IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? I.I.Ae?AAIIAIIAA

IAOA??IEI IEAIA AAEA???AIA

OAeE 37.034

ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo

oeiey??a o iicao?i/i?e

oa iicaoe?euei?e ae?yeueiino?

13.00.01 – Oai??y ? ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiaca? Ai?en Noaiaiiae/

?inoeooo i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe,

aeaaeai?e AII Oe?a?ie

Cycthi ?aai Aiae??eiae/

?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??

i?ioan?eii? ina?oe,

aee?aeoi?

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

*i?ia Eaoa?eia ?aai?aia

?inoeooo i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy,

caa?aeoth/a eaai?aoi???th

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Ieoaeea Eioethaeinueeiai

eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.A?iieoey

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 7 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 1430 aiae.

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E26.053.02 o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, (252601, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Ie?iaiaa,9).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Ie?iaiaa,9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 6 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.A.Aeieeinueea Caaaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. I?iaeaia ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iaaoaa? aeaaeae?
a?eueoi? aino?ioe ye aeiaaeueia. Aiia iaeiaeiai oaeeth?
a?iiaaenuee?noue, iaaeaaia?a, o?yaee aaaaoueio e?a?i na?oo. Nai?/ania
ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy ae?oae eii/a iaiao?aeia aeey icaei?iaeaiiy
noni?euenoaa. A?aeiiee iaaeaaia-aoiai?no ssioo Ei?/ae, i?aee?anethth/e
nioe?aeueio ?ieue ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ae?oae, noi?ioethaaa aaaeeeaa
iieiaeaiiy: «?aoi?ie a aeeoo? aei?ineeo ne?ae ii/eiaoe a aeooao ae?oae».
Aeoiaaiiy ii?ae? a iieiaeiai iieie?iiy – iaeia c i??i?eoaoieo caaaeaiue
oe?a?inueei? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.

*an nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? iie?oe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, ui ia?aaeeaa?
iei? Oe?a?ia, aeooae?coaaa ieceo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c aeooiaiei
aeeooyi noni?euenoaa: aeao?oeeo ieeina?aey oa aca?ii?icoi?iiy,
a?ae/oaeaiiy ethaeae iaeei a?ae iaeiiai, aeyae aaeaeoaeino? e
aei?noieino?. *eiieee ?o aeieeiaiiy ne?ae ooeaoe ye a iae?inioe?aeueieo
yaeuao, oae ? a i?i?aooieao ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy.

Nie?ath/enue ia o?einionuee?, iaaeaaia?/i?, ineoieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaoea aeaaeae? aeoeai?oa ooea? oeyoe iie?ioaiiy ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
iniaenoino?.

Oey i?iaeaia aoea ia’?eoii iiooe?a A.Neiai?iaee, I.Aa?aey?aa,
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, A.Oeiea?oea, ?.3ycthia oa ?i.

Iniiai? iai?yie iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee ??cieo aniaeo?a ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a a?aeia?aaeai? a i?aoeyo A.Aeooiiae/a, I.E?oinueei?,
A.Iaea?aiea, ?.Ia??iea, N.?oniai?, ?.Noaoaiea, A.Nooiieeinueeiai,
N.Oaoeueeiai oa ?i.

Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeoiaaiiy o oeiey??a ii?aeueieo yeinoae, c’ynoaaiiy ?o
noo? e oiia oi?ioaaiiy ciaeoee aena?oeaiiy a i?aoeyo ?.Aaoa, E.Aiaeiae/,
I.Ee?e/oea, A.Einothea, I.Ne?ei/aiea oa ?i.

Aaaiiee aianie o ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?
c?iaeee A.Eiaca?, A.Eioe?ei, I.E?aniaeoeueeee, TH.I?eoiaeueei,
TH.?oaeaiei oa ?i.

Oeyoe, caniae ? iaoiaee oi?ioaaiiy ii?aeueieo aca?iia?aeiinei o i?ioean?
ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a aena?oeththoueny a ?iaioao A.A?eioniai?,
E.Aaa?eeiaaoeue, A.Ee?e/ie, I.??ie oa ?i.

Ii?aeueiiio aeoiaaiith o/i?a o iicao?i/i?e ae?yeueiino? cia/io oaaao
i?eae?eyee I.Aiaaeaiiaa, E.Eai?oaanueea, A.Ei?io??aa, E.Ianoa?aiei,
ss.?iiaiiaa, E.?oaei?aa, I.O?ioeiiaa, I.TH?’?aa oa ?i. Ieie
aeine?aeaeai? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??ai? ?yae ia’?eoeaieo oa
noa’?eoeaieo noeioe?a ?icaeoeo ii/ooo?a ? ii?aeueieo oyaeaiue o/i?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a o i?ioean? iicao?i/ii? ?iaioe.

?acii c oei caeeoathoueny iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aieie oa iaa?oioiaaieie
no/ani? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe caeeaae?a
ina?oe c ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o iicao?i/i?e oa
iicaoe?euei?e ae?yeueiino?, a?aeo? no/anieo iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ? iaoiae?a iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?, ia i?iaiae?ciaaii ?ieue iicaoe?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua oa eiai
aieea ia ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy no/anieo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

Iieiaeoee oe?eueiee a?e ye ii/aoeiaee aoai nioe?ae?caoe?? aeeoeie ia
??ai? oeiee iio?aao? iniaeeai? oaaae. Naia c? anooiii aeeoeie aei oeiee
noa? iiaeeeaei oe?eani?yiiaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee aieea ia ?? iniaeno?noue.
Aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy a iaaeao icia/aii? i?iaeaie iaaoaa? aecia/aiiy oiia,
cania?a, oi?i ? iaoiae?a, ye? ? iaea?eueo ae??aeie i?e oi?ioaaii?
ii?aeueieo ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie, a oaeiae aeyaeaiiy iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaieo oi?i aca?iiae?? oeiee, n?i’? oa a?iiaaenueeino? a oeueiio
eiioaeno?.

Aeooaeuei?noue aecia/aii? i?iaeaie, iaaeinoaoi?noue ?? oai?aoe/iiai oa
i?aeoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy coiiaeee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy «Ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o iicao?i/i?e oa
iicaoe?euei?e ae?yeueiino?».

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai
a?eo.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy ae?oae iieiaeoiai
oe?eueiiai a?eo a oiiaao iicao?i/ii? oa iicaoe?eueii? ae?yeueiino?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoiaeeoue aei oaiaoe/iiai ieaio ? iaoeiai? eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie
?inoeoooo i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – aeyaeoe oa iaa?oiooaaoe iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae
ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? o/iy iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo oa
iioei?caoe?? oeueiai i?ioeano c o?aooaaiiyi ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueieo
neoaea aeey ae?oae.

A iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaii i?eiouaiiy, i?i oa, ui
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?aee?eoi? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? nenoaie iiaeiii
iaoe aacia?a?aiee, ea?iaaiee, eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa?, caaacia/oth/e oeei
oiiae aeey oe?eani?yiiaaiiai ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a iieiaeoeo
eean?a o ??cieo nioe?oiao.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

i?iaiae?coaaoe noai aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie a iaaeaaia?/i?e oai??? oa
i?aeoeoe?;

c?iaeoe nioe?ieia?/io ae?aaiinoeeo i?ioean?a, ui aaciina?aaeiuei
aieeaathoue ia ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oeiey?a;

aecia/eoe e ai?iaoaaoe nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae, ye?
caaacia/othoue aoaeoeai?noue ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a 1-4-o eean?a o
i?ioean? iicao?i/ii? oa iicaoe?eueii? ae?yeueiino?;

?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aeoiaaoae?a uiaei ii?aeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oeiey?a a oiiaao ?icaoaeiae
iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaany eiiieaen iaoiae?a:
oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ? neioac a?aeiia?aeii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e; aea/aiiy
? ocaaaeueiaiiy e?auiai iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo; niinoa?aaeaiiy,
iiaeaethaaiiy, noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo neooaoe?e; aenia?oi? ioe?iee,
aan?aee; aieaooaaiiy; iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio, iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea
io?eiaieo aeaieo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oi?ioethaaii? oai?aoe/ieo
iieiaeaiue, ye? a noeoiiino? noaiiaeyoue oe?e?nio nenoaio aoaeoeaiiai
ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oeiey?a; aecia/aii?
e?eoa??? ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, aei yeeo
iaeaaeaoue i?aoeueiaeo?noue, noa?aii?noue, e?eoe/i?noue ?
naiie?eoe/i?noue, ?aei?noue neiaa ? ae?ea, aeenoeeie?iiaai?noue,
aa?aaeeeaa noaaeaiiy aei noni?eueiiai iaeia, /oei?noue,
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, aeoeai?noue, neea aie?, oo?aioeea?noue,
aca?iiaeiiiiiaa. Ia iniia? oeueiai aeyaeai? ??ai? ii?aeueii? aeoiaaiino?
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a (aenieee, na?aaei?e, iecueeee, iaeieae/ee); aecia/ai?
e ai?iaiaai? iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a ii/aoeiaeo
eean?a, ye? ni?eythoue aeinyaiaiith iiceoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo (ii?aeiaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai oa iiaaae?ieiaiai i?aeoiae?a; neia?a?y iaa/aeueieo ?
aeoiaieo aieea?a; aea?? iio??aii? oi?ie iiaaae?iee).

