I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

OAOIIEIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO IIAe?EEss

Aieoia A?eoi? Aiaoie?eiae/

OAeE 621.891

IIAeAETHAAIIss I?IOeAN?A OA?Oss OA CHIOOAAHHss O

O?EAINENOAIAO A?Ae?IIAOEH ssE INHIAA ??OAHHss CAAeA*

I?IAEOOAAHHss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.02.04

Oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy a iaoeiao

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oiaeueieoeueeee-1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anueeiio ?inoeooo? eueio/ee?a
A?enueeiai-Iia?o?yieo Nee Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

OAA?Ess Aaea??e Aaneeueiae/

Ee?anueeee i?aeia?iaeiee oi?aa?neoao oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eocueiaiei Aiaoie?e A?eai?iae/,
Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? OEOIIIAE* Aaaeei ?aaiiae/,
O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? NIEIAOA Ieeiea Aa?aiiae/, Oe?a?inueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, i?ioani?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie
?i. A.I.Iiaeai?iiai, a?aeae?e oaoi?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o
aia?aiiaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «30» aa?aniy 1999?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 70.052.02 i?e Oaoiieia?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? Iiae?eey. Aae?ana: 280016, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee aoe.
?inoeooonueea 11.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oaoiieia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey. Aae?ana: 280016, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee
aoe.Eai’yiaoeueea 110/2.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 15 » eeiiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee __________________ E?ieoeueeee ss.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. sse?noue iaoei caaaeueiiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy,
niaoe?aeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy oa i?eno?i?a o cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny
?ano?nii ?o ?iaioe, iaaeinoaoi?i aeey a?eueoi? /anoeie oaoi?/ieo nenoai,
ui aeaioiaeythoueny ca?ac oa aenieoaoothoueny o ia?iaeiiio
ainiiaea?noa?. ?ano?n aaaaoueio iaoei coiiaeaiee iecueeith
ciinino?ee?noth ?ooiieo ni?yaeaiue oa aeaoaeae oa?oy. Aeey caaacia/aiiy
?o aeaioiaeaiiy ia no/aniiio ??ai?, iaiao?aei?, ia?o ca ana,
niaoe?ae?ciaai? i?aeaaeocaa? ciaiiy iiaeaethaaiiy, eiino?othaaiiy,
ae?iaieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoe?? oaeeo nenoai, ye? iaaea? iaoea —
o?eaieia?y, i?eeeaaeiith /anoeiith yei? ? o?eaioaoi?ea.

Aeey caaea/ o?eaioaoiiee iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue iaoiaee ioe?iee
aecia/aeueieo i?ioean?a oa yaeu /a?ac iiaeaeueiee aenia?eiaio, iien oa
?acoeueoaoe yeiai iiaeathoue o e?eoa?iaeueiie oi?i?. Aeei?enoaiiy
iaoiae?a iiaeaethaaiiy, i?e i?aaeeueiiio oa ia’?eoeaiiio i?aeoiae? aei
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a c ioe?ieith ?o iaaiino? oa oi/iino?,
aeicaieythoue cia/ii i?enei?eoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue ?
nei?ioeoe o?oaeia? aeo?aoe oa aeo?aoe aeao?oeeoieo iaoa??ae?a. Oaeee
oeyo ??oaiiy caaea/ c oni?oii ai?iaiaaiee a ?ioeo aaeocyo iaoeiiciaanoaa
a?o/eciyieie oa ?iicaiieie a/aieie.

sse a?aeiii, i?e i?iaeooaaii? iaoei, aocee oa aeaoae? ?ic?aoiaothoue ia
i?oei?noue aeia?a ia?aa??aieie iaoiaeaie, aea i?e oeueiio ?o ia
?ic?aoiaothoue ia ciinino?ee?noue i oei a?eueoa, ia i?iaiaeyoue ?o
iioei?caoe?th. A?aeaoaa?oueny oea ia c i?e/ei iaei? aaae oaeeo
?ic?aooie?a, a c-ca a?aenooiino? iaaieo iaoiae?a, aai iaoiaeee aeey ?o
i?iaaaeaiiy.

C ??ciiiai?oieo aoce?a o?eaioaoi?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue
o caaaeueiiio iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, iaea?eueo ianiaeie oa a?aeiia?aeaeueieie
? aocee eiacaiiy. A iniiaiiio, ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy, ?o ?ic?aoiaothoue
ia a?ae?iaeeiai?/iee ?aaeei ciauoaaiiy. Iacaaiee ?aaeei ? iaea?eueo
aea/aiei o iaoeiiciaanoa?, ? iia’ycaii oea c i?aeoiaeii a?ae?iiaoai?ee,
yeee aeicaiey? iaoooaaoe iniaeeainoyie ianoeeueieo i?ioean?a ia
iieaeoey?iiio ??ai?.

I?e a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiio ciauoaaii? ciiooaaiiy ia iiaeiii aooe, ine?eueee
iaia? eiioaeoo i?ae iaoa??aeaie, ui o?ooueny. I?ioa, i?ae /an ioneo aai
coieiee iaoai?cio, ia ia?ao?aeieo ?aaeeiao aai i?e ci?i? iai?yieo ?ooo
a?aeaoaa?oueny ao?aoa aeanoeainoae ianoeeueiiai oa?o oa, ye iane?aeie,
c’yaey?oueny eiioaeo iiaa?oiiue oa?oy. O oeae /an ia? i?noea a?aie/iee
?aaeei ciauoaaiiy.

Oea iaea?eueo iaaacia/iee ?aaeei ?iaioe an?o ia? eiacaiiy, a oaeiae
a?eueoino? aeaoaeae aeaeaoi?a aioo??oiueiai cai?aiiy, a?ae?iiioi??a oa
a?ae?iianin?a.

Aiae?c ?ioi?iaoe??, i?enay/aii? iiaeaethaaiith, iieacaa, ui a?aie/ia
oa?oy ? iaeiei ?c iaeiaio ?ic?iaeaieo iai?yi?a o o?eaieia??, a noai?aiiy
?ic?aooieiai-aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy o?eaioaoii/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ni?yaeaiue, ye? ooieoe?iiothoue a oiiaao a?aie/iiai
ciauoaaiiy, noaei iac??eith iaiao?aei?noth.

Oe?eue oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ca’yceo c aeeeaaeaiei aeua, oe?eeth
?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo aniaeo?a o?ce/iiai oa iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy o o?eainenoaiao a?ae?iiaoei
aeey aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue, i?iaiicoaaiiy ?ano?no
oa aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a iaeaoee oa aenieoaoaoe??.

