IAeANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss OIEIAeO

Ionnao? Oonnaei Ae?

OAeE 621.560+57:536.48

IIAeAETHAAIIss OA?IIAeEIAI?*IEO I?IOeAN?A

CAII?IAEOAAIIss OA IAACAIAeIAIIss A?IEIA?*IEO

IA’?EO?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.04.03- Oieiaeeeueia oa e??iaaiia oaoi?ea,

nenoaie eiiaeeoe?thaaiiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana – 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? oieiaeo I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaco? A?eoi?
Ieaenaiae?iae/ – Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oieiaeo, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?ith oa?iiaeeiai?ee, i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe :

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ia?? A’y/aneaa
Aiae??eiae/ – Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oieiaeo, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?ith e??iaaiii? oaoi?ee, eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie;

Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Iinoeoeueeee Aiae??e Aaneeueiae/ — III “Aei?i?i – IOI”, i. Ee?a,
aaia?aeueiee aee?aeoi?.

Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e ?i. I.A. Eiiiiiniaa
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 29 ” aa?aniy 1999 a. ia 11
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 41.087.01 i?e
Iaeanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? oieiaeo (IAeAO) ca aae?anith:
270026, i. Iaeana, aoe. Aeai?yinueea, 1/3

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? IAeAO ca aae?anith:

i. Iaeana, aoe. Aeai?yinueea, 1/3

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 28 na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I?eoeueoei ?.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. I?ioeane caii?iaeoaaiiy oa caacaiaeiaiiy
a?ieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a i?eaa?oathoue oaaao aaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a o
aaeoc? e??iaaiii? oaoi?ee, e??iiaaeeoeeie oa e??ia?ieia??.
Oa?iiaeeiai?/i? i?ioeane, aea a?aeaoaa?oueny caii?iaeoaaiiy oa
caacaiaeiaiiy ee?oeiieo ia(?eo?a, oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoueny ? aeey
caa??aaiiy (iai?eeeaae, a?eo?ioeeo?a aai ee?oei ?ia?aee iea), ?
aeano?oeoe?? ( e??io??o?a?/i? iia?aoe??) a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a.
E??ieiina?aoaaiiy ? iniiaiei iaoiaeii, ui aeicaiey? caa??aaoe
aeeoo?caeaoi? a?ieia?/i? iaoa??aee aeey iaaee/ieo oa ?ioeo oe?eae
i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano. Aeey no/anieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy, iai?eeeaae
aaiiiiaoe/ieie aia??iiaeueieie ee?oeiaie (AAE), e??ieiina?aoaaiiy ?
iacai?iiei, ine?eueee ia?aae aeei?enoaiiyi ye e?eoaaeueiiai i?aia?aoo
ee?oeie ? oeaieie iathoue i?ioiaeeoe o?eaaea ( aei e?eueeio i?nyoe?a )
oanooaaiiy aeey aeyaeaiiy aaeoa??e oa a??on?a. ?iaioe oeueiai iai?yieo,
ui i?iaiaeyoueny i?ioyaii inoaii?o aeanyoe??/ ia Oe?a?i?, i?eaaee aei
cia/ieo oni?o?a ia na?oiaiio ??ai?.

I?iaeaie, ui aeieeathoue ia oeyoo oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy
iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo iaoiae?a, coiiaeai? oaeiae ??ciiiai?oi?noth oei?a
ee?oei, ye? i?aeaeathoue e??ieiina?aoaaiith, oa a?aeii caaaeueii?
oai???, ui aeicaiey? ?ica(ycaoe i?iaeaie aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeio
caii?iaeoaaiiy oa iioeiaeueii? eiioeaio?aoe?? e??ii?ioaeoi?a. Aeey
?ica(ycaiiy caaea/ ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaeeo i?ioean?a, aeey ?ic?iaee iiaeo
onoaiiaie ? oaoiieia?e iaiao?aeia a??ia?aeia oa aeieeaaeia ?ioi?iaoe?y
i?i oa?iiaeeiai?/io ? oaciao iiaaae?ieo ee?oeiieo ?a/iaei, oiaoi i?i
iiaeeea? a nenoai? oacia? ia?aoiaee oa iine?aeiaiino? ?o cae?eniaiiy.

Iaea?eueo iaae?eiee niin?a iaea?aeaiiy aeaieo – aenia?eiaioaeueiee, ui
iia(ycaiee c aaeeeeie aeo?aoaie iaoa??aeueieo ? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a.
Aiane?aeie oeueiai o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao e?aua iiaeaethaaoe aeanoeaino?
ee?oeiieo ia(?eo?a ? i?ioeane a ieo. Oeae iaoiae aeicaiey? iioe?eoe
?acoeueoaoe, ui ?, ia ?io? oiiae /e ia(?eoe c aeinoaoi?i nooiaiai
a??ia?aeiino? i?e a?aeiinii iaaaeeeeo aeo?aoao. Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?iaea
iniia iiaeaethaaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a caii?iaeoaaiiy ?
caacaiaeiaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a ? aeooaeueiith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith
caaea/ath. Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny ??
aaciina?aaei?i ca(yceii c i?iaeaiaie ? iio?aaaie, ui ni?e/eiththoueny
aei iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ia no/aniiio aoai?.

Ca(ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioo aeeiiaii
a?aeiia?aeii aei i?ia?aie ooiaeaiaioaeueieo oa i?eeeaaeieo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (aea?aeathaeaeaoi? oaie: IE
97/1. “?ic?iaea iaoiaeieia?/ieo iniia noai?aiiy iaaeeei-a?ieia?/iiai
iaeaaeiaiiy aeey eiina?aaoe??”- ? aea?ae. ?a?no?. 0197V010041; IE 97/15.
“Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaciaeo ae?aa?ai ??aeeiieo ?ic/ei?a oa iaoiaee iiooeo
??aeei c iaia?aae caaeaieie oa?iiaeeiai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie” -? aea?ae.
?a?no?. 0197V010051).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaia iaoa aeena?oaoe?? iieyaaea a
?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ieo iniia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a e??ieiina?aoaaiiy
oa e??iaeano?oeoe?? ia i?e?i- ? iae?i??aiyo ( a?ae ie?aiiai ee?oeiiiai
ia(?eoa aei i?aai?a /e ?o /anoei) oa aeei?enoaii? ?ic?iaeaieo iiaeaeae
aei ?ica(ycaiiy i?yieo ? cai?ioieo caaea/ aca?iiae?? e??iciiaea c
a?ieia?/iei ia(?eoii.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe noi?ioeueiaaii oa ?ica(ycaii oae?
iniiai? caaea/?:

aiae?c oei?a ? noai?aiiy ocaaaeueiaii? iiaeae? oaciai? iiaaae?iee
ee?oeiieo eiei?aeieo nenoai;

oa?iiaeeiai?/ia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a caii?iaeoaaiiy oa aiaeiiai?io
a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a c iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai i?e eieaeueieo
e??iae?yo;

noai?aiiy o?aeoaeueii? iiaeae? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o
iae?ineii?/ieo a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eoao, ui a?aeia?aaea? ai?cio?iiiee
oa?aeoa? ?aaeueieo ee?oeiieo no?oeoo?;

?icaeoie iaoiae?a iioeiaeueiiai ea?oaaiiy ia?aiao?aie ciai?oiuei? ae??
( iai?eeeaae, oaiia?aoo?ith, neeaaeii, ?I, iniioe/iei oeneii ) aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ioean?a caii?iaeoaaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa
i?iaaaeaii iiaeaethaaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a caii?iaeoaaiiy oa
caacaiaeiaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a ia i?e?i- oa iae?i??aiyo c
o?aooaaiiyi oaciai? iiaaae?iee aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio ia
i?aenoaa? e?iaoe/ii? iiaeae? ? aeiaaeueieo oaciaeo ae?aa?ai; aia?oa
i?iaaaeaii iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a caii?iaeoaaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a
ye o?aeoaeueieo i?ioean?a o nooo?ai iaiaeii??aeieo na?aaeiaeuao.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, oi?ioeththoueny oae:

Ei?aeoiee ia?ao?ae a?ae iiaieo oaciaeo ae?aa?ai aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo
?ic/ei?a ? eiei?ae?a aei aeiaaeueii? oaciai? ae?aa?aie iiaeaeueii?
noi?o? aeicaiey? ?noioii ni?inoeoe caaea/o iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeano
e??iaaiiiai caii?iaeoaaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a ?, ye iane?aeie,
aeicaiey? aoaeoeaii ea?oaaoe oeei i?ioeanii;

I?ioean iioe?aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a i?e e??iae?yo ia iae?ineii?/i?
(aaaaoiee?oeii?) a?ieia?/i? ia(?eoe iineoue o?aeoaeueiee oa?aeoa?,
o?aooaaiiy yeiai a?aeaeaa? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a ?
i?eaiaeeoue aei a?eueo ei?aeoiiai iieno oaeeo i?ioean?a ii??aiyii c
o?aaeeoe?eieie iaoiaeaie.

