IAeANUeEEE A?Ae?IIAOAI?IEIA?*IEE ?INOEOOO

Ea Ooe Eo?iue Oa

OAeE 551.462.32:551.465.752

IIAeAETHAAIIss OAEUeOIAIAI IIA?AIE*IIAI OA?O

11.00.08 — ieaaiieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AOaeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iiio ?inoeooo?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oiaeaeiai Aieueo Aa?aiiae/,

Iaeanueeee a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee ?inoeooo,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aaio?ce/ii? a?ae?iaeeiai?ee oa oai??? ee?iaoo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Nooia?e A?eoi?eia Oaaei??aia,

Iaeanueeee a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee ?inoeooo,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ieaaiieia??,

eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe,

Aiae??aiiaa Ieueaa ?aaeiie??aia,

Ii?nueeee a?ae?io?ce/iee ?inoeooo IAI Oe?a?ie,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee A?aeae?eaiiy a?ae?iaeonoeee (i. Iaeana).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiaee oeaio? aeieia?? ii?y I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua ? yaea?ii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie (i.
Iaeana).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 13 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 13-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 41.090.01 Iaeanueeiai
a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ca aae?anith: 270016, i. Iaeana, aoe.
Euea?anueea 15, IAI?.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo, i. Iaeana, aoe. Euea?anueea 15, IAI?.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 29 » aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eiaiaea I.N.2

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa ??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiiino? oaiaoeee aecia/a?oueny
iaiao?aei?noth ?ic?iaee no/anieo iaoiae?a e?euee?niiai iieno aeeiai?/ii?
? oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? no?oeoo?e oaeueoiaiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o (OIO) aeey
aeei?enoaiiy a eieaeueieo i?iaiicao, i?e ?ica’ycaii? caaea/ aeieia?/iiai
iii?oi?eiaa. I?ae OIO aoaeaii ?icoi?oe i?eaa?aaeio i?eeiaiaeio ciio ii?y
aai ieaaio, i?ioeane a ye?e aecia/athoueny aoaeoaie ianoaoe?iia?iino?,
ai?eciioaeueiiai ? aa?oeeaeueiiai aii?yaeeiaaiiai ia?aianaiiy,
aa?oeeaeueiei ? ai?eciioaeueiei oo?aoeaioiei iai?iii, no?aoeo?eaoe??th,
aa?ieeeii?noth ? iaa?oaiiyi Caie?. Ciai?oi?i ii a?aeiioaiith aei
oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e OIO ? aeeiai?/iee aieea aoiinoa?e, aca?iiae?y c
oi?noeei aeiii ? aa?aaii, aoaeoii iaaaeaiiy a?o?iaeo oaeeue.

A?eueo?noue iaoiae?a iieno OIO cae?eniaii ca aeiiiiiaith iieoaii??e/ieo
oai??e ?c caaaeaiiyi aiae?oe/ieo ae?ac?a aeey eiao?oe??ioa oo?aoeaioiiai
ia?ai?ooaaiiy. O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?aaenoaaeaiee iaoiae iieno OIO,
caniiaaiee ia oai??? aaio?ce/iiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o (AIO), ui aeeth/a? a
naaa aoiinoa?iee ? ieaainueeee iia?aie/i? oa?e. Oey oai??y caniiaaia ia
?ica’ycaii? nenoaie a?ae?ioa?iiaeeiai?/ieo ??aiyiue c oo?aoeaioiei
caieeaiiyi ? aeicaiey? a?aooaaoe iniiai? o?ce/i? iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy
aioo??oiuei? no?oeoo?e AIO. Aiia ? aacith aaaaoueio no/anieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a caaea/ao aoiinoa?iiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o. Iaeiae,
canoinoaaiiy oe??? oai??? aeey i?eaa?aaeiiai oaeueoo aeeiiaii aia?oa a
i?aaenoaaeai?e aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iaoiaeo iieno OIO
c o?aooaaiiyi iniiaieo o?ce/ieo /eiiee?a oi?ioaaiiy
oee?eoeyoe?eii-oo?aoeaioii? no?oeoo?e oeueiai oa?o ? aeyaeaiiy iniiaieo
caeiiii??iinoae i?inoi?iai — /aniaiai ?iciiae?eo a?ae?io?ce/ieo
ia?aiao??a a i?eaa?aaei?e cii? ii?y aeey ??cieo aaia?ao?/ieo ?aa?ii?a.
Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aoee noi?ioeueiaai? oae? iniiai? caaea/?
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:

 o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ia iinoaiiaea caaea/? oi?ioaaiiy
oee?eoeyoe?eii-oo?aoeaioii? no?oeoo?e OIO, iaoiaeeea iieno aieeao
iniiaieo o?ce/ieo oaeoi??a ia iniia? caieiaii? nenoaie ??aiyiue
a?ae?ioa?iiaeeiai?ee ? oo?aoeaioiiai caieeaiiy;

 ?ic?iaea ia/enethaaeueiiai aeai?eoio aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaii?
caaea/?;

 e?euee?niee iien oee?eoeyoe?eii-oo?aoeaioiiai ?aaeeio OIO a
eaac?aeaiaei??iiio iaaeeaeaii?;

 iiaeaethaaiiy o?eaei??iiai oaeueoiaiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o c
aeei?enoaiiyi oe?ieiai ae?aiaciio ciai?oi?o ia?aiao??a oi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?e OIO;

 o?ce/iee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a o?eaei??iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ? aeyaeaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae no?oeoo?e OIO a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aaeueieo aaio?ce/ieo ?
ii?oiiao?e/ieo oaeoi??a;

 canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo aei iieno eiie?aoieo aaia?ao?/ieo
?aa?ii?a;

 aea?? ii/aoeiaeo aeaieo aeey e?euee?niiai iieno OIO ia iniia?
?acoeueoao?a iiaeaethaaiiy aoiinoa?iiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o aeey
eiie?aoiiai aaia?ao?/iiai ?aa?iio.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia iniia? iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a a i?eaa?aaei?e cii? ii?y ca
aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? ianoaoe?iia?iiai no?aoeo?eiaaiiai
aa?ieeeiiiai OIO cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae e?euee?niiai iieno
i?inoi?iai-/aniaiai ?iciiae?eo oa/?e, oa?aeoa?enoee oo?aoeaioiino?,
a?aeoeeaiue ??aiy c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao a?o?o, ca?iii-iaa?iieo yaeu,
aieeao aa?aaiai? iaae? ? oi?noeino? aeia. Iieacaii, ui aieea a?o?o ia
ii?nueeo iiaa?oith aeyaey?oueny a oi?ioaaii? ae?aeoiai? ? aaino?io?/ii?
oa/?e, noia?iee aoaeo yeeo aecia/a? oo?aoeaioii-oee?eoeyoe?eiee ?aaeei
OIO, ui o?eaei??ia iiaeaethaaiiy oeyoii ?ica’ycaiiy caieiaii? nenoaie
??aiyiue a?ae?ioa?iiaeeiai?ee c oo?aoeaioiei caieeaiiyi ? no/aniei
aia?aoii aeey ioe?iee a?ae?io?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?eaa?aaeii? ciie
ii??a ? ieaai?a o iicao?ii?/ieo aaia?ao?/ieo ?aa?iiao.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy
?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo iieno OIO aeey ?ica’ycaiiy i?eeeaaeieo caaea/, ye?
iio?aaothoue aeaoaeueiiai iieno aioo??oi?o oa?aeoa?enoee OIO, ?
i?iaeaiiino?iaaia io?eiaieie ?acoeueoaoaie aeey Iaeanueei? caoiee ?
I?aaeaiii-Eeoaenueeiai ii?y. Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia c?noaaeaiiyi c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie. ?ic?iaeaiee
iaoiae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee a ?ic?aooieao ia?aianaiiy caa?oaeithth/eo
?a/iaei, oa?aeoa?enoee ooieoe?iioaaiiy yeinenoai, eieaeueieo i?iaiicao
oa/?e ia iniia? i?iaiinoe/ieo cia/aiue aaeoi?a a?o?o.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aaoi?ii oia?oa aeey
oaeueoiaiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o:

 ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo oa?aeoa?enoee ii?nueei? i?eaa?aaeii?
i?eeiaiaeii? ciie ii?y oeyoii aaeaioaoe?? iiaeae? aaio?ce/iiai
iia?aie/iiai oa?o aei oiia oi?ioaaiiy OIO;

 aeaia e?euee?nia ioe?iea aianeo ae?aeoiai? ? ca?iii-iaa?iii?
aaino?io?/ii? oa/?e a oi?ioaaii? o?eaei??ii? i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e OIO;

 aeyaeai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ai?eciioaeueiiai ? aa?oeeaeueiiai
?iciiae?eo a?ae?io?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ? ia?aiao??a oo?aoeaioiino? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai aieeao ? aioo??oi?o iaoai?ci?a;

 iieacaia iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo aei iieno
i?inoi?iaiai oo?aoeaioii-oee?eoeyoe?eiiai ?aaeeio i?eaa?aaeii? ciie o
iicao?ii?/ieo ?aa?iiao (ia i?eeeaae? Iaeanueei? caoiee);

 ?ic?iaeaia ? canoiniaaia aei i?eaa?aaeii? ciie I?aaeaiii-Eeoaenueeiai
ii?y iaoiaeeea aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a iiaeaethaaiiy iiey a?o?o aeey
ioe?iee oa?aeoa?enoee aca?iiae?? aoiinoa?e — ii?y ? OIO.