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaii nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? aeaoa?i?iaioe ii?aeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oeiey?a; ?ic?iaeaia
ae?yeuei?nii-i???ioiaaia iiaeaeue i?io?eaeoe/ii-ei?aeoe?eieo aieea?a ia
ae?oae iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo, yea aea? iiaeeea?noue aeie?aieoe
aoceia? iiiaioe nenoaie ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy no/aniiai iieiaeoiai
oeiey?a, ui iio?aaothoue iaea?eueo oaaaeiiai aea/aiiy a iei?oi?e
nioe?aeuei?e neooaoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a a oiiaao ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee, ye? iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? a i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? a/eoaeyie ? aeoiaaoaeyie, a oaeiae
i?e eo?nia?e i?aeaioiaoe? a/eoae?a, /eoaii? niaoeeo?n?a o iaaeaocao ?
iaaeo/eeeuao.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Aia?oa c?iaeaia ni?iaa nioe?ieia?/ii?
ae?aaiinoeee oaeoi??a, ui aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaathoue ia ii?aeueia
aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oeiey?a a oiiaao iei?oiueiai
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai noaio a noni?euenoa?.

A??ia?aei?noue aeniiae?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe caaacia/o?oueny
nenoaiiei aiae?cii oai?aoe/iiai e aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo; aeei?enoaiiyi
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aaeaeaaoieo eiai iao? ? caaaeaiiyi, a oaeiae
ii??aiyeueiei aiae?cii aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?o o i?aeoeeo
cae?enithaaeenue o i?ioean? aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe a
ii/aoeiaeo eeanao na?aaei?o oe?e ? 51, 90, 220 i.Ee?aa, ?2 i.Aiaoneaa,
E?niee?anuee?e na?aaei?e oeie? Ee?anueei? iaeano?, na?aaei?e oeie? ?5
i.E?aiaoi?nueea Aeiiaoeueei? iaeano?.

Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? iiia?aaei? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie (1993, 1995, 1998 ??.) ? ia ca?oieo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo eaoaae? IIO ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa (1994, 1996, 1997, 1999
??.). Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaii a iniiao iiiia?ao??,
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, noaoae caeiaoaa/a, a oaeiae eaeoe?e, c yeeie
aiia aenooiaea a IIO ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Ee?anueeiio
i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiio ?inoeooo? aaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a ?iai? Ai?ena
A??i/aiea.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

1. Noeoii?noue iieiaeaiue, ui aecia/athoue nooi?noue ? niaoeeo?eo
i?ioeano ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy no/anieo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o iicao?i/i?e
oa iicaoe?euei?e ae?yeueiino?, yea iieyaa? a oiio, ui iniaeea?noth
no/aniiai aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a ii/aoeia?e oeie? noa? eiai ei?eaoaaiiy,
ye ia?oiiniiaa ii?iae?caoe?? ii?aeueieo ? ineo?/ieo noaaeaiue iieiaeoiai
oeiey?a, ui iiaea ia ?aii?o noaae?yo aooe caniaii i?io?eaeoeee oa
iiaeieaiiy a?aeoeeaiue o ii?aeuei?e iiaaae?ioe?.

2. Oai?aoe/ia oa aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeano
ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy no/anieo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o iicao?i/i?e oa
iicaoe?euei?e ae?yeueiino?.

3. I?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei aca?iiae?? a/eoae?a, aaouee?a
? a?iiaaenueeino? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
no/anieo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o iicao?i/i?e oa iicaoe?euei?e ae?yeueiino?.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y i?aeii?yaeeiaaia eia?oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
eiai iao? oa caaaeaiiyi ? neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a c
o?ueiia ia?aa?aoaie o eiaeiiio oa caaaeueieo aeniiae?a; nieneo
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a? 227 iaeiaioaaiue ? o?ueio
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 179 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo ?
i?noeoue 17 oaaeeoeue oa 12 ?enoie?a, ye? caeiathoue 19 noi??iie.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? aea?oueny caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaa?oioiaaii
aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aecia/aii iaoo, noi?ioeueiaaii caaaeaiiy,
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
a??ia?aei?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aeeeaaeaii iieiaeaiiy, ye?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a?aeiiino? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? «Ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? ye
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia i?iaeaia» c?iaeaii oai?aoe/iee aiae?c i?aoeue
o/aieo-o?einio?a, nioe?ieia?a, ineoieia?a, iaaeaaia?a, a oaeiae
iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aeoeee, ?icaeyaeathoueny no/ani?
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae, ui aieeaathoue ia ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy
iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oeiey?a, aecia/athoueny nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i?
iniaeeaino? aeoiaaiiy ii?aeueiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.

Inoaii?ie ?ieaie i?iaeaia aeoiaaiiy, cie?aia, ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy,
noa? i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaoueio o?einio?a, nioe?ieia?a,
ineoieia?a, iaaeaaia?a. Ia iniia? aiae?co oe??? i?iaeaie o o?einionuee?e
? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe??, a oaeiae aea/aiiy aeina?aeo,
ie ?icaeyaea?ii ?? a iaaeaaia?/iiio aniaeo?. O oai?aoe/iiio
aeine?aeaeaii? iaaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny iiiyooyi ? oa?i?iieia?/iiio
aia?aoo. Cie?aia, ?icaeyiooi oa aecia/aii oae? iiiyooy, ye «ii?aeue», ui
iioiaeeoue a?ae eaoeinueeiai neiaa «moralis» ( ii?aeueiee) a?ae «moris»
(cae/ae); «ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy» ye noni?eueia yaeua, ui
i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny caeiiai noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, ? aiaeii/an ye
i?ioean, niaoeeo?/i? ooieoe?? yeiai cae?eniththoueny ca nai?ie aeanieie
i?aaeeaie oa caeiiii??iinoyie.

I?iaeaia ii?aeueiino? iaaoea ?icaeoeo a i?aoeyo o?einio?a I.Aa?aey?aa,
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, ?.Eaioa, ?.Neiai?iaee, E.Oae??aaoa, ye? ?icaeyaeaee ?? a
ia?ic?eaiiio ca’yceo c nioe?aeueieie oa ii?aeueieie ?aeaaeaie
iaeaooiueiai noni?euenoaa.

Aiae?c /eneaiieo i?aoeue no/anieo o?einio?a (I.Ae?iaieoeueeee, ?.3ycthi,
I.Eaia?nueeee, A.Oeiea?oe oa ?i.) aeaa iai i?aenoaao c?iaeoe aeniiaie,
ui ?icaeoie iniaenoino?, ?? aeoiaaiiy caaaeaee ? ?acoeueoaoii
aca?iiae??, eiioaeoo c nioe?aeueiei na?aaeiaeuai, a ye?noue ?? ?icaeoeo,
aeoiaaiino? aecia/a?oueny eoeueoo?ith nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua.
C?icoi?oe aaiethoe?th iniaenoino? iiaeeeai eeoa a eiioaeno? aca?iiae??
inoaiiuei? c na?aaeiaeuai.