Aeinoia??i?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue ? ?acoeueoao?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
ei?aeoi?noth i?iaaaeaieo iaoaiaoe/ieo aeeeaaeie, ii??aiyiiyi c
?acoeueoaoaie iiia?aaei?o i?aoeue, iioae?eiaaieie a e?oa?aoo??,
aca?iiith ocaiaeaeai?noth ? ianoia?a/eea?noth, i?aeoaa?aeaeaieie /?oeith
ocaiaeaeai?noth ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai? a aeena?oaoe??
iiaeae? e iaoiaee cia/ii ?icoe?ththoue eean a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a, aeey
yeeo iiaeeeaee iien i?ioean?a e??iaaiiiai caii?iaeoaaiiy oa
caacaiaeiaiiy. Ia i?aenoaa? cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiae?a ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aiia
caaacia/aiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo oaciaeo ??aiiaaa, iiaeaethaaiiy
oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o o?aeoaeueieo na?aaeiaeuao. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
iathoue ooiaeaiaioaeueiee ?ioa?an aeey ?iaeaia??a ? aeine?aeiee?a, ui
i?aoeththoue o aaeoc? e??iaaiii? oaoi?ee oa ?? canoinoaaiiy o
e??ia?ieia?? ? e??iiaaeeoeei?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a ?iaioe, ui iaienai? o ni?aaaoi?noa?,
oaeee. Iniaenoi aeena?oaioii aeeiiaii aaeaioaoe?th iaiao?aeieo
i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?aiieo cania?a, iniiaio /anoeio ?ic?aooie?a, ii??aiyiiy
c iayaieie aenia?eiaioaeueieie ? iiaeaeueieie e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie,
oi?ioethaaiiy iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue ? aeniiae?a. Ie?ai? aoaie ?iaioe
i?iaiaeeeeny c ?ioeie iaoeiaeie ?ia?oieeaie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeaii ia oaeeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo: “Canoinoaaiiy
ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee ? iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy o i?eeeaaeieo
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo”, IAeIO. Iaeana 1995 – aeiiia?aeue “Eeiaoeea
i?ioeannia no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee a aeieiae/aneeo iauaeoao ”; “Oai??y ?
i?aeoeea aoc?anueei? iaoee”, IAeAO, Iaeana, 1995 – aeiiia?aeue
“Iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeannia aicaeaenoaey oieiaea ia aeieiae/aneea oeaie”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Aaoi? iioae?eoaaa 3 noaoo? ( 1 aac ni?aaaoi??a) ca oaiith
aeena?oaoe?? a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao c ia?ae?eo, caoaa?aeaeaiiai AAE
Oe?a?ie. Nienie oaeeo ?ia?o oi?uaii a e?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo. Oace 2-o
aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo oaeiae iioae?eiaai?.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
/ioe?ueio aeaa, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? i?noeoue 129
noi??iie, 40 ?enoie?a, 2 oaaeeoe?. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae aeeth/a?
104 iaeiaioaaiiy.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, noi?ioeueiaaii
oe?e? ? caaea/? ?iaioe, aeeeaaeaii iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe, ui
aeianai? aei caoenoo, iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i iaoeiao iiaecio, i?aeoe/io
oe?ii?noue, ai?iaaoe?th ?iaioe, aecia/aii iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a
aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy uiaei iiaeaethaaiiy oaciai?
iiaaae?iee ee?oeiieo eiei?aeieo nenoai. ?icaeyioo? no/ani? oyaeaiiy i?i
no?oeoo?e ? neeaae ee?oeie oa aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai oeth?aeo. I?iaaaeaii
aiae?c iiaii? oaciai? ae?aa?aie iiaeaeueiiai aeenia?n?eiiai na?aaeiaeua
ee?oeiieo eiei?ae?a. Iieacaii ?? ca(ycie c ?ioeie oeiaie iiaieo oaciaeo
ae?aa?ai iiaea?eieo ? iio??eieo nenoai. ?icaeyiooi oeie oaciai?
iiaaae?iee oeth?ae?a, ui iaeaaeaoue aei eeano ?a/iaei, ye? noaiiaeyoue
aioo??oiueiee?oeii? noi?o?.. Aeeeaaeaii iaoiae aeiaaeueieo oaciaeo
ae?aa?ai, aeei?enoiaoaaiee aeey eeaneo?eaoe?? oaciaeo ae?aa?ai
oeth?aeieo noi?oae oa aeey iiooeo ?a/iaei c iaia?aae caaeaieie
aeanoeainoyie. I?iaeaiiino?iaaia oa?iiaeeiai?/ia aiaeia?y c oi/ee ci?o
aaiaceno aaoaeoe/ieo oa aaoa?iacaio?iiieo ??aiiaaa o a?ia?ieo noi?oao.
Iai??eiaaia aiaeia?y i?ae iiaaae?ieith e?eoe/ieo e?i?e ??aiiaaae
??aeeia-??aeeia i?e aenieeo oeneao oa e?i?e oaa?ae?iiy. Noi?ioeueiaaii
i?eioeeie ia?aoiaeo a?ae iiaieo oaciaeo ae?aa?ai aei aeiaaeueii? oaciai?
ae?aa?aie iiaeaeueii? nenoaie c oi/ee ci?o oi?aae?iiy oaciaith
iiaaae?ieith. Iieacaii, ui iniiaia /anoeia aeenia?n?eieo na?aaeiaeu
ee?oeiieo eiei?ae?a iiaea aooe ca?aoiaaia aei i?inoiai oeio oaciai?
iiaaae?iee, yeee niinoa??aa?oueny a nenoaiao c iaeiei eaoeei ? aeaiia
iaeaoeeie eiiiiiaioaie aac ?icoa?iaoaaiiy a ??aee?e oac?. Oea aeicaiey?
ia??oiooaaoe ia?ao?ae aei iiaeaethaaiiy oaeeo nenoai o eieaeueiiio
ae?aiacii? oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a ia iniia? eaac?a?ia?iiai
i?aeoiaeo. C ae?oaiai aieo, ciaiiy iniiaieo iniaeeainoae oaciai?
iiaaae?iee aea? iiaeeea?noue noi?ioethaaoe e?eoa??? aeey iiooeo
i?aeoiaeeo e??ii?ioaeoi??a, caeaoieo ci?ieoe oaciao iiaaae?ieo nenoaie o
caaeaiiio iai?yieo. ?icaeyiooi oaeiae o?eaa?i? iaoai?cie ooai?aiiy iiaeo
oac o i?ioeanao caii?iaeoaaiiy, aieea aonoeie ?ic/eio, ci?ie
eiioeaio?aoe?? nie? e aeiaaaie ia oe? iaoai?cie.

Neeaae iiaeaeueii? eiei?aeii? nenoaie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ai?noii o
na?aaeiueiio (%): aiaee — 75-85, a?eea – 10-20, e?i?ae?a – 2-3,
iai?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei – 1. Aeey aeayeeo oei?a ee?oei /anoea aiaee, ui
ooai?th? aioo??oiueiee?oeiiee ?ic/ei ? caeaoia a?aoe o/anoue o ia?aiin?,
iiaea aooe cia/ii iaioa, iai?eeeaae, aeey a?eo?ioeeo?a aiia neeaaea?
63,15%, ai 11,6% a?aenioea aioo??oiueiee?oeiii? aiaee a a?eo?ioeeoao
ia?aaoaa? o ca(ycaiiio noai? c aaiiaeia?iii. A?aeiia?aeii, o iiae?aieo
aeiaaeeao eiioeaio?aoe?y ?ic/eiaieo nieae iiaea aooe aeua ii??aiyii c
oeacaiith ?ai?oa aaee/eiith. Aiane?aeie oeueiai iniiai? oacia? yaeua i?e
ioieiaeaeaii? oa caii?iaeoaaii? a?ieia?/ieo i?e?iia(?eo?a
aaciina?aaeiuei, ? a ia?oo /a?ao, iia(ycai? c oaciaith iiaaae?ieith
aeenia?n?eiiai na?aaeiaeua, oiaoi oa?aeoa?ieo aeey aeeaeo nenoai
aiaeii-nieueiaeo ?ic/ei?a. Iiaaae?iea oeeo aiaeii-nieueiaeo ?ic/ei?a
iiaea a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae cae/aeii? /a?ac iayai?noue o eiei?aei?e nenoai?
?ic/eiaieo i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei. Oey naia aeanoea?noue iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaia aeey ea?oaaiiy oaciaith iiaaae?ieith ee?oeiieo eiei?ae?a
aeiaeaaaiiyi oeo /e ?ioeo ?a/iaei o nenoaio. A oe?eiio, ciaiiy
oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a oaciai? iiaaae?iee ee?oeiiiai na?aaeiaeua ?
i?eioeeiiaei ? aeey canoinoaaiiy e?iaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, ui iienothoue
i?ioeane caacaiaeiaiiy ee?oeie i?e caii?iaeoaaii? ? i?ioeane
e?enoae?caoe?? ana?aaeei? ee?oeie.