I?ae iaoiaee/ieie aniaeoaie iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy
a oiiaao a?aie/iiai ciauoaaiiy aoaeaii ?icoi?oe nenoaio, yea i?noeoue
i?eioeeie eiino?oeoeaii? ciinino?eeino? aoce?a oa?oy, i?eioeeie aeai?o
a?aeiia?aeieo iaoa??ae?a o iacaai? aocee, a oaeiae iaoiaeeee o?ce/iiai
oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy noaoe?iia?ieo oa ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a
aeey cae?eniaiiy oai?aoe/ii? oa i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Noai?aiiy oaei?
nenoaie a?oioo?oueny ia ocaaaeueiaii? iaaooiai aeina?aeo o aaeoc?
iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy ? ??oaiiyi aaaiii?
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeaie, oiio ui, ni?yiiaaia ia ?icaeoie oai???
oa i?aeoeee eiino?othaaiiy a?ae?iiaoei, aeicaieeoue cia/ii i?aeaeueoe ?o
?ano?n oa ciaioeoe aeei?enoaiiy eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a aeey i?aeoeiiee?a
eiacaiiy, ui aeanoue aaeeeee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo i?e ae?iaieoeoa?,
aenieoaoaoe?? oa ?aiiio?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? oe?e? ae??ooaaeenue oae? iniiai? caaea/?:

1. Ia i?aenoaa? iieiaeaiue nenoaiiiai aiae?co ?ic?iaeoe caaaeueiee
i?aeo?ae o aeine?aeaeaii? i?ioean?a oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy aeey
i?aai?caoe?? «?icaoaeiae iiaeae?» o?eainenoaie oa iiaeaeueoiai ?o
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

2. ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei o?aooaaiiy o iiaeaeyo oa?oy oa
ciiooaaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae aoceia oa?oy aeey aeai?o
?aoe?iiaeueieo eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue.

3. ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoeie uiaei o?aooaaiiy o iiaeaeyo ?aeaenaoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae no?oeoo?e ni?yaeaieo iaoa?iaeia o aoce? oa?oy aeey
aecia/aiiy ?o aca?iiae??, a?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae niaith oa ianoeeueiei
na?aaeiaeuai.

4. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a oa?oy oa
ciiooaaiiy a o?eainenoaiao.

5. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy noaoe?iia?ieo
i?ioeania o o?eainenoaiao c iiaeaeueoei aeai?ii ?aoe?iiaeueieo
eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue.

6. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ianoaoe?iia?ieo
i?ioeania o o?eainenoaiao c aecia/aiiyi iaae no?eeino? o?eainenoai.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia ocaiaeaeaia
c oe?eueiaith eiiieaeniith i?ia?aiith AeIOO I?inoaieii?iio N 521 a?ae
23.12.88 uiaei noai?aiiy ia?niaeoeaii? eiino?oeoe?? aen?aeueii-ii?oiaaeo
ianin?a oa a?ae?iiioi??a noaoe?iia?iiai naeoi?o i?iieneiaino? oa
caaaeueiiiaoeiiaoae?aiiai canoinoaaiiy ia iii?iaeueiee oene 40 IIa, a
oiio /ene?, c i?iii?oe?iiaeueiei ea?oaaiiyi, i?eno?iyie ae?aaiinooaaiiy
oa i?aeaeuaii? eiiieaeoiino?.

Ia iiaenoaai ?ic?iaeaiiai caaaeueiiai iaoiaeieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aeey
«?icaoaeiae iiaeaei» i?ioean?a oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy o o?eainenoaiao ca
iiaeaeueoei aiae?cii oe??? iiaeaei, io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ye?
a?aeaeaathoue iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a: 1. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiae?e ia?
oa?oy ia i?yi? oa cai?ioi? ia?e, a iniiao yeiai iieeaaeaii ?icoaooaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a o ?ooiieo oa ia?ooiieo aeaiaioao ca oaa?ae?noth oa ?iai/eie
ieiuaie oa?oy. Aeyaeaii ??cieoeth o ciinino?eeino? i?yieo oa cai?ioi?o
ia? oa?oy. Iieacaii, ui i?i?iaeueio ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy iathoue
i?yii ia?e oa?oy. Ia cai?ioi?o ia?ao ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy cia/ii
a?eueoa, iniaeeai, o cai?ioii? ia?e ca iaoa??aeaie oa ca aaiiao???th
iaeii/anii. Cai?iiiiiaaii ia?aiao? aeey iae?eo ianooaaiiai oaeoi?o ia?
oa?oy, yeee iacaaii eiao?oe??ioii oi?ie. Iieacaii, ui eiao?oe??io oi?ie
ia?e oa?oy ? ooieoe??th ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy, eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy oa
i?ioeania, yei a?aeaoaathoueny o iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao (/ei a?eueoa
eiao?oe??io oi?ie, oei e?au? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia? ia?a oa?oy).

2. Aia?oa aecia/aii o i?ioean? ?iaioe aocea oa?oy caeiiii??i?noue ci?ie
aioo??oiueiai oa?oy a?ae no?oeoo?e ni?yaeaieo iaoa??ae?a. Aecia/aii
aieea iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a aeey ca?eueoaiiy aioo??oiueiai oa?oy.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy aioo??oiueiai oa?oy iaoa??ae?a
o?eaiaeaiaioia iia’ycaii, a iniiaiiio, c ooai?aiiyi ci?oeiaieo
iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia. Iieacaii, ui ?niothoue iaoa??aee, ye? iiaeooue cia/ii
ca?eueoeoe aioo??oi? oa?oy ia aoai? i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy. Oea, a
iniiaiiio, aaoa?iaaii? oa iaeii/anii ieanoe/i? iaoa?iaee. I?e oeueiio
?nio? eean aaoa?iaaiieo iaoa?iaeia, yei ia a ciic? caieueoeoe aioo?ioi?
oa?oy ia aoaii i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy, oi/a nii/aoeo iathoue aeoaea aenieee
eiai iieaciee. Aea/ai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao ianoeeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia
ci?io aioo?ioiueiai oa?oy iaoa?iaeia ia aoaii i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy.

3. Io?eiai? e?eoa??? iiae?aiino? i?ioeano a?aie/iiai oa?oy, ui i?noyoue
o nia? ?ioaa?aeuei? oaeoi?e i?io?eaiiy i?ioeano. Ca aeiiiiiaith
io?eiaieo e?eoa???a ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
a?aie/iiai oa?oy o o?eainenoaiao, yea aeicaiey? aecia/aoe o?eaioaoii/ii
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoo?ieo o?eaini?yaeaiue ca ?acoeueoaoaie aei?iaoaaiiy ?o
iiaeaeae ia o?eueee i?e ci?i? aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a, aea i i?e ciiii
oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy, e?iaiaoe/ii? noaie, iaoa??ae?a o?eaiaeaiaioia,
ianoeeueieo na?aaeiaeu. Ia i?aenoaa? e?eoa?iaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy
aenia?eiaioo io?eiaii iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy
o?eaioaoii/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee o?eainenoai ia noaoe?iia?iiio ?aaeei?.
Io?eiaii caeaaeiinoi aeicaieythoue i?i?aiaeoaaoe nooi?iue aieeao
oaeoi??a, i?iaanoe aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueieo eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue
o?eaini?yaeaiiy oa aecia/eoe cia/aiiy ciai?oi?o oiia, i?e yeeo iiaea
a?aeaooeny ci?ia aeae?a ciiooaaiiy ia iaaeiionoei? o aenieoaoaoe??.