??aaiue ?aae?caoe??, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe
i?aaenoaaeai? o aeaeyae? ?ic?aooieiaeo iaoiae?a, ocaaaeueiaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ? eiii’thoa?ieo i?ia?ai. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aeeiiaii? oaie “?ic?iaea ia?niaeoeaii?
?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoiieia?? a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy
iiaeaethaaiiy neeaaeieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? aeieia?/ieo nenoai”
IAeN IAI?, a aeine?aeaeaiiyo caa?oaeiaiiy Iaeanueei? caoiee ii a?aioo
i?aeia?iaeii? i?ia?aie ?IOAN – 96 – 2077 «Aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee inaaeaeaiiy
? caa?oaeiaiiy a i?eaa?aaei?e cii? i?e noi?ni?e ae?? iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue
? oa/?e», a oaeiae i?e aeeiiaii? aenia?oieo ioe?iie ii caa?oaeiaiith
Iaeanueei? caoiee.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aoee
i?aaenoaaeai? ia iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo nai?ia?ao ? eiioa?aioe?yo IAI? ?
aeeth/ai? a i?ia?aio ia 24-e Aaia?aeuei?e Anaiaea? ?a?iiaenueeiai
aaio?ce/iiai oiaa?enoaa.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii a 4-o noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 170
noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 55 ?enoie?a ? 15 oaaeeoeue,
neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (124 iaeiaioaaiiy) ? aeiaeaoie.

Aeaeea?aoe?y eiie?aoiiai ninaenoiai aianeo caeiaoaa/a a ?ic?iaeo
?acoeueoao?a, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

 ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae e?euee?niiai iieno oo?aoeaioii-oee?eoeyoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e OIO ia iniia? aaeaioaoe?? iiaeae? aaio?ce/iiai iia?aie/iiai
oa?o ? eiai ?aae?caoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioaa?oaaiiy caieiaii? nenoaie
??aiyiue;

 aeeiiai? /enaeuei? aenia?eiaioe ? ?ic?aooiee ? aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino?
oi?ioaaiiy OIO i?e ??cieo aaio?ce/ieo ? ii?oiiao?e/ieo iiaeaeueieo ?
oaeoe/ieo oaeoi?ao aeey ??cieo aaia?ao?/ieo ?aa?ii?a.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy:

 iaoiae ?ic?aooieo a?ae?io?ce/ieo ? oo?aoeaioieo oa?aeoa?enoee
o?eaei??iiai ianoaoe?iia?iiai, no?aoeo?eiaaiiai, aa?ieeeiiiai OIO;

 eiioeaioe?y ia?aiao?ecaoe?? ca?iii-iaa?iieo yaeu oeyoii ?ic?aooieo
aaino?io?/ii? oa/??, yea aaia?o?oueny iaoeeii ??aiy ca ?aooiie a?o?iaiai
aieeao;

 eaac?aeaiaei??ia iaaeeaeaiiy ye iaoiae aaeaioaoe?? iiaeae? aeey aeai?o
ia?aiao??a, ii/aoeiaeo ? e?aeiaeo oiia;

 iniiai? o?ce/i? caeiiii??iino? o?eaei??ii? i?inoi?iai? aioo??oiuei?
no?oeoo?e OIO aeey oe?ieiai ae?aiaciio ciai?oi?o aieea?a;

 ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy OIO aeey eiie?aoieo aaia?ao?/ieo ?aa?ii?a;