Aeiaaeuei? oacia? ae?aa?aie a?aeia?aaeathoue ae?eyiee ?nioaaiiy ??cieo
oei?a oaciai? iiaaae?iee o i?inoi?? ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? eiiiiiaio?a
oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? nenoaie. Iaea?aeaaoe aeiaaeueio oaciao ae?aa?aio,
iiaeia ia?aaeaa/aoe iniiai? iniaeeaino? oaciai? iiaaae?iee aeaii?
eiie?aoii? nenoaie aai i?ae?a?aoe ca iio??aieie ia?aiao?aie
i?aeiieaeoey?ii? aca?iiae?? eiiiiiaio nenoaie, yeee caaacia/eoue
iaia?aae caaeaio oaciao iiaaae?ieo.

A canoinoaaii? aei i?iaeai caii?iaeoaaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a i?aeo?ae
c aeei?enoaiiyi aeiaaeueieo oaciaeo ae?aa?ai aeicaiey? ia??oiooaaoe
iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a oaciai? iiaaae?iee iica-
oa aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo ?ic/ei?a, iaiao?aeieo aeey aaeeaaiiy e?iaoe/ieo
iiaeaeae. Cie?aia, oaciaa iiaaae?iea aiaeii-nieueiaeo nenoai o
ae?aiacii? eiioeaio?aoe?e, niinoa?aaeoaaia o aeeaeo nenoaiao, iiaea aooe
iienaia a ?aieao eiioeaioe?? eaac?a?ia?ieo ?ic/ei?a, oiaoi cai?iith a
oa?iiaeeiai?/iiio ?icaeyae? aiaee ? nie? ia aoaeoeaio ?a/iaeio c iaaieie
ia?aiao?aie e?eoe/ii? oi/ee oa iieaeoey?iith aaaith, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/eiaii? nie?. Oea aeicaiey? ni?inoeoe aeei?enoiaoaaiee
oi?iae?ci oa cina?aaeeoeny ia aieea? i?aai?/ieo /e ?ioeo aeiaaaie ia
oaciao iiaaae?ieo aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio, ui aaciina?aaeiuei
iaaeeaea? iiaeeea?noue iiooeo iioeiaeueiiai e??ii?ioaeoi?a ?, oaeei
/eiii, ?ica(ycaiiy caaea/? iioeiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii
caii?iaeoaaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a.

Ia?ao?ae aei eaac?a?ia?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aaco?oueny ia oiio oaeo?, ui
a?eueo?noue nenoai oeio H2O+NaCl+O (aea O – oea e??ii?ioaeoi? aai ?ioa
aeiaaaea, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey ea?oaaiiy oaciaith iiaaae?ieith)
iaeaaeeoue aei oeio iio??eieo nenoai. Oae? nenoaie iaeaaeaoue o no/ani?e
eeaneo?eaoe?? aei nenoai c iaeiei eaoeei ? aeaiia iaeaoeeie eiiiiiaioaie
( A.I. Aaeyoei, 1990). sse eaoeee eiiiiiaio aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai
na?aaeiaeua aenooia? aiaea. N?eue ? iaeaoeei eiiiiiaioii. Ae?oaei
iaeaoeei eiiiiiaioii iiaea aooe e??ii?ioaeoi? ( ae?oea?ei,
aeeiaoeenoeueoieneae oa ?i.) aai ?ioa n?eue, iai?eeeaae EN1. sse
aeieeaa? c aiae?co oiiieia?? oaciai? ae?aa?aie nenoai aeaiiai oeio,
nenoaie iathoue e?i?th iio??eii? aaoaeoeee, ui ?icoaoiaaia i?e ieae/eo
oaiia?aoo?ao, i?ae aaoaeoeea a?ia?ii? nenoaie aiaea-n?eue, a ea?oth/a
aeiaaaea ia ci?ith? aeo?aeiiai oeio oaciai? iiaaae?iee nenoaie
aiaea-n?eue. Oaeei /eiii, ae?y aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai e??ii?ioaeoi?a
iieyaa? o ci?uaii? ieaeiuei? oi/ee caia?caiiy ?ic/eio a a?e ieae/eo
oaiia?aoo?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iaoiaee oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
i?ioean?a caii?iaeoaaiiy oa caacaiaeiaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a ia
ee?oeiiiio ??ai?. A iniia? cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo eaaeaoue iiaeae?
oaciai? iiaaae?iee ee?oeiieo eiei?ae?a, ui ?icaeyioo? a iiia?aaei?e
aeaa?. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c iniiaieo oei?a a?ieia?/ieo i?e?iia(?eo?a,
?icaeyiooi ?o eeaneo?eaoe?th ca oeiii iaae? ?icae?eo, neeaaeo oa
eiioeaio?aoe?? aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo i?aaiae, ca e?iaoeeith i?io?eaiiy
i?ioean?a caii?iaeoaaiiy. Aeeeaaeaii aieiai? i?eioeeie, ui eaaeaoue a
iniia? iiaeae? Iaco?a ( P. Mazur, 1963), ?icaeyiooi ?? no/ani?
iiaeeo?eaoe??. Ia i?aenoaa? oe??? iiaeae? c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeaeae oaciai?
iiaaae?iee i?iaaaeaii iiaeaethaaiiy ii?iaa eueiaeiooai?aiiy oa ae?aa?ai
noaio aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai oeth?aeo caeaaeii a?ae oaiio ioieiaeaeaiiy,
iayaiino? e??ii?ioaeoi?a aai ?ioeo aeiaaaie aeey iniiaieo oei?a
a?iia(?eo?a ia ee?oeiiiio ??ai?.

Aiae?c i?ioeano caii?iaeoaaiiy oa caacaiaeiaiiy aeeaeo ee?oei aai ?ioeo
a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a iniiaaiee ia iiaeae?, yeo aia?oa cai?iiiioaaa Iaco?
(P. Mazur, 1963) ? yeo iio?i aoei iiaea?i?ciaaii o ianooiieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo (O.M.Silvares et al.,1975; G.R.Ling, C.L.Tien, 1970).
?icaeyaeoaaia a iiaeae? nenoaia neeaaea?oueny c ee?oeie oa ??
aaciina?aaeiueiai ioi/aiiy. I?e/eia ao?aoe aiaee ee?oeiith i?e
caii?iaeoaaii? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a ?acoeueoao? a?aeaiaeo oaiea c
ioi/oth/iai ee?oeio na?aaeiaeua ii?ooo?oueny oa?iiaeeiai?/ia ??aiiaaaa,
? aiaea i?ae ae??th ??cieoe? o?i?/ieo iioaioe?ae?a iica oa ana?aaeei?
ee?oeie aeo?ea? c aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai i?inoi?o. O a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
ea?oeia oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae cia/ii oneeaaeith?oueny iayai?noth
?ic/eiaieo o aiae? nieae oa ?ioeo ?a/iaei, ye? i?e iaaiiio nooiai?
eiioeaio?aoe?? aiane?aeie caacaiaeiaiiy ee?oeie iiaeooue i?ecaiaeeoe aei
iaiai?ioieo o?i?/ieo ci?i o ee?oei? oa ao?ao? ?? aeeoo?caeaoiino?.

Oeacaiee oaeoi? aeicaiey? iiynieoe oa?aeoa?io U -iiae?aio caeaaei?noue
/anoee caaeaeeo i?e caii?iaeoaaii? ee?oei a?ae oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy.
Iayai?noue oaei? caeaaeiino? na?ae/eoue i?i ?nioaaiiy iioeiaeueii?
oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy, eiee i?e ?ioeo iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao caaeia
iaeiaioa e?euee?noue ee?oei. I/aaeaeii, ui aaeee? oaeaeeino?
ioieiaeaeaiiy i?ecaiaeyoue aei aeno?iai ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy
aioo??oiueiee?oeiiiai i?inoi?o. Iane?aeeii oeueiai ? e?enoae?caoe?y
oeeoiieacie oa iioeiaeaeaiiy e?enoaeaie eueiaeo ee?oeiieo no?oeoo?
(“aioo??oiueiee?oeiia caia?caiiy”). C ae?oaiai aieo, i?e ioieiaeaeaii?
c? oaeaeeinoyie, ieae/eie ca iioeiaeueio, aioo??oiueiee?oeiia aiaea
e?enoae?co?oueny iica ee?oeiith, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ic/eiaieo ?a/iaei aei eaoaeueiiai ??aiy
(“eiioeaio?aoe?ei? aoaeoe”). Ea?oaaiiy oaeei i?ioeanii iiaeia
cae?enithaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a iioeiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy oaciaeie
??aiiaaaaie, ui iienai? a iiia?aaei?e oa ianooiieo aeaaao. O aeai?e
?iaio? ?icaeyiooi aeaye? caaaeuei? iiaeae? oaciai? iiaaae?iee
a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a, ye? nooo?ai ?icoe?ththoue ae?aiacii canoiniaiino?
??aiyiiy Iaco?a ? aeicaieythoue oai?aoe/ii iienaoe aeineoue oe?ieee eean
nenoai ia ee?oeiiiio ??ai?, ui aeeeeea? ?ioa?an aeey oaoiieia?e
aeeaieiai oieiaeo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aoei ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy uiaei iiaeaethaaiiy
oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eoao i?e e??iae?yo. Iiaeeea?noue
iiaeaethaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a i?e e??iae?yo iioe?th? ia?niaeoeae
e??io??o?a?/iiai canoinoaaiiy, ine?eueee i?iaiicoaaiiy ciie o?aaeaiiy ca
a?aeiieie oaieio?ce/ieie ia?aiao?aie oeaieie ? oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?iai/i?
/anoeie ciiaea ? iniiaith oni?oo aoaeue-yei? e??io??o?a?/ii? iia?aoe??.

