3

AeIIAANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ssAOAe?AIEOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

Aeue-Oain? Oaeaae Ae? Na?ae

OAeE 666. 973.6

IIAeEO?EIAAI? IAAAOIEEAAI? AACIAAOIIEIA INIIA? NOI?OAE IECUeEI?
AIAeIIIO?AAE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.23.05 – Aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iae??aea – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? ae?iaieoeoaa
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e Aeiiaanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio ?o?aiia Ieaenaiae?
Ieeieaeiae/, Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? ae?iaieoeoaa
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe
*enoyeia Aaea??e Aaneeueiae/, Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao
aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Iiiia
Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/, Aeiiaoeueeee I?iiaoaeIAe?i?iaeo, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, ae?ia?a ? eiino?oeoe?e.I?ia?aeia
onoaiiaa:Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a oaoiieia?? aei?iaeiuei-aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “21” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae12.085.01 i?e Aeiiaanuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (Oe?a?ia, 339023,
Aeiiaoeueea iae., i. Iae??aea, aoe. Aea?aeaa?ia, 2, I o/aiaee ei?ion,
cae can?aeaiue).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaanueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (Oe?a?ia, 339023,
Aeiiaoeueea iae., i. Iae??aea, aoe. Aea?aeaa?ia, 2).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “21” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
A.A. Iia?aaiye

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Aaciaaoii ? aoaeoeaiei iaoa??aeii aeey
iai?iaeaeoth/eo eiino?oeoe?e, oiio ui aeaioiaey?oueny c iaaeao?oeeoii?
ne?iaeie, ia? aenie? oaiei?cieyoe?ei? ? iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?.

Aaciaaoiii? ae?iae i?iaaaeyoueny, a iniiaiiio, ca aaoieeaaiith
oaoiieia??th. Iaiaaeaia canoinoaaiiy i?iia?thaaiiy i?e aoiinoa?iiio
oeneo i?iaeeeoiaaii iecueeith o??ueiino?ee?noth aaciaaoii?a /a?ac aenieo
onaaeeo, yea ia?aaeuo? onaaeeo aaoieeaaieo aaoii?a o 3-5 ?ac?a.
I?e/eiith oeueiai ? aaeeea aiaeiiio?aaa aaoiiii? noi?o? (aeniea
eai?ey?ia ? aaeaaa ii?eno?noue aaoiio) ? oiieiaeenia?nia no?oeoo?a
a?ae?inee?eaoii? ca’ycee.

Aaciaaoiii? noi?o? ia ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio? iiaaii nio/othoueny. Aeey
?ioaineo?eaoe?? nio/oaaiiy aei neeaaeo aaoii?a oaiaeeoueny aaiii, a
oaiia?aoo?o noi?oae i?e oi?ioaaii? i?aei?iathoue aei 40-60°N. Oea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ua a?eueoiai cieaeaiiy oaoi?/ieo iieaciee?a
iaaaoieeaaieo aaciaaoii?a, oiio ui aaiii i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia
c?inoaiiy ?oiuei? i?oeiino?, aea ca?eueoo? aiaeiiio?aao noi?oae. I?e
oeueiio a?aae??io oaiia?aoo?, ui aeieea? i?ae ciai?oi?ie ? aioo??oi?ie
oa?aie, aeeeeea? ia??aiii??ia nio/oaaiiy aaoiiiiai ianeao.

O inoaii? 20 ?ie?a oe?ieo iiioey?i?noue iaea?aeaee aaca?inia?
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioe, ye? ieanoeo?eiaai? eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith oeio
“e?aiinoeueoiiao + eoaeia niieoea”. I?e oeueiio aeinyaa?oueny cia/ia
cieaeaiiy aiaeiiio?aae aaoiiieo noi?oae ? i?aeaeuaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae aaoii?a. A?aeiii oaeiae, ui eoaei? aeiaaaee ?i?oe?ththoue
cieaeaiiy aeenia?niino? i?iaeoeo?a oaa?ae?iiy ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioo. I?ioa
canoinoaaiiy aeiaaaie “e?aiinoeueoiiao + n?eue eoaeiiai iaoaeo” ia iiaea
noai?eoe oiiae aeey ii?iaeueiiai oi?ioaaiiy i?cae?thaaoi? no?oeoo?e
aaciaaoii?a ia cae/aeiiio ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio?. O oeueiio a?aeiioaii?
ia?niaeoeaiith iiaea noaoe eiiieaenia aeiaaaea “e?aiinoeueoiiao
oaoi?/iee + a?ae?ieneae iao??th” (ENO + NaOH). Aiia iiaeiia cieceoe
aeenia?ni?noue i?iaeoeo?a oaa?ae?iiy ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioo ? caaacia/eoe
ii?iaeueia, caaeainiaaia c ?inoii ieanoe/ii? i?oeiino?, nio/oaaiiy
“oieiaeieo” (15-35°N) aaciaaoiiieo noi?oae iecueei? aiaeiiio?aae aac
aaiia. Oea aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe ye?noue iaaaoieeaaieo aaoii?a ?
cai?ieoe aaoieeaaio ia?iaeo i?iia?thaaiiyi i?e aoiinoa?iiio oeneo, ui
nei?ioeoue aia?aiaeo?aoe ? ?icoe?eoue ae?iaie/o aaco aeaioiaeaiiy
aaciaaoiiieo ae?ia?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa ? iaeiei c aoai?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy c oaie E-2-5-96 “Eiiiiceoe?ei? aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee
i?aeaeuaii? aeiaaia?/iino? ia iniia? a?aeoiae?a i?iieneiaino? oa
aia?aicaa??aath/? oaoiieia?? ?o ae?iaieoeoaa”, aeeiioaaii? ia eaoaae??
aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ? AAE Aeiiaanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, ? a?aeiia?aea? i??i?eoaoiiio iai?yieo
?icaeoeo iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie “Aeieia?/ii /enoa aia?aaoeea oa
aia?aicaa??aath/? oaoiieia??”.

Iaoa ?iaioe – aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?? iaaaoieeaaieo
aaciaaoii?a, ui iaaeeaeathoueny ca ye?noth aei aaoieeaaieo ca ?aooiie
cieaeaiiy aiaeiiio?aae noi?oae oa iiaeeo?eaoe?? no?oeoo?e i?aeii?iaeo
ia?aai?iaeie eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith ENO + NaOH.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue:

aea/eoe caeaaei?noue aiaeiiio?aae oeaiaioii-i?uaieo a’yaeo/eo,
oaeaeeinoae aaciooai?aiiy ? ?inoo ieanoe/ii? i?oeiino? aaoiiiiai ne?oeth
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? e?eueeino? aeiaaaie ENO ? NaOH;

aeine?aeeoe aieea aeiaaaie ia o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?
oeaiaioii-i?uaieo a’yaeo/eo (i?aeii?ia? ia?aai?iaeee aaciaaoiio);

aecia/eoe iioeiaeueiee neeaae eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee oeyoii ?ic?iaee
aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ieo iiaeaeae caeaaeiino? i?oeiino?
i?aeii?iaeo ia?aai?iaeie a?ae ci?noo ENO ? NaOH;

aeeiiaoe eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaciaiai neeaaeo ? aeenia?niino?
i?iaeoeo?a oaa?ae?iiy iiaeeo?eiaaieo oeaiaioii-i?uaieo a’yaeo/eo;

anoaiiaeoe oa?aeoa? ci?ie ?iciiae?eo i?aee?enoae?/ieo ? eai?ey?ieo ii?
i?aeii?iaeo ia?aai?iaeie aaciaaoiio ca ?ici??aie a?ae ci?noo eiiieaenii?
aeiaaaee ENO + NaOH ? aeaeo oaieiaieia?nii? ia?iaee;

aea/eoe iniiai? oaoiieia?/i? e aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino?
oaiei?cieyoe?eieo ? oaiei?cieyoe?eii-eiino?oeoe?eieo iaaaoieeaaieo
iiaeeo?eiaaieo aaciaaoii?a ? ii??aiyoe ?o ?c aeanoeainoyie aiaeia?/ieo
aacaeiaaaeiaeo aaoii?a aaoieeaaiiai oaa?ae?iiy;