Aoaeoeai?noue ?aae?caoe?? iaoe ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy ? i?iaiiciaaieo
oe?eae caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia, ui ia’?eoeaii aieeaathoue ia i?ioean
ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, ii?aeueio aeoiaai?noue oeiey?a.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca neeaaeieie i?ioeanaie aeaiie?aoecaoe?? a Oe?a?i?,
aiae?c nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai aeicaieythoue aeyaeoe
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? oaeoi?e, ui aieeaathoue ia ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy
iieiaeoiai oeiey?a a iicao?i/i?e ae?yeueiino?. Oea – n?i’y (ia aeeiio?
iaeaaeiei /eiii nai? iniiai? ooieoe??: ?ai?iaeoeoeaio, aeaiia?ao?/io,
aeoiaio, ?ae?aaoeaio, eiioi?eaoeaio, ?aaoeyoeaio, i?aai?caoi?nueeo);
nioe?aeuei? a?aeiineie (nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? ci?ie; ?icoa?oaaiiy a
noni?euenoa?, ci?ia nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e; a?aenooi?noue oe?e?nii?
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee aeeoeinoaa; ianoaa?euei?noue aeiiii?ee); /eii?
ii?ie oa ?aeaaee (oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaia nenoaia ia? aeaoi?iiaaiee
oa?aeoa?; aeaaaeueaaoe?y caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae; ni?iuaiiy
aeooiaii-oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e; ia?aaaaeaiiy aecenoaioe?aeueieo oa
a?oaeueieo iio?aa); iie?eoeueoo?a (iecueeii?iaia e?ii, a?aeai,
eieaiaeaeaiiy; i?eieceea? ?aeaaee, ?ioi?iaoe?eia ia?aaaioaaeaiiy,
iecueeii?iaia ?ai ? ?ie ioceea); iae?i- ? i?e?ina?aaeiaeua (iaeaea
a?aenooi? caaaeueiiaeciai? a?iiaaenuee? ii?ie ? i?eioeeie ni?aaeeooy
ethaeae).

Ii?aeueia aeoiaai?noue oeiey?a – oea eiai i?aaiaiiy, na?oia?ae/oaaiiy ?
na?oi?icoi?iiy, ui aeyaeythoueny o noaaeaii? aei noni?euenoaa, aei
ethaeae, aei ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae, aei aeeiiaiiy nai?o iaia’yce?a.
Oiio, ye cacia/aee aeaeaoi? iaaeaaiae (I.Aeooiiae/, A.Iaea?aiei,
?.Ia??iei, N.?oniaa, ?.Noaoaiei, A.Nooiieeinueeee, ss.*ai?aa,
N.Oaoeueeee oa ?i.), ae??ooth/e ieoaiiy i?i ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy oeiey?a,
o?aaa i?aeoiaeeoe aei iueiai c oi/ee ci?o caaacia/aiiy ia’?eoeaiiai
aieeao ia eiaeio iniaeno?noue an??? nenoaie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei
(ae?iaie/eo, ?aeaieia?/ieo, i?aaiaeo, ii?aeueieo, iiaooiaeo, n?iaeieo),
?? aeaniiai noaaeaiiy aei aeeooy.

N.Oaoeueeee aaaaeaa, ui nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy aeoiaieo yaeu
uiaei ?o aieeao ia ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? aeeth/a?: 1)
i?aai?caoe?th aeoiaiiai i?ioeano o oeie? c o?aooaaiiyi aieea?a
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia eieaeoea; 2) aeoeaio o/anoue oe?eueiiai
eieaeoeao a oaeineiiaeaii? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua; 3) anaa?/ia
aeei?enoaiiy aeoiaieo iiaeeeainoae oe?eueiiai eieaeoeao a ?ie? aieiaiiai
i?aai?caoi?a aeeoy/iai aeeooy ye o no?iao iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai caeeaaeo,
oae ? iica eiai iaaeaie. Oeth oi/eo ci?o iiae?eythoue no/ani? iaaeaaiae
I.E?aniaeoeueeee, I.Eo?ae?i, E.Iiaeeiaa oa ?i.

Cia/iee aianie o c’ynoaaiiy aaaaoia?aiieo aniaeo?a oai??? ? i?aeoeee
ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy c?iaeee A.A?eioniaa, E.Eai?oaanueea, I.Ee?e/oe,
A.Eiaca?, I.??ia, I.O?ioeiiaa oa ?i.

Ca oaa?aeaeaiiyi ?yaeo iaaeaaia?a oa ineoieia?a naia ia aoai? iieiaeoiai
oe?eueiiai a?eo ii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny yae?i, aaca ii?aeueii? iiaaae?iee,
ii?aeueieo ii/ooo?a ? ii?aeueieo ia?aeiiaiue, ui aeicaieythoue aeeoei?
i???iooaaoeny e ona?aeiiethaaoe i?aaeeuei?noue nai?o ia?aeiiaiue.

Aiae?c no/anieo nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia, ui nooo?ai ci?ieeeny,
iieacaa ?oi?e iii?oiee aieea ia nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, iiyao iiaeo eiiiiiaio?a, aeyaeaieo iaie a
?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Na?aae ieo iaea?eueo cia/oueie ? o?, ui
aeiei??iii ci?iththoue o?aaeeoe?eio ea?oeio ?icaeoeo o/iy iieiaeoiai
oe?eueiiai a?eo: ?ioaeaeooaeueiee ?icaeoie aeeoeie aeia?aaeaea? ?icaeoie
iioeaaoe?? oa aieueiaeo yeinoae; «aeaiie?aoe/i?noue» o iiaiaeaeaii? c
o/eoaeai, niiioaii?noue iiaaae?iee, iaai?iiy ocaiaeaeoaaoe nai? ae?? c
ii?iaie oe?eueiiai aeeooy; aeyae aa?aneaiino? uiaei ioi/aiiy; cieaeaiiy
?ioa?ano aei iaa/aiiy; ci?ia noaoonieo oa?aeoa?enoee o ca’yceo c?
ci?iith iioea?a ni?eeoaaiiy ca ia?aioe?iaieie ii?aeueieie yeinoyie
ia’?eo?a ni?eeoaaiiy, a ia oeueiio oe? – ao?aoa ?noeiieo e?aea??a, ia
caaaeaee aaeaeaaoia ii?ioi?iiaai?noue o ieoaiiyo ?ae?a??, iie?oeee,
naeno, iaona?aeiieaia iie?oecaoe?y aeeooy, iiieiaeaeaiiy oa c?inoaiiy
cei/eiiino? oiui.

Ioaea, a oiiaao aeaiie?aoe/iiai ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
oai??y ? i?aeoeea aeoiaaiiy iieiae? ni?oeioeeny c aeineoue neeaaeieie
i?iaeaiaie. Inue /iio a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy ianaiia?aae aea/aany
aeina?ae ?iaioe a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ?c i?iaeaie ii?aeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy a iicao?i/i?e ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae noai ?ica’ycaiiy oe???
i?iaeaie a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? oe?e i. Ee?aa, Ee?anueei? iaeano?,
i.E?aiaoi?nueea. Aeyaeeinue: ia nueiaiaei? 80% o/eoae?a aaaaeathoue, ui
aeoiaiee i?ioean a?aeaoaa?oueny niiioaiii ? ana ua a iniia? nai?e
a?oioo?oueny ia noa?eo iaoiaeeeao, ii?iaeaeoth/e aaaeeiaeieai?
noia?a/iino? i?ae iiaeie aeiiaaie ? noa?eie oi?iaie.

Iieooaaiiy a/eoae?a c iaoith aecia/aiiy ae?th/eo iaoiae?a aeoiaaiiy
aeyaeei aea? oaiaeaioe??: 1) iioe?aiiy iaoiae?a ? oi?i iaaeaaia?/ii?
?iaioe, ni?yiiaaii? aaciina?aaeiuei ia iniaeno?noue; 2) ciaioaiiy ianyao
oa oi?i noni?eueii ei?enii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a. Iiiaae 30% o/eoae?a
aaaaeathoue aaaeeeaeie aeey naaa oae? iaoiaee aeoiaaiiy, ye
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c o/iai, ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? aan?aee, 44% –
i?iaeiaaeothoue aeio?eioaaoeny «iaaeaaia?ee caoiae?a» (aeoiai? aiaeeie,
aan?aee, aeeneon??, eeani? cai?e oiui), 2% a/eoae?a aeciathoue iniiaiei
iaoiaeii aeoiaaiiy caeo/aiiy o/i?a aei noni?eueii ei?enii? ae?yeueiino?.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?yae c iiceoeaieie oaeoaie iie?ioaiiy ni?aae
c i?iaeaie ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy no/anieo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a aeyaeaii
?yae iaaeie?e?a, a naia:

a?aenooi?noue nenoaiiino? oa nenoaiaoe/iino? a ?iaio? a/eoae?a o
iicaeeani?e aeoiai?e ?iaio?;

iaeiiiai?oi?noue oi?i oa iaoiae?a ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o iicaeeani?e
aeoiai?e ae?yeueiino?;

iaaeinoaoiy ?aae?caoe?y i?eioeeio ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei o/i?a
o i?ioean? aeoiaaiiy;

neaaea aieiae?iiy a?aeiia?aeieie ciaiiyie caeiiii??iinoae ii?aeueiiai
c?inoaiiy iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo; iaaeinoaoi? ciaiiy
iaoiaeee aecia/aiiy ??ai?a ii?aeueii? aeoiaaiino? iieiaeoiai oeiey?a;

neaai caeo/athoueny aei ni?ai?aoe? n?i’y oa a?iiaaenueeino?.