 ioe?iea aeinoia??iino? ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo ia iniia? c?noaaeaiiy
aeaieo niinoa?aaeaiue c ?acoeueoaoaie iiaeaethaaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia??, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaeiaoa oa ia’?eoa iieyaathoue o
aeei?enoaii? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iaoiaeo iieno OIO oeyoii ?ica’ycaiiy
caieiaii? nenoaie ??aiyiue a?ae?ioa?iiaeeiai?ee c oo?aoeaioiei
caieeaiiyi.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? a?aei?/aia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, noi?ioeueiaai? ??
oe?e? ? caaea/?, iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Ia?ae?/ai?
io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iinoaiiaea caaea/? i?i o?eaei??io no?oeoo?o
oaeueoiaiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o» ia iniia? no/aniiai noaio aeine?aeaeaiue
ii iiaeaethaaiith OIO noi?ioeueiaaia o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ia iinoaiiaea
caaea/?, caniiaaia ia oai??? aaio?ce/iiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o. ?icaeyioo?
o?ce/i? iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy o?eaei??ii? no?oeoo?e OIO, nenoaia
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue, ui iienothoue oeth no?oeoo?o,
ia/enethaaeueiee aeai?eoi ? iaoiaee ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/?. Iaaiai?aia
i?iaeaia caieeaiiy nenoaie ??aiyiue a?ae?ioa?iiaeeiai?ee. Aeaia
iiaoaeiaa ??aiyiue aeey e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? oo?aoeaioiino? ? oaeaeeino?
?? aeenneiaoe?? a ?aieao K-oai??? c ??aiyiue aeey ia?oeo ? ae?oaeo
iiiaio?a ioeuenaoe?e neeaaeiaeo oaeaeeino? oa/?? ? ?o i?inoi?iaeo
iio?aeieo. Noi?ioeueiaai? a?aie/i? oiiae c o?aooaaiiyi aeeiai?/iiai
a?o?iaiai aieeao aca?iiae?? OIO c aeiii, aa?aaii, a?aee?eoei ii?ai ?
aoiinoa?ith. Iaaaaeai? iniiai? o?ce/i? iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy
oo?aoeaioiiai ia?ai?ooaaiiy a o?eaei??iiio i?inoi?? ii?y, ye? iiaeii?
aooe a?aoiaai? a a?ae?iaeeiai?/i?e iiaeae? OIO, ? ioe?iee oaeaeeinoae
aaia?aoe?? oo?aoeaioiino?. Aeienaia nenoaia aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue,
ye? iienothoue no?oeoo?o OIO c aac?ici??iith aa?oeeaeueiith
eii?aeeiaoith, ui yaey? niaith a?aeiioaiiy aa?oeeaeueii? eii?aeeiaoe aei
aeeaeie ii?y. O oe?e nenoai? ??aiyiue ai?eciioaeuei? a?aae??ioe oeneo
ae?aaeai? /a?ac aac?ici??ia a?aeoeeaiiy ??aiy ii?y ca ?aooiie
aeeiai?/iiai aieeao a?o?o. Iienaiee no?eeee ia/enethaaeueiee aeai?eoi
/enaeueiiai ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/? ? aeacai? iaoiaee eiai ?aae?caoe?? aeey
ii/aoeiai-e?aeiai? caaea/? ?ica’ycaiiy caieiaii? nenoaie ??aiyiue
a?ae?ioa?iiaeeiai?ee c o?aooaaiiyi oo?aoeaioiiai caieeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “E?euee?niee iien oo?aoeaioii-oee?eoeyoe?eiiai
?aaeeio oaeueoiaiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o a eaac?aeaiaei??iiio iaaeeaeaii?»
i?aaenoaaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy eaac?aeaiaei??iiai iaaeeaeaiiy ye iaoiaeo
aaeaioaoe?? iiaeae? oeyoii aeai?o ia?aiao??a, ii/aoeiaeo ? e?aeiaeo
oiia. Iieacaii, ui eaac?aeaiaei??ia iaaeeaeaiiy caaacia/o? i?eeiyoio
aeey ?yaeo i?eeeaaeieo caaea/ oi/i?noue ?ic?aooieo ? o?ce/ii a??io
ea?oeio oo?aoeaioii-oee?eoeyoe?eiiai ?aaeeio OIO. Eaac?aeaiaei??ia
iaaeeaeaiiy io?eiaia oeyoii oaeineiiaeaiiy iaeiiaei??ii? iiaeae? OIO ca
?aooiie aeeth/aiiy aoaeo?a ca?iii-iaa?iieo yaeu. A?aeiii, ui a
i?eaa?aaei?e cii? ii?y a?oa? aaia?o? ae?aeoiao oa/?th ? noai?th? ca
?aooiie oe??? oa/?? cia/iee iaoee a?eueii? iiaa?oi?. Oeae iaoee ??aiy
i?eaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? o?aooaaiiy aaino?io?/ieo oa/?e, io?eiaieo
c aaeaino i?ae neeith Ei??ie?na ? neeith a?aae??ioa oeneo. Oiio a
??aiyiiyo eaac?aeaiaei??iiai iaaeeaeaiiy aaiaeeoueny neea aa?e/iiai
a?aae??ioa, ae?aaeaia /a?ac aaino?io?/io oa/?th. Aeey aecia/aiiy
oaeaeeino? aaino?io?/ii? oa/?? aeei?enoaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, yea ae?aaea?
ca’ycie i?ae a?aeoeeaiiyi ??aiy ? ?ioaa?aeii a iaaeao /aniaiai e?ieo
a?ae iio?aeii? iiaiiai iioieo ii ciai?oi?e aei aa?aaa ii?iae? (in? o),
io?eiaia aiane?aeie ?ioaa?oaaiiy ??aiyiiy ia?ic?eaiino?. Oey iio?aeia
cai?ith?oueny a?aeiioaiiyi a?aeoeeaiiy ??aiy aei a?aenoai? a?ae aa?aaa.
Aeei?enoiao?oueny e?aiiaa?oaeueia nenoaia eii?aeeiao. Oaeei /eiii
neiino?oeiaaia iiai?noth caieiaia nenoaia ??aiyiue a eaac?aeaiaei??iiio
iaaeeaeaii?, a yeiio an? ooeai? ooieoe?? ? ia?aiao?e OIO caeaaeaoue a?ae
aac?ici??ii? aa?oeeaeueii? eii?aeeiaoe, a?aenoai? a?ae aa?aaa ? e?ieo
aeene?aoecaoe?? ?ic?aooieiaiai /aniaiai ia??iaeo. Ae??oo?oueny caaea/a
i?enoinoaaiiy oee?eoeyoe?eii-oo?aoeaioiiai ?aaeeio aei ciai?oi?o aieea?a
iaoiaeii iine?aeiaieo iaaeeaeaiue. Ciai?oi?ie aecia/aeueieie ia?aiao?aie
?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? ? oaeaee?noue ? iai?yi i?eaiaeiiai a?o?o,
oi?noe?noue aeia ? aeeaeia ii?y. A ?acoeueoao? io?eiai? oaeaeeino?
aaino?io?/ii? oa/??, aa?oeeaeuei? i?io?e? neeaaeiaeo oaeaeeino? noia?ii?
oa/??, e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? oo?aoeaioiino?, oaeaeeino? ?? aeenneiaoe?? ?
eiao?oe??ioa aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino?. Iieacaii, ui aaino?io?/ia
oa/?y, ?ic?aoiaaia a ?aieao ?ic?iaeaiiai eaac?aeaiaei??iiai iaaeeaeaiiy,
i?aaenoaaey? niaith acaeiaaeaa?aaiaee iio?e. Oeae iio?e a?aeoeey?oueny
e?ai?o/ a?ae aaeoi?a a?o?o, yeui eoo i?ae aaeoi?ii a?o?o ? a?nnth o
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae 0 aai 180, a i?e oeeo eooao aaino?io?/ia oa/?y
iai?aaeaia ii a?o?o. Eiai oaeaee?noue caeaaeeoue a?ae ciai?oi?o
aecia/aeueieo ia?aiao??a OIO. I?e a?o??, yeee aeo? ii ii?iae? aei
aa?aaiai? iaae?, iiaeoeue oaeaeeino? aaino?io?/ii? oa/?? ca?eueoo?oueny
a i??o iaaeeaeaiiy aei aa?aaa ? aeinyaa? iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy ia
a?aenoai? 100 i a?ae aa?aaa. Ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie ii?y i?eaiaeeoue aei
ciaioaiiy iiaeoey aaino?io?/ii? oa/?? (aenia?eiaioe i?iaaaeai? i?e
I15 i). Caeaaei?noue ciaeici?iii? aaino?io?/ii? oa/?? a?ae iai?yio
i?eaiaeiiai a?o?o aeecueea aei neioni?aee i?e caaeai?e a?aenoai? a?ae
aa?aaa ? aeeaei?. Aeno?aioie oe??? neioni?aee aeinyaioo? i?e ??cieo
cia/aiiyo eooa i?ae aaeoi?ii i?eaiaeiiai a?o?o c aeiaeaoiith a?nnth Io a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oaeaeeino? a?o?o ? aeeaeie ii?y. Oey caeaaei?noue ?
iane?aeeii ca?iii-iaa?iieo yaeu. Io?eiaiee e?euee?niee iien caeaaeiino?
aaeoi?a iiaa?oiaai? oa/?? a?ae oaeaeeino? ? iai?yio i?eaiaeiiai a?o?o,
aeeaeie ii?y i?e ??cieo cia/aiiyo a?aenoai? a?ae aa?aaa. I?e a?o??,
iai?aaeaiiio a?ae aa?aaa, oaeaee?noue iiaa?oiaai? oa/?? ca?eueoo?oueny
?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino? a?o?o ? a?aenoai? a?ae aa?aaa. Inoaii?
iiynith?oueny ciaioaiiyi oaeaeeino? aaino?io?/ii? oa/??. I?e oaeaeeino?
a?o?o ia a?eueoa i?ae 10 i/n, aeeaei? ii?y ia a?eueoa i?ae 15 i i?e
iaeeo a?aenoaiyo a?ae aa?aaa (ii?yaeeo 1 ei) aaino?io?/ia oa/?y ciaioo?
iiaeoeue iiaa?oiaai? oa/??, a i?e aaeeeeo a?aenoaiyo — i?aeoe/ii ia
iaaea? aieeao. I?e ?icaeyae? caeaaeiino? eooa a?aeoeeaiiy iiaa?oiaai?
oa/?? a?ae a?o?o cacia/eii, ui i?e eooao aaeoi?a a?o?o c a?nnth o, ye?
a?aee?/othoueny i?ioe aiaeeiieeiai? no??eee a?ae 90 aei 180 ? a?ae 270
aei 360, iiaa?oiaaa oa/?y a?aeoeey?oueny i?aai?o/ a?ae a?o?o, a i?e
eooao a?ae 0 aei 90 ? a?ae 180 aei 270 — e?ai?o/. Oea iia’ycaii c oei,
ui iiaa?oiaaa oa/?y yaey? niaith aaeoi?io noio /enoi ae?aeoiai? oa/??
(i?e a?aenooiino? ca?iii-iaa?iieo yaeu) ? aaino?io?/ieo oa/?e (ca
?aooiie ca?iii-iaa?iieo yaeu). Oaeo e?aiai a?aeoeeaiiy iiaa?oiaai? oa/??
a?ae a?o?o i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeaieie niinoa?aaeaiue. O?aooaaiiy
aaino?io?/ii? oa/?? i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/ii? ci?ie aeaeyaeo aa?oeeaeueieo
i?io?e?a oa?aeoa?enoee oee?eoeyoe?eii-oo?aoeaioiiai ?aaeeio. O
i?eaa?aaei?e cii? i?io?e? neeaaeiaeo caeaaeaoue a?ae iai?yio a?o?o ?
?noioii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae i?io?eth, io?eiaiiai aac o?aooaaiiy
aaino?io?/ii? oa/??. A?aei?/a?oueny ciaioaiiy cia/aiiy neeaaeiaeo ?
ci?ia ciaeo iiia?a/ii? neeaaeiai? oaeaeeino? oa/?? c aeeaeiith i?e
o?aooaaii? aaino?io?/ii? oa/??. C a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa oe?
a?aei?iiino? iaioathoue. Ci?ia oee?eoeyoe?eii? no?oeoo?e OIO i?eaiaeeoue
aei iiaeeo?eaoe?? aa?oeeaeueii? no?oeoo?e oo?aoeaioiiai ia?ai?ooaaiiy.
Eiao?oe??io aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino? aeinyaa? iaeneioia ia iiaa?oi?.
Cia/aiiy oeueiai iaeneioia caeaaeeoue i?aeoe/ii o?eueee a?ae oaeaeeino?
i?eaiaeiiai a?o?o. Aeaeyae i?io?eth eiao?oe??ioa oo?aoeaioiino? iiaeeco
aa?aaa caeaaeeoue a?ae iai?yio a?o?o. I?e iaaaeeeiio cia/aii?
aaino?io?/ii? oa/?? aa?oeeaeueiee i?io?eue eiao?oe??ioa oo?aoeaioiino?
ia? ua ae?oaee iaeneioi a oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? ii aa?oeeae?, eiee
aaino?io?/ia oa/?y aeineoue aaeeea, ae?oaiai iaeneioia ia
niinoa??aa?oueny ? eiao?oe??io aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino? iiiioiiii
oaoaa? c aeeaeiith. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ?aeath i?i oa, ui o?aooaaiiy
aaino?io?/ii? oa/?? ?noioii ci?ith? aeeiai?eo OIO. Aeinoia??i?noue
io?eiaieo caeiiii??iinoae i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oei, ui ia cia/i?e
a?aenoai? a?ae aa?aaa aiie ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae caeiiii??iinoae,
io?eiaieo ca aeiiiiiaith /enoi iaeiiaei??ii? iiaeae? ? c?noaaeaiiyi c
aeaieie aei??thaaiiy oaeaeeino? iiaa?oiaai? oa/??.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Iiaeaethaaiiy o?eaei??iiai oaeueoiaiai
iia?aie/iiai oa?o» ?icaeyaeathoueny ?acoeueoaoe o?eaei??iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy OIO. Ia?aaeon?i, iieacaii, ui iioeiaeueiei aeyaeany aea??
ii/aoeiaeo oiia ca ?acoeueoaoaie eaac?aeaiaei??iiai iaaeeaeaiiy.
E?euee?niee iien caeiiii??iinoae i?inoi?iaiai ?iciiae?eo oa/?e ?
oa?aeoa?enoee oo?aoeaioiino? aoa aeeiiaiee a aeaio iai?yiao: 1) iaoiaeii
/enaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a aeine?aeaeoaaany a?aeaoe aioo??oiuei? no?oeoo?e
OIO ia caaeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ciai?oi?o aieea?a; 2) a?aeiiaethaaany
ai?eciioaeueiee ? aa?oeeaeueiee ?iciiae?e oa?aeoa?enoee OIO aeey
eiie?aoieo i?eaa?aaeieo cii (Iaeanueea caoiea ? I?aaeaiii-Eeoaenueea
ii?a).

*enaeuei? aenia?eiaioe ii iiaeaethaaiith OIO i?iaaaeai? aeey
i?yiieooii? ?ic?aooieiai? ae?eyiee c o?ueiia ??aeeeie ? iaei??th
aa?aaiaith a?/iith iaaeath, acaeiaae yei? iai?aaeaia a?nue Io oae, uia
ce?aa a?ae iai?yio in? o ?icoaoiaoaaeany nooa. Iai?yi a?o?o
a?aee?/o?oueny a?ae in? Io ca aiaeeiieeiaith no??eeith, oae ui aeey
oe??? nenoaie eii?aeeiao i?e aeiaeaoiiio eoo? a?oa? ia? neeaaeiao,
iai?aaeaio a?ae aa?aaa. Aenia?eiaioe i?iaaaeai? aeey ciai?oi?o
ia?aiao??a, iino?eieo ? ci?iieo ii in? o. Acaeiaae eii?aeeiao o ciai?oi?
ia?aiao?e ia i?iythoueny, oae ui o an?o i?iaaaeaieo /enaeueieo
aenia?eiaioao iaiaeii??aei?noue io?eiaieo a?ae?io?ce/ieo iie?a o
acaeiaaeaa?aaiaiio iai?yi? iaaaeeea /a?ac a?aenooi?noue i?e/ei,
ii?iaeaeoth/eo oeth iaiaeii??aei?noue. A ?acoeueoao? o an?o
aenia?eiaioao aaino?io?/ia oa/?y iai?aaeaia acaeiaae aa?aaa aiaeia?/ii
eaac?aeaiaei??iiio iaaeeaeaiith.

?icaeyiaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo aeey a?o?o iino?eii? oaeaeeino?
10 i/n ? ci?iiiai iai?yio, ui iieno? eiei c e?ieii 45, aeeaeie (a?ae 5
aei 15 i), yea i?iy?oueny, ?ici???a ?ic?aooieiai? iaeano? 20 ei  10 ei,
ai?eciioaeueiiai e?ieo 1 ei (aenia?eiaio ? 1). Io?eiaii, ui c
a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa iiaeoeue aaeoi?a aaino?io?/iiai oa/?? iaioa?.
Aaeoi? aaino?io?/ii? oa/?? ci?ith? na?e iai?yi ia cai?ioia ia a?aenoai?
ii?yaeeo 10 ei a ii??aiyii? c iai?yiii a?ey aa?aaa. Ii/eiath/e c
a?aenoai? 7 ei a?ae aa?aaa, iiaeoeue oaeaeeino? aaino?io?/iiai oa/?? ia
ia?aaeuo? 0,5 ni/n i?e an?o iai?yiao a?o?o. Iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy
oaeaeeino? aaino?io?/ii? oa/?? i?e an?o iai?yiao a?o?o niinoa??aa?oueny
ia a?aenoai? 2 ei a?ae aa?aaa. Oea cia/aiiy ci?ith?oueny i?e ??cieo
iai?yiao a?o?o. Iaea?eueoa ca aaniethoiei cia/aiiyi oaeaee?noue
aaino?io?/ii? oa/?? niinoa??aa?oueny i?e iai?yiao -135 ? 45, ? neeaaea?
aeecueei 9 ni/n. Iaeiaio? cia/aiiy oaeaeeino? aaino?io?/ii? oa/??
(aeecueei 1 ni/n) aeinyaathoueny i?e iai?yi? a?o?o -45 ? 135.

Oaeaee?noue iiaa?oiaai? oa/?? i?e eiaeiiio iai?yi? a?o?o c a?aeaeaeaiiyi
a?ae aa?aaa iaioa?, e??i iai?yi?a a?o?o ii ii?iae? aei aa?aaa ? a?ae
iueiai, eiee niinoa??aa?oueny neaaea ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? aei
a?aenoai? 4 ei, a iio?i eiai ciaioaiiy. Oaeaee?noue oa/?? caeaaeeoue
a?ae iai?yio a?o?o. *ei aeeae/a aei aa?aaa, oei neeuei?oa ae?aaea?oueny
oey caeaaei?noue. Iaea?eueo? cia/aiiy oaeaeeino? iiaa?oiaai? oa/??
niinoa??aathoueny, eiee a?oa? aeo? acaeiaae aa?aaa (iai?yi 0 ? 180),
cia/aiiy oaeaeeino? oa/?? aeecueei 29 ni/n. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui
aaino?io?/ia ? ae?aeoiaa oa/?? iai?aaeai? a iaeei a?e. Iaeiaio? cia/aiiy
(aeecueei 15 ni/n) aeinyaathoueny, eiee a?oa? aeo? ii ii?iae? aei
aa?aaiai? iaae? (iai?yi a?aeiia?aeii -90 ? 90), eiee eoo i?ae
aaino?io?/iith ? ae?aeoiaith oa/??th aeinyaa? aaeeeeo cia/aiue. C
a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa oey caeaaei?noue caa??aa?oueny, aea aiie?ooaea
eieeaaiiy ciaioo?oueny.

O ?ic?aooieia?e iaeano? aaeoi? oa/?? ia iiaa?oi? ii?y a?aeoeey?oueny
i?aai?o/ a?ae aaeoi?a a?o?o. C a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa aaeoi? oa/??
nii/aoeo iiaa?oa? i?aai?o/, oiaoi eoo a?aeoeeaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny ?
aeinyaa? iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy ia aeaye?e a?aenoai? (ii?yaeeo 10 ei),
i?e iiaeaeueoiio a?aeaeaeaii? a?ae aa?aaa eoo a?aeoeeaiiy o?ioe iaioa?.
Ia a?aenoai? 1 ei a?ae aa?aaa i?e iai?yiao a?o?o -90, -45, 90 ? 135 eoo
a?aeoeeaiiy noaiiaeoue 40, i?e acaeiaaeaa?aaiaiio a?o?? eoo a?aeoeeaiiy
cia/ii iaioa — 13 (oaae. 1).

O aeaiiio aenia?eiaio? iiia?a/ia neeaaeiaa ci?ith? ciae c aeeaeiith i?e
iai?yiao a?o?o -90, -45 ? 135, iiaeiaaeiy i?e -135 ? 45, a i?e ?ioeo
iai?yiao a?o?o neeaaeia? oaeaeeino? caa??aathoue na?e ciae o an?e oiau?
OIO. Ia an?o ai?eciioao iiaeoeue aaeoi?a oa/?? iaioa? c a?aeaeaeaiiyi
a?ae aa?aaa, o?eueee i?e a?o?? ii ii?iae? aei aa?aaa (iai?yi 90)
oaeaee?noue oa/?? ?inoa c a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa i?e a?aenoai? ia
a?eueoa i?ae 4 ei. Iio??aii iaoe ia oaac?, ui iienaiee a aeaiiio
aenia?eiaio? i?ioean oo?aoeaioiiai ia?ai?ooaaiiy oi?io?oueny c
o?aooaaiiyi aoaeoo iaaaeaiiy oaeeue, yea aeyaey?oueny i?e oaeaeeino?
a?o?o a?eueoa i?ae 6 i/n.

Eiao?oe??io aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino? Kz ia iiaa?oi? ii?y aeinyaa?
iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy, yea ia? ii?yaeie 70-80 ni2/n. I?e iaeiaeia?e
a?aenoai? a?ae aa?aaa cia/aiiy Kz iaei caeaaeeoue a?ae iai?yio a?o?o,
iaeiae, iiaeia iii?oeoe caieaeai? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa aa?oeeaeueii?
oo?aoeaioiino? i?e iai?yiao -90 ? 45. C a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa
cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino? iaioathoue.

O i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy Kz ? i?i?ioi eiai
cia/aiiy ia ai?eciio? =0,10,2. Cia/aiiy oeueiai i?i?ioio iaeaea a aeaa
ii?yaeee iaioa, i?ae cia/aiiy Kz ia iiaa?oi? ii?y. I?ney oeueiai
i?i?ioio eiao?oe??io aa?oeeaeueiiai oo?aoeaioiiai ia?ai?ooaaiiy c?inoa?
c aeeaeiith. Ia ai?eciio? =0,6-0,7 aeae?ey?oueny ae?oaee iaeneioi Kz,
yeee ia ii?yaeie iaioa, i?ae ia iiaa?oi? ii?y. I?e  > 0,7 ii?yaeie
eiao?oe??ioa aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino? noaiiaeoue 101 ni2/n. Aeacai?
caeiiii??iino? oa?aeoa?i? aeey an?o a?aenoaiae a?ae aa?aaa. Iaeiae, c
a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae iueiai ia an?o ai?eciioao  > 0,2 niinoa??aa?oueny
c?inoaiiy cia/aiue Kz. O an?o aenia?eiaioao aaee/eia eiao?oe??ioa
aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino? ? eiai i?io?eue ia caeaaeeoue a?ae iai?yio
a?o?o.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Iiaeoeue (/enaeueiee, ni/n) ? eoo a?aeoeeaiiy iiaa?oiaai? oa/?? a?ae
a?o?o (ciaiaiiee, a?aae).

?VaHxIai?yi i?eaiaeiiai a?o?o j
(a?aae)yen.i/niei-180-135-90-45045901351107
227.821.117.325.827.721.016.925.92084441208454111011623.317.616.922.623.
317.616.622.63024464530244745110151020.116.115.619.720.116.115.219.73127
434331274443110211618.015.414.717.418.015.414.717.42926383829263838xIai?
yi i?eaiaeiiai a?o?o j
(a?aae)ei-180-150-120-90-60-30030609012015021050,229.026.318.26.620.627.
129.026.918.26.520.627.1
2-21-392450272-20-3924502721050,628.325.417.69.520.926.828.325.417.69.52
1.226.8
6-16-283647286-16-283648282105127.824.717.111.721.426.627.724.717.111.72
1.426.6 9-10-183946299-10-18394629xIai?yi i?eaiaeiiai a?o?o j
(a?aae)ei-180-120-90-3006090150365222.817.615.821.822.817.615.921.911319
211131921385621.016.416.420.820.916.116.120.8252638342626383431051028.02
4.724.927.927.924.224.527.8272836322728363231351636.434.234.136.336.333.
733.636.12425282724252827

Ine?eueee a iiia?aaeiueiio aenia?eiaio? ?ic?aoiaoaaeanue no?oeoo?a OIO,
ii/eiath/e c 1 ei a?ae aa?aaa, oi ? nain a?eueo aeaoaeueii aeine?aeeoe
oeth no?oeoo?o iiaeeco aa?aaa c iaeei ai?eciioaeueiei e?ieii (100 i).
Oea aoei c?iaeaii ca oaeeo oiia: a?oa? iino?eii? oaeaeeino? 10 i/n ?
ci?iiiai iai?yio, ui iieno? eiei c e?ieii 30, i?e iino?ei?e aeeaei? ii?y
5 i, ?ici??e ?ic?aooieiai? iaeano? 1,2 ei  1,2 ei (aenia?eiaio ? 2).
Ae?noaiaii, ui aaino?io?/ia oa/?y iai?yieaia a iaeei a?e a iaaeao
?ic?aooieiai? iaeano?. ?? oaeaee?noue ?iciiae?ey?oueny aeineoue
neeaaeiei /eiii, iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy oaeaeeino? i?e eiaeiiio iai?yi?
a?o?o niinoa??aa?oueny a?ey aa?aaa, i?e/iio iaea?eueoa c ieo
aeinyaa?oueny i?e iai?yi? 30 (19 ni/n), a iaeiaioa — i?e iai?yi? 150
(1,6 ni/n).

Io?eiaiee ?iciiae?e oaeaeeino? iiaa?oiaai? oa/?? i?e ??cieo iai?yiao
a?o?o. I?e iai?yiao -180, -150, -120, 0, 30, 60 oaeaee?noue oa/?? c
a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa ciaioo?oueny, i?e iai?yiao -90, -60, 90, 120 —
ca?eueoo?oueny. I?e iai?yiao -30 ? 150 oaeaee?noue oa/?? ia iiaa?oi?
ii?y iaei i?iy?oueny c a?aenoaiith (aeea. oaae. 1).