4. Ia i?aenoaa? oai??? iiae?aiino? oa iiaeaethaaiiy, oai?i?
aaoiiaoe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa oai?i? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? aeeiai?/ieo
ia’?eo?a ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
ianoaoe?iia?ieo i?ioean?a a oiiaao a?aie/iiai ciauoaaiiy. ??oaiiy
io?eiaieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aoaeoeai?
?aaeeie i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy oa ioe?ieoe caian no?eei? ?iaioe
o?eainenoaie.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue oa ?noeii?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny
oai?aoe/ieie ia?aaeoiiaaie ?iaioe, canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo i?eeaae?a oa iaeaaeiaiiy, aeei?enoaiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo
?nioth/eo oa aia?oa ?ic?iaeaieo niaoe?aeueieo iaoiaeee, canoinoaaiiyi
AII, aeaieie iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee noaoenoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ca
?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue, oe?ieei ianyaii eaai?aoi?ieo, noaiaeiaeo
oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo aei?iaoaaiue iaoo?ieo c?ace?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a: Ia iiaenoaai io?eiaieo
iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoaoia, ye? neeaaeathoue ?aeeiee eiiieaen aeineiaeaeaiue,
cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia iaoiaee/ieo aniaeo?a canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo
iaoiaeee aeey aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue aoce?a oa?oy
ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy a?ae?iiaoei. O iniiao nenoaie iieeaaeaii iiaeaeue
aaaaoi??aiaai? iioei?caoe?? ia’?eoa i?iaeooaaiiy, yea aeicaiey? i?ney
aeai?o no?oeoo?e ia’?eoa i?iaeooaaiiy aeeiiaoe:

1. Eiino?oeoeaio iioei?caoe?th, oiaoi iiae?eeoe a?ae?iiaoeio ia
o?eainenoaie oa i?iaanoe iioei?caoe?th eiino?oeoeaieo ?ioaiue eiaeii? c
o?eainenoai.

2. Ia?aiao?e/io iioeiicaoeith ia’?eoa i?iaeooaaiiy, yea iieyaa? a
iioeiicaoei? ao?aeieo ia?aiao??a aeey eiaeii? c aeae?eaieo o?eainenoai.

3. Iioei?caoe?th ?aaeei?a iaeaoee oa aenieoaoaoei? ia’?eoa i?iaeooaaiiy,
yea iieyaa? o aeae?eaii? a ia’?eo? i?iaeooaaiiy «neaaeeo eaiie», oiaoi
oeo o?eainenoai, yei iaiaaeothoue ?ano?n ae?iao a oe?eiio aai ?
iano?eeeie aei ?iaioe (noeeuei? aei caaee?o) o i?ioean?
i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy /e a aenieoaoaoe??. A?aeiia?aeii aei io?eiaieo aeaieo
i?ecia/a?oueny ?ano?n ae?iao ? iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie iaeaoee oa
aenieoaoaoei?.

?ic?iaeaia nenoaia ai?iaaaeaeaia o IAeI Aiae?ii?eaiae, i. Oa?e?a, o
aeaeyae? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy ia aoai?
i?iaeooaaiiy a?ae?iiaoei. Oe? ?ic?iaee aeicaieythoue:

— caaacia/eoe ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy a?aeiia?aei?noue noai?thaaii?
eiino?oeoe?? aeiiaai aei ia?;

— aeeeth/eoe iaiaa?oioiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei i?ecia/aiiy aaiiao?e/ieo
?ici???a, iaoa??ae?a, ?iai/eo na?aaeiaeu o eiino?oeoei?;

— ciaioeoe /an ia i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueei ?iaioe, caaa?oaiiy
aeine?aeieo c?ace?a oa iia’ycai? c oeei ci?ie o oaoi?/i?e
aeieoiaioaoe??, a oaeiae a ?iai/eo oa neeaaeaeueieo e?aneaiiyo;

o noa?? ae?iaieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoe??:

— ciaioeoe ianya caaa?oaeueieo ?ia?o;

— cieceoe o?oaeii?noe?noue nethna?ii-neeaaeaeueieo ?iaio;

— i?aeaeueoe iaae?ei?noue ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ia?aiao?e/ieo
aiaeeacia.

O oe?eiio, aeena?oaoe?y ? ??oaiiyi aaaiii? ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeaie, oiio ui ni?yiiaaia ia ?icaeoie oai??? oa i?aeoeee
eiino?othaaiiy a?ae?iiaoei, ui aeicaieeoue cia/ii i?aeaeueoe ?o ?ano?n ?
ciaioeoe aeei?enoaiiy eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a aeey i?aeoeiiee?a eiacaiiy oa
iaaeanoue aaeeeee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo i?e ae?iaieoeoa?, aenieoaoaoe?? oa
?aiiio?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a: Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o 30
ioae?eaoe?yo, o oiio /ene?: o?e iiiia?ao?? (iaeia ca iaeiiin?aiei
aaoi?noaii [2]) oa 7 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a caaeaeea?iaaii o iiaeaeueoiio ia?ae?eo:

— ?ic?iaea nenoaie a?aooaaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae aoce?a oa?oy
a?ae?iiaoei ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy, yea iacaaia eiino?oeoeaiith
ciinino?ee?noth [1,3];

-?ic?iaea nenoaie ?a?no?aoe?? aeaieo i?i noai o?eeoe?eiiai eiioaeoo [4];

-aecia/aiiy aeai?eoio ia?iaee aeaieo [5];

-aecia/aiiy ?ioi?iaoeaiiai iieacieea aoaeoeaiino? ia?aiao??a [6];

-aecia/aiiy e?eoa??th oa aeai?eoio eiio?ieth i?ioean?a ciiooaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a [7];

-iaoaiaoe/iee iien neeaaeieo o?eainenoai, aecia/aiiy e?eoa??th eiio?ieth
[8];

-noai?aiiy nenoaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo aei?iaoaaiue [9];

-aecia/aiiy aeai?eoio ioe?ithaaiiy ianooaaiiai oaeoi?o [10];

-aeai?eoi a?aooaaiiy ianooaaiiai oaeoi?o [11];

-?ic?iaea aeai?eoio iioeiaeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy [12];

-?ic?iaea iiaeae? oa aeai?eoio a?aooaaiiy aca?iia?aeiia?aeiino?
iaoa??ae?a [13];

-?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy [14];

-?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy [15];

-?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ianoaoe?iia?ieo
i?ioean?a [16];

-aecia/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae aeonoe/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy i?yieo oa
cai?ioi?o ia? [17];

-aecia/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae aeonoe/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy i?yieo oa
cai?ioi?o ia? ia’?iieo a?ae?iiaoei [18];

-aecia/aiiy ianooaaiiai oaeoi?o i?aeoeiiee?a eiacaiiy ia’?iieo
a?ae?iiaoei [19];

