinieneaie ethaenueeiai
?nioaaiiy ? ?? e?aei? iiethne i?iyaeythoueny o aeaeyae? aaniethoecaoe??
aai ?aeaaoe?eii-?ae?a?eii? ia?aaeeaie, aai /ooo?ai-aaaeii?noe/ii?.
Iiaeaeue ?o ia?aeaeueiiai ni?a?nioaaiiy oa?aeoa?ia aeey ia?ao?aeieo
oei?a eoeueoo?e. Ia?ic’?ii?noue ?iaeiaeo ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ethaenueeeo
i?iya?a ii?iaeaeo? o aioo??oiueiio na?o? oe?ii?nio onoaiiaeo ia ?aeiaiiy
a iaaeao ?iaeiai? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, aeuei ao?eaiiyi yeiai ?
anaethaenueea ni?euei?noue, ?aeay a?aonoaa.

I?iaaaeaiee a aeena?oaoe?? aiae?c na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui no/ania aoe/ia
oai??y iio?aao? aeeth/aiiy a aeine?aeieoeueeo iae?o?o anueiai
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai aaaaoiiai?ooy oi?i ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e, yea
ia i?ecaaaea aei ia?aiiae neaioeoeecio, ?aeyoea?cio, eia?ee aano?aeo ?
a?ae/ath, yeui aoaea cae?enithaaoeny c o?aooaaiiyi a?eueo oi?aa?naeueieo
aeeoo?noaa?aeaeoth/eo iniia na?oia?aeiioaiiy. Cia/ia iaoeiaa ia?niaeoeaa
?ice?eaa?oueny ia?aae iiaeaeueoeie ni?iaaie aea/aoe ii?aeuei?ni?
oe?iiino? a eiioaeno? nioe?i-eoeueoo?ieo ?aae?e, ye? ooai?youe
iiaeeea?noue aeinyaiaiiy ia iia?e iniia? oiai i?aai?/iiai neioaco
anueiai ciaiiy i?i ethaeeio a i?aeoe/i?e o?einio??, c yeiai aeania ?
ii/eiaeanue aoeea.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Aaieeia O.A. Enoi?e/aneea noaeueau i?aanoaaiiinoe (oeeinioneee aiaeec
i?aanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u). – E.: Euaeaeue, 1992. – 12,21 ae.a.

Eaeaieiaey, ii?aeue, eneonnoai / Eaa/oe E.O., Oi?oiaa A.E., Aaieeia
O.A., Ae.TH.Eo/a?the, A.I.Eei/oe, I.TH.?onei, A.E.Iai/aiei,
A.A.Oeiea?aiei. — e ae?. / — E. – 1991. – 11,62 ae.a. (2 ae.a.)

Enoi?ey oeeinioee e eoeueoo?a / Ai?neee A.N., Eooaeia TH.A., Oa?noa? A.,
ssioeai A., Nu?oeiaa A.I., Iieeuoe I.I., Aiee/aiei O.N., Au/ei E.A.,
Aonaa A.E., Aa?eao O.-I., Iinae ?., Niaiaiia A.A., Caaoaeei I.N.,
Aoeaoia I.A., Aiiaea?ue N.A., Aaieeia O.A., Oaiiia? E., Eyo A.A.,
Niaieue I.I., A?iieaiei A.A. — E.: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1991. – 20,11 ae.a.
(1,0 ae.a.)

Aoe/i? ii?ie ? oe?iiino?: i?iaeaia iaa?oiooaaiiy / Aaie?ia O.A.,
A?iieaiei A.I., Eenaeueiaa I.I., Iaeaoia A.A. — E.: Noeein, 1997. – 9,7
ae.a. (1,0 ae.a.)

Aoeea: Iaa/. iin?aiee / Aaie?ia O.A., Aoeiaiei A.A., Eei/oe I.I., Einaa
?.A., Oi?oiaa I.?., Oeiea?aiei I.A. – E.: Eea?aeue, 1992. –20,27 ae.a.
(1 ae.a.)

Aaieeia O.A., Ie?iiieueneay I.A. Ynoaoe/aneia ainieoaiea a oeiea. – E.:
Euaeaeue, 1987. -3,34 ae.a. (1,5 ae.a.)