I?e ?icaeyae? oa?aeoa?o a?aeoeeaiiy aaeoi?a iiaa?oiaai? oa/?? a?ae a?o?o
iiaeia iii?oeoe, ui i?e acaeiaaeaa?aaiaiio a?o?? (iai?yi 0 ? 180) oa/?y
a?aeoeey?oueny a?ae a?o?o i?aai?o/ ia iaaaeeeee eoo (aei 10 a
caeaaeiino? a?ae a?aenoai? a?ae aa?aaa). I?e iai?yi? -90, -60, -30, 90,
120, 150 aaeoi? oa/?? ia iiaa?oi? ii?y a?aeoeey?oueny i?aai?o/ a?ae
aaeoi?a a?o?o, i?e/iio, yeui i?e iai?yi? -30 ? 150 eoo a?aeoeeaiiy
oaeoe/ii iino?eiee ia an?e ?ic?aooieia?e iaeano? (27 — 29), oi i?e
iai?yiao -60 ? 120 eoo a?aeoeeaiiy c a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa iaioa?
a?ae 51 aei 45, a i?e iai?yiao -90 ? 90 — ca?eueoo?oueny a?ae 18 aei 40.
I?e iai?yiao a?o?o -150, -120, 30, 60 aaeoi? iiaa?oiaai? oa/??
a?aeoeey?oueny e?ai?o/ a?ae aaeoi?a a?o?o ia an?o a?aenoaiyo a?ae aa?aaa
a ?ic?aooieia?e iaeano?, a?ey aa?aaa eoo a?aeoeeaiiy noaiiaeoue 22-43. A
i??o a?aeaeaeaiiy a?ae aa?aaa aaeoi? oa/?? iiaa?oa?oueny i?aai?o/, eoo
a?aeoeeaiiy ciaioo?oueny aei 8-13 ia a?aenoai? 1200 i.

Iiia?a/ia neeaaeiaa i?iy? ciae c aeeaeiith i?e iai?yiao -90, -60, -30,
90, 120, 150; a iiaeiaaeiy — i?e 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 (ca?iieo
a?o?ao). A iniiaiiio iiaeoeue aaeoi?a oa/?? ia eiaeiiio ai?eciio? iaioa?
c a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa, i?e a?o??, yeee aeo? ii ii?iae? aei aa?aaa,
oaeaee?noue oa/?? c?inoa?.

Eiao?oe??io aa?oeeaeueiiai oo?aoeaioiiai ia?ai?ooaaiiy ia an?o
ai?eciioao ia? iaeaea iaeii??aeiee ai?eciioaeueiee ?iciiae?e, yeee ia
caeaaeeoue a?ae iai?yio a?o?o. C aeeaeiith niinoa??aa?oueny iiieaeaiiy
Kz iaeaea a aeaa ?ace i?e =0,1, c aeeaeie =0,3 aei =0,8 eiao?oe??io
aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino? iaeaea ia i?iy?oueny, a i?eaeiiiii oa?? Kz
iaioa? c aeeaeiith aei iaeaea 101 ni2/n a?ey aeia.

?icaeyiaii aenia?eiaio ? 3 c iineethth/ei a?o?ii, ine?eueee i?e
ia?aoiae? c noo? ia ii?a, oiaoi ia iaio oi?noeo i?aenoeeath/o iiaa?oith,
oaeaee?noue a?o?o ca?eueoo?oueny. O oeueiio aenia?eiaio? a?oa? c?inoa? c
a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa a?ae 5 aei 15 i/n, ci?iiiai iai?yio (120, -90,
-30, 0, 60, 90, 150, 180), aeeaeia ii?y 5 i, ?ici??e ?ic?aooieiai?
iaeano? 20 ei  10 ei, ai?eciioaeueiee e?ie 1 ei, oaeei /eiii,
ai?eciioaeueiee a?aae??io oaeaeeino? a?o?o noaiiaeoue 0,5 i/n/ei.
Io?eiaii, ui c a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa oaeaee?noue aaino?io?/ii? oa/??
ci?ith?oueny neeaaeiei /eiii. Cacia/eii, ui i?e iai?yiao -180, -120, 90,
0, 60, 90 ia an?e ?ic?aooieia?e iaeano? aaino?io?/ia oa/?y iai?aaeaia a
iaeei a?e, a i?e iai?yiao -30 ? 150 niinoa??aathoueny no?eaeiiiae?ai?
ci?ie oaeaeeino? aaino?io?/ii? oa/?? c a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa.
Iaiaaii, iicia/a?oueny neeaaeiee aca?iica’ycie i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeino?
a?o?o ? ca?eueoaiiy a?aenoai? a?ae aa?aaa.

Ia oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e iiaa?oiaai? oa/?? aoaeo iaaaeaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo
oaeeue aieeaa? neeaaeiei ia?acii, ine?eueee oaeaee?noue a?o?o i?iy?oueny
a i??o a?aeaeaeaiiy a?ae aa?aaa. I?e oaeaeeino? a?o?o, yea ia ia?aaeuo?
6 i/n (a?aeiia?aeii i?e a?aenoai? a?ae aa?aaa iaioa i?ae 3 ei a aeaiiio
aenia?eiaio?), ia a?aeaoaa?oueny iaaaeaiiy a?o?iaeo oaeeue, ioaea,
aia?a?y, ui ia?aaea?oueny oo?aoeaioiei i?ioeanai, cia/ii iaioa, i?ae a
cii? aaeeeeo oaeaeeinoae, aea niinoa??aa?oueny iaaaeaiiy a?o?iaeo
oaeeue. C a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa a ciio ca?eueoaiiy a?o?o aei 6 i/n
(aei 2 ei), oa/?y iineeth?oueny, i?e oaeaeeino? a?ae 6 aei 6,5 i/n —
iaioa? (aei 3 ei), i?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii? oaeaeeino? a?o?o
a?aeaoaa?oueny c?inoaiiy oaeaeeino? iiaa?oiaai? oa/??. I?e oeueiio
no?eaie oaeaeeino? ia a?aenoai? 2-3 ei a?ae aa?aaa iiaea aeinyaaoe
5 ni/n. Iiaeeco aa?aaiai? iaae? iaea?eueo? oaeaeeino? iiaa?oiaai? oa/??
(21 ni/n) niinoa??aa?oueny i?e acaeiaaeaa?aaiaiio a?o?? (iai?yie 0 ?
180), i?e a?o??, ui aeo? i?ae eooii 90 aei aa?aaa oe? cia/aiiy
noaiiaeyoue 13 ni/n. Iiaa?oiaaa oa/?y a?aeoeey?oueny a?ae a?o?o
i?aai?o/. C a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa nii/aoeo eoo a?aeoeeaiiy
ca?eueoo?oueny ? ia a?aenoai? 7-8 ei aeinyaa? iaeneiaeueiiai cia/aiiy,
yea caeaaeeoue a?ae iai?yio a?o?o ? noaiiaeoue 27-38. I?e iiaeaeueoiio
a?aeaeaeaii? a?ae aa?aaa eoo a?aeoeeaiiy iaioa? aei 23-26 iiaeeco
a?aee?eoiai ei?aeiio in? o (aeea. oaae. 1).

A iniiaiiio neeaaeia? oaeaeeino? oa/?? ia ci?iththoue ciae c aeeaeiith.
Iiia?a/ia neeaaeiaa i?iy? ciae c aeeaeiith i?e iai?yiao -30 e 150, a
iiaeiaaeiy i?e -120 ? 60. Ia an?o ai?eciioao i?e an?o iai?yiao a?o?o
iiaeoeue aaeoi?a oa/?? ca?eueoo?oueny c a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa.

O ?iciiae?e? eiao?oe??ioa aa?oeeaeueiiai oo?aoeaioiiai ia?ai?ooaaiiy
iiaeia a?aecia/eoe aa?oi?e iaea?eueo oo?aoe?ciaaiee oa? a?ae iiaa?oi? c
iaeneiaeueiei cia/aiiyi ia iiaa?oi? ii?y. *ei a?eueoa a?aenoaiue a?ae
aa?aaa, oei oiano?oee oeae oa?. sseui a?aenoaiue a?ae aa?aaa ia
ia?aaeuo? 5 ei, aa?oi?e oo?aoeaioiee oa? i?iieea? aei aeeaeie =0,1, a ia
ae?eyioe? a?ae 6 aei 11 ei — aei =0,2, i?e a?aenoai? a?ae 12 aei 16 ei
ieaeiy iaaea oeueiai oa?o i?eoiaeeoueny ia =0,3, a i?e a?eueo?e
a?aenoai? oiaueia oeueiai oa?o noaiiaeoue 40 % a?ae aeeaeie ii?y.
Iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino? (yea
aeinyaa?oueny ia iiaa?oi? ii?y) c a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae aa?aaa
ca?eueoo?oueny. sseui ia a?aenoai? 1 ei a?ae aa?aaa iiaa?oiaaa cia/aiiy
Kz noaiiaeoue 1,3 ni2/n, oi ia a?aenoai? 6 ei aiii ca?eueoo?oueny aei
28 ni2/n, i?e a?aenoai? 12 ei — 108 ni2/n, ia a?aenoai? 19 ei a?ae
aa?aaa eiao?oe??io aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino? aeinyaa? 263 ni2/n. Ia
ai?eciioao, ?icoaoiaaieo ieae/a aa?oiueiai oo?aoeaioiiai oa?o,
eiao?oe??io aa?oeeaeueiiai oo?aoeaioiiai ia?ai?ooaaiiy ia? ii?yaeie
102 ni2/n.