Ioaea, c iaeyaeo ia ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a noni?euenoa?, iinoaea
iaiao?aei?noue aeyaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
iniaenoino? o/iy iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo oa iioei?caoe?? oeueiai
i?ioeano c o?aooaaiiyi ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueieo neoaea aeey ae?oae.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Iioeiaeuei? oeyoe oa oiiae ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o iicao?i/i?e oa iicaoe?euei?e ae?yeueiino?»
noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, nenoaiaoeciaaii
iioeiaeuei? oeyoe oa oiiae i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? nenoaie ii?aeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy no/aniiai iieiaeoiai oeiey?a.

O aca?iiae?? c na?aaeiaeuai ? oe?eani?yiiaaieie aeoiaieie aieeaaie
oeiey? iaaoaa? iaiao?aeiiai aeina?aeo noni?eueii? iiaaae?iee. Aiae?c ?
ioe?iea aca?iica’yce?a nioe?aeueieo ? iaaeaaia?/ieo aieea?a ia
ii?aeueiee ?icaeoie iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oeiey?a a iicao?i/i?e
ae?yeueiino? aeicaieeee ?ic?iaeoe i???ioiaiee iaoai?ci ?o aca?iiae??:
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoai?cio aca?iica’yce?a a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac ae?yiiy
ea?iaaieo (oeiea), iai?aea?iaaieo (n?i’y, iicaoe?euei? caeeaaee),
iaea?iaaieo (nioe?aeueia na?aaeiaeua) /eiiee?a, ye? aecia/athoue
iniaeeaino? ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy.

O iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui o nai?e noeoiiino?
nioe?aeuei? oa iaaeaaia?/i? aieeae ooai?ththoue iniaeeao
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/io neooaoe?th, yea aeeth/a? aeoiaia na?aaeiaeua
(oeiea, n?i’y, iicaoe?euei? caeeaaee), aioo??oith iiceoe?th aeeoeie oa
noni?eueia na?aaeiaeua. Aeey ?? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaie aecia/ai? oa
iaa?oioiaai? oae? ia?aiao?e: iai?yiie aeoiaiiai na?aaeiaeua (i???ioiaaia
ia aeeoeio, noia?a/eeai ae?th/a ia aeeoeio, aaeaeoaea aei aeeoeie,
iani?eyoeeai ae?th/a ia aeeoeio); iai?yiie aeoiaiiai ? ina?oiueiai
i?ioeano (iniaeno?nii-i???ioiaaiee, oe?ea?aoe?iiaeueiee, aiii?iiee,
aaoi?eoa?iee); iai?yiie aioo??oiuei? iiceoe?? aeeoeie (aca?iiae?y,
i?ioeae?y, aacae?yeuei?noue); iai?yiie noni?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua
(iiceoeaia, noia?a/eeai ae?th/a, aeaci?aai?coth/a, iaaaoeaii ae?th/a ia
aeeoeio). A?aeiia?aeii aei i?iaaaeaiiai oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co iaie
?ic?iaeaia no?oeoo?ia iiaeaeue nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao ia
ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a, yea aea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe
iniaeea? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? neooaoe??, ye? ii-??ciiio
iicia/athoueny ia ?acoeueoaoao ii?aeueii? aeoiaaiino? iniaenoino?.

?ioaa?aoeaiei iieacieeii a?aeiia?aeiino? ii?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo iieiaeoiai
oeiey?a ia’?eoeaiei oiiaai, ui oi?iothoueny a noni?eueiiio na?aaeiaeu?
ia aoai? aeiei??iieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, ? ii?aeueiee
aeina?ae iniaenoino?, ui a?aeia?aaea?oueny a ?? ii?aeueieo yeinoyo.
Ciaiiy oeeo yeinoae aeeoeie aecia/a? aea?? oeyo?a iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao
ia ia?, iinoaiiaee iaaieo nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo caaaeaiue, cie?aia:
iiaeieaiiy noia?a/iinoae i?ae caaaeueiith («iicaaeeoo?aith») ii?aeeth oa
eiie?aoiith («?aaeueiith»), i?ae ii/oooyie (ye? ? oi?iith aeyao
ii?aeueiiai aeina?aeo iniaenoino?) ? ii?aeueieie ?aeaaeaie, i?ae
ii/oooyie ? i?aeoeeith iiaaae?iee, a oaeiae noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ii?aeiaiiy o aeoiaieo na?aaeiaeuao
(oeiea, n?i’y, iicaoe?euei? caeeaaee) noaaeaiiy, iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy,
iniaeno?nii ni?yiiaaiiai ia aeeoeio, aeoeaii? iiceoe?? naii? aeeoeie oa
iiceoeaiiai aieeao noni?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua.

Ii?aeueia aeoiaai?noue oeiey?a aecia/a?oueny aioo??oi?ie yeinoyie, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue eiai noaaeaiiy ye aei nioe?aeueiiai ioi/aiiy, oae ? aei
naaa naiiai. Iniiaieie e?eoa??yie aecia/aiiy ??aiy ii?aeueii?
aeoiaaiino? o/i?a iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo ie aecia/eee oae? ii?aeuei?
yeino?: /oei?noue, aca?iiaeiiiiiaa, aeenoeeie?iiaai?noue, ?aei?noue
neiaa ? ae?ea, aa?aaeeea?noue, a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, oo?aioeea?noue,
e?eoe/i?noue ? naiie?eoe/i?noue, noa?aii?noue, aeoeai?noue,
i?aoeueiaeo?noue, neea aie?.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ??ai?a aeoiaaiino? iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai
a?eo ie nei?enoaeeny oaeeie iciaeaie aeyao:

Aenieee ??aaiue: no?eea iiceoeaia iiaaae?iea o/iy, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aeueo?o?noe/ieie iioeaaie a/eie?a oa aioiai?noth aac aaaaiue ?aae?coaaoe
ii?aeuei? yeino? nai?? iniaenoino?.

Na?aaei?e ??aaiue: neooaoeaia iiaaae?iea o/iy, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iaaeaiiyi ia?aaaae ?aae?caoe?? nii/aoeo aai?noe/ieo iio?aa, a iio?i –
?aae?caoe?? a/eie?a ia ei?enoue ?ioiio, i??i?eoao oiai /e ?ioiai
caeaaeeoue a?ae neooaoe??.

Iecueeee ??aaiue: neaaeee aeya iiceoeaiiai ii?aeueiiai aeina?aeo o/iy,
ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eiii?ii?niei aeoiaeii ?c neooaoe??, a yeiio /ano?oa
i?aaaeththoue aai?noe/i? ?ioa?ane.

No?eei-iaaaoeaiee ??aaiue: iayai?noue iaaaoeaiiai nioe?aeueiiai
ii?aeueiiai aeina?aeo o/iy, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aacaiaeyoe?eiei aeai?ii
aai?noe/iiai oeyoo aeoiaeo ?c neooaoe?? aac o?aooaaiiy ?ioa?an?a ?ioeo.

?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy ??aiy ii?aeueii? aeoiaaiino? o/i?a aei ii/aoeo
oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo (eiio?ieueieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a)
na?ae/aoue, ui aei aenia?eiaioo iaeaea an? o/i? ia?aaoaaee ia
na?aaeiueiio ??ai? ii?aeueii? aeoiaaiino? oa ieae/a.

?acoeueoaoe eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo na?ae/aoue, ui ??aaiue
ii?aeueii? aeoiaaiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o oe?eiio iaaeinoaoi?e. 3
iaeyaeo ia oea iaiao?aeia aenia?eiaioaeueia aea/aiiy
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aieea?a noni?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia ii?aeueia
aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, a oaeiae aeyaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo oeyo?a
ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o iicao?i/i?e oa iicaoe?euei?e
ae?yeueiino?.