?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?th ? cae?enieoe aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai
ae??aieo no?iiaeo aeie?a ?c iaaaoieeaaiiai iiaeeo?eiaaiiai aaciaaoiio,
ioe?ieoe oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue ?o ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

anoaiiaeaii, ui canoinoaaiiy NaOH o eiiieaen? c ENO e?ea?aeo?
oiia?eueithth/ee aieea iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaii? ?a/iaeie ia oaeaee?noue
nio/oaaiiy ? c?inoaiiy ieanoe/ii? i?oeiino? aaciaaoiiieo noi?oae i?e
iaeii/aniiio cieaeaii? ?o aiaeiiio?aae ia 30-50%, iioeiaeueia
e?euee?noue aeiaaaie ENO ? NaOH caaacia/o? aenie?, caaeainiaai?
oaeaeeino? nio/oaaiiy ? oaa?ae?iiy “oieiaeiiai” aaoiiiiai ne?oeth c
oaiia?aoo?ith 15-35°N, ui aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe aaciaaoiie c?
noaa?eueiith i?cae?thaaoith ii?eno?noth;

iieacaii, ui aiane?aeie cieaeaiiy eai?ey?ii? ii?enoino?, aeenia?niino? ?
i?aee?enoae?/ii? ii?enoino? i?iaeoeo?a oaa?ae?iiy eiiieaenia aeiaaaea
ENO + NaOH nei?i/o? a?aeiia?aeii iai?ioi? ? iaiai?ioi? aeaoi?iaoe??
onaaeee ? iaaooaiiy, i?aeaeuo? iia?o?ino?ee?noue aaciaaoii?a, iniaeeai
iaaaoieeaaieo;

anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?acoeueoao? ciaioaiiy a?aee?eoi? ii?enoino? ?
na?aaeiueiai ?ici??o eai?ey?ieo ? i?aee?enoae?/ieo ii?, ca?eueoaiiy
oiiaii caieiooi? ii?enoino?, aonoeie ? i?oeiino? aaoiio i?aeii?iaeo
ia?aai?iaeie eiiieaenia aeiaaaea ENO + NaOH cieaeo? aaniethoio aaee/eio
? oaeaee?noue eai?ey?iiai aniieooaaiiy, i?aeaeuo? ii?icino?ee?noue
aaciaaoiio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

io?eiai? iiaeeo?eiaai? iaaaoieeaai? aaciaaoiie c aenieoaoaoe?eieie
aeanoeainoyie, noi??ieie c aeanoeainoyie aiaeia?/ieo iaieanoeo?eiaaieo
aaciaaoii?a aaoieeaaiiai oaa?ae?iiy, ui cieaeo? aia?aiaeo?aoe ?
?icoe?th? ae?iaie/o aaco ?o aeaioiaeaiiy;

ca ?aooiie a?ae?ieneaeo iao??th eiiieaenia aeiaaaea aeicaiey?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e oi?ioaaii? “oieiaei?” noi?o?, ui ni?iuo? oaoiieia?th
? caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaio iaeii??aei?noue aaoiiiiai ianeao ca na?aaeiuei
aonoeiith;

?ic?iaeaia oaoiieia?/ia ?ino?oeoe?y ia aeaioiaeaiiy ae??aieo no?iiaeo
aeie?a iaaaoieeaaiiai oaa?ae?iiy ? i?iaaaeaia ?o aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia Eo?ao?anueeiio (Aeiiaoeueea iae.) caaiae? CAE c
aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii 45864 a?i. (16,38 a?i./ i3 aaoiio).

Iniaenoee aeeaae aaoi?a. An? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
io?eiai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. C iioae?eiaaieo a ni?aaaoi?noa?
?acoeueoao?a aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? aeeiiai?: aeine?aee uiaei aecia/aiiy
aieeao eoaeieo aeiaaaie ia aaciooai?thth/o cae?ai?noue aethi?i??ai?
ioae?e [1]; aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy eai?ey?iiai aniieooaaiiy
[3] ? onaaeee-iaaooaiiy aaciaaoii?a [4]; aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ia
oaoiieia?/i? ? aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? aaciaaoii?a ia iniia? noi?oae
c? cieaeaiith aiaeiiio?aaith [5, 6].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee
iia?aeiieai? ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea e yeieiaey i?iiuoeaiiiai ?aaeiia” (i. Iae??aea, 1995
?.), ia aeaaeai?/ieo /eoaiiyo Aeiiaanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (i. Iae??aea, 1995, 1998 ??.), ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu
no?ieoaeuenoaa” (i. Aeiiaoeuee, 1997 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 5 noaoae (a
ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue) ? 1 oaciaa aeiiia?aeue.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 5
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 115 iaeiaioaaiue ?
aeaio aeiaeaoe?a ia 20 noi??ieao. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 116 noi??ieao,
aeeth/ath/e 26 ?enoie?a (16 noi??iie) ? 27 oaaeeoeue (18 noi??iie).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aeaia noenea oa?aeoa?enoeea noaio iaoeiai? caaea/?,
iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue, aecia/ai? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeai? a?aeiiino? uiaei no?oeoo?e ?
ai?iaaoe?? ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c ia?niaeoeaaie ?
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iith aeioe?euei?noth ae?iaieoeoaa oaiei?cieyoe?eieo ?
oaiei?cieyoe?eii-eiino?oeoe?eieo ae??aiiooo/ieo ae?ia?a ?c iaaaoieeaaieo
aaciaaoii?a, o oiio /ene? a ?anioae?oe? E?iai. Noi?ioeueiaaii
ia?aaeoiiae iaea?aeaiiy iaaaoieeaaieo aaciaaoii?a c “oieiaeieo”
ieanoeo?eiaaieo noi?oae iecueei? aiaeiiio?aae, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny
i?aeaeuaiith iaeii??aei?noth na?aaeiuei? aonoeie oa oaoi?/ieie
iieacieeaie, ui iaaeeaeathoueny aei aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae
aaoieeaaieo iaieanoeo?eiaaieo aaoii?a.