Oaiia?aoo?ia iiea, ui aeieea? a eieaeueii ioieiaeaeoaaiiio a?ieia?/iiio
ia(?eo?, ? iioeiaeaeoth/ei oaeoi?ii. Cia/ia ??cieoey i?ae oaiia?aoo?ith
iae?ico ? oaiia?aoo?ith ii/aoeo ooai?aiiy e?enoae?a eueiaeo ( O
= 273 E ) i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui aeeaeia caii?iaeoaaiiy o eiaeiee
iiiaio /ano a?eueoa ca aeeaeio iae?ico. Oa?i?/ia ia??aiiaaaei?noue noa?
aeaea?aeii aeiaeaoeiaiai ?oeioaaiiy caei?iaeo oeaiei, yeui i?ioean
e??iae?? iaea?iaaiee. Aeine?aeaeaiith iioe?aiiy e??iae?e ia o?ea c
iaiaeii??aeiith no?oeoo?ith i?enay/aii aaeeeo e?euee?noue i?aoeue, a
yeeo aoei iaea?aeaii iiene ona?aaeiaieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a aaoa?iaaiieo
na?aaeiaeu ca aeiiiiiaith cai?ie aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia(?eoa
eaac?iaeii??aeiei o?eii c aeayeei ocaaaeueiaiei eiao?oe??ioii
oaieii?ia?aeiino?. Aea ne?ae iaoe ia oaac?, ui /?oe? iinoaiiaee caaea/
oaieii?ia?aeiino? aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a iaa?yae /e
iathoue ?aoe?th /a?ac iaiiaeeea?noue caaeaoe oi/i? e?aeia? oiiae, ui
iia(ycaii c ?iaeea?aeoaeueiith i?e?iaeith a?ieia?/iiai ia(?eoa, yea
aeyaey?oueny o ?iceeae? oaieio?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Oae, iai?eeeaae, ca
aeaieie A.A.*eaeiaa eieeaaiiy ai?noo aieiae a i(ycao ei??a iaeii?
iiioeyoe?? e iaeiiai a?eo noaiiaeyoue 10% . Oey ianoaaeia
ni?e/eith?oueny aei oiai, ui ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue, yea i?eoaiaiia
ia(?eoai iiaeaethaaiiy, ca ?aooiie ona?aaeiaiiy oaieio?ce/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee iiaea aooe ao?a/aia. ?acii c oei, aeey a?ieia?/ieo
ia(?eo?a ?aaeoe?y ia e??iae?? ia? a?aeia?aaeaoe ?o ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue,
ui ? ia?oi?yaeiith caaea/ath ia o?eueee aeey e??io??o?a??, aea e aeey
e??ieiina?aoaaiiy. No?oeoo?a a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a ? nooo?ai
iaiaeii??aeiith, oa aeei?enoaiiy noaiaea?oiiai aia?aoo oai???
oaieii?ia?aeiino? iiaea aooe aei?aaaeaii o ?aieao iae?ineii?/iiai
i?aeoiaeo, yeui canoinoaaoe a?iioaco A.Ae. Aeoeueiaaa ? TH.I.
Ca??/iyea i?i aaeaeaaoi?noue aoaeoeaieo eiao?oe??io?a ia?aiino aeey
iaeii??aeieo ? iaiaeii??aeieo no?oeoo?. Oii?yaeeiaai? no?oeoo?e iathoue
aeaeaeee ii?yaeie, oa aeey ieo iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaiaioa?io eii??eo,
aaiiao?e/i? aeanoeaino? yei? aei??aiththoue a?aeiia?aeiei aeanoeainoyi
on??? nenoaie a oe?eiio. sseui ?icaeyiooe iaaii?yaeeiaaio no?oeoo?o, oi
a?iioaca i?i aaeaeaaoi?noue oii?yaeeiaaieo ? iaaii?yaeeiaaieo no?oeoo?
i?eionea? ??ai?noue ?o iaeiaeiaeo aoaeoeaieo aeanoeainoae ia iae?i??ai?.
Aea i?e oaeiio i?aeoiae? ao?a/a?oueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i iiaaae?ieo nenoaie
ia iaci??ai?, ui a?aeaeaa? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? aeanoeaino? a?ieia?/ii?
nenoaie a oe?eiio. Aaeaeaaoi?oei iaaeeaeaiiyi aei ?aaeueii? neeaaeiino?
a?ieia?/ieo no?oeoo? ? aeei?enoaiiy oyaeaiue i?i o?aeoaee, ye? aeineoue
aeia?a ?i?oothoue iaiaeii??aei?noue oaeeo ia(?eo?a. Iiaeaethaaiiy
no?oeoo?iaaieo ia(?eo?a, aeey yeeo iae?ioa?iiaeeiai?/iee iien aaea
iaaeinoaoi?e, a i?e?ineii?/iee /a?ac ia/enethaaeuei? i?iaeaie ua
iaiiaeeeaee, c?iaeaii a aeena?oaoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith i?aeoiae?a
iacioa?iiaeeiai?ee. Ianooaae, yeeie iia?o? oea iaaeeaeaiiy,
ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae e?aei?ie iaaeaie i?e?ineii?/iiai (aeecueei
aeae?eueeio Aiano?ai) ? iae?ineii?/iiai (aeecueei i?eueeii?a Aiano?ai)
iien?a.

I?e oaeiio i?aeoiae? a?ieia?/i? ia(?eoe ( a?ieia?/i? oeaieie,
no?oeoo?iaai? a?ieia?/i? ??aeeie, ee?oeii? no?oeoo?e )
a?aeia?aaeathoueny aeayeei oaieii?ia?aeiei na?aaeiaeuai, a yeiio
no?oeoo?ia iaiaeii??aei?noue aaia?o?oueny ca ?aooiie oaioe/iiai ?inoo
ia?a?nii? eieaeueii ??aiiaaaeii? no?oeoo?e. Caeaaeii a?ae
aeei?enoiaoaaiiai caeiio ?inoo, o?a?eoi??? ?ooo oi?iothoue oae?
ia?eieyoe?ei? ia?aae?, oaioe/iee oa?aeoa? yeeo ye?nii iaaaaeo? ?aaeuei?
no?oeoo?e a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a o iacioa?iiaeeiai?/iiio ianooaa?.
???a?o?/ia i?aai?caoe?y ia(?eo?a, a ye?e iiaeia aeae?eeoe no?oeoo?e
??cieo ianooaa?a, ye aaeeeeo, oae ? iaeeo, aeicaiey? canoinoaaoe
i?eioeei naiiiiae?aiino? ( oiaoi aeanoea?noue ia(?eoa, ca no?oeoo?ith
yeiai niinoa??aathoue a iaeiiio ianooaa?, iiaoi?thaaoeny o iine?aeiaii
ciaiooaaieo ianooaaao ) aeey o?aeoaeueiiai iieno i?ioean?a ia?aiino
oaieioe o a?ieia?/ieo nenoaiao. Iiiyooy o?aeoaeo ? aeineoue iiaa, yea
aoei ai?iaaaeaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a ia ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a o i?aoeyo
A.Iaiaeaeuea?ioa.