-aeai?eoi eiino?othaaiiy ?ooiieo aoce?a eiacaiiy a?ae?iiaoei [20];

-aeai?eoi ioe?iee caaee?ino?eeino? o?eainenoai [21];

-aai?eoi aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? [22];

-aeai?eoi iiaeaethaaiiy ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a [23];

-?ic?iaea nenoaie ?a?no?aoe?? aeaieo [24];

-aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeai?eoio i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy ia?e oa?oy
[25];

-?ic?iaea nenoaie ?a?no?aoe?? i?iaeio c?acea [26];

-noai?aiiy i?ia?aiii-aia?aoiiai eiiieaeno aei?iaoaaiiy [27];

-aiae?c oa ?ic?iaea nenoaie ?a?no?aoe?? oa aecia/aiiy iieacieea
aoaeoeaiino? [28];

-iioei?caoe?y oa aea?? aca?iia?aeiia?aeieo iaoa??ae?a [29];

-?ic?iaea eiino?oeoe?? iaoeie oa?oy [30].

Ia caoeno aeiineoueny: 1. Iiae?e ia? oa?oy ia i?yi? oa cai?ioi? ia?e oa
iae?e ianooaaiiai oaeoi?o oeeo ia?.

2. Caeiiii??i?noue ci?ie aioo??oiueiai oa?oy a?ae no?oeoo?e ni?yaeaieo
iaoa?iaeia o i?ioean? ?iaioe aocea oa?oy oa iaeie oeeo caeiiii??iinoae
uiaei i?aeai?o iaoa?iaeia o aocee oa?oy.

3. Iaoiaeeee oice/iiai oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a oa?oy oa
ciiooaaiiy a oiiaao a?aie/iiai oa?oy a o?eainenoaiao ia noaoe?iia?ieo
?aaeeiao.

4. Iaoiaeeea iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ianoaoeiiia?ieo ?aaeei?a a
o?eainenoaiao.

5. Iaoiaee/i? aniaeoe canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee aeey
iioeiaeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy o?eainenoai.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ii?eethaeiaii? oa noaaeai? ia oaeeo eiioa?aioe?yo
oa nai?ia?ao: ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?aeaeuaiiy yeino?
aeeiai?/ieo aeaiaio?a iaoei», (i. Ee?a, n?/aiue 1987?.);
?anioae?eainueeiio nai?ia?? «Ciioeithth/a i?enei?aia i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy,
naiii?aai?caoe?y oa iaae?ei?noue e?iaiaoe/ieo ia? oa?oy», (i. Ee?a,
aa?anaiue 1987?.); ia *aoaa?o?e Iineianuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioei? «O?eaioaoiiea-iaoeiiaoaeoaaiith», (aa?anaiue 1989?.);
Oe?a?inuee?e ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei? «Eiiaa?n?y
ae?iaieoeoaa aeaoaeae AeAC», (i. Oa?e?a, o?aaaiue 1991?.);
?anioaeieainueeie iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei? «No/ani? iaoa??aee,
iaeaaeiaiiy, oaoiieia?? ci?oeiaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy aeaoaeae iaoei», (i.
Iiaiiieioeuee, ea?oaiue 1993?.); I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? c
o?eaioaoeee, (i.Aiiaeue, aa?anaiue 1993?.); Iiaeia?iaeiiio
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio naiiia?i «Aiae?c oa ?aoe?iiaeueia canoinoaaiiy
o?eaiia’?eoia» («O?eaieia-10I» — «SLAVYANTRIBO-1»), (i.?eaiinuee-Iineaa,
aa?anaiue 1993?.); I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “No/ani?
i?iaeaie iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy” (i.Aiiaeue, eeiaiue 1996); I?aeia?iaeia
eiioa?aioe?y . “?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??: iaoea, oaoi?ea, oaoiieia?y,
ina?oa, caei?ia’y.” (i.Oa?e?a, OAeIO, o?aaaiue 1997.); O?ao?e
i?aeia?iaeiee neiiic?oi oe?a?inueeeo ?iaeaia??a-iaoai?e?a (Euea?a,
o?aaaiue, 1997); Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “Nenoaiioaoi?ea ia
aaoiiia?eueiiio o?ainii?o?” (i.Oa?e?a, eenoiiaae 1998).

O caaa?oaiiio aeae? aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo aoei iiaeaii oa noaaeaii ia
iaoeiai-oaoii/iiio naiiia?? Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo eueio/ee?a AIN,
iaoeiai-oaoii/iiio naiiia?i IAeI Aiae?ii?eaiae (i. Oa?e?a),
iaoeiai-oaoii/iiio naiiia?i Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio nai?ia??
eiino?oeoi?nueeiai ath?i caaiaeo OAAe (i. Oa?e?a), ia iaoeiai-oaoii/iiio
naiiia?i Ee?anueeiai iinoeoooo AIN, ni?eueiiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?
oaeoeueoaoo Aa?aoe?eii? iacaiii? oaoi?ee Ee?anueeiai i?aeia?iaeiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?th aeeeaaeaii ia 267 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, o oiio /ene? 20 oaaeeoeue, 80 ?ethno?aoe?e, nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 177 iaeiaioaaiue.

?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, naie ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa aeiaeaoe?a.
Aeiaeaoee i?noyoue a?ao?/i? iaoa?iaee oa ?acoeueoaoe iaoaiaoe/ii?
ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, aea?oueny
aiioaoe?y ?iaioe, aea aeacai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aecia/athoue
iaoeiao iiaeio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? i?enay/aiee aiae?oe/iiio iaeyaeo aeeiiaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa iaa?oiooaaiith ia?aiiai iai?yieo ?iaioe. Iniiaio oaaao
cina?aaeaeaii ia oaeeo ieoaiiyo:

— iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oai??? oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy, iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo ia
oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy;

— iiaeeea? iaoai?cie ci?ie no?oeoo?e iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a ni?yaeaieo
iaoa??ae?a i?e oa?o?;

— ?aeaenaoe?ei? yaeua oa aca?iia?aeiia?aei?noue iaoa?iaeia i?e oa?oi;

— oeyoe iioei?caoe?? eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue aoce?a oa?oy;

— canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a oai?i? iiae?aiino? oa iiaeaethaaiiy aeey
?ica’ycaiiy o?eaieiai/ieo caaea/.

O ca’yceo c oeei ?icaeyioo? aeaye? nooo?ai aaaeeea? aeey oeueiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoe, iieacai? a ?iaioao a?o/eciyieo oa ?iicaiieo
a/aieo.

Iaeyae ?nioth/eo oai??e oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy, iaoiaeia ?ic?aooieo oa
iiaeaeae, iiaoaeiaaieo ia aac? oeeo oai?ie, iieaco? ia?niaeoeai?noue
no?oeoo?ii-aia?aaoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo uiaei ?ic?iaee iiaeaeae a?aie/iiai
oa?oy, yei caeaoi? a?aoiaoaaoe cia/i? ciiie no?oeoo?e iaoa?iaeia
iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ia o ii??aiyii? c ii/aoeiaith no?oeoo?ith. Oeeie yaeuaie
ia iiaeia iaoooaaoe i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeaeae a?aie/iiai oa?oy. Ia ?o
i?aenoaa? io?eiai? aiae?oe/i? ?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino? uiaei aecia/aiiy
?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy oa neee oa?oy.