Aeei?enoaiiy a aaciaaoiiao ieanoeo?eoth/eo aeiaaaie oeio ENO ni?yaeaia c
??ceei oiia?eueiaiiyi aaciooai?aiiy ? c?inoaiiy ieanoe/ii? i?oeiino?
aaoiiiiai ne?oeth ia?aae aeaeaeaiiyi “ie?aeoey”. Ciaioeoe oeae
iaaaoeaiee aieea iiaeia aaaaeaiiyi i?enei?thaa/a oaa?ae?iiy
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioo, yeee aea? o aiaeiiio ?ic/ei? aenieieoaeio ?aaeoe?th
(?I>12), ui caaacia/o? caaeainiaaiee c? nio/oaaiiyi ??no ieanoe/ii?
i?oeiino?. Aei oaeeo niieoe a?aeiinyoueny a?ae?ieneaee oa nie? neaaeeo
eeneio. Aea a eiiiiceoe?yo c ENO nie? neaaeeo eeneio (ea?aiiaoe,
nee?eaoe) aeeeeeathoue iaaei??ii oaeaeea ooaeaa?iiy cae/aeiiai
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioo (I.A. Naieoeueeee). Oea ia aeiionoeii aeey aaciaaoiio,
ai naia a ia?o? 5-40 oaeeei a?ae?aoaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny nio/oaaiiy ?
oi?ioaaiiy i?cae?thaaoi? no?oeoo?e aaoiio.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aiiai aai ni?eueiiai aieeao aeiaaaie ENO ? nieae
eoaeieo iaoae?a ia aeanoeaino? ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio?a ? aaoii?a
(A.A. Aao?aeia, I. Odler, H. Mori, A.A. Iauaiei, V.S. Ramachandran,
N.I. ?iye, E.A. Oieiiaa) iieacothoue, ui i?e ?o aeei?enoaii? iiaeia
aeinyaoe cia/iiai cieaeaiiy aiaeiiio?aae, eai?ey?ii? ? aaeaai?
ii?enoino?, i?aeaeueoe /anoeo oiiaii caieiaieo ii?, ca?eueoeoe nooi?iue
a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioo. Aaaaeaiiy NaOH, Na2SO4, Na2CO3 a e?eueeino? aei
1% a ia?a?aooieo ia Na2O ca?eueoo? ?ici?? e?enoae?a a?ae?ieneaeo ?
a?ae?inee?eao?a eaeueoe?th caoaa?ae?eiai ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioo (TH.I. Aooo,
H. Mori, I.I. I/aaeeia-Iao?inyi).

Oaeei /eiii, iniiaia iaoeiaa a?iioaca ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:
eiiieaenia aeiaaaea ENO + NaOH, ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aeiieo aiaeia?/ieo
eiiiiceoe?e “ENO + n?eue eoaeiiai iaoaeo (Na2CO3, E2CO3, Na2SO4 oa
?i.)”, iiaeiia caaacia/eoe ii?iaeuei? (15-40 oaeeei) oa?i?ie nio/oaaiiy
noi?oae i?e oaiia?aoo?? 15-35°N. A oiieiaeenia?nieo aaciaaoiiieo noi?oao
c aenieith aiaeiiio?aaith aeiaaaea aoaea ae?yoe ye noia?ieanoeo?eaoi?
i?e iaioiio aeicoaaii?, i?ae a cae/aeieo aaoiiieo noi?oao. Cieaeaiiy
aiaeioaa?aeiai a?aeiioaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy cae?enoae?ciaaiino?
a?ae?inee?eao?a eaeueoe?th i?e aaaaeaii? aeiaaaee iiaeiii ciaioeoe
onaaeeo oa oaeaee?noue eai?ey?iiai aniieooaaiiy, i?aeaeueoe i?oei?noue,
ii?ici- ? iia?o?ino?ee?noue aaciaaoiio.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoa??ae?a ? iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ?iaio? ye aeo?aei? iaoa??aee aeei?enoiaoaaeeny: ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio
IOe I-400I Aia?in??anueeiai oeaiaioiiai eiia?iaoo; iaeaia aaiii ia?oiai
ni?oo Ia??oiieuenueeiai iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo “Acianoaeue”;
eaa?oeiaee ? iieueiaioiaoiee i?nee ?iaeiaeu aaae? Oaaai ? aaae? Aaia,
?aeiiaiaeiaai? Aeaia?oaiaioii aaieia?? ? ?ica?aeee i?ia?aeueii? ne?iaeie
?anioae?ee E?iai, ciea-aeiin Eo?ao?anueei? (Aeiiaoeueea iae.) Ae?AN
(Aea?aenoaiaea?o 9179-77*); e?aiinoeueoiiao iao???ai-eaeueoe??aee
(OO 13-028-1036-029-94); a?ae?ieneae iao??th *AeA; aethi?i??aa ioae?a
IAI-1 (Aea?aenoaiaea?o 5494-71A).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui eaa?oeiaee i?nie ?iaeiaeua aaae? Oaaai ? aenieiye?niei
iaoa??aeii aeey iaea?aeaiiy e?aiiacaienoiai eiiiiiaioa i?cae?thaaoeo
aaoii?a, oiio ui i?noeoue a?eueoa 97% SiO2, a?aeiineoueny aei eaoaai???
aeoaea ae??aieo, ci?oai? oeaiaioii-i?uai? a’yaeo/? ia eiai iniia?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieith aeoeai?noth. sse?noue iieueiaioiaoiiai i?neo
cia/ii ieae/a, ui iia’ycaii ia o?eueee c i?ia?aeia?/iei neeaaeii, aea ?
c aaeeeei ai?noii aeeie.

O aeine?aeaeaiiyo, e??i noaiaea?oieo, aoee aeei?enoai? niaoe?aeuei?
iaoiaee: e?iaoeea aaciaeae?eaiiy a aaoiiieo noi?oao aea/aeany
aei??thaaiiyi ia’?io aaco, ui aeae?eeany, ca aeiiiiiaith noaeeie
Ae?aenea?a; aecia/aiiy ieanoe/ii? i?oeiino? i?iaiaeeeiny ia ieanoiiao??
IAeO; eai?ey?ia aniieooaaiiy aaoii?a aeine?aeaeoaaeiny ia c?aceao
4416 ni, ui i?ney oaa?ae?iiy aenoooaaeeny i?e 105-110°N ? iii?uaeeny a
eaia?o c a?ae?icaoai?ii oaeei /eiii, uia ?o oi?oeaaa a?aiue aoea
iino?eii caio?aia o aiaeo ia aeeaeio 5 ii; iia?o?ino?ee?noue aaciaaoii?a
eiio?iethaaeany ca ci?iaiiyi i?oeiino? aaei/ie 4o4o16 ni ia aeaei ?
noene i?ney oeeee?/iiai caieiaeoaaiiy ? aenoooaaiiy i?e oaiia?aoo??
105-110°N.

Ii?iao no?oeoo?o aaoiio aea/aee a?ae?iaeeiai?/iei caniaii ca iaoiaeeeith
I.I. *a?iyanueeiai.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeiaaaie ia neeaae i?iaeoeo?a oaa?ae?iiy aeeiiai?
iaoiaeaie eaei?eiao?e/iiai, ?aioaaiioaciaiai ? aea?eaaoia?ao?/iiai
aiae?c?a.