I?eioeeiiaith iniaeea?noth ??aiyiue ia?aiino ia o?aeoaeao ? aeieeiaiiy
oaei? aaee/eie ye o?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue, yea ? ?ioi?iaoe?eiith i??ith
aaaaoueio oaioe/ieo oaieii?ia?aeieo oeyo?a ?icaeyaeoaaii? no?oeoo?e.
Ia?ao?ae a?ae iae?ineii?/iiai iieno aei iaci??aiy cae?enith?oueny ia
i?aenoaa? a?iioace i?i oa, ui eiao?oe??io oaiia?aoo?ii?iaiaeiino? ?
ooieoe??th a?aenoai? oa o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino?. Aeai?eoi iioe?aiiy
e??iae?? a ia?aaoey?iiio oaieii?ia?aeiiio na?aaeiaeu? neeaaea?oueny c
o?ueio iniiaieo aoai?a:

aaia?aoe?y aaiiao?e/ii? no?oeoo?e a?ieia?/iiai ia(?eoa – eeanoa?a
(i?e?i??aaiue);

aecia/aiiy o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? oaieii?ia?aeii?no?oeoo?e
(iaci??aaiue);

ia/eneaiiy oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey o?aeoaeueiiai na?aaeiaeua
(iae?i??aaiue).

O aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaii eiii(thoa?io ?aae?caoe?th ??cieo
niinia?a iiaeaethaaiiy no?oeoo?e a?ieia?/ieo oeaiei, a yeeo
aenia?eiaioaeueii niinoa??aa?oueny o?aeoaeueia no?oeoo?a ia(?eoa.
O?aeoaeueio ?ici??i?noue eeanoa??a

. ( 1 )