Aeey oiai, uia i?aaeiaoi?oa oyaeoe iiaeeeaino? iicaoe?eueiiai aeoiaaiiy
a no/anieo oiiaao, ie aeine?aeeee aeei?enoaiiy oeiey?aie iicaoe?eueiiai
/ano. Iaeiei c iniiaieo iieaciee?a ooo ? aeo?aoe /ano ia i?aeaioiaeo aei
o?ie?a. ??cieoey iieaciee?a i?ae ia?oieeanieeaie oa o/iyie o?aoueiai
eeano aeyaeeanue aeineoue ?noioiith. sseui a ia?oiio eean? 40% o/i?a
aeo?a/athoue ia aeeiiaiiy o?ie?a 1,5 aiaeeie ? a?eueoa, 48,3% — aei 1
aiaeeie, 11,7% – aei 30 oaeeei, oi a o?aoueiio eean? iiiaae aiaeeio
aeei?enoiaothoue ia oea 18,5% o/i?a, aei 1 aiaeeie – 63,8%, aei 30
oaeeei – 17,9%. Aiae?c aeo?ao ae?oueie /ano ia aeiiiiiao aaoueeai
iieacaa, ui iaeaea 88% o/i?a i?eae?eythoue oeueiio iaioa 1 aiaeeie
(aeecueei 30% c ieo acaaae? oaeeie ni?aaaie ia caeia?oueny). 22,4%
ia?oieeaniee?a ni?eeothoueny c aaoueeaie aei 30 oaeeei ia aeaiue, 39% –
aei aiaeeie oa 37,8% – a?eueoa aiaeeie. O o?aoueiio eean? iieaciee
ni?eeoaaiiy ae?oae c aaoueeaie a iaaeao 30 oaeeei cieaeo?oueny aei
27,9%, oiaoi a oaeeo n?i’yo ae?oe a iicao?i/iee /an i?aeoe/ii
iaeiio?ieueiaai? aei?ineeie. O?eueee 16,7% ia?oieeaniee?a ?aaoey?ii
a?aea?aeothoue nii?oeai? naeoe??, ao?oee oaoi?/ii? oa ooaeiaeiuei?
oai?/ino?, 31,9% — ?ieiee, a 51,4% acaaae? i?aea ia caeiathoueny. O
o?ao?o eeanao ?ioa ea?oeia: e?euee?noue ae?oae, ui iino?eii aa?ooue
o/anoue o iicaoe?euei?e ae?yeueiino? noaiiaeoue 13,1%, a e?euee?noue
oeo, ye? i?aea ia aa?ooue o/ano? – aaea 62,9%. Ii/eiath/e c ia?oiai
eeano iiiaae 60% ae?oae i?iaiaeyoue a?ey oaeaa?ci?a a?ae 3 aei 6 aiaeei
ia aeiao. O oe?eiio caaaeuei? iieacieee «oaeai/iai?iiy» ia?oieeaniee?a,
ae?oaieeaniee?a oa o?aoueieeaniee?a iaeaea ia a?ae??ciythoueny. Ana oea
noaaeoue na?eicii ieoaiiy i?i i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? n?i’? o aeoiaaii? ae?oae.

Iaaeaaiae ia iiaeooue caeeoaoenue iaeo?aeueieie aei ieoaiue iiaooo e
eoeueoo?iiai aeica?eey nai?o i?aeii?/ieo, aei aieeao ia ieo ciai?oiueiai
ioi/aiiy, ui ia??aeei ia?ae?aneth? aeoiai? ieaie.

3 iaoith aeyaeaiiy aeoiee a/eoae?a i?i iniaeeaino? oa oa?aeoa? aieeao
noni?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a oa
i?e/eie ii?aeueii? aeaoi?iaoe??, i?iaaaeaii iieooaaiiy 120 a/eoae?a.
Iaaeaaiae cacia/eee, ui iaea?eueoee aieea ia ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy —
28,2%, ni?aaey? n?i’y; 38,5% — ioe?iea ?ie? a oeueiio i?ioean? oeiee;
aeoiaia cia/aiiy iicaoe?eueiiai ioi/aiiy – 33,3%. ?acoeueoaoe iieooaaiiy
aeaee ciiao c?iaeoe aeaye? aeniiaee.

I?iaeaia noaiiaeaiiy ii?aeueieo noinoie?a o n?i’? ona?aeiieth?oueny iei?
ye iaeia c iaeaeooaeuei?oeo o caiia?aaii? ii?aeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e
aeoiaaii? iniaenoino? aeeoeie.

O i?ioean? aeoiaaiiy ii?aeueiino? ae?oae iicaoe?eueia oa iican?iaeia
na?aaeiaeua iin?aea? na?aaei? i?noea i?ae oeieith oa n?i’?th,
iaaeeaeath/enue aei n?i’?. Iaaeaaiae ia iini?oathoue «caaeeoe» ana ia
aoeeoeth, oaeaaa/aiiy, iiaaieo ae?oc?a oiui. Oea iiaee oo?eo o
ni?eeiyoo? oaeoi??a ii?aeueiiai noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino? aeeoeie
ii??aiyii c oaeei ni?eeiyooyi 5-7 ?ie?a oiio.

?ica?aeiino? a ioe?ioe? ?ie? oeiee e n?i’? a ii?aeueiiio aeic??aaii?
ae?oae na?aae ??cieo a?oi iaaeaaia?a na?ae/aoue, ui i?iiiiiaai?
?nioth/ith nioe?aeueii-aeoiaiith nenoaiith oi?ie ca’yceo oeiee e n?i’?
caeaa?eueoiai canoa??ee ? iaiao?aeiee aeoeaiee iiooe iiaeo oi?i
a?aeiia?aeii aei noni?eueii-?noi?e/ieo oiia, ui neeaeeny.

Aeeeaaeai? caeiiii??iino? iiaeia oeoia/eoe ye c?inoaiiy ?ie?
nioe?aeueiiai oaeoi?a o aeoiaaii? iniaenoino? oeiey?a.

ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a iieiaeoeo eean?a o ??cieo nioe?oiao oa
aeie?aieoe aoceia? iiiaioe nenoaie ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy no/aniiai
iieiaeoiai oeiey?a, ye? iio?aaothoue a?eueo oaaaeiiai aea/aiiy a
no/ani?e nioe?aeuei?e neooaoe??, ii-ia?oa, ineoieia?/iiai
ia?aeiiiainoaaiiy aaaeaiiai a iio??aia caniaaie iaaeaaia?/iiai noai?aiiy
caaeainiaaii? nenoaie noa’?eoeaieo noaaeaiue aeeoeie, caaacia/aiiy oiia
ona?aeiieaiiy ii?aeueieo ciaiue ? oyaeaiue i?i ii?ie ? i?aaeea
iiaaae?iee a nioe?oi? ia ??ai? niaoeeo?ee a?eiaiai ?o i?eeiyooy;
ii-ae?oaa, a?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee canai?iiy iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie
ii?aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ye oaei?, ui ni?eeia?oueny e i?eeia?oueny
na?aeii?noth, ii/oooyie e aieath ae?oae o i?ioean? aeeth/aiiy ?o o
eieaeoeai? noinoiee, ye? ia?aoiaeyoue o iniaeno?ni? aac ?iciiae?eo ia
iaa/aeueio e aeoiaio noa?e; ii-o?ao?, ?icaeoeo ?aaeoe?? aeeoeie ia
noeoii?noue iaaaoeaieo ? iiceoeaieo, eieaeoeaieo oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo,
oe?eani?yiiaaieo ? niiioaiieo aieea?a ia «iaeoiioeo» ??aiyo, ii/eiath/e
c i?aai?ciaiiiai ? aei iae?ina?aaeiaeuiiai.

Aeey oiai, uia ae?oe iiaee ea?oaaoeny o nai?o a/eieao oeie /e ?ioeie
ii?iaie e i?aaeeaie, aiie, ianaiia?aae, iathoue aeia?a ?o canai?oe. Oiio
i?ae /an i?aai?caoe?? i?io?eaeoe/ii-ei?aeoe?eii? ?iaioe c ae?oueie
aeaaiiieo/ieie, aea aac ?ioi?oaoo aei iaaaoea?a, ie ni?yiiaoaaee naith
?iaioo ia a?aea?? oa iciaeiieaiiy ae?oae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai eiioeiaaioo c
ocaaaeueiaieie ii?aeueii-aoe/ieie oa i?aaiaeie ii?iaie e i?aaeeaie
iiaaae?iee, ye? i?eeiyo? a no/aniiio noni?euenoa? ? ye? aiie a oeueiio
a?oe? iiaeooue ? iathoue canai?oe, a oaeiae – ia noai?aiiy oaeeo oiia
ae?yeueiino? ae?oae, uia aiie iiaee oni?oii ei?enooaaoeny oeeie
ciaiiyie.