O ?icae?e? 3 i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe canoinoaaiiy o?eaei??ii? iiaeae? OIO
aeey ae?eyiee Iaeanueei? caoiee c eii?aeeiaoaie 4627’20» —
4633’20» ii.o., 3044′ — 3053’20» n.ae. c aa?aaiaith iaaeath, yea
i?aaenoaaey? niaith e?i?th i?ai?/-i?aaeaiue. Oey ae?eyiea ia? o?e ??aee?
iaae?. Aoee aea?ai? a?o?e, ye? iathoue iaea?eueoo iiaoi?thaai?noue ca
ee?iaoe/ieie aeaieie (iai?yie cao?aeiee, i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiee,
i?ai?/ii-no?aeiee, i?aaeaiii-no?aeiee, i?ai?/iee ? oaeaeeino? 2-10 i/n).
Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?aoiaai? ?iciiae?ee oa/?? iiaeia aaaaeaoe ee?iaoe/ieie.
Io?eiai? caeiiii??iino? i?inoi?iaiai ?iciiae?eo oaeaeeinoae oa/?e ?
eiao?oe??ioa oo?aoeaioiino? ia aea?ai?e aeaeyioe?. Ia ?enoieo 1
iieacaiee ai?eciioaeueiee ?iciiae?e aeeaeie (1a), aeeaeiiiai iaeneioia
ii aa?oeeae? eiao?oe??ioa aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino? i?e
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio a?o?? oaeaeeino? 10 i/n (1a), iiaa?oiaai? oa/?? i?e
a?o?? oaeaeeino? 10 i/n, iai?yio i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio (1a) ?
i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiio (1a). C io?eiaieo ioe?iie aeoiaeeoue ?noioia
a?aei?ii?noue a ?iciiae?e? iiaa?oiaai? oaeaeeino? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oaeaeeino? ? iai?yio a?o?o. Oa?aeoa?i? aeey an??? ?ic?aooieiai? iaeano?
oaeaeeino? oa/?? aeey iaei??? ? o??? ae oaeaeeino? a?o?o i?e i?ai?/iiio
a?o?? cia/ii a?eueo? (a?ae 9 aei 24 ni/n), a i?e cao?aeiiio a?o?? iaio?
(7-13 ni/n), i?ae i?e ?ioeo iai?yiao a?o?o (8-20 ni/n). Iaeneiaeuei?
cia/aiiy oaeaeeino? iiaa?oiaai? oa/?? ci?iththoueny a?ae 8 aei 61 ni/n a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oaeaeeino? ? iai?yio a?o?o ? i?eoiaeyoueny ia eaiae c
iaea?eueoeie cia/aiiyie aeeaeie c a?nnth, ?icoaoiaaiith acaeiaae in? o
(i?e o = 4 ei). sse i?aaeei, oa/?y a?aeoeey?oueny i?aai?o/ a?ae a?o?o,
eeoa i?e i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiio iai?yi? a?aei?/a?oueny e?aa a?aeoeeaiiy.
Caaaeii ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino? a?o?o a?aei?/a?oueny iii?oia
ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? oa/??, eeoa i?e ca?eueoaii? oaeaeeino? a?o?o a?ae
5 aei 7,5 i/n oaeaee?noue oa/?? ca?eueoo?oueny o?ioe i?e cao?aeiiio
a?o??, a i?e ?ioeo iai?yiao iaioa?. Oea iia’ycaii c aieeaii aoaeoo
ia?aeeaeaiiy a?o?iaeo iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iiaeaeueieo
aenia?eiaio?a ca ?aooiie ci?iii? aeeaeie /?oei aeae?ey?oueny i?inoi?iaa
i?ieea?noue oaeaeeino? oa/?? a iaio iai?yiao — acaeiaae ? oiiia?ae
aa?aae. Eiao?oe??io aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino? iaei caeaaeeoue a?ae
iai?yio a?o?o ? ia iiaa?oi? ii?y ?iciiae?e Kz iaeaea iaeii??aeiee. I?e
iaaaeee?e aeeaei? ii?y eiao?oe??io aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino?
iiiioiiii oaoaa? c aeeaeiith. I?e aeeaei? a?eueoa 5 i aeae?eythoueny o?e
iaeneioie a ?iciiae?e? eiao?oe??ioa aa?oeeaeueii? oo?aoeaioiino?.
Iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy iaeneioia ia iiaa?oi? ii?y ? aiii eieeaa?oueny a?ae
0,14 ni2/n i?e oaeaeeino? a?o?o 2,5 i/n aei 80 ni2/n i?e oaeaeeino?
a?o?o 10 i/n. O oeaio?aeuei?e ii aa?oeeae? /anoei? niinoa??aa?oueny
ae?oaee iaeneioi i?e =0,5-0,6, ? iiaeeco aeia — o?ao?e. Ia?oee iaeneioi
?inoa, a ae?oaee iaioa? ?c c?inoaiiyi a?o?o, iaeneioi a?ey aeia
i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae oaeaeeino? a?o?o. I?e oaeaeeino? a?o?o
iaioa i?ae 7,5 i/n i?io?eue Kz aeineoue aeaaeeee c ae?oaee iaeneioi
a?eueoa, i?ae ia?oee, a i?e oaeaeeino? a?o?o ia iaioa i?ae 7,5 i/n
iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy Kz aeinyaa?oueny ia iiaa?oi? ii?y. *?oei
aeae?ey?oueny caeaaei?noue oeueiai ae?oaiai iaeneioia (?en. 1a) a?ae
ai?eciioaeueieo eii?aeeiao. O cii? iaaaeeeeo cia/aiue Kz ?cie?i??
aiaeia?/i? ?ciaaoai. Ciia aaeeeeo cia/aiue ae?oaiai iaeneioia
?icoaoiao?oueny ia i?aaeaiiiio noiae? ?ic?aooieiai? iaeano?, aea
niinoa??aathoueny aaeee? aeeaeie. Oea iia’ycaii c iaiaeii??aeiei
?iciiae?eii aeeaeie (?en. 1a).

sse ?ethno?aoe?th yeino? a?aeiiaeaiiy ea?oeie oee?eoeyoe??, io?eiaii? ca
aeiiiiiaith o?eaei??iiai iiaeaethaaiiy OIO, iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe
c?noaaeaiiy ?ic?aoiaaieo ? oaeoe/ieo cia/aiue oaeaeeino? ? iai?yio
iiaa?oiaai? oa/??. Ia ?en. 1ae i?aaenoaaeai? cia/aiiy ?ic?aoiaaiiai
iiaeoey aaeoi?a oa/?? ? aeai? aei??thaaiue ia ?aeaeiaiio ioieo?
niinoa?aaeaiue a Iaeanuee?e caoioe? ca 1961-1973 ??. Ia ?en. 1a
i?aaenoaaeai? ?ic?aoiaai? ? aei??yi? eooe a?aeoeeaiiy aaeoi?a oa/?? a?ae
iai?yio aaeoi?a a?o?o. ?ic?aoiaai? aaee/eie io?eiai? a aenia?eiaio? 2
(oaae. 1) aeey a?aenoai? 0,3 ei a?ae aa?aaa, aei??yi? aaee/eie iaaaaeai?
?aaiiaei ?. I. ia iniia? aeaieo niinoa?aaeaiue oa/?e. Na?aaei?
aaniethoia ?icoiaeaeaiiy ?ic?aoiaaieo ? aei??yieo iiaeoe?a oa/??
(2 ni/n) eaaeeoue a iaaeao iioeaee aei??thaaiue. Io?eiaia ?ic?aooieiaa
a?aeoeeaiiy aaeoi?a oa/?e e?ai?o/ a?ae aaeoi?a a?o?o aeia?a
ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie aei??thaaiue. Ocaiaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
?ic?aooieo ? aei??thaaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeniiaie i?i canoiniai?noue
?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? aeey ?ica’ycaiiy i?eeeaaeieo caaea/ i?eaa?aaeii?
i?eeiaiaeii? ciie ii?y.

Aeey o?eaei??ii? iiaeae? OIO aeey caaeaiiy aa?oi?o a?aie/ieo oiia
iaiao?aeii ciaoe neeaaeia? oaiaaioe?aeueiiai iai?oaeaiiy a?o?o ?
aoiinoa?io aeeiai?/io oaeaee?noue. Oiio a /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e?
“E?euee?nia ioe?iea ia?aiao??a ciai?oiueiai aieeao ia ii?nuee? aeaaoi???
(ia i?eeeaae? I?aaeaiii-Eeoaenueeiai ii?y)» iieacai? ?acoeueoaoe
ooi/iaiiy oeeo aaee/ei ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeae? aoiinoa?iiai iia?aie/iiai
oa?o (AIO) c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaieo ia’?eoeaiiai aiae?co aeey ia??iaeo
a?ae 6 aei 9 n?/iy 1994 ?., aeey yeiai o aea?aiiio ?aa?ii? ?aae?co?oueny
oeiiaee neiiioe/iee i?ioean — ae?oaa oaca ?icaeoeo ceiiaiai ioniio, i?e
yeiio oa?eoi??y, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae aieeaii a?aaaiy
Ac?aonueeiai aioeoeeeeiio.

C aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeae? AIO aeyaey?oueny iiaeeeaei ca’ycaoe
aaciina?aaeiuei ae?aaiinoe/ia ? i?iaiinoe/ia iiey oeneo c? no?oeoo?ith
OIO. Iiaeaethaaiiy iiey i?eaiaeiiai a?o?o ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeae? AIO
aoei aeeiiaii aeey ?aeiio I?aaeaiii-Eeoaenueeiai ii?y c eii?aeeiaoaie
818 ii.o., 110120 n.ae. Io?eiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee OIO aeey i?eaa?aaeii?
i?eeiaiaeii? /anoeie I?aaeaiii-Eeoaenueeiai ii?y. Aeey an???
?ic?aooieiai? iaeano? ?ic?aoiaai? oo?aoeaioiee iio?e oaiea, aoiinoa?ia
aeeiai?/ia oaeaee?noue ? na?aaeiy aenioa noaeiai oaeethaaiiy.
A?aecia/eii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ?iciiae?eo ia?aiao??a, iaiao?aei?
aeey ?ic?aooieo oa?aeoa?enoee OIO.