Aaieeia O.A. Aeaa ie?a – aeaa ii?aee. – E.: Ciaiea. — 1986. – 0,99 ae.a.

Aaie?ia O.A. I?iaeaie nioe?aeueii? aoeee a no/aniiio noni?euenoa?. — E.:
Ciaiiy. — 1999. — 1,2 ae.a.

Aaieeia O.A. Iniaaiiinoe aicaeaenoaey ianniai-eioi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia
a nia?aiaiiii ie?a ia oi?ie?iaaiea ii?aeueiiai niciaiey ee/iinoe //
Yoeea e ynoaoeea. – E. – 1984. – Aui. 27. – 0,5 ae.a.

Aaieeia O.A. Ii?iioai?/aneea i?ioeannu ianniaiai ii?aeueiiai niciaiey a
oneiaeyo ?acaeoiai nioeeaeecia // Yoeea e ynoaoeea. – E. – 1985. – Aui.
28. – 0,5 ae.a.

Aaieeia O.A. Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe i?ioeanna ooaa?aeaeaiey
eiiioienoe/aneie ii?aee a oneiaeyo onei?aiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey no?aiu // I?iaeaiu oeeinioee. – E. – 1987. — Aui.72. – 0,5
ae.a.

Aaieeia O.A., Aa?acieoeeay E.E., Acaeiinaycue ?aaeueiiai aoiaiecia n
aeooiaiui niaea?aeaieai ii?aee e eneonnoaa // Yoeea e ynoaoeea. – E. –
1987. – Aui.30. — 0,5 ae.a.

Aaie?ia O.A., ?uaiei A.?. Aei ieoaiiy i?i /ooo?ao i?e?iaeo ii?aeueiino?
// Aoeea ? anoaoeea. – E. – 1990.- Aei.33. — 0,5 ae.a.

Aaie?ia O.A. Ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a ye oaiiiai ethaenueeiai aeeooy
//Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO. — Eooeuee. — 1998. — 0,5 ae.a.

Aaie?ia O.A. Aiii?y a no/aniiio noni?euenoa?: i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae
//Aeooaeuei? o?einionuee? oa eoeueoo?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie no/aniino?. — E.
— 1999. — 0,5 ae.a.

Aaieeia O.A. I?ienoiaeaeaiea e enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea ii?aee /
Ia?enenonei-eaieineay yoeea e ynoaoeea. O/aaiia ecaeaiea – E. – OIE AI
Ieiaoca ONN?, 1989. – 1 ae.a.

Aaieeia O.A. Niaoeeoeea oai?/aneie aeoeaiinoe ee/iinoe a noa?a
i?aanoaaiiiai naiiooaa?aeaeaiey // Oaeaiiaeoa iniaeno?noue: n?i’y,
oeiea, aea?aeaaa. Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
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Aeeueithn. – 1986. – 0,2 ae.a.

Aaie?ia O.A. Oi?aa?naeuei? oe?iiino? iniiae ii?aeueii? eoeueoo?e aoiin?a
// Eoeueoo?a oa aoiiaoeea: I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y.
– E. – 1994. – 0,2 ae.a.

Aaieeia O.A. E aii?ino i acaeiinayce iiiyoee “ynoaoe/aneia”,
“ii?aeueiia” e “i?aanoaaiiia” a ?aaioao A.N.Eaia?neiai //Oace iaoeiaeo
aeiiia?aeae c iaaiaee 60-??//y c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy A.N.Eaia?nueeiai.
-E.: EO ?i. O.Oaa/aiea.- 1996. – 0,2 ae.a.

Aaie?ia O.A. I?noea oai?aoe/ii? aoeee a ieth?ae?noe/iiio eoeueoo?iiio
na?o? // Aoeea oa anoaoeea a no?oeoo?? no/aniiai aoiai?oa?iiai ciaiiy.
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1997. – 0,2 ae.a.