aecia/aee iaoiaeii ?aii?iae?caoe?eii? a?oie. Iiea, ia yeiio oi?ioaaee
o?aeoae, ?icaeaaee ia eaaae?aoe ?ici??o ni e iio?i i?ae?aoiaoaaee
?ici?? eeanoa?a Ni (/enei caeiyoeo eaaae?ao?a ). Iaea?aeaiee iaa?? /enae
ln ni oa ln Ni oa ia?iaethaaee iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a, ui
aeicaieeei ae?noaoe cia/aiiy o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? c iioeaeith,
iaioith ca 10%. Iioeaea aecia/aiiy o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? iia(ycaia c
oei, ui ia i?aeoeoe? iaiiaeeeai caaeaoe iane?i/aii? iiiaeeie, oiio
/enei oi/ie, ui iie?eaathoueny, caaaeaee ia? e?ioeaaa cia/aiiy. Ioaea,
aeey e?ioeaaiai /enea oi/ie caaaeaee ?nio? i?i?iaeueia a?aenoaiue i?ae
ieie. I?e ciaioaii? r, eiee ii/eia? aeeiioaaoeny ia??ai?noue rn < rmin, aaee/eia N(rn) i?yio? aei cia/aiiy N0. . Oiio aeey aecia/aiiy o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? iiaeeeai aeei?enoiaoaaoe eeoa ae?eyieo, ui eaaeeoue i?ae aeoaea aaeeeeie ? aeoaea iaeeie cia/aiiyie1/r. a) a) ?en.1. a) Aaiaia?iia?eoeeoiia - o?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue D = 1.898-1.944; a) Iiaeaeueiee ia?eieyoe?eiee eeanoa? - o?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue D =1.952-1.986. Ia iniia? iaoiaeo Iiioa-Ea?ei aoei ?icaeyiooi oae? iiaeae? eeanoa??a, ye? ?i?oothoue iiaeeeao aaiiao?e/io no?oeoo?o a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a: aa?aaaoe?y c iaiaaeaiith aeeooc??th; o?aeiaee ia?eieyoe?eiee eeanoa?; ieoioth/ee ia?eieyoe?eiee eeanoa?; eeane/ia iiaeaeue oai??? ia?eieyoe??. Eiaeiee aa??aio ?aae?ciaaii ia eaaae?aoi?e a?aooe? ?ici??ii 80(80 aoce?a. Ia ?en.1 aeaii ca?eueoaia o 200 ?ac?a cia?aaeaiiy ?aaeueiiai a?ieia?/iiai ia(?eoa – aaiaia?iia?aoeeoiie, yeee i?aeaeaii e??io??o?a?/i?e ae??, ? iiaeaeueiiai o?aeoaeueiiai eeanoa?a. ?acoeueoao e??iae?? ia a?ieia?/iee ia(?eo ciiaeaeueiaaii ye aaiethoe?th oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o iaiaeii??aeiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae eiioeioaeueieo iiaeaeae na?aaeiaeua, a yeeo ?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo? ia? ?aaoey?iee oa?aeoa?, o ia?eieyoe?eieo iiaeaeyo, aea ia?aaea oaieiaeo iii??a oaioe/ia, niinoa??aaee ai?cio?iiia iioe?aiiy oaieiaeo iioie?a iaa?oue a?ae ?cio?iiiiai aeaea?aea. Aiaeiaii iiaea aooe ooai?aiiy o.c. finger - no?oeoo? o a?ae?iaeeiai?oe?. Oaea oyaeaiiy i?i iioe?aiiy oaieiaeo iioie?a ? ia?oei e?ieii o?aooaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? a?ieia?/iiai ia(?eoa ? aeicaiey? caaaiooe i?e/eio iaiaeiicia/iino? uiaei oni?oiino? e??io??o?a?/ii? iia?aoe?? ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ia(?eoao. Aeey iieno i?ioean?a iioe?aiiy oaieioe o o?aeoaeueieo no?oeoo?ao o ?iaio? aeei?enoaii aiaeia?th c i?ioeanii aeeooc?? ia o?aeoaeao oa aaaaeaii eiao?oe??io oaiia?aoo?ii?iaiaeiino?, ui caeaaeeoue iae a?aenoai? ? o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino?: ( 2 ) aea E(r) - eiao?oe??io oaiia?aoo?ii?iaiaeiino?; r - a?aenoaiue; (- aaee/eia, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? (=2D-2, D - o?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue. Caaaeueiee ?ica(ycie caaea/? oaieii?ia?aeiino? acaeiaae i?ain? iaea?aeaii iaoiaeii ooieoe?e A??ia i?e aeia?euei?e ii/aoeia?e oiia? oa a?aie/i?e oiia? ia?oiai ?iaeo aeey noa?e/ii neiao?e/iiai aeiaaeeo. A?aie/i? oa ii/aoeia? oiiae ?icaeyiooi aeey o?ea c ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiith oaiia?aoo?ith a ii/aoeiaee iiiaio /ano ( = 0, ui aei??aith? oaiia?aoo?? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua Tmax = 293E. E??iciiae c oaiia?aoo?ith Tmin = 260E ?icoaoiaoaaee a oeaio?aeuei?e oi/oe? ia(?eoa r = 0 (aeey eeanoa??a oeeie oi/eaie ? aocee a?aoee c eii?aeeiaoaie (40,40), (51,38), (31,44), (50,46)) ? aea/aee ?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o oaeeo iaiaeii??aeieo na?aaeiaeuao. ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a i?e ??cieo cia/aiiyo o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? iaaaaeaii ia ?en.2. sse iieacothoue a?ao?ee, oaiia?aoo?ia iiea aeey eeanoa??a c o?aeoaeueiith ?ici??i?noth, ui iaaeeaea?oueny aei iaeeieoe?, iaei /ei a?ae??ciy?oueny iae oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey nooe?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua. Oiio oae? ia(?eoe iiaeia cai?iyoe eaac?iaeii??aeiei o?eii oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe cae/aeia ??aiyiiy aeey ianoaoe?iia?ii? oaieii?ia?aeiino?. a) a) ?en.2 a) Oaiia?aoo?ia iiea aeey eeanoa?a c D = 1.2853. a) ?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo?e aeey ia?eieyoe?eiiai eeanoa?a, ui ia? o?aeoaeueio ?ici??i?noue D = 1.9125 C ae?oaiai aieo, o eeanoa?ao c ?ici??i?noth D aeecueei 1.7…1.9 niinoa??aa?oueny iineeaiiy ai?cio?ii?? iioe?aiiy oaieiaeo iioie?a ?c c?inoaiiyi o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino?, iacaaaeath/e ia ?cio?iii?noue eiao?oe??ioa oaiia?aoo?ii?iaiaeiino? o o?aeoae?. O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe ?ic?iaeaii i?aeo?ae aei i?aeai?o ?iai/eo oaiia?aoo? e??i?ino?oiaio?a ia i?aenoaa? ?ica(ycaiiy cai?ioii? caaea/? oaieii?ia?aeiino? c oaciaeie ia?aoiaeaie. I?e aca?iiae?? e??i?ino?oiaio?a c iiaa?oiath eieaeueia ?oeioaaiiy oeaieie aeieea? aiane?aeie iioe?aiiy oaiia?aoo?iiai o?iioo a na?aaeiaeu? c oaciaeie ia?aoiaeaie. Ciaioaiiy ae?? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?, ui o?aaiothoue, ia caei?ia(y oeaieie iiaeia aeinyaoe i?e iioeiaeueiiio ea?oaaii? oaieiaeie iioieaie, eiee oaiia?aoo?a eiioaeoo e??i?ino?oiaioa c oeaieiith ?aaoeth?oueny a oaeee niin?a, uia i?i?i?coaaoe aeieeiaiiy o caei?iaeo oeaieiao e?enoae?a eueiaeo, ine?eueee aeeaeia caii?iaeoaaiiy caaaeaee a?eueoa a?ae aeeaeie iae?ico. I?iaaaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai e??io??o?a?/iiai i?ioeano c iaoith aeano?oeoe?? oeaieie iio?aao? aeeiiaiiy aneiioioe/ii? oiiae ??aiino? aeeaei iae?ico (Ln) ? caii?iaeoaaiiy ( Lf ), oiaoi ( = Ln/ Lf (1. Ia?aaeaa/aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o oaeeo neeaaeieo a?ieia?/ieo no?oeoo?ao iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoii iienaii o?aeoaeueieie iiaeaeyie, ye? ?icaeyiooi aeua. Aeey ?ica(ycaiiy cai?ioieo caaea/ oae? iiaeae? ? iaaecae/aeii neeaaei?, aei oiai ae iaoaiaoe/iee aia?ao aeey ?o ?ica(ycaiiy aeiiei? ia ?ic?iaeaiee. Oiio ?icaeyiooa i?ino?oa iiaeaeue iaeiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e a iaeii??aeiiio oa ?cio?iiiiio iai?aiane?i/aiiiio o?e? i?e iayaiino? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo: ( 3 ) c a?aeiia?aeieie ii/aoeiaeie oa a?aie/ieie oiiaaie. Aaeaeaaoi?noue oaeiai ?iaeo iiaeaeae aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie i?eianoaaiiy ?o ia?aiao??a i?ae aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, a oaeiae aiie iiaeooue aooe aaeaioiaai? aeey aca?iiae?? e??i?ino?oiaioa c eiie?aoiei a?ieia?/iei ia(?eoii. Aeey i?i?iaeueii? aeano?oeoe?? caei?iaeo oeaiei i?e e??io??o?a?/i?e ae?? iaiao?aeii i?iaeooaaoe oae? ?ino?oiaioe, a yeeo a?aeaoaaany a cai?ioiee ca(ycie i?ae oaieiaei iioieii (oaiia?aoo?ith ) ia iiaa?oi? oa iieacaiiyie oaiia?aoo?e ana?aaeei? a?ieia?/iiai ia(?eoa. Aeey ?ica(ycaiiy cai?ioii? caaea/? aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiae ooieoe?iiaeueii? ai?ieneiaoe??, a yeiio ooieoe?iiaeueia oi?ia iaa?aeiii? aonoeie oaieiaiai iioieo iaia?aae a?aeiia. Ooieoe?iiaeueia oi?ia i?noeoue ieceo a?eueieo ia?aiao??a, ye? aecia/athoue, iai?eeeaae, iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a. Aia?oa oaeee i?aeo?ae aoa canoiniaaiee c oni?oii o i?aoeyo O?aiea ? Ooeueoea ua o 60-? ?iee. O ?aieao iaoiaeo ooieoe?iiaeueii? ai?ieneiaoe?? aaaaeathoue, ui iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e a a?ieia?/iiio ia(?eo? i?ae /an oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo iieno?oueny nenoaiith ??aiyiue ( 3 ).. ?ica(ycaiiy cai?ioii? caaea/? iieyaa? a ioe?ioe? aonoeie oaieiaiai iioieo ia iiaa?oi? o aeene?aoi? iiiaioe /ano a?aeiia?aeii aei oiiae: . ( 4 ) A?aie/ia oiiaa i?e o = 0 ia aecia/aia, aea cai?noue oeueiai a?aeii? ?