?iciiae?e a?o?o ? aenioe oaeeue ia? cia/io ai?eciioaeueio i?ieea?noue.
*aniaa aeeiai?ea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ineaaeaiiyi oaeaeeino? a?o?o ? aenioe
oaee? (a?aeiia?aeii a?ae 11,7 aei 8,9 i/n ? 1,45 aei 0,85 i), iio?i
iaaaeeeei iineeaiiyi (aei 9,6 i/n ? 0,97 i) ? ineaaeaiiyi iai?ee?ioe?
ia??iaeo (aei 8,1 i/n ? 0,69 i). I?e oeueiio oaeaee?noue iiaa?oiaai?
oa/?? a?aeiia?aeii ciaioo?oueny a?ae 19,2 ni/n ia ii/aoeo ia??iaeo aei
12,0 ni/n iai?ee?ioe?. Iaaaeeea ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? a?o?o ia
i?eaiaeeoue aei iineeaiiy oaeaeeino? iiaa?oiaai? oa/?? /a?ac oa, ui i?e
oeueiio a?oa? ci?ith? iai?yi c i?ai?/ii-no?aeiiai ia no?aeiee, ?
oaeaee?noue aaino?io?/ii? oa/?? iaioa?.

O oa?i?/iiio aca?iica’yceo aoiinoa?e ? ieaaio ia ii/aoeo ia??iaeo
ia?aaaaeaea ia?aaea/a oaiea c ieaaio a aoiinoa?o ? niinoa??aaeanue
iaeneiaeueia aaniethoia aaee/eia iioieo, a iio?i eiio?ano oaiia?aoo?e
aiaee ? iia?o?y ciaiooaaany, iio?e oaiea iinooiiai ci?ithaaa iai?yi ia
a?eueo?e /anoei? aeaaoi??? ia cai?ioiee. Iaeneiaeueia aaee/eia
aeiaeaoiiai iioieo iinooiiai iiiaioaea a?ae 37 aei 9,3 Ao/i2, a cia/aiiy
iiaeoey iioieo a?ae aoiinoa?e aei ieaaio nii/aoeo cieaeoaaeinue a?ae 15
aei 10 Ao/i2, a iio?i c?inei aei 15 Ao/i2. O iie? aeeiai?/ii? oaeaeeino?
ia ii/aoeo ia??iaeo noaeiny aeayea ciaioaiiy a?ae 0,47 aei 0,30 i/n,
iio?i — ca?eueoaiiy a?ae 0,30 aei 0,36 i/n ? a e?ioe? ia??iaeo —
iiieaeaiiy aeeiai?/ieo oaeaeeinoae a?ae 0,36 aei 0,29 i/n, ui iia’ycaii
c /aniaith aeeiai?eith iiey a?o?o.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE ? ?ACOEUeOAOE

1. Noi?ioeueiaaia iinoaiiaea caaea/? e?euee?niiai iieno ianoaoe?iia?iiai
no?aoeo?eiaaiiai aa?ieeeiiiai oaeueoiaiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o c
o?aooaaiiyi iniiaieo ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o iaoai?ci?a oi?ioaaiiy eiai
aioo??oiuei? no?oeoo?e aeey iaiaaeaii? o?eaei??ii? ?ic?aooieiai? iaeano?
ii?y c oiiia?ao?/ii neeaaeiei ?aeue?oii aeia.

2. ?ic?iaeaiee ? ?aae?ciaaiee ?ic?aooieiaee iaoiae aecia/aiiy aaeoi??a
oa/?? ? ia?aiao??a oo?aoeaioiino? aeey OIO.

3. Iiaoaeiaaia eaac?aeaiaei??ia iaaeeaeaiiy aeey iieno OIO ye ni?iuaiee
aa??aio o?eaei??ii? iiaeae?, yeee aea? i?eeiyoio oi/i?noue ?ic?aooieo
iiaa?oiaai? oa/?? ? aeineoue i?inoee aeey canoinoaaiiy a iia?aoeai?e
i?aeoeoe?.

4. Aeyaeai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oo?aoeaioii-oee?eoeyoe?eii? no?oeoo?e
OIO aeey oe?ieiai ae?aiaciio a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo ? ii?oiiao?e/ieo
ia?aiao??a.

5. Iieacaiee oai?aoe/ii ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiee aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie
oaeo e?aiai a?aeoeeaiiy aaeoi?a iiaa?oiaai? oa/?? a?ae aaeoi?a a?o?o.

6. ?ic?aoiaaiee o?eaei??iee i?inoi?iaee ?iciiae?e aaeoi??a oa/?e ?
oa?aeoa?enoee oo?aoeaioiino? a i?eaa?aaei?e cii? Iaeanueei? caoiee aeey
oaeaeeino? ? iai?yio a?o??a, ye? iathoue iaea?eueo? ee?iaoe/i?
iiaoi?thaaiino?.

7. ?ic?iaeaiee ? canoiniaaiee aeey ?ic?aooie?a no?oeoo?e OIO iaoiae,
yeee aeicaiey? ca’ycaoe ae?aaiinoe/ia ? i?iaiinoe/ia iiey oeneo aeey
e?euee?nii? ioe?iee oa?aeoa?enoee i?eaa?aaeii? ciie ii?y ? ia?aiao??a
aca?iiae?? aoiinoa?e ? ii?nueei? aeaaoi??? (ia i?eeeaae?
I?aaeaiii-Eeoaenueeiai ii?y).

8. Aeinoia??i?noue iiaeae? i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ocaiaeaeaiiyi ?ic?aoiaaieo ?
aei??yieo iiaeoe?a ? iai?yi?a aaeoi?a iiaa?oiaai? oa/??.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

1. Ea Ooe Eoeiue Oa. Aaeaioe?iaaiiay iaeiiia?iay iiaeaeue oee?eoeyoeee
aiaeiuo iann a i?ea?aaeiie ciia // Iaoai?ieiaey, eeeiaoieiaey e
aeae?ieiaey, — Iaeanna, 1997, Aui. 34, N. 4255.

2. Ea Ooe Eoeiue Oa. Aeeaae aaeieueaa?aaiaiai aaino?ioe/aneiai oa/aiey a
oi?ie?iaaiee no?oeoo?u oaeueoiaiai iia?aie/iiai neiy // Iaoai?ieiaey,
eeeiaoieiaey e aeae?ieiaey, — Iaeanna, 1998, Aui. 35, N. 374-385.

3. Ea Ooe Eoeiue Oa. Eiee/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee acaeiiaeaenoaey
aoiinoa?u e ieaaia a o?iie/aneie ciia // Iaoai?ieiaey, eeeiaoieiaey e
aeae?ieiaey, — Iaeanna, 1997, Aui. 38, N. 386-394.

4. Le Thi Quynh Ha. One-dimensional modified model of the water
circulation in the coastal region// Vietnam Meteorology and Hydrology.
-1997. -? 12. — pp. 25-33.

AIIOAOe??

Ea Ooe Eo?iue Oa. Iiaeaethaaiiy oaeueoiaiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o.
— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 11.00.08 – ieaaiieia?y. Iaeanueeee
a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee ?inoeooo, Iaeana, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeo e?euee?niiai iieno
oo?aoeaioii-oee?eoeyoe?eii? no?oeoo?e i?eaa?aaeii? i?eeiaiaeii? ciie
ii?y – oaeueoiaiai iia?aie/iiai oa?o (OIO) ? aeyaeaiith iniiaieo
caeiiii??iinoae o?eaei??iiai ?iciiae?eo oa?aeoa?enoee OIO. Iinoaiiaea
caaea/? e?euee?niiai iieno ianoaoe?iia?iiai no?aoeo?eiaaiiai
aa?ieeeiiiai OIO noi?ioeueiaaia c o?aooaaiiyi iniiaieo aioo??oi?o ?
ciai?oi?o iaoai?ci?a aeey iaiaaeaii? o?eaei??ii? ?ic?aooieiai? iaeano?
ii?y c oiiia?ao?/ii neeaaeiei ?aeue?oii aeia. Aeienaia nenoaia ??aiyiue
a?ae?ioa?iiaeeiai?ee ? oo?aoeaioiiai caieeaiiy ? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae
aecia/aiiy oee?eoeyoe?eieo ? oo?aoeaioieo oa?aeoa?enoee OIO oeyoii
/enaeueiiai ?ica’ycaiiy oe??? nenoaie aeey oe?ieiai ae?aiaciio
a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo ? ii?oiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a. Aeinoia??i?noue
iiaeae? i?aeoaa?aeaeaia ocaiaeaeaiiyi ?ic?aoiaaieo ? aei??yieo iiaeoe?a
? iai?yi?a aaeoi?a iiaa?oiaai? oa/??. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy
?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo a iia?aoeai?e i?aeoeoe? ia i?eeeaae? Iaeanueei?
caoiee ? I?aaeaiii-Eeoaenueeiai ii?y.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oo?aoeaioi?noue, oaeueo, iia?aie/iee oa?, o?eaei??iee
?iciiae?e, iiaa?oiaaa oa/?y, oo?aoeaioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee,
a?ae?iaeeiai?ea, oo?aoeaioia caieeaiiy, iia?aoeaia i?aeoeea,
aeinoia??i?noue.

Le Thi Quynh Ha. Modeling of the shelf boundary layer. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 11.00.08 — oceanology.
– Odessa State Hydrometeorological Institute, Odessa, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to performance of the turbulence and
circulation structure quantitative description method for coastal sea
zone — the shelf boundary layer (SBL). This method was used for
obtaining the main objection laws of three-dimensional distribution of
the SBL parameters. The quantitative description task of the
non-stationary stratified baroclinic SBL is formulated in account with
the main internal and external mechanisms of SBL internal structure
formation for the limited sea area with the orographical complex bottom.
The hydrodynamic, thermodynamic and turbulent closure equation system is
written. The method of determination for current vectors and turbulence
characteristics is constructed with numerical solutions of this system
for the wide spectra of hydrometeorological and morphometric parameters.
The model reliability is confirmed by the agreement between calculated
and measured surface current vector modules and directions. The
performed method useness is shown on the calculation example for the
Odessa Bay and South China Sea.

Key words: turbulence, shelf, boundary layer, three-dimensional
distribution, surface current, turbulence parameters, hydrodynamics,
turbulent closure, reliability.