Aeey ia?aa??ee aeinoia??iino? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ?acoeueoaoe
aei?iaoaaiue ii?aoeueiaoaaeeny ia IAII iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee
c aeia??/ith eiia??i?noth 0,95.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao aeiaaaie ENO ? NaOH ia aeanoeaino? caoaa?ae?eeo
oeaiaioii-i?uaieo iano – i?aeii?iaeo ia?aai?iaeie aaciaaoii?a.
Aeine?aeaeoaaeeny ??aiioaeo/? ianoe, ui neeaaeathoueny ii ian? c ??aieo
/anoei oeaiaioo ? iaeaiiai i?neo.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaea iae? aeice aeiaaaee ENO oiia?eueiththoue
aaciaeae?eaiiy ? c?inoaiiy ieanoe/ii? i?oeiino? iano o ia?o? o?noue
aiaeei oaa?ae?iiy. I?e ai?no? 0,3-0,6% aeiaaaee a?ae iane oeaiaioo
a?aeiinia oaeaee?noue aaciaeae?eaiiy cieaeo?oueny a?aeiia?aeii a 1,6-8
?ac?a, a c?inoaiiy ieanoe/ii? i?oeiino? – a?eueo i?ae o 6 ?ac?a (?en.1).
Aaaaeaiiyi NaOH o e?eueeino?, ui i?eaeecii aei??aith? ian? ENO, iiaeia
oe?eeii e?ea?aeoaaoe oea oiia?eueiaiiy, ui caaacia/o? ii?iaeuei?
nio/oaaiiy ? c?inoaiiy ieanoe/ii? i?oeiino?, iaiao?aeii? aeey aeaeaeaiiy
“ie?aeoey”, ?ic??caiiy aaoiiiiai ne?oeth ia ae?iae ? ?o iiaea/? ia
oaieiaieia?nio ia?iaeo.

a) a)

?en.1. Aieea /ano oaa?ae?iiy – , aeiaaaie ENO ? NaOH ia ia’?i
aaciaeae?eaiiy – Va. (a) ? ??no ieanoe/ii? i?oeiino? – Rie. (a)
oeaiaioii-i?uaieo iano:1-3 – ai?no ENO o e?eueeino?: 0; 0,3 ? 0,6%
a?aeiia?aeii; 4 – aeiaaaea 0,3% ENO + 0,3% NaOH; 5 – aeiaaaea 0,6% ENO +
0,6% NaOH a?ae iane oeaiaioo.

?aioaai?anueeee, eaei?eiao?e/iee ? aea?eaaoia?ao?/iee iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe, ui aaaaeaiiy aei 0,3% ENO
i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith? nooi?iue a?ae?aoaoe?? ? neeaae i?iaeoeo?a
oaa?ae?iiy oeaiaioii-i?uaieo iano. I?e ca?eueoaii? ai?noo aeiaaaee aei
0,6% nooi?iue a?ae?aoaoe?? iano, ui oaa?aeiooue o ii?iaeueieo oiiaao ?
i?e i?iia?thaaii?, iii?oii cieaeo?oueny.

Aeiaaaea NaOH, aaaaeaia a e?eueeino? aei 0,3%, ?noioii i?aeaeuo?
nooi?iue a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioo, iniaeeai a ii?iaeueieo oiiaao ? i?e
i?iia?thaaii?. Iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo eoao aei 0,6% aeeeeea?
iacia/ia c?inoaiiy nooiaiy a?ae?aoaoe??. I?e aeei?enoaii? NaOH o
eiiieaen? c ENO oeae oa?aeoa? ci?ie nooiaiy a?ae?aoaoe?? oeaiaioo
caa??aa?oueny.

Oaciaee neeaae i?iaeoeo?a aaoieeaaiiai oaa?ae?iiy oeaiaioii-i?uaieo iano
?c aeiaaaeaie ? aac ieo iaeiaeiaee, i?ioa eoa ? a oeeo i?iaao i?aeaeuo?
nooi?iue a?ae?aoaoe??.

ENO ? NaOH, aaaaeai? a e?eueeino? ii 0,3-0,6% a?ae iane oeaiaioo,
cieaeothoue aiaeiiio?aao oeaiaioii-i?uaieo noi?oae ia 30-50% (?en.2).
I?e oeueiio na?aaeiy aonoeia ? iaaea i?oeiino? i?e noeneo caoaa?ae?eeo
oeaiaioii-i?uaieo iano c?inoa? a?aeiia?aeii ia 16-24 ? 10-47%, a
aiaeiiiaeeiaiiy cieaeo?oueny ia 37-50%.

?en.2. Caeaaei?noue aiaeiiio?aae – A/O oeaiaioii-i?uaieo iano a?ae
e?eueeino? aeiaaaie ENO ? NaOH:

1-4 – ai?no NaOH o e?eueeino?: 0; 0,15; 0,30 ? 0,60% a?ae iane oeaiaioo
a?aeiia?aeii.

Eiiieaenia aeiaaaea NaOH + ENO cieaeo? ia?ane/aiiy ??aeei? oace ii Na2+
ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? a?ae?aoaoe?? ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioo. Ca ?aooiie
iaeiiaaeaioieo eao?ii?a iao??th a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aaaaeaiiy eenith
e?aiiaeeneioe a iai?noeiao oi?io, ae?iaeyoueny e?aiiaeeniaa? ai?iie.
E?aiiaeeniaa? ai?iie noathoue a?eueo ?ooeeaeie ? a?eueo ni?iiiaeieie aei
aca?iiae?? c eao?iiaie eaeueoe?th. I?ioeane e?enoae?caoe??
a?ae?inee?eao?a ? a?ae?ieneaeo eaeueoe?th eaeooue a?eueo ??aiii??ii ?
iiaii, ui a?aeaeaa?oueny ia cieaeaii? oaeaeeino? oaieiaeae?eaiiy
oeaiaioo a ia?o? 16 aiaeei a?ae?aoaoe?? ? c?inoaii? oaieiaeae?eaiiy a
ianooiiee /an (aeea. e?ea? 1 ? 4, ?en.3). O iie?ioaieo oiiaao
e?enoae?caoe?? ooai?ththoueny a?eueo oii?yaeeiaai? ? e?oii? e?enoaee
i?iaeoeo?a oaa?ae?iiy. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny cnoaii ia e?eaeo AeOA
aiaeiaoaeo?a aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? a?ae?inee?eao?a ? a?ae?ieneaeo eaeueoe?th a
iaeanoue a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?, aiaeia?/iei cnoaii aeciaoaeoo
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? a?ae?inee?eao?a eaeueoe?th o aieanoii?o ?c 750 aei
760-770°N. I?i i?aeaeuaiiy e?enoae?/iino? i?iaeoeo?a oaa?ae?iiy
a’yaeo/eo ?c aeiaaaeith ENO + NaOH na?ae/aoue aeai? ?aioaai?anueeiai
aiae?co.

?en.3. Caeaaei?noue oaeaeeino? oaieiaeae?eaiiy oeaiaioo a?ae /ano
oaa?ae?iiy, aeaeo ? e?eueeino? aeiaaaie:

1 – aac aeiaaaie; 2 – 0,3% NaOH; 3 – 0,3% ENO; 4 – 0,3% ENO + 0,3% NaOH.