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiue oaiia?aoo?e a /an? o aeayeeo oi/eao ana?aaeei? o?ea. sseui a?aoe, ui aonoeia oaieiaiai iioieo ? ooieoe?y, ui ci?ith?oueny neaai, oiae? iaei?ino?oee iaoaiaoe/iee ae?ac, ui a?aoiao? aeaio ianoaaeio, iiaea aooe iiaeaiee e?i?eiith oi?iith q (( ) = q0 + q1( . Aeae? i?eionea?ii, ui a aeaye?e oi/oe? o = oA aei??yi? oaiia?aoo?e Yi a iiiaioe /ano. Canoinoaaiiy iae?i?eii? i?ioeaaeo?e iaoiaeo iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a aeicaiey? aeei?enoaoe iaa?aeii? ia?aiao?e q0 ? q1,, , i?i?i?coth/e noio: . ( 5 ) Iaea?eueo ?ioi?iaoeaiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith aeey ea?oaaiiy ?iai/ith oaiia?aoo?ith e??i?ino?oiaioa ? oaiia?aoo?a caii?iaeoaaiiy, yea oaeoe/ii aecia/a? ciio ?oeioaaiiy a?ieia?/ii? oeaieie. No?oeoo?a ooieoe?iiaeo ( 5 ) aeey iiooeo caeaaeiino? On (( ) caeeoa?oueny oith naiith, ca aeiyoeii iaa?aeiieo ia?aiao??a, ye? aecia/athoue /aniao caeaaei?noue ia oaieiaiai iioieo ia iaae?, a oaiia?aoo?o iaeiia/ieea e??i?ino?oiaioa. Aeey i?i?i?caoe?? na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/iiai ooieoe?iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaee i?yi? iaoiaee iiooeo aeno?aioio (iaoiae cieioiai ia?aoeio aeey ooieoe?? iaei??? ci?iii?, ine?eueee Onmin aoei caaeaii iaia?aae ). sse “aenia?eiaioaeuei?” cia/aiiy aeeaeie caii?iaeoaaiiy ( o = oA ) aoei aaaaeaii aaee/eie, ye? ia?a?aooaaee aeey aeaieo iaia?aae aaee/ei aeeaeie aeano?oeoe?? a?ae 5 aei 20ii ( e?ie 5 ii ). ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a aeey Onmin = 100 E aeey ??cieo aeeaei iae?ico iaaaaeaii a aeena?oaoe?? o aeaeyae? a?ao?e?a, ye? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ioe?iie i?e e??io??o?a?/iiio ao?o/aii?. Aeey aaeaioaoe?? aeaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei eiie?aoieo e??i?ino?oiaio?a iaiao?aeii iaoe aeai? i?i eiao?oe??ioe ia?aiino aeey aeaiiai a?ieia?/iiai ia(?eoa. Aeai?eoie ae??oaiiy cai?ioii? caaea/? oaieii?ia?aeiino? aeicaieeee ?ica(ycaoe caaea/o ioe?ithaaiiy eiao?oe??io?a ia?aiino ca iaiaaeaieie aei??thaaiiyie ? oei naiei iiaoaeoaaoe aaeaeaaoi? iiaeae? iioe?aiiy e??iae?e o a?ieia?/ieo oeaieiao. Ia a?aei?io a?ae caaea/ e??io??o?a??, aea iaiao?aeii cae?enieoe c iaeneiaeueiith aoaeoeai?noth i?ioean ?oeioaaiiy ee?oeiieo no?oeoo? i?e iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiio eiina?aoaaii? ee?oeiieo noniaic?e, caaea/a iieyaa? o iaeneiaeueiiio caa?aaeaii? aeeoo?caeaoieo ee?oei. Oae? oaeoi?e, ye iaaecae/aeia caacaiaeiaiiy ee?oei, c iaeiiai aieo, oa aioo??oiueiee?oeiia e?enoaeiooai?aiiy, c ae?oaiai, i?ecaiaeyoue aei iioeiaeaeaiiy a?ieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo, ui e??ieiina?ao?oueny. Ii?yae c oei, c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaeaeeino? caacaiaeiaiiy ee?oeie eiia??i?noue ooai?aiiy e?enoae?a eueiaeo ana?aaeei? ee?oeie ciaioo?oueny. ?iia??i?noue ooai?aiiy e?enoae?a eueiaeo ca?eueoo?oueny, yeui ?ioaineai?noue caacaiaeiaiiy ciaioo?oueny. I/aaeaeii, ui iayai?noue oeacaieo i?ioean?a aeicaiey? ae?noaoe aeniiaeo i?i ?nioaaiiy eiii?ii?no i?ae oaeaeeinoyie caacaiaeiaiiy ? caii?iaeoaaiiy ee?oei, i?e yeiio iiaeia aeinyaoe iaeneiaeueii? eiioeaio?aoe?? ee?oei, ui aeaeeee. Ea?oaaiiy oaeei i?ioeanii ? iao?ea?aeueiith caaea/ath, aei oiai ae aeey ?? ?ica(ycaiiy aoei aeei?enoaii iaoiaee oai??? iioeiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. Aeeiai?/io iiaeaeue, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? iienoaaee aca?iiae?th i?ioean?a caacaiaeiaiiy oa caii?iaeoaaiiy, aoei iiaeaii aeeoa?aioe?aeueiei ??aiyiiyi, ui ia? aeaeyae : . ( 6 ) Aeaia ??aiyiiy a?aeia?aaea? aaiethoe?th ee?oei - n, ui aeaeeee aiane?aeie e??iae??, caeaaeii a?ae ?ioaineaiino? i?ioean?a caacaiaeiaiiy ( ( ) ? e?enoae?caoe?? ((). Ia?aiao?e iiaeae? ( ? ( a caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo ? ooieoe?? aaaaoueio oaeoi??a, a ia?oo /a?ao, ee?oeiieo ia?aiao??a, ? anoaiiaeththoueny a eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo ca aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie. Oea iia(ycaii c oei, ui aeey ??cieo ee?oei iioeiaeuei? oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy ia iathoue iioeiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ? /anoi a?ae??ciythoueny iaeia a?ae iaeii? a aeae?eueea ?ac?a. Ooieoe?y oi?aae?iiy u(t), yea ia? aeanoeaino? 0 ( u(t)( 1, oa?aeoa?eco? aieea aeayei? ciai?oiuei? ae?? (iai?eeeaae, ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e, neeaaeo, ?I aai iniioe/iiai oeneo iicaee?oeiiiai ?ic/eio ? o.ae.) ia ?ioaineai?noue i?ioeano caii?iaeoaaiiy a iiiaio /ano t. Caaea/a iieyaa? a oiio, uia ciaeoe oaea oi?aae?iiy u(t), i?e yeiio ca ia??iae /ano O iiaeia aoei a aeinyaoe iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ee?oei, ui aeaeeee a ?acoeueoao? e??iae??: . ( 7 ) Aeaeyae ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy oaeoe/ii aecia/a? i?ia?aio ?aaeei?a caii?iaeoaaiiy, i?e yeeo e??i?oei?aiee aoaeo i?i?iaeueiee. Caaea/? oaeiai eeano ? caaea/aie iioeiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy, aeey ?ica(ycaiiy yeeo o ?iaio? canoiniaaiee i?eioeei iaeneioio Iiio?ya?ia. Iaea?aeaii aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey iniiaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee iai?yieaii? e??iae?? – iioeiaeueiiai /ano ia?aieeaiiy aeey ?aeaeii? ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy u(t), ui a?aeiia?aea? aei o.c. oaeaeeeo aeainooi?i/anoeo i?ia?ai caii?iaeoaaiiy a?ieia?/ieo noniaic?e. Caeiaooa ?ica(ycaiiy aeicaiey? ia??oiooaaoe aeainooi?i/anoa caii?iaeoaaiiy a?ieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a, i?e yeiio aeey caiia?aaiiy aeano?oeoe?? ee?oeiieo no?oeoo? i?iaiaeyoue ii/aoeiaa ia?aioieiaeaeaiiy c ye iaeiaioith oaeaee?noth, oa anoaiiaeoe iioeiaeueiee ia??iae oieiaeiai? aaeaioaoe?? ia?aae aeeaieei caii?iaeoaaiiyi. INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE OA AENIIAEE Aeei?enoaiiy e?iaoe/ieo iiaeaeae i?ioean?a caacaiaeiaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a ii?yae c no/anieie i?aeoiaeaie aei i?iaiicoaaiiy oaciai? iiaaae?iee ee?oeiieo ?ic/ei?a ia iniia? iaoiaeieia?? aeiaaeueieo oaciaeo ae?aa?ai aeicaiey? ?noioii ?icoe?eoe ?icoi?iiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iaoai?ci?a ae?? iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? ia aeea? ee?oeie Oaciaa iiaaae?iea nenoaie I2I + NaCl + X, aea O – e??ii?ioaeoi? aai nieueiaa aeiaaaea (iai?eeeaae ae?oea?ei, aeeiaoeenoeueoieneae, EN1), iaeaaeeoue aei eeano oaciai? iiaaae?iee iio??eieo nenoai, ui neeaaeathoueny c iaeiiai eaoeiai oa aeaio iaeaoeeo eiiiiiaio?a. Aiane?aeie oeueiai, oaciao iiaaae?ieo oaeeo nenoai eieaeueii iiaeia iienaoe a ?aieao eaac?a?ia?iiai i?aeoiaeo. Iioe?aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a o ?aaeueieo a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eoao, aea ia?aaea oaieiaeo iii??a ? oaioe/ia ia a?aei?io a?ae iiaeaeae nooe?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua, a yeeo ?iciiae?e oaiia?aoo? iineoue ?aaoey?iee oa?aeoa?, iiynith?oueny nooo?ai ai?cio?iiiith iiaaae?ieith iacaeaaeii a?ae ?cio?iiiino? aeaea?aea e??iae??. Aeai?eoi iiaeaethaaiiy iioe?aiiy e??iae?? a ia?aaoey?iiio oaieii?ia?aeiiio na?aaeiaeu? ? ???a?o?/iith nenoaiith, ui aeeth/a? ye i?aenenoaie: ia i?e?i??ai? – iiaeae? aaia?aoe?? aaiiao?e/ii? no?oeoo?e a?ieia?/iiai ia(?eoa; ia iaci??ai? – niiniae aecia/aiiy o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? oaieii?ia?aeii? no?oeoo?e ye i??e ?? neeaaeiino?; ia iae?i??ai? – iiaeae? oaiia?aoo?ieo iie?a aeey o?aeoaeueieo na?aaeiaeu. Oaiia?aoo?ia iiea aeey eeanoa??a c o?aeoaeueiith ?ici??i?noth, aeecueeith aei iaeeieoe?, iaei /ei a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey nooe?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua, aei oiai ae oae? ia(?eoe iiaeia ?i?ooaaoe eaac?iaeii??aeiei o?eii c aoaeoeaiei eiao?oe??ioii oaiia?aoo?ii?iaiaeiino?. C ae?oaiai aieo, o eeanoa?ao c ?ici??i?noth D aeecueei 1.7…1.9 niinoa??aa?oueny iineeaiiy ai?cio?ii?? iioe?aiiy oaieiaeo iioie?a ?c c?inoaiiyi o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino?, iacaaaeath/e ia ?cio?iii?noue eiao?oe??ioa oaieii?ia?aeiino? o o?aeoae?. I?e iaeiaeia?e e??iaaii?e ae?? ia aeea? ee?oeie ?nioaaiiy aioo??oi?o aeaea?ae oaieioe, ui coiiaeai? a?io?i?/ieie i?ioeanaie, aeeeeea? ?aaeoe?th o a?aeiia?aeue, yea aeyaey?oueny o niia?eueiaii? oaeaeeino? iioe?aiiy o?iioo caii?iaeaii? oace. Oeth ianoaaeio iiaeia ?ioa?i?aooaaoe ye ia?aii?ioaaiiy oaieio?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae a?ieia?