Aiae?c ?ia?o canoinoaaiiy iiaeaethaaiiy a o?eaieia?? iieaco?, ui aeey
cae?eniaiiy oaeeo caaea/ oni?oii aeei?enoiaothoueny iieiaeaiiy oai???
iiaeiaiinoi oa iiaeaethaaiiy, oai?i? ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo. Oe? oai?i?
noathoue iniiaith aeey noai?aiiy iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?, yea iia’yco?
iaoiaee aenia?eiaioo c ia/enethaaeueiith oaoi?eith. A ?acoeueoao? oaeiai
iiaeoiaeo i?e noai?aii? iiaeaeae yaeua ni?iuo?oueny, i oey ni?iuaia
noaia iieno?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith oiai /e ?ioiai iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo.
Aea a aoaeue-yeiio ?ac? iiaa iiaeiia eoe i?i ocaaaeueiaio
?ic?aooieiai-aenia?eiaioaeueio iiaeaeue, yea ia? aaaaoi??aiaaee oa?aeoa?
oa a?aoiao? ci?ie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a o?eaini?yaeaiii o i?ioean?
?iaioe, yea iiaeiia aooe i?eaeaoiith aeey aiae?co oa iiooeo iioeiaeueieo
??oaiue.

I?ae /an ??oaiiy oaeeo caaea/ aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue o aeai?? oa
iaa?oiooaaii? iaoiae?a oa ?o aca?iiaeiiiaiaiinoi. Oea iaoiiaeaii oei, ui
eiaeiee iaoiae ia? iaai? iaae? i?ciaaaeueieo iiaeeeainoae.
Iaiao?aei?noue aeai?o oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeia, c’ynoaaiiy ?o
ni?aa?aeiioaiue iio?aao? ii?aoethaaiiy iaoiaee/ieo aniaeo?a
iiaeaethaaiiy.

Ia iiaenoaai i?iaaaeaiiai aiaeico aecia/aii oe?eue oa caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii caaaeueiiio iaoiaee/iiio i?aeoiaeo o
aeine?aeaeaii? i?ioean?a a?aie/iiai ciauoaaiiy. Iaoith ?icae?eo ?
?icaeoie eia?/ii? nenoaiii? i?aenoaae, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? iiaeia
i?aai?coaaoe ?nioth/ee iaaooee aeina?ae o aaeoc? o?eaieia?? aeey
«?icaoaeiae iiaeaei» a?aie/iiai oa?oy a o?eainenoaiao, oiaoi
cai?iiiioaaoe caaaeueiee iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue. Iieacaii, ui oeae iiaeoiae iiaeiai a?oiooaaoeny ia
iiiyooyo nenoaiiiai aiaeico oa i?e «?icaoaeia? iiaeae?» i?noeoe oae?
aoaie:

— aecia/a?oueny ia’?eo, oeieue oa caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy;

— ie?aneththoueny iaaei aeine?aeaeo?ii? nenoaie oa ?? no?oeoo?a;

— cae?enith?oueny ia?aiao?ecaoeiy nenoaie, iienothoueny aeae?eai?
aeaiaioe, yeui nenoaia neeaaeia, oa c iaoith ni?iuaiiy iaoaiaoe/iiai
iieno ?? ae?eyoue ia i?aenenoaie, a ?acoeueoao? /iai io?eiothoue
iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeaei i?aenenoai oa nenoaie a oe?eiio.

C oi/ee ci?o iaaeieeoiueiai ioi/aiiy o?eainenoaia oyaey?oueny ye «/i?iee
yuee» ?c aoiaeaie oa aeoiaeaie. Aeey ni?iuaiiy iieno aeeiai?/ii?
iiaaae?iee o?eainenoaie ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny iiaeaeueoa ni?iuaiiy, yea
iia’ycaia ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a «ia?a?ico /i?iiai yueea». Aeae?
aecia/a?oueny no?oeoo?a o?eainenoaie, yea neeaaea?oueny c /ioe?ueio
aeaiaio?a (?ooiiiai oa ia?ooiiiai aeaiaio?a o aoce? oa?oy, ianoeeueiiai
oa iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua), ye? ?icoaoiaai? ia /ioe?ueio
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ieiueiao. Aecia/aii ao?aei? oa aeo?aei? ia?aiao?e
o?eainenoaie. Aei ao?aeieo ia?aiao??a a?aeiinyoue:

— iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui i?eeeaaeaia aei aocea oa?oy;

— a?aeiinio oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy;

— ianoeeueia na?aaeiaeua, a oaeiae aeo?aoa oeueiai na?aaeiaeua e??cue
aocie oa?oy;

— eiino?oeoeaio iniaeea?noue aoceo oa?oy, e?iaiaoe/ia noaia ni?yaeaiiy,
ianooaaiee oaeoi?;

— aeanoeaino? iaoa??ae?a ia?e oa?oy, ?o no?oeoo?a, iayai?noue
ciioeithth/eo oaoiieia?e, a oaeiae aca?iia?aeiia?aei?noue iaoa?iaeia o
aoce? oa?oy i?ae niaith oa ianoeeueiei na?aaeiaeuai;

— ye iacaeaaeiee ia?aiao? aeey aeine?aeo aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a ia?aii
/an;

— ye aeoiaeii ia?aiao?e o?eainenoaie, aoei ia?aii oaeaeeinoue ciiooaaiiy
oa neeo oa?oy.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae a?o/eciyieo oa ?iicaiieo
a/aieo, iieacaii, ui aeey ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ o?ce/iiai oa iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy iaiao?aeii canoinoaaoe e?eoa?iaeueiee i?aeo?ae, aac yeiai
ia iiaea aooe aeinoaoiuei aiaaiaii? oa iaa?oioiaaii? iiae?aiino?, ioaea,
i iiaeaethaaiiy. Canoinoaaiiy e?eoa???a iiaeiaiinoi aeicaieeoue iiaeaoe
aeai? aenia?eiaioo a ocaaaeueiai?e oi?i?, oiaoi ca aeiiiiiaith
e?eoa?iaeueii? ooieoe?iiaeueii? caeaaeiino?.

Aeeeaaeaiee aeua iiaeoiae aeicaieeoue cia/ii cieceoe i?aoeaiinoeinoue
aeine?ae?a, a oaeiae aea? iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaeoe i?eaeecio, a?eueo
c?o/io aeey ?aae?caoe??, iaoiaeeeo oice/iiai oa iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy.