Ooieoe?y ii?aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, uia, ii?yae ?c
iia?aeiieaiiyi aeeoei? iaiao?aeieo ciaiue ? oaeo?a, ciaoiaeeoe i?ae
iniaeno?noth aeeoeie oa oe??th ?ioi?iaoe??th iaeaaeiee ca’ycie.
Niaoeeo?ea ii/aoeiai? oeiee ye aaoiiiiii? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? nenoaie
ni?ey? aaeineiiaeaiith oe??? ooieoe??. Ae?oe oeueiai a?eo ua ia
aeeoa?aioe?ththoue caiyooy ia iaia’yceia? oa iaiaia’yceia?, a
?ioi?iaoe?th ia iaa/aeueio e aeoiaio. Oea eeoa ia ei?enoue aecia/aiith
ci?noo ii?aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Oi?ioaaiiy ii?aeueii? iiaaae?iee ae?oae iio?aao? noai?aiiy niaoe?aeueieo
oiia aeey ia?aianaiiy iaaooi? ?ioi?iaoe?? a ?aaeueio iiaaae?ieo. Aeey
oeueiai a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aoe/i? aa?enoe/i?
aan?aee ye iaaeaaia?/iee iaoai?ci aeacaiiai ia?aianaiiy. Oae? aan?aee
ao?ethaaeeny iaie o aeaeyae? oai?/i-iiooeiaeo ae?aeia?a, aeeneon?e,
aeueoa?iaoeaieo oai?/eo caaaeaiue ii?aeueiiai ci?noo.

O ci?no? aenia?eiaioaeueieo caiyoue aoei cai?ia?aiiaaii iiooe ??oaiue /e
a?aeiia?aeae, ye? ia’?aeioaaee a ona?aeiieaiiy, ia?aaeeaaiiy e ae?th
aeeoeie a ?aeeiee i?ioean. Oaeee ci?no aieea?a, c iaeiiai aieo, ?
i?iaeoe??th a?eiai? niaoeeo?ee naii? aeeoeie, a c ?ioiai – aeicaiey?
oeiey?ai iaa/eoeny i???iooaaoeny a ?icia?oo? i?iiiiiaaieo ii?aeueieo
iiiyoue, yaeu, oaeo?a, oiaoi aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe ii?aeueio ?ioi?iaoe?th ia
??ai? ?ioaa?iaaiiai ni?eeiyooy.

O iaoiio aenia?eiaio? ie ciaeiieee oeiey??a c iiiyooyi a/eieo ye ae??,
ca yeith noiyoue iaaia noaaeaiiy iaei??? ethaeeie aei ?ioi?, ?? iai??e.
O/i? ii??aithaaee aeaa a/eiee, iiae?ai? ca ae?yie, aea c ??cieie
iioeaaie ?o cae?eniaiiy, i?e oeueiio ae?y c aeia?eie iai??aie iaea a??o?
iane?aeee, i?ae c iaaeia?eie. Ae?oe a?aeoai?thaaee noaaeaiiy o/aniee?a
oyaieo neooaoe?e aei ae?e aieiaieo aa?i?a. Oea ?iaeeiny ca aeiiiiiaith
iaethaaiiy ia oaie aeaio ?noi??e, a?e-ae?aiaoecaoe??, iaaiai?aiiy.
Aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoa??aee onii? ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?, a oaeiae
e?oa?aoo?i? oa ia?acioai?/? ?iaioe. Ie iaiaaaeeny ia eeoa aeaoe ae?oyi
?ioi?iaoe?th i?ciaaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, a e aeeeeeaoe o ieo ii/oooy
ni?aia?aaeeaaiiy aa?iyi oai??a, caaeaoe aenie? ii?aeuei? c?acee. I?e
oeueiio ae?oe aiae?coaaee noaaeaiiy ethaeae ia eeoa iaeei aei iaeiiai,
aea e aei aeeai? i?e?iaee.

Ii?yae c ?iaioith, ni?yiiaaiith ia oi?ioaaiiy ii?aeueieo oyaeaiue ?
oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, ie i?aaioee ?icaeaaoe
aoiai?noe/io oa noni?eueio ni?yiiaai?noue ?o iniaenoino?. C oe??th
iaoith aaea a ia?oiio eean? ai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue aeaiaioe o/i?anueeiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. O/i? ?aaoey?ii a?aea?aeoaaee i?aeoaoiee aeeoy/ee
naaeie. Ie iaiaaaeenue noai?eoe oiiae, ca yeeo aeyaeyeany a ?oiy
oo?aioa i?i ?ioeo, ?icaeaaeany oai?/a oaioac?y, ?icai?oaeenue ??ci?
oi?ie naiiae?yeueiino?, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ii?aeueiith oa
noni?eueiith ni?yiiaai?noth. Aei ni?ai?aoe? caeo/aeeny n?i’y oa
a?iiaaenuee?noue.

I?e ii??aiyii? ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo iaie iai?ee?ioe? ae?oaiai ?ieo
iaa/aiiy a aenia?eiaioaeueiiio ? eiio?ieueiiio eeanao, aeyaeeeny nooo?a?
a?aei?iiino? ii?aeueii? aeoiaaiino? o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueiiai eeano
(oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ??ai?a ii?aeueii? aeoiaaiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a

Aei aenia?eiaioo

I?ney aenia?eiaioo

Eean aeni-eee na?a-aei?e iecue-eee iaeie-ae/ee Eean aeni-eee na?a-aei?e
iecue-eee iaeie-ae/ee

1a – 30,8 56,1 13,1 1a 17,3 51,3 27,7 3,7

1e – 29,3 60,3 10,4 1e – 39,3 50,3 10,4

2a – 31,5 58,1 10,4 2a 19,8 49,2 24,6 6,4

2e – 29,1 60,1 10,8 2e – 39,1 50,1 10,8

3a 3,2 35,2 51,1 10,5 3a 20,6 48,9 24,1 6,4

3e 2,4 42,8 43,9 10,9 3e 2,4 43,5 43,2 10,9

I?ei?oea: «a» – aenia?eiaioaeueiee eean

«e» – eiio?ieueiee eean

?oi? noaeaeaiiy iaee aeinoaoith ocaaaeueiai?noue, ui aeyaeyeanue o
i?aaiaii? oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iaeeie/i? yaeua, aeae?eyth/e a ieo nooo?aa,
caaaeueia. A o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueiiai eeano niinoa??aaeanue ? a?eueoa
naiie?eoe/i?noue, yea iaea aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee oa?aeoa?. Oe? ae?oe /anoi
aeaiiino?oaaee ona?aeiieai? ?ica?aeiino? nai?o a/eie?a (aai iiaaae?iee)
? aeanii? oyae i?i iaeaaeia, ?iiae? aeacoaaee i?e/eio oeueiai,
iaiaaaeeny aei?aaeoe naith iiaaae?ieo, aeae?eyee ii?aeueiee a?e
aca?iia?aeiinei ethaeae o eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?yo, e?aua a?aeoai?thaaee
iioeae ?oi?o a/eie?a.

Ae?oe i?aaioee a?aoiaoaaoe iioeae a/eie?a iaeiie?oe?a, ni?aaaaeeeai
iinoaaeoeny aei ieo, aoee oa?iei? aei aeiaaeeiaeo iiieeie oiaa?eo?a,
aeyaeyee aaaeaiiy i?eeoe ?i ia aeiiiiiao; aiie aoee a?eueo aeoeai? oa
naiino?ei? a noni?eueii ei?eni?e ae?yeueiino?.

Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo aeaee i?aenoaae
c?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i oa, ui nioe?aeueiee aeina?ae – oea ?aaoeyoeaiee
/eiiee i?aaaioeaieo ae?e aeey ae?iaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a caoenoo e
naiicaoenoo a e?eciaiio noni?euenoa?. ? iaoai?cie oe? iieyaathoue ia a
caaino?aii? e aac oiai aino?eo noia?a/iinoae no/aniiai aeeooy, a a
caaa?ooaaii? yae?a iniaenoino?, ?? ii?aeueieo yeinoae. Oiiaith
aoaeoeaiino? ei?aeoe?eii-i?io?eaeoe/ii? ?iaioe c iieiaeoeie oeiey?aie
iiaea aooe nenoaia noa’?eoeaieo noaaeaiue, yea a iieiaeoiio oe?eueiiio
a?oe? iiai?noth ua ia noi?iiaaia, a nooi?iue ?? aeya?a oa aeeaeia
iiaioaaiiy aeeoeiith ia iaaeoi cia/i?.