Aaie?ia O.A. Ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a a eiioaeno? nioe?ieoeueoo?ii?
aeeiai?ee (o?einionueei-aoe/iee iae?c). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe
ii niaoe?aeueiino? — 09.00.07 — aoeea. — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaia o?einionueei-aoe/ia eiioeaioe?y ii?aeuei?nii?
eoeueoo?e, yea cia/ii ?icoe?th? i?iaeaiaoeeo aoeee, aeaiaeeoue ?? ca
iaae? oe?ii?nii-?aoe?iiaeueiiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ii?aeueieo ii?i. Aiae?c
aaciina?aaei?o aeeoo?aeo i?iya?a ethaeeie ia‘?eoeaii? oe?ii?nii? iniiae
oai?/i? naii?aae?caoe?? iniaenoino? aeicaieea aeae?eeoe oae? eiiiiiaioe
ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e ye i?e?iaeia ii?aeuei?noue, aeniea
ii?aeuei?noue, iaeaaeia ii?aeuei?noue, ui ?nioaaee o neie?aoe/i?e
oe?e?niino? ia ?aii?o aoaiao eoeueoo?e. Iiaeaeueoa ?o aeie?aieaiiy
iia‘ycaii ?c c?inoath/ith nioe?ieoeueoo?iith aeeiai?eith. A?aeiinii
naiino?eieie oe? neeaaeia? ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e noathoue a aiioo
iiaea?io. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeeo oaiiiai?a ye ii?aeuei?ni? ii?ie,
ii?aeueiee ?aeaae, aoe/iee aeeneo?n aeicaieeei iaa?oiooaaoe ?o
i?aai?/iee ca‘ycie ?c niaoeeo?/ieie eoeueoo?ieie oiiaaie, ni?yiiaai?noue
ia inai?iiy aooo?aeo oe?iiinoae ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy. Niaoeeo?ea
ii?aeuei?nii? eoeueoo?e iia‘yco?oueny c oai?aiiyi ni?eeoaaiiy —
?aeiaiiy ye naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy iniaenoino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ii?aeuei?nia eoeueoo?a, aeaai, ni?eeoaaiiy — ?aeiaiiy,
i?aae, i?e?iaeia ii?aeuei?noue, aeniea ii?aeuei?noue, ii?aeue ye ?aeaae,
ii?aeuei?nia o?einio?y, aoeea, ni?aaaaeeea?noue, ii?iioai?/?noue.

Abolina T.G. Moral culture in the context of social-cultural dynamics
(philosophic-ethic analysis). Manuscript.

A doctoral dissertation in speciality 09.00.07 — Ethics. Taras
Schevchenko Kyiv University, Kyiv, 1999.

In the dissertation a philosophic-ethic concept of moral culture have
been studied, which considerably widens the ethic’s circle of problems
and brings it out of value-rational basic of moral norms. Analysis of
human spontaneous manifestations, objective value basic of person’s
creative self-realization has permitted to distinguish the components of
moral culture: natural morality, high morality, proper morality which
existed syncretically on the culture’s early stages. Their following
detachment is related to the growing social-cultural dynamics. These
components of moral culture have become relatively independent in the
modern period. Investigation of such phenomena as moral norms, moral
ideal, ethic discourse, has enabled to establish their organic relation
with specific cultural conditions, orientation to mastering existence
values of human’s being. Moral culture’s specific character is related
to creation of communication-unity as person’s self-affirmation.

Key words are the following: moral culture, good,
communication-unity, morals, natural morality, high morality, morality
as ideal, moral philosophy, ethics, justice, creation of norms.

Aaieeia O.A. I?aanoaaiiay eoeueoo?a a eiioaenoa nioeeieoeueoo?iie
aeeiaieee (oeeinionei-yoe/aneee aiaeec). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeinioneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe — 09.00.07 — yoeea. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana
Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

I?aaeiaoii enneaaeiaaiey aeenna?oaoeee yaeythony iniiaiua niaoeeoe/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u, e eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneea oi?iu.