Iiaeeo?eoth/a aeiaaaea ENO + NaOH ciaioo? noia?iee ia’?i ? ae?aiao?
eai?ey?ieo ? i?aee?enoae?/ieo ii? caoaa?ae?eeo oeaiaioii-i?uaieo iano.
Oaea ci?ia ii?enoi? no?oeoo?e ? ca?eueoaiiy e?enoae?/iino? i?iaeoeo?a
oaa?ae?iiy ? i?e/eiith cia/iiai cieaeaiiy ia o?eueee iai?ioieo onaaeee ?
iaaooaiiy, aea ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei nei?i/aiiy iaiai?ioii? onaaeee aaoiio
i?aeii?iaeo ia?aai?iaeie ca ?aooiie iaioiai aaciiai?ioiiai aeaeaeaiiy
i?aeoa?iai? aiaee ? aiaee, aaeni?aiaaii? iiaa?oiath e?enoae?a.

Iiaeeo?eoth/ee aieea eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ia i?iaeoeoe oaa?ae?iiy
iaaaoieeaaieo eiiiiceoe?e aeua, i?ae aaoieeaaieo. Aiane?aeie oeueiai
aeey c?ace?a iaaaoieeaaiiai oaa?ae?iiy oa?aeoa?ii a?eueo ea?aeeiaeueia
nei?i/aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e onaaeee ? iaaooaiiy.

C?iaeaii iioei?caoe?th aeicoaaiiy aeiaaaie ca i?oei?noth caoaa?ae?eeo
oeaiaioii-i?uaieo iano i?e noeneo. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue caeaaeiino?
a?aieoe? i?oeiino? i?iia?aieo eiiiiceoe?e a?ae aeicoaaiiy ENO (o1) ?
NaOH (o2) ia? aeaeyae:

Y(o1, o2) = 23,9 + 2,5o1 — 1,8o2 — 0,4o1o2 — 1,6o12 — 6,2o22 (1)

?cie?i?? iaae? i?oeiino? i?e noeneo e iaeanoue iioeiaeueieo e?eueeinoae
aeiaaaie iiaeai? ia ?en.4. Ca?aeii c oe?ie aeaieie, a oaeiae o?aoiaoth/e
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao aeiaaaie ia oaeaeeino? aaciooai?aiiy
oa ?inoo ieanoe/ii? i?oeiino? aaoiiiiai ne?oeth, iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui iioeiaeueiee neeaae eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ciaoiaeeoueny a
iaaeao 0,3-0,6% ENO ? oaei? ae e?eueeino? NaOH. I?e oeueiio ai?no NaOH
iiaeiai aooe ia iaioa i?ae ENO.

a) a)

?en.4. Caeaaei?noue a?aieoe? i?oeiino? i?e noeneo a IIa (a) ? iaeanoue
iioeiaeueieo eiioeaio?aoe?e ENO – o1 ? NaOH – o2 (a).

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeaii aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ENO + NaOH ia oaoiieia?/i? oa aenieoaoaoe?ei?
aeanoeaino? oaiei?cieyoe?eieo ? oaiei?cieyoe?eii-eiino?oeoe?eieo
aaciaaoii?a ?c na?aaeiueith aonoeiith 400-800 ea/i3.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeei?enoaii? “oieiaeieo” noi?oae eiiieaenia aeiaaaea
ENO + NaOH aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe /an iiia?aaeiuei? aeo?eiee aaciaaoiiiiai
ne?oeth ia?aae oaieiaieia?niith ia?iaeith, ?ioaineo?eoaaoe iaa??aaiiy ?
ciaioeoe /an ?cioa?i?/ii? aeo?eiee aaoiio ye i?e i?iia?thaaii? (85N),
oae ? i?e aaoieeaaoaaii? (0,8 IIa).

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ia caeaaei?noue i?oeiino?
aaciaaoii?a a?ae na?aaeiuei? aonoeie. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iieacothoue,
ui i?e na?aaei?e aonoei? 400-800 ea/i3 aaaaeaiiy aeiaaaee ca?eueoo?
i?oei?noue aaciaaoii?a i?ney i?iia?thaaiiy e aaoieeaaiiai oaa?ae?iiy
a?aeiia?aeii ia 18-35 ? 15-31%. Caaaeueiee oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino?
i?oeiino? a?ae na?aaeiuei? aonoeie ? aaniethoi? i?oei?ni? iieacieee
iiaeeo?eiaaieo aaciaaoii?a, o oiio /ene? i?iia?aieo, a?aeiia?aeathoue
aeiiaai, onoaiiaeaiei Aea?aenoaiaea?oii 25485-89 aeey aaoieeaaieo
i?cae?thaaoeo aaoii?a a?aeiia?aeieo ia?ie ca na?aaeiueith aonoeiith.

Iioeiaeueia aeiaaaea 0,3% ENO + 0,3% NaOH cieaeo? ia?oo onaaeeo
aaciaaoiio, iai?eeeaae ?c na?aaeiueith aonoeiith 700 ea/i3, i?ney
i?iia?thaaiiy ? aaoieeaaoaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii ia 55,8 ? 11,6% (oaae.1).
Ia?oa onaaeea iiaeeo?eiaaiiai i?iia?aiiai aaciaaoiio noi??ia c onaaeeith
aaoieeaaieo aacaeiaaaeiaeo aaoii?a. I?ney o?aoueiai
caieiaeaiiy-aenoooaaiiy iaiai?ioia nei?i/aiiy oeaiaiooth/i? ca’ycee o
?acoeueoao? aeaeaeaiiy i?aeieiueiii? aiaee a?ae?inee?eao?a eaeueoe?th,
?o caeeaeaiiy ? ciaioaiiy i?aee?enoae?/ii? ii?enoino? i?aeoe/ii
caaa?oo?oueny. Onaaeea ? iaaooaiiy noaa?e?cothoueny, noathoue
iai?ioieie, iaeaea ??aieie ? caeaaeaoue, a iniiaiiio, a?ae eai?ey?ii?
ii?enoino?, oiaoi a?ae aiaeiiio?aae aaoiiieo noi?oae. ??cieoey i?ae
aaee/eiaie iai?ioieo ciaeiia?ai?iieo aeaoi?iaoe?e aaciaaoii?a, ui
caoaa?ae?ee a ??cieo oiiaao, ??cei nei?i/o?oueny ? ia ia?aaeuo? 23-40%.

Ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy a?aee?eoi? ii?enoino?, ciaioaiiy na?aaeiueiai
ae?aiao?a eai?ey?ieo ? i?aee?enoae?/ieo ii?, i?aeaeuaiiy aeie? oiiaii
caieiaii? ii?enoino? aaaaeaiiy eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith
ii?icino?eeino?, ?noioiiio cieaeaiith oaeaeeino? eai?ey?iiai
aniieooaaiiy aaciaaoii?a, iniaeeai a ia?o? 1-3 aeiae ?nieoo.