Aeey oi?ioaaiiy i?aaeeueii? nenoaie noaaeaiue o iieiaeoiai oeiey?a
iio??aia ii?aeiaiiy aeaio i?aeoiae?a: ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ? iiaaae?ieiaiai
(a/eieiaiai). Eiie?aoia oi?ia ii?aeiaiiy oeeo eiioeaiooaeueieo
i?aeoiae?a caeaaeeoue a?ae nioe?aeueii? neooaoe?? ?icoaooaaiiy (ca?ao /e
a?aeie?aieaiiy) ianoaaei, oaeoi??a, oiia, aeeniiceoe?? aeeoeie, ??
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ineo?/ieo iniaeeainoae, niaoeeo?ee ?icaeoeo e
oi?ioaaiiy.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ye? i?aeoaa?aeeee aenoiooo iaie a?iioaco, oi?ioeththoueny aeniiaee.

Ci?ie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a noni?euenoa?, aeoeaii aieeaathoue ia
ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, aeeeeeathoue iiiaeeii? aino??
noia?a/iino?, eiioe?eoe, aioaaii?cie.

O caaaeueiiio eaioethao aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a ooai?eany e?eoe/iee
aaeooi, ui iia?iaeo? na?eicieie iane?aeeaie, aaeeea e?euee?noue
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a aeiaaea? c oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ? a
iicaoe?eueiee /an caeeoa?oueny nai ia nai c iaaaoeaieie oaeoi?aie
na?aaeiaeua.

Iaaeaaia?/iee eieaeoea iiaea aoaeoeaii ae??ooaaoe nai? aeoiai? caaaeaiiy
eeoa ia iniia? aea/aiiy ? a?aooaaiiy anueiai eiiieaeno aieea?a iae?i- oa
i?e?ina?aaeiaeua a nenoai? aeoiaii? ?iaioe ? iaeo?ae?caoe?? ?o
iaaaoeaieo aieea?a.

?ioaa?aoeaiei iieacieeii a?aeiia?aeiino? ii?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo iieiaeoiai
oeiey?a nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iei oiiaai, ui oi?iothoueny a noni?eueiiio
na?aaeiaeu? ia aoai? aeiei??iieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, ?
ii?aeueiee aeina?ae iniaenoino?, ui a?aeaeaa?oueny a ?? ii?aeueieo
yeinoyo, i?e aecia/aii? yeeo iae?athoueny oeyoe iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao,
ae??oothoueny iaai? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? caaaeaiiy.

Ni?eyoeeaeie iaaeaaia?/ieie oiiaaie ? ii?aeiaiiy o aeoiaieo na?aaeiaeuao
(oeiea, n?i’y, iicaoe?euei? caeeaaee) noaaeaiiy, iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy,
iniaeno?nii ni?yiiaaiiai ia o/iy, aeoeaii? eiai iiceoe??, a oaeiae
iiceoeaiiai aieeao noni?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua.

Iani?eyoeeaeie iaaeaaia?/ieie oiiaaie aeey ii?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai oeiey?a ? ii?aeiaiiy iaaaoeaiiai noaaeaiiy aei
aeeoeie c aieo iaaeaaia?a ? aaouee?a, aaoi?eoa?iiai oa?aeoa?o iaa/aiiy
oa aeoiaaiiy a n?i’?, iicaoe?eueieo caeeaaeao oa oeie?, ianeaii? aai
i?ioeae?th/i? iiceoe?? o/iy, aeaci?aai?coth/iai aai iaaaoeaii ae?th/iai
noni?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui ??aaiue ii?aeueii?
aeoiaaiino? iieiaeoeo oeiey??a c?inoaoeia, yeui ooieoe?iioaaiiy
a?aee?eoi? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? nenoaie iaoeia aacia?a?aiee,
ea?iaaiee, eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa?, caaacia/oth/e oeei ni?eyoeea? oiiae
aeey oe?eani?yiiaaiiai ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a iieiaeoeo eean?a o
??cieo nioe?oiao. Oeueiio ni?eythoue oae? aeoiai? ae??, ye i?eeiyooy
ii?aeueieo ii?i (ci?uaiiy aeoeaio?a ?c «oi/o» ia «o?aaa»,
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ii?aeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a?aeiia?aeii aei ni?eeiyooy
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a, noai?aiiy noaeeo noinoie?a o i?ia?aeiiio aeae?
ae?yeueiino?) ? noai?aiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia (ii?aeiaiiy
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai oa iiaaae?ieiaiai i?aeoiae?a; neia?a?y iaa/aeueieo ?
aeoiaieo aieea?a; aea?? iio??aii? oi?ie iiaaae?iee), ye? ni?eythoue
aeinyaiaiith iiceoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo. ?acii c oei, ie a?aecia/a?ii
nai???aeio ?ieue aeoiaaoaey a oeueiio i?ioean?, iayai?noue o iueiai
aaeaeaaoieo ii?aeueieo ?aeae, oi?iiy ia?aoai?thaaoe ciaiiy a ii?aeuei?
ia?aeiiaiiy, ae?iaeyoe a o/iy iniaeno?nia noaaeaiiy aei iaaeieeoiuei?
ae?eniino?, cae??iethaaoe ii?aeueiee aeina?ae iiaaae?iee.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui ae?ae iaiao?aeiei ia
no/aniiio aoai? ? iciaeiieaiiy a/eoae?a c i?iaeaiith aieeao noni?eueiiai
na?aaeiaeua a oiiaao nioe?aeueieo ci?i ia ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy
iniaenoino?.

Ca i?aenoieaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie ?ic?iaeaii iaoai?ci oaeineiiaeaiiy
?iaioe a/eoaey c ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a iieiaeoiai oe?eueiiai a?eo.
Oeae iaoai?ci a?aeaeaa? i???ioiaio no?oeoo?o aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, eia?eo
ea?oaaiiy iei c aieo a/eoaey, aeiiiiaaa? iae?aoe ? aecia/aoe oeyoe
iaaeaaia?/iiai aieeao.

O ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe ae?iaeai? iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey a/eoae?a uiaei ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?
iieiaeoiai oeiey?a a oiiaao ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee.

Ie ona?aeiieth?ii, ui ?icaeyioo? a aeena?oaoe?? ieoaiiy ia ae/a?iothoue
on??? aaaaoia?aiiino? oe??? i?iaeaie, cie?aia, iio?aaothoue iiaeaeueoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiiy ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i? ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi a
oiiaao nioe?aeueieo ci?i; i?aeaioiaea a/eoae?a aei oeueiai i?ioeano.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

Iaoa??iei I.A. Iniiae aeoiaaiiy ii?ae? o iieiaeoeo oeiey??a: Iiiia?ao?y.
-E.: «Noeein», 1999. – 233 n.

Iaoa??iei I.A. Iniiae ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino? iieiaeoiai
oeiey?a: Iaoe.-iaoiae. iin?aiee. -E.: «Noeein», 1999. – 154 n.

Iaoa??iei I.A. Iaoiaeeea aea/aiiy aioiaiino? aeeoeie aei oe?eueiiai
iaa/aiiy // Ii/aoeiaa oeiea. – 1999. – ?4. – N. 3-4.

Iaoa??iei I.A. A?ao?/i? caniae aeyaeaiiy o?oaeiiu?a o ni?eeoaaii? //
Ii/aoeiaa oeiea. – 1999. –?5. – N. 50-51.

Iaoa??iei I.A. Iniiae ii?aeueii? aeoiaaiino? o/i?a a oiiaao ?icaoaeiae
iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee: Iaoiae. eeno. – E.: IIO ?i.I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
1988.– 56 n.

Iaoa??iei I.A. Aieea noni?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia ii?aeueia oi?ioaaiiy
iniaenoino? // Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeoiaii? ?iaioe a
oeieao-?ioa?iaoao. – Iaoe.-iaoiae.ca. – E.: ?inoeooo i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy
AII Oe?a?ie, EI?OA, 1998. – N. 89-101.