Aecia/aii oeyo iaoaiaoe/iiai iieno oa?aeoa?enoee o?eainenoai.
Iaoaiaoe/iee iien o?eainenoai o?aaa i?iaiaeeoe o oi?ii caieno, ui
aeicaieeoue io?eiaoe ia?aaeaoi/i? ooieoe??. Ca aeaeii ia?aaeaoi/ii?
ooieoei? iiaeia aecia/eoe, yeei aoaea aeeoa?aioe?aeueia ??aiyiiy
aeaiaioo nenoaie, a ca caaaeueiith ia?aaeaoi/iith ooieoe??th nenoaie
(o?eaieiai/iee iia?aoi?) iiaeia io?eiaoe aeeoa?aioeiaeueia ?iaiyiiy
o?eainenoaie a oe?eiio. Aiae?coth/e io?eiaia ?iaiyiiy, iiaeia aecia/eoe
no?ee?noue o?eainenoaie oa a?aieoe? no?eeino?.

?acthioth/e aeuaaeeeaaeai? aeniiaee an?o ioieo?a ae?oaiai ?icae?eo,
iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaee, ui caaaeueiee iaoiaeieia?/iee iiaeoiae aei
iiaeaethaaiiy a?aie/iiai oa?oy iiaeiai a?oiooaaoeny ia iiiyooyo
nenoaiiiai aiae?co c aeei?enoaiiyi oai??? iiae?aiino? oa iiaeaethaaiiy,
oai?i? ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo oa iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo oai?i?
aaoiiaoe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

O?ao?e ?icae?e ?iaioe i?enay/aiee a?aooaaiith eiino?oeoeaieo
iniaeeainoae aoce?a oa?oy. Aeey cae?eniaiiy o?ce/iiai oa iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy iaiao?aeia iayai?noue ia?aiao?a aai e?eoa??th, ca
aeiiiiiaith yeiai iiaeia a?aooaaoe eiino?oeoe?th aocea oa?oy.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiaeico eiino?oeoe?e ??ciiiai?oieo e?iaiaoe/ieo noai
o?eaini?yaeaiiy c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui iiae?e ia aeu? oa ieae/?
e?iaiaoe/i? ia?e iiaeia ?iaeoe ca eiao?oe??ioii aca?iiiai ia?ae?eooy,
Eac. Aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii ciaeaeaii iioeiaeueia cia/aiiy Eac
(a?aeiioaiiy ieiu oa?oy ia?ooiiiai i ?ooiiiai aeaiaio?a). I?e aeai?? Eac
iaiao?aeii i?yioaaoe aei Eac=0,5. Ciaioaiiy aai ca?eueoaiiy Eac a?ae
iioeiaeueiiai aoaea noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny ca?eueoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino?
ciiooaaiiy.

C o?aooaaiiyi ?icoaooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a o ?ooiieo oa ia?ooiieo aeaiaioia
o?eaini?yaeaiiy ca oaa?ae?noth oa ?iai/eie ieiueiaie oa?oy iiaeia
aeae?eeoe oae? ia?e oa?oy (?en.1.): i?yi? ia?e; cai?ioi? ia?e ca
iaoa??aeaie; cai?ioii ia?e ca aaiiao???th; cai?ioii ia?e ca iaoa?iaeaie
oa aaiiao?i?th iaeii/anii. A iniiao aecia/aiiy iiiyoue i?yii oa cai?ioii
ia?e oa?oy aoei iieeaaeaii ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ecia/aiiy aeaiaioia aocea
oa?oy. Iaiao?aeii a?ae??ciyoe aeaiaio, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai
i?aeaiaeeoueny iiooaei?noue aei aocea oa?oy, oa aeaiaio, ca aeiiiiiaith
yeiai aiia ia?aoai?th?oueny o ?iaioo.

?en.1. Noaie i?yieo oa cai?ioi?o ia? oa?oy aei eaai?aoi?ieo aei?iaoaaiue

O aoceao oa?oy iiooaei?noue i?aeaiaeeoueny ca aeiiiiiaith ?ooiiiai
aeaiaioo, yeee c’?aeiaii c i?eaiaeii, a ia?aoai?th?oueny o ?iaioo ia
ia?ooiiiio aeaiaio?. sseui ?ooiiee aeaiaio ia?e aoaea iaoe a?eueoo
oaa?ae?noue oa aieueoo ?iai/o ieiuo oa?oy, oi oea caaacia/eoue aeia??
oiiae ?iaioe oeueiai aeaiaioo. Ioaea, ia?ooiiee aeaiaio iiaeiai iaoe
iaioo oaa?aeinoue oa iaioo ?iai/o ieiuo oa?oy, ui caaacia/eoue eiai
oaeaeea i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy aei ?ooiiiai aeaiaioo. Ia?a oa?oy, yea
caaeiaieueiy? oe?e oiia?, iacaaia i?yiith ia?ith oa?oy.

sseui o i?yii? ia?e iii?iyoe i?noeyie iaoa??aee, io?eia?ii cai?ioio ia?o
ca iaoa??aeaie. Ci?ithth/e iinoeyie ?icoaooaaiiy ieiu oa?oy (?o
aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e, caeeoath/e ?icoaooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a, ye o i?yii?
ia?e), io?eio?ii cai?ioio ia?o ca aaiiao???th. Ci?ithth/e o i?yii? ia?e
i oa, i ?ioa, io?eia?ii cai?ioio ia?o ca iaoa?iaeaie oa ca aaiiao?i?th
iaeii/anii.

Aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii ia iaoei? oa?oy aoee io?eiai? o?eaioaoii/ii
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?yieo oa cai?ioi?o ia? oa?oy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee cia/io ??cieoeth a ciinino?eeino? i?yieo oa
cai?ioi?o ia? oa?oy. I?i?iaeueio ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy iathoue i?yi?
ia?e. A cai?ioi?o ia?ao ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy cia/ii aeua, iniaeeai
o cai?ioii? ia?e ca iaoa?iaeaie oa ca aaiiao?i?th iaeii/anii.
Eiao?oe??io oa?oy aeey an?o /ioe?ueio ia? iiaeia i?eeiyoe iino?eiei,
oiaoi iacaeaaeiei a?ae ?icoaooaaiiy iaoa?iaeia.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui ??cieoey ?ioaineaiinoae ciiooaaiiy a
i?yieo oa cai?ioi?o ia?ao oa?oy caeaaeeoue aiae ??cieoe? a ii/aoeia?e
i?e?ioaa?aeino? iiaa?oiiue oa?oy a ?ooiieo oa ia?ooiieo aeaiaioao ia?e.
*ei a?eueoa oey ?icieoey, oei aeua noia?ia iioaineaiinoue ciiooaaiiy
ia?e oa?oy. O iaio?e i??? oaea caeaaei?noue aeyaey?oueny a i?yieo ia?ao,
oa o a?eueo?e i??? a cai?ioi?o, iniaeeai o cai?ioi?e ia?? ca iaoa??aeaie
oa ca aaiiao???th iaeii/anii.