/iiai ia(?eoa, yea i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaeeo naieo niinoa?aaeoaaieo aoaeo?a, ui ? yaeua iaoaaie?cio. Aeainooi?i/anoa caii?iaeoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a, ui eiina?aothoueny, aeey caiia?aaiiy aeano?oeoe?? ee?oeiieo no?oeoo? ia ia?oiio aoai? iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe c iaeiaioith oaeaee?noth aae aei aeinyaiaiiy iioeiaeueiiai /ano aaeaioaoe??, ui caeaaeeoue iae a?aeiioaiiy i?ioean?a caacaiaeiaiiy ? e?enoae?caoe?? Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo: Ionnaoe O.A., Aioeia E.C., Iaco? A.A. Iiaeaee oaciaiai iiaaaeaiey eeaoi/iuo eieeieaeiuo nenoai i?e caii?aaeeaaiee // Oieiaeeeueia oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y.-1998.- O.58.- N. 13 - 18. Aieoiae/ Ae., Aa?aaa A., Ionnaoe O., Iaco? A.A. ?ani?ino?aiaiea eieaeueiuo e?eiaicaeaenoaee ai o?aeoaeueiuo iiaeaeyo aeieiae/aneeo iauaeoia // Oieiaeeeueia oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y. 1999.- O 59.- N. 34 – 39 Ionnaoe O. Auai? ?aai/eo oaiia?aoo? e?eieino?oiaioia aeey eieaeueiiai ?ac?ooaiey aeieiae/aneeo oeaiae // Oieiaeeeueia oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y. – 1999.-O.60. – N. 51 - 56. Oiiai? iicia/aiiy: o – i?inoi?iaa eii?aeeiaoa; S(( ) = Lf - oiaueia oa?o, a iaaeao yeiai niinoa??aa?ii oaciaee ia?ao?ae o iiiaio /ano (; (, N?, ( - aonoeia, ?ciaa?ia oaiei?ii?noue oa eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino?. ?iaeaene 1 ? 2 oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeanoeaino? a?ieia?/ii? oeaieie a iaaeao caii?iaeaii? oa iacaii?iaeaii? ae?eyiie. Aiiioaoe?? Ionnaoe Oonnaei Aee. Iiaeaee?iaaiea oa?iiaeeiaie/aneeo i?ioeannia caii?aaeeaaiey e iaacaiaeeaaiey aeieiae/aneeo iauaeoia. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.04.03 -“Oieiaeeeueiay e e?eiaaiiay oaoieea, nenoaiu eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaiey aicaeooa”. Iaeanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey oieiaea, Iaeanna, 1999. ?anniio?aiu eeiaoe/aneea iiaeaee aiaeiiaiaia i?e caii?aaeeaaiee eeaoie e noi?ioee?iaaiu iooe oi?aaeaiey eiioeaio?aoeeiiiuie yooaeoaie ia iniiaa aeiaaeueiuo oaciauo aeeaa?aii. Oaciaia iiaaaeaiea aiaeiinieaauo nenoai a aeeaiaciia eiioeaio?aoeee, iaaethaeaaiuo a aeeauo nenoaiao, iienaii a i?eaeeaeaiee eaaceaeia?iuo ?anoai?ia. Ii?aaeaeaiu i?eioeeieaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe iienea iioeiaeueiuo e?eii?ioaeoi?ia ia iniiaa aiaeeca aeiaaeueiiai oaciaiai iiaaaeaiey aiaeiinieaauo ?anoai?ia iiae aeeyieai i?aaie/aneeo aeiaaaie A aeaiiie ?aaioa aeieiae/aneea iauaeou ioia?aaeathony oaieii?iaiaeyuae n?aaeie, a eioi?ie no?oeoo?iay iaiaeii?iaeiinoue aaia?e?oaony ca n/ao oaioe/aneiai ?inoa cao?aai/iie eieaeueii ?aaiiaaniie no?oeoo?u. A caaeneiinoe io eniieuecoaiiai caeiia ?inoa, o?aaeoi?ee aeaeaeaiey oi?ie?otho oaeea ia?eieyoeeiiiua naoe , oaioe/aneee oa?aeoa? eioi?uo ea/anoaaiii iaiiieiaao ?aaeueiua no?oeoo?u aeieiae/aneeo iauaeoia a iacioa?iiaeeiaie/aneii ianooaaa. I?eioeeieaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth o?aaiaiee ia?aiina a oaeeo nenoaiao yaeyaony iaee/ea o?aeoaeueiie ?acia?iinoe, i?aaenoaaeythuae eioi?iaoeeiiioth ia?o iiiaeanoaa oaioe/aneeo oaieii?iaiaeyueo iooae ?anniao?eaaaiie no?oeoo?u. Ia?aoiae io iee?ineiie/aneiai iienaiey e iacio?iaith inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa aeiioacu i oii, /oi eiyooeoeeaio oaiia?aoo?ii?iaiaeiinoe yaeyaony ooieoeeae ?annoiyiey e o?aeoaeueiie ?acia?iinoe. I?aaeeiaeaiiay iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue ?ani?ino?aiaiey e?eiaicaeaenoaey a ia?aaoey?iie oaieii?iaiaeyuae n?aaea aeeth/aao o?e iniiaiuo oaeoi?a: aaia?aoeeth aaiiao?e/aneie no?oeoo?u aeieiae/aneiai iauaeoa ( eeanoa?a ) - iee?io?iaaiue; ii?aaeaeaiea o?aeoaeueiie ?acia?iinoe oaieii?iaiaeyuae no?oeoo?u - iacio?iaaiue ; au/eneaiea oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey o?aeoaeueiie n?aaeu - iae?io?iaaiue. I?aaenoaaeaia eiiiuethoa?iay ?aaeecaoeey ?anniio?aiiuo auoa iiaeaeae i?eiaieoaeueii e ?acee/iui aeieiae/aneei iauaeoai, iiaeaa?aathueiny eieaeueiui e?eiaicaeaenoaeyi. ?ac?aaioai iiaeoiae e auai?o ?aai/eo oaiia?aoo? e?eieino?oiaioia aeey ieieiaeueiie aeano?oeoeee caei?iauo oeaiae ia iniiaa ?aoaiey ia?aoiie caaea/e oaieii?iaiaeiinoe n oaciauie ia?aoiaeaie. Aeaii iainiiaaiea i?aeiouanoa aeaoonooiai/aoiai caii?aaeeaaiey aeieiae/aneeo iaoa?eaeia aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey aeano?oeoeee eeaoi/iuo no?oeoo? ia iniiaa iaoiaeia oai?ee iioeiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey aeey eeiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae i?ioeannia caii?aaeeaaiey - iaacaiaeeaaiey. Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea, e?eiaicaeaenoaea, caii?aaeeaaiea, iaacaiaeeaaiea, aeieiae/aneea iauaeou. Ionnao? Oonnaei Ae? . Iiaeaethaaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a caii?iaeoaaiiy oa caacaiaeiaiiy a?ieia?/ieo ia(?eo?a. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.04.03 – “Oieiaeeeueia ? e??iaaiia oaoi?ea, nenoaie eiiaeeoe?thaaiiy iia?o?y”. Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oieiaeo, Iaeana, 1999. ?icaeyiooi e?iaoe/i? iiaeae? aiaeiiai?io i?e caii?iaeoaaii? ee?oei oa noi?ioeueiaaii oeyoe ea?oaaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?eieie aoaeoaie ia iniia? aeiaaeueieo oaciaeo ae?aa?ai. Oaciaa iiaaae?iea aiaeii-nieueiaeo nenoai o ae?aiacii? eiioeaio?aoe?e, niinoa?aaeoaaieo o aeeaeo nenoaiao, iienaia a iaaeeaeaii? eaac?a?ia?ieo ?ic/ei?a. Aecia/aii i?eioeeiia? iiaeeeaino? iiooeo iioeiaeueieo e??ii?ioaeoi??a ia iniia? aiae?co aeiaaeueii? oaciai? iiaaae?iee aiaeii-nieueiaeo ?ic/ei?a i?ae aieeaii i?aai?/ieo aeiaaaie. O aeai?e ?iaio? a?ieia?/i? ia(?eoe a?aeia?aaeathoueny oaieii?ia?aeiei na?aaeiaeuai, a yeiio no?oeoo?ia iaiaeii??aei?noue aaia?o?oueny ca ?aooiie oaioe/iiai ?inoo ia?a?nii? eieaeueii ??aiiaaaeii? no?oeoo?e. Ia?ao?ae a?ae i?e?ineii?/iiai iieno aei iaci??aiy cae?enith?oueny ia i?aenoaa? a?iioace i?i oa, ui eiao?oe??io oaiia?aoo?ii?iaiaeiino? ? ooieoe??th a?aenoai? oa o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino?. ?ic?iaeaii i?aeo?ae aei aeai?o ?iai/eo oaiia?aoo? e??i?ino?oiaio?a aeey i?i?iaeueii? aeano?oeoe?? caei?iaeo oeaiei ia i?aenoaa? ?ica(ycaiiy cai?ioii? caaea/? oaieii?ia?aeiino? c oaciaeie ia?aoiaeaie. Aeaii ia??oiooaaiiy ia?aaaa aeainooi?i/anoiai caii?iaeoaaiiy a?ieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a aeey caiia?aaiiy aeano?oeoe?? ee?oeiieo no?oeoo? ia iniia? iaoiae?a oai??? iioeiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy aeey e?iaoe/ieo iiaeaeae i?ioean?a caii?iaeoaaiiy-caacaiaeiaiiy. Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy, e??iae?y, caii?iaeoaaiiy, caacaiaeiaiiy, a?ieia?/i? ia’?eoe. Moussaoui Hussein Ali. Modeling of thermodynamic processes of freezing and dehydration for biological objects. - Manuscript. Thesis for a candidate of science (engineering) degree by specialty 05.04.03 – “ Refrigeration and cryogenic engineering, air-conditioning systems”. - Odessa State Academy of Refrigeration, Odessa, 1999. The kinetic models of a water exchange on freezing cells have been studied and the methods of the concentration effect control on the basis of global phase diagrams have been formulated. A phase behaviour of water-salt systems in the range of the concentrations occurring in an alive system is described as quasi-binary solutions. The principal possibilities of a search for the optimum cryoprotectors based on analysis of global phase behaviour of the water-salt solutions acted upon by organic admixtures have been determined. In this research work a biological object is considered as the heat-conducting medium in which a structural heterogeneity is generated due to a chaotic growth of a initial locally equilibrium structure. Transition from a microscopic description to a mesolevel is realized on the basis of the hypothesis that the temperature conductivity coefficient is a function of the distance and fractal dimension. An effective approach to choosing the operation temperature of cryoinstruments for the minimum destruction of tissues has been developed on the basis of solution of a inverse problem of heat conductivity with phase changes. An advantage of two-stage freezing of biological materials in order to prevent destruction of a cell structure has been substantiated by the optimum control theory for kinetic models of freezing and dehydration processes. Key words: mathematical modeling, cryo-impact, freezing, dehydration, biological objects. ) o ) o

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