A aeenna?oaoeee inouanoaeai nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e eco/aieth i?aanoaaiiie
eoeueoo?u eae neiaeiiai ia?aciaaiey, eioi?ia iauaaeeiyao
ii?iaoeaii-iiaaaeai/aneee, nioeeaeueii-?aaoeyoeaiue e
aeooiaii-ie?iaicc?ai/aneee o?iaie. Aiaeec inouanoaeyeny n o/aoii
nia?aiaiiuo aeinoeaeaiee oeeinioee, nioeeieiaee, ineoieiaee, enoi?ee,
yoiieiaee, eoeueoo?aio?iiieiaee, eoeueoo?ieiaee, eioi?ua iaiauatho
iiiaiia?aciua i?aanoaaiiua i?iyaeaiey /aeiaaea. Ia?auaiea e
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui auoeeiui oi?iai /aeiaa/aneie aeecie i?eaeaei
iioieiae/aneee noaoon iiiyoeth “i?aanoaaiiinoue”, aaiaeyony e
?ac?aaaouaathony oaeea iiiyoey eae “aoin”, “iauaiea — aaeeiaiea”,
“anoanoaaiiay i?aanoaaiiinoue”.

?aaioa iniiaaia ia oai?/aneii ia?ainiuneaiee eaeae eeanne/aneie
oeeinioee. Aianoa n oai, ia?auaiea e enoi?ee ia?aiauoiuo i?aaia,
o?aaeeoeeiiiie eoeueoo?a inouanoaeyaony ia eiaeei-oai?aoe/aneii
ooiaeaiaioa oeeinioneie aa?iaiaaoeee e oaiiiaiieiaee, aeneieiaee,
oeeinioneie aio?iiieiaee. I?iaaaeai oai?aoe/aneee aiaeec ?aciuo
enoi?e/aneeo oi?i i?aanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u, eiie?aoiiai niioiioaiey eo eae
a i?aaeaeao o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iauanoaa, oae e iauanoaa yiioe iiaea?ia.
Enneaaeiaaiea i?aanoaaiiiai naiiii?aaeaeaiey ee/iinoe inouanoaeyaony n
o/aoii ?aaeueiiai nioeeieoeueoo?iiai eiioaenoa e aai ea/anoaaiiuo
eciaiaiee.

Ia iniiaa nenoaiaoecaoeee iiiaiia?aciuo i?iyaeaiee “iauaiey -aaeeiaiey”
caeeaaeuaaaony aiciiaeiinoue eioaa?aoeaiiai iiaeoiaea e i?aanoaaiiie
eoeueoo?a a aaeeinoaa anao aa ecia?aiee.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony ioiineoaeueiay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue
iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioia i?aanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u. Enneaaeoaony iauaiea
/aeiaaea n “ae?oaei”, i?aiaeieaiea ?acuaaeeiaiey a i?ioeanna
aeooiaii-i?aanoaaiiiai naiiooaa?aeaeaiey ee/iinoe.

Aeoaeiiua eciaiaiey a iauanoaaiiie aeecie i?eaiaeyo e niioaaonoaothuae
ia?ai?eaioaoeee a nenoaia i?aanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae. Aeeaiacii
ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo eciaiaiee a nenoaia i?aanoaaiiinoe i?eaiaeeo e
iino?iaieth aoiaienoe/aneiai, eieeaeoeaenoneiai eee ?aeeaeiciiai
ii?aeueiiai eaeaaea, eo naiaia?aciiai niioiioaiey.

I?iaaaeaiiue a aeenna?oaoeee aiaeec iicaieyao i?aiaeieaaaoue eceeoiee
neaioeoeeci, ?aeyoeaeci, eiaeeo aano?aea, ooaa?aeaeaoue iioeienoe/aneea
iniiau ie?iioiioaiey. Cia/eoaeueiay iao/iay ia?niaeoeaa ?ane?uaaaony
ia?aae aeaeueiaeoei eco/aieai i?aanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae a eiioaenoa
nioeeieoeueoo?iuo ?aaeueiinoae, nicaeaao aiciiaeiinoue aeinoeaeaiey ia
iiaie iniiaa i?aaie/iiai neioaca ana ciaiee i /aeiaaea a i?aeoe/aneie
oeeinioee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?aanoaaiiay eoeueoo?a, aeaai, iauaiea-aaeeiaiea,
i?aau, anoanoaaiiay i?aanoaaiiinoue, aunieay i?aanoaaiiinoue, ii?aeue
eae eaeaae, i?aanoaaiiay oeeinioey, yoeea, ni?aaaaeeeainoue,
ii?iioai?/anoai.

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