Aiae?oe/iei oeyoii io?eiaii ia?aiao?, yeee a?aoiao? ianooaaiee oaeoi?
i?yieo oa cai?ioi?o ia? oa?oy, iacaaiee eiao?oe??ioii oi?ie ia?e oa?oy,
Eo. sse iniiaa aeaiaeo aeaiiai eiao?oe??ioa, iieeaaeai? aaiiao?e/i?
?ici??e ieiu oa?oy o ?ooiiiai Aai oa Aai ia?ooiiiai aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae
ia’?ie oeeo aeaiaioia, ?icoaoiaai? i?ae ?iai/eie ieiuaie, Vi oa Vi.

C o?aooaaiiyi aca?iiae?? aeaio aeaiaio?a eiao?oe??io oi?ie ia? oaeee
aeaeyae:

Eo = Aai / (Vi + Vi ( Aai/Aai), [1/i]

?en.2. A?ao?/ia cia?aaeaiiy ia? oa?oy c ??ciei eiao?oe??ioii oi?ie

C aiae?co oi?ioee aeieeaa?, ui i?e ca?eueoaii? ieiu? ia?ooiiiai c?acea c
iaeii/aniei ciaioaiiyi ieiui ?ooiiiai oa ia’?i?a ?ooiiiai ? ia?ooiiiai
c?ace?a, Eo i?yio? aei iaeneioio. Oaeo ia?o a?ao?/ii iiaeaii ia ?en.2a,
ia?a, ae?aiao? aaea yei? i?yio? aei i?i?ioio.

I?e ciaioaii? Aai c iaeii/aniei ca?eueoaiiyi Aai, Vi, Vi, Eo i?yio? aei
iiiiioio. Oaeo ia?o iiaeaii ia ?en.2a, ia?a, o yei? ae?aiao? aaea i?yio?
aei iaeneioio.

Aeey ioe?iee i?aoeacaeaoiino? iiaeaieo ia? oa?oy aoee i?iaaaeai?
iiaeaeuei? aei?iaoaaiiy ia ia?ao oa?oy c ??cieie eiao?oe??ioaie oi?ie.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui eiaoioei?io oi?ie ia?e
oa?oy ? ooieoe??th ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy, eiao?oe??ioo oa?oy oa
i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao. *ei a?eueoa
eiaoioei?io oi?ie, oei e?au? o?eaioaoii/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia? ia?a
oa?oy, ?en.3.

?en.3. Caeaaei?noue noia?ii? ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy Ih oa,
eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy ( a?ae eiao?oe??ioa oi?ie Ko

Ca aeiiiiiaith eiao?oe??ioa oi?ie iiaeia ?iaeoe aenia?oio ioe?ieo
ni?iaeoiaaieo aoce?a oa?oy oa aeyaeyoe oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
ciinino?eeino? ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy. Aeaiee ia?aiao? iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey a?aooaaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae aocea
oa?oy i?e cae?eniaii? o?ce/iiai oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy. O
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaaaaeaii aeieace c?iaeaieo aeniiae?a ia iniia?
aiae?co ??cieo eiino?oeoe?e a?ae?iianin?a, ni?iaeoiaaieo a IAeI
Aiae?ii?eaiae.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeai?o noi?nieo iaoa??ae?a a o?eainenoaio
c o?aooaaiiyi caeiiii??iinoae ci?ie aioo??oiueiai oa?oy.

Ia iniia? aiaeico ?icieo iaoiae?a aei??thaaiiy aioo?ioiueiai oa?oy a
iaoa??aeao o oe?e ?iaio? aoei aeei?enoaii oeueo?acaoeiaee iaoiae. O
?icae?e? aeeeaaeai? iaoiaee/i? aniaeoe oa oaoi?/i? caniae aeey oaeeo
aei??thaaiue. Oa?aeoa? ciiie aioo?ioiueiai oa?oy a iaoa?iaeao aecia/aany
a ?iai/?e ia?? oa?oy, ia?a «aeene-eieiaeea», iaoeia oa?oy NIO-1. Ca
aeiiiiiaith oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeaoaeoineiio OAe-2-12 a ia?ooii?e
eieiaeoe? ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei iiaa?oi? oa?oy, caoaeaeoaaee
oeueo?acaoeia? eieeaaiiy oa aei??thaaee eiao?oe??io caaanaiiy
oeueo?acaoeiaeo ?iioeuen?a o no?oeoo?? iaoa??aeo, yeee aecia/aany ca
oi?ioeith

( = 1/2l ( 20 ( lg (A1/ A2) , Aea/i

aea: l — oiaueia c?acea; A1- aiie?ooaea ciiaeoth/iai ?iioeueno; A2-
aiieiooaea a?aeaeoiai iiioeueno. Eiao?oe??io caaanaiiy (, iia’ycaiee c
aioo??oi?i oa?oyi ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi

Q-1 = ((/(,

aea: ( — aeiaaeeia oaee?.

C aeei?enoaiiyi aeaii? iaoiaeeee aoei i?iaaaeaii aeii?thaaiiy
aioo??oiueiai oa?oy a ii/aoeia?e no?oeoo?i aaeeei? ??ciiiai?oiino?
iaoa??ae?a (aei ?o anoaiiaeaiiy o ia?o oa?oy) oa a i?ioean? ?o i?aoe?,
eiee iaa?oaany ?ooiiee c?acie.

O i?ioeani aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui
aioo??oi? oa?oy (eiaoioei?io caaanaiiy oeueo?acaoeiaeo iiioeuenia o
ii/aoeiaie no?oeoo?i iaoa?iaeia) a oiiaao a?aie/iiai ciauoaaiiy ?
ooieoe??th ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy oeeo iaoa?iaeia. *ei a?eueoa
aioo?ioi? oa?oy iaoa?iaeia, canoiniaaieo o o?eaini?yaeaiii, oei iaioa
?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy.

Aenia?eiaioaeueiei oeyoii iieacaii, ui o i?ioeani ca?eueoaiiy
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ia?? oa?oy a?aeaoaa?oueny cia/ia caieueoaiiy
aioo?ioiueiai oa?oy iaoa?iaeia.

?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo iiaeaii ia ?en. 4. Ca?aene aeaeii, ui i?e
?iaio? aocea oa?oy aac iaaaioaaeaiiy eiao?oe??io caaanaiiy
oeueo?acaoeiaeo ?iioeuen?a o iaoa??ae? eieiaeee a?aeiia?aea?
eiao?oe??ioo caaanaiiy a ii/aoeiaie no?oeoo?? iaoa??aeo eieiaeee, oiaoi
a?iice. I?e ianooiiiio nooi?i/aoiio ca?eueoaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy
niinoa??aa?oueny caieueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa caaanaiiy. I?e/iio, aei
iaaaioaaeaiiy 400 I oea caieueoaiiy iacia/ia, a iaaeae? niinoa?iaa?oueny
oaeaeea caieueoaiiy eiaoioei?ioa caaanaiiy ia 46% a?ae aeo?aeii?
aaee/eie. Aa?oiy iaaea ia aaioaaeaiiy 1000 I aoea aea?aia c oiia no?eei?
?iaioe ia?e oa?oy. I?ney i?aeaeuaiiy oeueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
niinoa??aaeinue eieeaaiiy iiiaioo oa?oy oa iiyaa caaee?o.