Ea Ooe Eoeiue Oa. Iiaeaee?iaaiea oaeueoiaiai iia?aie/iiai neiy. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?aoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.08 — ieaaiieiaey. – Iaeanneee
aeae?iiaoai?ieiae/aneee einoeooo, Iaeanna, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea iaoiaea eiee/anoaaiiiai iienaiey
oo?aoeaioii-oee?eoeyoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u i?ea?aaeiie iaeeiaiaeiie ciiu
ii?y — oaeueoiaiai iia?aie/iiai neiy (OIN) e auyaeaieth iniiaiuo
caeiiiia?iinoae o?aoia?iiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?enoee OIN. Oece/aneay
iinoaiiaea caaea/e iienaiey OIN auiieiaia n o/aoii aeeyiey iniiaiuo
aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo iaoaieciia oi?ie?iaaiey aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u OIN.
Noi?ioee?iaaia caieiooay ia/aeueii-e?aaaay caaea/a, iienuaathuay
no?oeoo?o ianoaoeeiia?iiai no?aoeoeoee?iaaiiiai aa?ieeeiiiai o?aoia?iiai
OIN, aeeth/athuoth a naay o?aaiaiey aeae?ioa?iiaeeiaieee e oo?aoeaioiiai
caiueaiey, aiaoiea aicaeaenoaey ia oi?ie?iaaiea no?oeoo?o OIN.
?anniio?ai eaaceaeaoia?iue oi?iuaiiue aa?eaio iiaeaee OIN aeey auai?a
ia?aiao?ia, ia/aeueiuo e e?aaauo oneiaee, a ?aieao eioi?iai ?ac?aaioaia
iaoiaeeea o/aoa naiiii-iaaiiiuo yaeaiee iooai ?an/aoa aaino?ioe/aneiai
oa/aiey. Aaeece aa?aaa aaino?ioe/aneia oa/aiea ii?iaeaeaaony iaeeiiii
o?iaiy ii?y, aicieeoei a ?acoeueoaoa naiiii-iaaiiiiai aicaeaenoaey
aao?a. Yoi aaino?ioe/aneia oa/aiea ea?aao nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a
oi?ie?iaaiee aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?u OIN. A /anoiinoe n o/aoii
aaino?ioe/aneiai oa/aiey oaeaeinue iienaoue yooaeo eaaiai ioeeiiaiey
iiaa?oiinoiiai oa/aiey io aao?a a naaa?iii iieooa?ee, iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiue
aeaiiuie iaaethaeaiee, a oaeaea caaeneiinoue nei?inoe iiaa?oiinoiiai
oa/aiey e eiyooeoeeaioa aa?oeeaeueiie oo?aoeaioiinoe io iai?aaeaiey
aao?a. Oae eae eaaceaeaoia?iue aa?eaio aeaao oece/anee iainiiaaiiua
?acoeueoaou n i?eaieaiie oi/iinoueth, oi ii eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa
ia/aeueiuo oneiaee aeey iiaeaee o?aoia?iiai OIN. I?iaaaeaiu o?e aeaea
/eneaiiuo yenia?eiaioia ii iiaeaee?iaaieth OIN aeey i?yiioaieueiiai
?an/aoiiai o/anoea n iaeiie aa?aaiaie aieiaie a?aieoeae, aaeieue eioi?ie
iai?aaeaia inue Io e o?aiy aeeaeeeie aeey neaaeothueo cia/aiee
iiaeaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia: 1) aaoa? iinoiyiiie nei?inoe 10 i/n e
ia?aiaiiiai iai?aaeaiey, iaiythuayny aeoaeia, ?acia?u ?an/aoiie iaeanoe
20 ei  10 ei, ai?eciioaeueiue oaa 1 ei; 2) aaoa? iinoiyiiie nei?inoe
10 i/n e ia?aiaiiiai iai?aaeaiey i?e iinoiyiiie aeoaeia 5 i ii?y,
?acia?u ?an/aoiie iaeanoe 1,2 ei  1,2 ei, ai?eciioaeueiue oaa 100 i; 3)
aaoa? aic?anoathuae n oaeaeaieai io aa?aaa, ia?aiaiiiai iai?aaeaiey,
aeoaeia ii?y 5 i, ?acia?u ?an/aoiie iaeanoe 20 ei  10 ei,
ai?eciioaeueiue oaa 1 ei. I?eaaaeai iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe
?ani?aaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?enoee OIN, iieo/aiiua a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo
yenia?eiaioia. Iiaa?oiinoiia oa/aiea eniuouaaao iaeaieueooth
eciai/eainoue aaeece aa?aaa (aei 3 ei) e caeanue i?e iaeioi?uo
iai?aaeaieyo aao?a ioia/aaony eaaia ioeeiiaiea oa/aiey io aao?a. N
?inoii aeoaeiu nei?inoue iiaa?oiinoiiai oa/aiey oiaiueoaaony. Yooaeo
ia?ooaiey aao?iauo aiei i?iyaeyaony a oiaiueoaiee iiaa?oiinoiiai oa/aiey
i?e oaaee/aiee aao?a io 6 aei 7 i/n. Aa?oeeaeueiue i?ioeeue
eiyooeoeeaioa aa?oeeaeueiie oo?aoeaioiinoe eiaao iaeneioi ia iiaa?oiinoe
ii?y, oaaee/eaathueeny n ?inoii nei?inoe e ia caaenyuee io iai?aaeaiey
aao?a e ?annoiyiey io aa?aaa. A oieua OIN cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa
oo?aoeaioiinoe ia 2 ii?yaeea iaiueoa aai iiaa?oiinoiiai cia/aiey i?e
ii?ieeaeuaaiee aao?iauo aiei e ia iaeei ii?yaeie — i?e aai ionoonoaee.
Auiieiaiu ?an/aou ii o?aoia?iie iiaeaee OIN i?eiaieoaeueii e Iaeanneiio
caeeao aeey aao?ia, eiathueo iaeaieueoea iiaoi?yaiinoe (C, NC, NA, THA e
N aao?u). Iieo/aiu caeiiiia?iinoe i?ino?ainoaaiiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey
nei?inoae oa/aiee e eiyooeoeeaioa oo?aoeaioiinoe i?e oeacaiiuo oneiaeyo.
Naiua aieueoea iaeneiaeueiua nei?inoe iiaa?oiinoiiai oa/aiey
iaaethaeathony i?e naaa?iii aao?a e i?eoiaeyony ia eaiae n iaeaieueoeie
cia/aieyie aeoaeiu. Eae i?aaeei, oa/aiea ioeeiiyaony ai?aai io aao?a,
eeoue i?e NA iai?aaeaiee ioia/aaony eaaia ioeeiiaiea. Ec iieo/aiiuo
ioeaiie neaaeotho nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea a ?ani?aaeaeaiee iiaa?oiinoiie
nei?inoe a caaeneiinoe io nei?inoe e iai?aaeaiey aao?a. A ioee/ea io
iiaeaeueiuo yenia?eiaioia ca n/ao ai?eciioaeueiie iaiaeii?iaeiinoe
aeoaei /aoei i?iyaeyaony i?ino?ainoaaiiay eciai/eainoue nei?inoe oa/aiey
aaeieue e iiia?ae aa?aaa. I?e anao iai?aaeaieyo aao?a e aeoaeia ii?y
aieueoa 5 i auaeaeythony o?e iaeneioia a aa?oeeaeueiii ?ani?aaeaeaiee
eiyooeoeeaioa oo?aoeaioiinoe (ia iiaa?oiinoe ii?y, a n?aaeiae /anoe e
aaeece aeia). Ia?aue iaeneioi ?anoao, a aoi?ie oiaiueoaaony n ?inoii
aao?a, iaeneioi o aeia i?aeoe/anee ia caaeneo io nei?inoe aao?a. *aoei
auaeaeyaony caaeneiinoue yoiai aoi?iai iaeneioia io ai?eciioaeueiuo
eii?aeeiao. Yoi naycaii n iaiaeii?iaeiui ?ani?aaeaeaieai aeoaeiu.

Auiieiaii niiinoaaeaiea ?ann/eoaiiuo e ecia?aiiuo cia/aiee nei?inoe e
iai?aaeaiey oa/aiey, eioi?ia iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue e
aiciiaeiinoue o/aoa naiiii-iaaiiiuo yaeaiee i?e iienaiee i?ea?aaeiie
ciiu ii?y. N iiiiuueth iiaeaee aoiinoa?iiai iia?aie/iiai neiy (AIN)
?ann/eoaiu aa?oiea a?aie/iua oneiaey n eniieueciaaieai aeaiiuo
iauaeoeaiiai aiaeeca. Ieacuaaaony aiciiaeiui naycaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii
aeeaaiinoe/aneia e i?iaiinoe/aneia iiey aeaaeaiey ni no?oeoo?ie OIN.
?acoeueoaou iiaeaee?iaaiey iiey i?eaiaeiiai aao?a n iiiiuueth iiaeaee
AIN aeey ?aeiia THaeii-Eeoaeneiai ii?y auee i?eiaiaiu aeey ?an/aoia
aeeiaie/aneeo nei?inoae, oieueiu neiy iaeneiaeueiie aeenneiaoeee
oo?aoeaioiie yia?aee, oo?aoeaioiiai iioiea oaiea e auniou aiei aeey
aua?aiiiai anoanoaaiii-neiiioe/aneiai ia?eiaea. Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiui
?acoeueoaoii aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony oece/anee iainiiaaiiay e
yenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiay iiaeaeue oaeueoiaiai iia?aie/iiai
neiy e auyaeaiiua caeiiiia?iinoe i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiiai
?ani?aaeaeaiey iieae oa/aiee e oa?aeoa?enoee oo?aoeaioiinoe n o/aoii
iniiaiuo oece/aneeo e ii?oiiao?e/aneeo oaeoi?ia e aeey ?acee/iuo
aaia?aoe/aneeo ?aaeiiia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeae?iaeeiaieea, oaeueo, iia?aie/iue neie, caiueaiea,
o?aoia?iia ?ani?aaeaeaiea, iiaa?oiinoiia oa/aiea, aa?oeeaeueiue
i?ioeeue, oo?aoeaioiua oa?aeoa?enoeee, oece/aneia iainiiaaiea,
yenia?eiaioaeueiia iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea.

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