Aeei?enoaiiy noi?oae aac aaiia oa ooai?aiiy a?eueo oii?yaeeiaaieo,
e?oiieo e?enoae?a i?iaeoeo?a oaa?ae?iiy ca?eueoo? iia?o?ino?ee?noue
aaciaaoii?a, iiaeeo?eiaaieo aeiaaaeith ENO + NaOH.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aii oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i?e ioe?ioe? aoaeoeaiino?
iiaeeo?eiaaieo aaciaaoii?a ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?o aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaiai
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?e aeaioiaeaii? iaaaoieeaaieo ae??aieo (203060 ni)
aeie?a ca ??caeueiith oaoiieia??th ia Eo?ao?anueeiio caaiae? CAE. Oeae
caaiae aeionea? i?cae?thaaoiaaoiii? ae?iae c e?ioey 50-o ?ie?a ? aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo neeaae?a iiaeeo?eiaaieo aaciaaoii?a aoa
iniauaiee iaiao?aeiei onoaoeoaaiiyi aeey caa?aaeaiiy, i?eaiooaaiiy,
o?ainii?ooaaiiy ? aeicoaaiiy aeiaaaie.

Aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny a a?aeiia?aeiino? c
?ic?iaeaiith oaoiieia?/iith ?ino?oeoe??th ia aeaioiaeaiiy ae??aieo
no?iiaeo aeie?a. I?ioyaii 1997-1998 ?.?. ae?iaeaii ? ?aae?ciaaii
niiaeeaa/ai 2,8 oen. i3 aeie?a c na?aaeiueith aonoeiith 70050 ea/i3 ?
ia?eith ca i?oei?noth i?e noeneo ia iaioa 35 (3,5 IIA). Eiio?ieue
ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee iieacaa, ui aeiee a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai
Aea?aenoaiaea?oo 21520-89 “Aeiee ec y/aenouo aaoiiia iaeeea noaiiaua.
Oaoie/aneea oneiaey” ca an?ia oaoi?/ieie iieacieeaie (i?oeiino?,
onaaeee, ii?icino?eeino?).

A caaiaenueeeo oiiaao anoaiiaeaii, ui ??cieoey oaiia?aoo? a aaoiiiiio
ianea? aenioith 60 ni aeey “oieiaeieo” noi?oae c eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith
ia ia?aaeuoaaea 5°N. Eieeaaiue na?aaeiuei? aonoeie aaciaaoiio ii
ai?eciioae? i?aeoe/ii ia niinoa??aaeiny, a ii aa?oeeae? oey ??cieoey
neeaaeaea ia a?eueo ye 15 ea/i3.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aieea eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ENO + NaOH ia o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?
aaciaaoii?a

E?euee?noue ? aeae aeiaaaeeAiaeioaa?aea a?aeiioaiiyOiiae
oaa?ae?iiyNa?aaeiy aonoeia, ea/i3I?oei?noue i?e noeneo,
IIaAiaeiiiaeeiaiiy, %Onaaeea, ii/iEai?ey?ia aniieooaaiiy (%) ca /an o
aeiaao Caeeoeiaa i?oei?noue i?e noeneo (%) i?ney 50 oeeee?a
caii?iaeoaaiiyCaeeoeiaa i?oei?noue (%) i?ney 150 oeeee?a
caieiaeoaaiiy-aenoooaaiiy1-a3-y13360i?e aeaei?i?e noeneo15% aaiia
(aoaeii)0,58I7003,045,72,121,0517,630,845,7-5373I3,145,51,50,8117,231,44
5,5-5675A4,246,60,700,4616,529,446,6826181

Aac
aeiaaaee0,54I7003,441,41,910,8414,422,941,4-5882I3,241,61,340,6714,623,8
41,6-6481A4,642,90,650,4014,422,442,99066920,3% ENO + 0,3%
NaOH0,42I7004,337,41,080,5211,617,637,4937287I4,137,20,860,4811,217,237,
2967587A5,638,40,560,3710,315,038,4958094Oa
naia0,56I4001,147,71,320,6315,621,647,7-4668I1,147,81,010,5815,721,547,8
-4969A1,448,80,620,5114,619,148,8865371I?ei?oea: I, I, A – ii?iaeueia
oaa?ae?iiy, i?iia?thaaiiy (85N) ? aaoieeaaoaaiiy (0,8 IIa) a?aeiia?aeii.

I?e aeei?enoaii? aoaeiiiiai iaieanoeo?eiaaiiai aaciaaoiio c aeiaaaeith
aaiia noi?o i?e caeeaoe? iaea oaiia?aoo?o 40-50°N. I?e oeueiio eieeaaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e ? aonoeie aaoiio ii ia’?io ianeao aeinyaaea a?aeiia?aeii
20-30°N ? 30-40 ea/i3.

Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy neeaaea?
45864 a?eai? (16,38 a?eai? ia i3 aeie?a).

AENIIAEE

1. Oai?aoe/ii e aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui a ?acoeueoao? cieaeaiiy
aiaeiiio?aae ? iiaeeo?eoth/iai aieeao eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ENO + NaOH ia
ii?oieia?th iiaiooai?aiue, ia’?i ? no?oeoo?o ii? eaiaith
oeaiaioii-i?uaieo a’yaeo/eo iiaeia iaea?aeaoe iaaaoieeaai? aaciaaoiie c
oaoi?/ieie iieacieeaie, noi??ieie c ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
aacaeiaaaeiaeo aaoieeaaieo aaoii?a.

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaeaiiy 0,3-0,6% ENO a?ae iane oeaiaioo cieaeo?
oaeaee?noue aaciooai?aiiy a oeaiaioii-i?uaieo noi?oao o 1,6-8 ?ac?a.
Aeiaaaeith NaOH o e?eueeino?, ui aei??aith? ian? ENO, iiaeia ia o?eueee
e?ea?aeoaaoe oea oiia?eueiaiiy, aea ? ca?eueoeoe eiao?oe??io
aeei?enoaiiy aaciooai?thaa/a, caaacia/eaoe i?e oaiia?aoo?? 15-35°N
ii?iaeuei? oa?i?ie (15-40 oa) nio/oaaiiy, caaeainiaai? c ?inoii
ieanoe/ii? i?oeiino? aaoiiiiai ne?oeth. Aeei?enoaiiy “oieiaeieo” noi?oae
aac aaiia ni?ey? iaea?aeaiith a?eueo iaeii??aeiiai ii na?aaei?e aonoei?
aaoiiiiai ianeao.

3. Iieacaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaenii? aeiaaaee ENO + NaOH (0,6-1,2%
a?ae iane oeaiaioo) cieaeo? aiaeiiio?aao aaciaaoiiii? noi?o? ia 30-50%,
i?aeaeuo? nooi?iue a?ae?aoaoe??, i?oei?noue ? aonoeio caoaa?ae?eeo
oeaiaioii-i?uaieo a’yaeo/eo – i?aeii?iaeo ia?aai?iaeie aaciaaoiio.