Aiioaoe?y.

Iaoa??iei I.A. Ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o iicao?i/i?e oa
iicaoe?euei?e ae?yeueiino? – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee.
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. Ee?a,
1999 ??e.

Caoeua?oueny ?oeiien aeena?oaoe??, yea i?noeoue oai?aoe/ia oa
aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a o iicao?i/i?e ae?yeueiino? a ia??iae ?icaoaeiae
iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee. Aaoi?ii anoaiiaeaii c?inoaiiy aieeao noni?eueiiai
na?aaeiaeua ia ii?aeueia oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? no/aniiai oeiey?a. Iia?
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia ci?io
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee no/anieo iieiaeoeo oeiey??a.
Iniaeea?noth aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a ii/aoeia?e oeie? iei? ? eiai
ei?eaoaaiiy ye iniiaa ii?iae?caoe?? ii?aeueieo a?aeiinei iieiaeoeo
oeiey??a. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?aee?eoi?
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ii? nenoaie iiaeiii iaoe aacia?a?aiee, ea?iaaiee
eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa?, caaacia/oth/e oeei ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai ii?aeueiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a iieiaeoeo eean?a o ??cieo
nioe?oiao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noni?eueia na?aaeiaeua, ii?aeueia aeoiaaiiy,
iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae, iicao?i/ia ae?yeuei?noue, iicaoe?eueia
ae?yeuei?noue, nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/ia nenoaia.

Aiiioaoeey.

Iaoaeaiei A.A. I?aanoaaiiia ainieoaiea ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia ai
aiao?i/iie e aiaoeieueiie aeayoaeueiinoe – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee.
Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao eiaie I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. Eeaa,
1999 aiae.

Caueuaaony ?oeiienue aeenna?oaoeee, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo oai?aoe/aneia e
yenia?eiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?aanoaaiiiai ainieoaiey
ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia ai aiao?i/iie e aiaoeieueiie aeayoaeueiinoe a
ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie oeieu.

A ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee ii i?iaeaia, eco/aiey
iaaeaaiae/aneiai iiuoa i?aanoaaiiiai ainieoaiey ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia ai
aiao?i/iie e aiaoeieueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, naeaeaiiuo auaiaeia i neeueiuo
e neaauo noi?iiao nouanoaothuae i?aeoeee ii?aeueiiai ainieoaiey,
ii?aaeaeaiu iooe ono?aiaiey iaaeinoaoeia a i?aaiecaoeee e i?iaaaeaiee
yoie ?aaiou.

Aaoi?ii enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea nioeeaeueiie n?aaeu ia iaaeaaiae/aneea
oneiaey i?aanoaaiiiai ainieoaiey ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia. Acaeiinaycue
nioeeaeueiuo e iaaeaaiae/aneeo aeeyiee ninoaaeyao iniaoth
nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneoth neooaoeeth, eioi?ay ninoieo ec
ainieoaoaeueiie n?aaeu (oeiea, naiuey, aiaoeieueiua o/?aaeaeaiey),
aioo?aiiae iiceoeee o/aieea e nioeeaeueiie n?aaeu. Ii ?acoeueoaoai
i?iaaaeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey aaoi?ii onoaiiaeaii, /oi a ia?eiae
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee iauanoaa, nioeeaeueiue iiuo
ieaaeoaai oeieueieea yaeyaony oaeoi?ii, ?aaoee?othuei ia?aaioeaiua
aeaenoaey aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iaoaieciia caueou e naiicaueou. Iniaaiiinoue
yoeo iaoaieciia caeeth/aaony ia a iaino?aiee e aac oiai neeueiuo
i?ioeai?a/ee nia?aiaiiiai ie?a, a a oe?aieaiee i?aanoaaiiie iniiau
ee/iinoe, aa i?aanoaaiiuo ea/anoa, eioi?ua i?iyaeythony a oneiaeyo
aiao?i/iie e aiaoeieueiie aeayoaeueiinoe e auyaeaiu aaoi?ii, yoi –
aeia?ioa, acaeiiiiiiuue, o?oaeiethaea, caaioeeainoue, aa?aaeeeainoue,
neea aiee, aeenoeeieeie?iaaiiinoue, aaeeinoai neiaa e aeaea,
aeoeaiinoue, noa?aoaeueiinoue, e?eoe/iinoue e naiie?eoe/iinoue,
ioaaonoaaiiinoue.

Aaoi?ii aeieacaii, /oi iniaaiiinoueth nia?aiaiiiai ainieoaoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna a ia/aeueiie oeiea yaeyaony aai ei??aeoeey, eae iniiaa
ii?iaeecaoeee i?aanoaaiiuo acaeiiioiioaiee ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia. Aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaeeueiie nenoaiu acaeiiioiioaiee, iaiaoiaeeii
iauaaeeiaiea a ainieoaiee aeaoo iiaeoiaeia: eioaeeaeooaeueiiai e
iiaaaeai/aneiai. Oi?ia iauaaeeiaiey yoeo eiioeaiooaeueiuo iiaeoiaeia
caaeneo io nioeeaeueiie neooaoeee, niioiioaiee ianoiyoaeuenoa, oaeoi?ia,
oneiaee, aeeniiceoeee o/aieea, aai eiaeeaeaeoaeueii-ineoieiae/aneeo
iniaaiiinoae, niaoeeoeee ?acaeoey e oi?ie?iaaiey.

Aaoi?ii auyaeaiu iniiaiua iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey, iaania/eaathuea
yooaeoeaiinoue i?aanoaaiiiai ainieoaiey o/aueony ia/aeueiuo eeannia ai
aiao?i/iia a?aiy. Oaeeie oneiaeyie, a /anoiinoe, auee i?eciaiu:
aoiaiecaoeey e aeaiie?aoecaoeey aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe eeanna;
niioaaonoaea niaea?aeaiey, oi?i e iaoiaeia i?aanoaaiiiai ainieoaiey
aic?anoiui e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui iniaaiiinoyi o/aueony; iauanoaaiiay
cia/eiinoue aiao?i/iie aeayoaeueiinoe; i?eaioaoeey eieeaeoeaa ia
aeinoeaeaiea oniaoa n o/aoii eioa?ania, iioeaia, iio?aaiinoae eaaeaeiai
o/auaainy; ?ani?aaeaeaiea ii?o/aiee ii noaiaie cia/eiinoe iaaeaeo anaie
aeaoueie n o/aoii eo neeiiiinoae, ciaiee, iaaueia; niaethaeaiea noeioeia
ii?aeueiuo acaeiiioiioaiee, iniiaaiiuo ia oaaaeaiee e aeiaa?ee,
aeia?iaeaeaoaeueiii oa?aeoa?a iauaiey, aoiaiiue noeeue iaaeaaiae/aneiai
?oeiaiaenoaa ioiioaieyie oeieueieeia.

Aaoi?ii auyaeaii, /oi ooieoeeiie?iaaiea ioe?uoie
nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneie nenoaiu aeieaeii inouanoaeyoueny iai?a?uaii,
oeaeaiai?aaeaiii, eiiieaenii, iaania/eaay oaeei ia?acii, oneiaey aeey
i?aanoaaiiiai ainieoaiey o/aueony ieaaeoaai oeieueiiai aic?anoa a ?aciuo
nioeeoiao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueiay n?aaea, i?aanoaaiiia ainieoaiea,
iaaeaaiae/aneea oneiaey, aiao/aaiay aeayoaeueiinoue, aiaoeieueiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneay nenoaia.

Annotation.

E.Matvienko. Moral education of the younger schoolboys in after-hour and
outside of school activity – manuscript.

Dissertation on inception of the candidate of pedagogical sciences on
speciality 13.00.01 — Theory and History of Pedagogical Sciences.
National University named after Dragomanov M.P., the city of Kiev, 1999.

It is degeding the manuscript of dissertation, which contains
theoretical and experimental research of the effectiveness of moral of
juniors on off-hour activities in the period of the national formation.
The author established the increase of the social factor on the junior’s
personality formation. New social-pedagogical conditions influenced on
the changes of modern Ukrainian pedagogical junior’s characteristics.
The particular feature of modern of education in the elementary school
is its correction, as the basis normalization of junior moral relations.
Functioning of the open social-system is to carry out continuously,
fully, providing in such a way conditions for the moral upbringing of
junior pupils different social groups.

Key words: social environment, moral education, pedagogical conditions,
off-hour activities, social-pedagogical system.

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