4. Aiane?aeie cieaeaiiy eai?ey?ii? ii?enoino?, aeenia?niino? ?
i?aee?enoae?/ii? ii?enoino? i?iaeoeo?a oaa?ae?iiy eiiieaenia aeiaaaea
ENO + NaOH nei?i/o? a?aeiia?aeii iai?ioi? ? iaiai?ioi? aeaoi?iaoe??
onaaeee ? iaaooaiiy aaciaaoii?a, iniaeeai iaaaoieeaaieo. ??cieoey a
aaee/eiao iai?ioieo ciaeiia?ai?iieo aeaoi?iaoe?e aaoieeaaieo ?
iaaaoieeaaieo aaciaaoii?a nei?i/o?oueny ? ia ia?aaeuo? 23-40%.

5. Cieaeaiiy aiaeiiio?aae noi?oae aeicaiey? ?ioaineo?eoaaoe i?ioean
oaieiaieia?niiai oaa?ae?iiy aaciaaoii?a. I?e na?aaei?e aonoei? 400-800
ea/i3 i?oei?noue iiaeeo?eiaaieo aaciaaoii?a aaoieeaaiiai oaa?ae?iiy
ca?eueoo?oueny ia 15-31%, a i?iia?aieo — ia 18-35%. Oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino?
i?oeiino? a?ae na?aaeiuei? aonoeie oa aaniethoi? i?oei?ni? iieacieee
iiaeeo?eiaaieo i?iia?aieo aaciaaoii?a a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai,
onoaiiaeaiei Aea?aenoaiaea?oii 25485-89 aeey aaoieeaaieo i?cae?thaaoeo
aaoii?a a?aeiia?aeieo ia?ie ca na?aaeiueith aonoeiith.

6. Eiiieaenia aeiaaaea ENO + NaOH ciaioo? a?aee?eoo ii?eno?noue ?
na?aaei?e ?ici?? i?aee?enoae?/ieo ? eai?ey?ieo ii?, i?aeaeuo? /anoeo
oiiaii caieiooeo ii? i?aeii?iaeo ia?aai?iaeie. A ?acoeueoao? oeueiai
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?noioia cieaeaiiy aaniethoii? aaee/eie ? oaeaeeino?
eai?ey?iiai aniieooaaiiy, ca?eueoothoueny iia?o?i- ? ii?icino?ee?noue
aaciaaoii?a.

7. Aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeeo?eiaaieo aaciaaoii?a ia
iniia? noi?oae iecueei? aiaeiiio?aae iieacaei ?o oaoiieia?/i?noue,
i?aeaeuaio iaeii??aei?noue o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae,
a?aeiia?aei?noue ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaaaoieeaaieo no?iiaeo aeie?a ?c
na?aaeiueith aonoeiith 700 ea/i3 oaoi?/iei iieacieeai, ia?aaeaa/aiei
Aea?aenoaiaea?oaie 25485-89 ? 21520-89 aei i?cae?thaaoeo aaoii?a
aaoieeaaiiai oaa?ae?iiy. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae cai?ie aaoieeaaii?
ia?iaee i?iia?thaaiiyi neeaaea? 45864 a?eai? (16,38 a?i./i3 aeie?a).

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaiee a ianooiieo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Ao?aiia A.I., Aeue-Oaine O.A. Aiaei?anoai?eiua uaei/iua aeiaaaee –
yooaeoeaiua ?aaoeyoi?u nei?inoe anio/eaaiey aaciaaoiiia // Aanoiee
AeAANA. – 1995. – ? 1. – N.106-108.

2. Aeue-Oaine O.A. Aeeyiea aeiaaaee “eeaiinoeueoiiao + aeae?ieneae
iao?ey” ia naienoaa caoaa?aeaaoeo oeaiaioii-ian/aiuo iano e aaciaaoiiia
ia eo iniiaa // Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ai?iaeia. – Oa?ueeianeay
ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey ai?iaeneiai oicyenoaa: Iao/i.-oaoi. na. Aui.
11. – E.: Oaoieea, 1997. – N.67-69.

3. Ao?aiia A.I., Aeue-Oaine O.A. Aeeyiea eiiieaeniie ieanoeoeoee?othuae
aeiaaaee ia eaieeey?iue iiaenin aaciaaoiiia // Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu
no?ieoaeuenoaa. – Aeiiaoee: Oe?aeineay ainoaea?noaaiiay no?ieoaeueiay
ei?ii?aoeey “Oe?no?ie”, Aeiiaoeeee I?iino?ieIEEi?iaeo. – 1997. – N.78.

4. Ao?aiia A.I., Aeue-Oaine O.A. N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea aeaaeiinoiuo
aeaoi?iaoeee ieanoeoeoee?iaaiiiai aaciaaoiia, oaa?aeathuaai a ?acee/iuo
oneiaeyo // Nia?aiaiiua i?iaeaiu no?ieoaeuenoaa. – Aeiiaoee: Oe?aeineay
ainoaea?noaaiiay no?ieoaeueiay ei?ii?aoeey “Oe?no?ie”, Aeiiaoeeee
I?iino?ieIEEi?iaeo. – 1997. – N.84-85.

5. Aeue-Oaine O.A., Ao?aiia A.I. Aeeyiea aeiaaaie eeaiinoeueoiiaoa e
aeae?ieneaea iao?ey ia no?oeoo?o e naienoaa caoaa?aeaaoeo
oeaiaioii-ian/aiuo iano // Aanoiee AeAANA. – 1998. – ? 1 (9). – N.24-27.

6. Aeue-Oaine O.A., Ao?aiia A.I., *o?nei N.E. Aacaaoieeaaiue aaciaaoii
ia iniiaa eaa?oeaaiai e aa?oaiiiai ianeia ?anioaeeee Eaiai // O?oaeu
Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea e yeieiaey i?iiuoeaiiiai ?aaeiia”.
– Oii 1. – Iaeaaaea: 1995. – N.68.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aeue-Oain? O.A.N. Iiaeeo?eiaai? iaaaoieeaai? aaciaaoiie ia iniia?
noi?oae iecueei? aiaeiiio?aae. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.05 – Aoae?aaeuei? iaoa??aee oa ae?iae. –
Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, Iae??aea,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia oai?aoe/iiio ? aenia?eiaioaeueiiio
aeine?aeaeaiith aaciaaoii?a, ui iiaeeo?eoaaeeny eiiieaeniith aeiaaaeith
e?aiinoeueoiiaoo oaoi?/iiai+a?ae?ieneaeo iao??th. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea
aeiaaaie ia e?iaoeeo aaciooai?aiiy ? c?inoaiiy ieanoe/ii? i?oeiino?
aaoiiiiai ne?oeth, o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?, neeaae i?iaeoeo?a
oaa?ae?iiy oeaiaioii-i?uaieo iano. Aea/ai? oaoiieia?/i? ?
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? (i?oei?noue, onaaeea-iaaooaiiy, eai?ey?ia
aniieooaaiiy, iia?o?i- oa ii?icino?ee?noue) oaiei?cieyoe?eieo ?
oaiei?cieyoe?eii-eiino?oeoe?eieo aaoieeaaieo oa iaaaoieeaaieo
aaciaaoii?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ?aae?ciaaii i?ae /an
aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ae??aieo no?iiaeo aeie?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaciaaoii, noi?o iecueei? aiaeiiio?aae, eiiieaenia
iiaeeo?eoth/a aeiaaaea, oaoiieia?/i? ? aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino?.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aeue-Oaine O.A.N. Iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiua iaaaoieeaaiua aaciaaoiiu ia iniiaa
nianae ieceie aiaeiiio?aaiinoe. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.05 – No?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e ecaeaeey. –
Aeiiaanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa e a?oeoaeoo?u,
Iaeaaaea, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oai?aoe/aneiio e yenia?eiaioaeueiiio
enneaaeiaaieth oaieiecieyoeeiiiuo e oaieiecieyoeeiiii-eiino?oeoeeiiiuo
iaaaoieeaaiuo aaciaaoiiia, iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eiiieaeniie aeiaaaeie
eeaiinoeueoiiaoa oaoie/aneiai + aeae?ieneaea iao?ey (ENO + NaOH) e
oa?aeoa?ecothueony ea/anoaaiiuie iieacaoaeyie, aeeceeie e naienoaai
aiaeiae/iiai aacaeiaaai/iiai aaoieeaaiiai aaciaaoiia.

Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea aeiaaaie ENO e NaOH ia aiaeiiio?aaiinoue
oeaiaioii-ian/aiuo eiiiiceoeee, eeiaoeeo aaciia?aciaaiey e ?ino
ieanoe/aneie i?i/iinoe aaoiiiiai nu?oea. Iieacaii, /oi i?e n?aaeieo e
iiauoaiiuo aeice?iaeao eiiieaeniie aeiaaaee ENO e NaOH aiaeiiio?aaiinoue
aaciaaoiiiuo nianae iiieaeaaony ia 30-50%. Aeiaaaea iaania/eaaao
ii?iaeueiua, naaeaine?iaaiiua iaaeaeo niaie, nei?inoe anio/eaaiey e
?inoa ieanoe/aneie i?i/iinoe aaciaaoiiiiai nu?oea, oi?ioaiiai ec
“oieiaeiuo” aaoiiiuo nianae n oaiia?aoo?ie 15-35°N, aac eniieueciaaiey
ecaanoe. A ?acoeueoaoa nieaeaiey aiaeiiio?aaiinoe ieioiinoue
caoaa?aeaaoeo oeaiaioii-ian/aiuo iano (iaaeii?iaua ia?aai?iaeee
aaciaaoiiia) aic?anoaao ia 16-24%, eo aiaeiiiaeiuaiea nieaeaaony ia
37-50%, i?aaeae i?i/iinoe aaciaaoiiia i?e naeaoee oaaee/eaaaony ia
15-35%.

Aiaeec eeoa?aoo?iuo aeaiiuo, ?acoeueoaou eaei?eiao?e/aneeo,
?aioaaiioaciauo e aea?eaaoia?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee aeeyiey aeiaaaie
ENO e NaOH ia ninoaa i?iaeoeoia oaa?aeaiey oeaiaioii-ian/aiuo iano
iicaieeee caeeth/eoue, /oi eiiieaeniay aeiaaaea ENO + NaOH iiieaeaao
ia?anuuaiea aeeaeeie oacu aeae?aoe?othuaainy ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa ii Na2+.
Ca n/ao iaeiiaaeaioiuo eaoeiiia iao?ey i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaiae eenei?iaea
e?aiiaeeneiou a iaiinoeeiaoth oi?io, ae?iayony e?aiiaeenei?iaeiua
aieiiu. Iineaaeiea noaiiayony aieaa iiaeaeaeiuie e aieaa niiniaiuie e
iieiiio acaeiiaeaenoaeth n eaoeiiaie eaeueoeey. Yoi oeo/oaao oneiaey
e?enoaeeecaoeee aeae?ineeeeaoia e aeae?ieneaea eaeueoeey, a ?acoeueoaoa
ia?acothony aieaa oii?yaei/aiiua e e?oiiua e?enoaeeu. Oaeia eciaiaiea
ii?oieiaee i?iaeoeoia oaa?aeaiey, a oaeaea nouanoaaiiia oiaiueoaiea
eaieeey?iie e iaaee?enoaeee/aneie ii?enoinoe caoaa?aeaaoeo
oeaiaioii-ian/aiuo iano n eiiieaeniie aeiaaaeie ENO + NaOH yaeyaony
i?e/eiie cia/eoaeueiiai nie?auaiey ia?aoeiuo e iaia?aoeiuo onaaeee e
iaaooaiey aaoiia iaaeii?iauo ia?aai?iaeie. N?aaieoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey
iaaaoieeaaiuo aaciaaoiiia n eiiieaeniie aeiaaaeie ENO + NaOH e
aacaeiaaai/iiai aaciaaoiia aaoieeaaiiai oaa?aeaiey ia
oeaiaioii-ecaanoeiaii ayaeouai iieacaee, /oi eo onaaeea e iaaooaiea,
iniaaiii ia?aoeiua, i?aeoe/anee niecia?eiu.

Eiiieaeniay aeiaaaea ENO + NaOH iiieaeaao ioe?uooth ii?enoinoue,
oiaiueoaao n?aaeiee ?acia? eaieeey?ia, iiauoaao aeieth oneiaii caieioouo
ii? aaoiia iaaeii?iauo ia?aai?iaeie. Yoi niinianoaoao nouanoaaiiiio
nieaeaieth eaieeey?iiai iiaenina, iiauoaieth aicaeooi- e ii?icinoieeinoe
aaciaaoiiia.

Eiiieaeniay aeiaaaea ENO + NaOH iicaieyao nie?aoeoue aeeeoaeueiinoue
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie auaea?aeee aaciaaoiiiiai nu?oea ia?aae
oaieiaeaaeiinoiie ia?aaioeie, eioaineoeoee?iaaoue iaa?aa e oiaiueoeoue
a?aiy ecioa?ie/aneie auaea?aeee aaoiia eae i?e i?iia?eaaiee, oae e i?e
aaoieeaae?iaaiee. I?eiaiaiea “oieiaeiuo” aaciaaoiiiuo nianae
niinianoaoao iieo/aieth aieaa iaeii?iaeiiai ii n?aaeiae ieioiinoe
aaoiiiiai ianneaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaciaaoii, nianue ieceie aiaeiiio?aaiinoe, eiiieaeniay
iiaeeoeoee?othuay aeiaaaea, oaoiieiae/aneea e yenieoaoaoeeiiiua
naienoaa.

THE SUMMARY

Al-Shumsi Khaled Ali Saeed. Modified gas concretes on the basis of
mixtures with low water demand. – Manuscript.

The thesis for competiting the candidate’s degree on the speciality
05.23.05. Building Materials and Products. – Donbass State Academy of
Civil Engineering and Architecture, Iakeyavka, 1999.

The thesis is devoted theoretical and experimental research of gas
concretes, modified by the complex additive of lignosulphonate + sodium
hydroxide. There was investigated the influence of the additives on
kinetics of gas and growth of plastic durability concrete raw,
physical-mechanical properties, composition of hardening products of
cement-sandy pastes. There were studied technological and operational
properties (durability, shrinkage-swelling, capillary inflow, air and
frost resistance) insulating and insulating-constructional autoclaved
and non autoclaved gas concretes. The results of work were realized
during development-industrial production of small-sized building blocks.

Key words: gas concrete, mixture with low water demand, complex
modifying additive, technological and operational properties.

Похожие записи