Iioaineaia caieueoaiiy aioo??oiueiai oa?oy o o?eainenoaii a iaaeao
iaaaioaaeaiue aiae 400 aei 1000 I iia’ycaii c ?ioaineaiei ia?aoai?aiiyi
o iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao. Iiney aeoiaeo ia iaaia iaaaioaaeaiiy, ca aeaieie
aenia?eiaioo — oea 400 I, i?aeaaaeaii? aia?a?? noa? aeinoaoiuei aeey
?ioaineaii? ci?ie iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a, aea ?aae?cothoueny ??ciiiai?oi?
iaoai?cie ?aeaenaoe?? iiaeaaaeaii? aia?ai?.

?en.4. Caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa caaanaiiy ( c /anii ?iaioe aocea oa?oy
i?e nooi?i/anoiio ca?eueooaaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ia?? oa?oy «40O+A?.AAE
9-4» o na?aaeiaeu? ianoeea AIEE II 403, (=0,5 i/n

Aeine?aeaeaii oa?aeoa? ciiie aioo?ioiueiai oa?oy iaoa??ae?a o
o?eainenoaii a i?ioean? i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy, ?en.5. C aiae?co io?eiaieo
caeaaeiinoae aeo?ea?, ui aeey i?ioeano i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy, i?io?eaiiy
yeiai iiaeia i?inoaaeeoe ca iiaaae?ieith iiiaioo oa?oy (e?eaa 1),
oa?aeoa?ii ieaaia ca?eueoaiiy aioo?ioiueiai oa?oy (eiao?oe??ioo
caaanaiiy, e?eaa 2) aiae cia/aiiy aeey ii/aoeiai? no?oeoo?e iaoa??aeo
(eno aei iaaiiai cia/aiiy (eno + ((. Ca?eueoaiiy ia aaee/eio ((
iia’ycaii c oi?ioaaiiyi iiaa?oiaaeo no?oeoo? oa?oy.

?en.5. Caeaaei?noue ci?ie iiiaioo oa?oy I (1) oa eiao?oe??ioo caaanaiiy
( (2) c /anii ?iaioe ia?e oa?oy «40O + A?.AAE 9-4» o na?aaeiaeu? ianoeea
AIEE II 403

I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ioe?ithaaiiy aieeao aeanoeainoae ii/aoeiai?
no?oeoo?e iaoa?iaeia oa ianoeeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia aaee/eio ciiie
aioo??oiueiai oa?oy.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieeee aecia/eoe eean iaoa?iaeia, ni?iiiaeieo
neeueii ca?eueooaaoe aioo??oi? oa?oy i?ae /an ?iaioe, aei yeiai
a?aeiinyoue aaoa?iaaii? oa iaeii/anii ieanoe/i? iaoa??aee, iai?eeeaae,
a?iica, oa eean aaoa?iaaiieo iaoa?iaeia, ye? neaai ca?eueoothoue
aioo?ioi? oa?oy. Oae? iaoa?iaee iathoue iecuee? o?eaioaoii/ii
oa?aeoa?enoeee, oi/a nii/aoeo iathoue aeoaea aeniea aioo?ioi? oa?oy,
iai?eeeaae, /aaoi.

Aeey ioe?iee aieeao aeanoeainoae ianoeeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia ci?io
aioo?ioiueiai oa?oy no?oeoo?e iaoa??ae?a aeei?enoiaoaaee e?eoa??e Ao n?,
yeee iieyaa? o aecia/aii? ieoiii? ?iaioe ?oeioaaiiy (a?aeiioaiiy ?iaioe,
aeo?a/aii? ia aeeo/aiiy ia’?io oanoiaiai iaoa?iaeo (OO15) aei oeueiai
ia’?io a ianoeeueiiio na?aaeiaeui, yea aei?iaiaothoue).
Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui iayai?noue iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei
a ianoeeueiiio na?aaeiaeu? aieeaa? ia ca?eueoaiiy aioo?ioiueiai oa?oy
iaoa?iaeia o?eainenoaie. *ei e?au? aeanoeaino? ianoeeueiiai na?aaeiaeua,
yei aecia/athoue ca e?eoa???i Ao n?, oei aeua ca?eueoo?oueny aioo?ioi?
oa?oy iaoa?iaeia o?eainenoaie, a ioaea, i ni?iiiaei?noue aei iiaeeiaiiy
i?aeaaaeaii? aia?a??.

Io?eiaii ?aa?anieii caeaaeiino? noia?ii? ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy,
iaaaioaaeaiiy caaee?o oa /ano i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy a?ae oaeoi??a
aioo??oiueiai oa?oy ii/aoeiai? no?oeoo?e iaoa?iaeia ?ooiiiai oa
ia?ooiiiai aeaiaio?a oa e?iaiaoe/ii? noaie o?eaini?yaeaiiy. Oea
aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe, ui ia ooieoe?? a?aeaoeo, yei aeine?aeaeothoue,
neeueii aieeaathoue aeaa oaeoi?e: aioo??oi? oa?oy ii/aoeiai? no?oeoo?e
iaoa??aeo ia?ooiiiai aeaiaioo oa e?iaiaoe/ia noaia ni?yaeaiiy. Aioo??oi?
oa?oy ii/aoeiai? no?oeoo?e iaoa??aeo ?ooiiiai aeaiaioa o?eaini?yaeaiiy
aieeaa? ia ia?aiao?e, ye? aeine?aeaeothoue cia/ii iaioa.

Ca aeiiiiiaith io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aoei neeaaeaii noaio aeai?o
iaoa?iaeia o aocie oa?oy, iiaeaio ia ?en.6.

O?eaini?yaeaiiy iiaeaii o aeaeyae? aeaio a?ae??ce?a, aea ieaei?e
a?aeiia?aea? ?ooiiiio aeaiaioo ia?e oa?oy, a aa?oi?e — ia?ooiiiio.
Aeiaaeeia a?ae??cea aecia/a? iiaeeea?noue no?oeoo?e iaoa??aeo
ca?eueooaaoe aioo??oi? oa?oy ca ?aooiie oi?ioaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo no?oeoo?
((( + (an).

Ia e?aiio e?ioe? aiae?icea aecia/aii aaee/eio eiao?oe??ioa caaanaiiy
oeueo?acaoeiaeo ?iioeuen?a o ii/aoeia?e no?oeoo?? iaoa?iaeo (eno, a ia
i?aaiio — iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeao, yea oi?io?oueny a i?ioean?
i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy (aeo max.

?en.6.Noaia aeai?o iaoa??ae?a o aocie oa?oy caeaaeii a?ae ci?ie
eiao?oe??ioo caaanaiiy (

Noaia a?aeaeaa? o?e oe?iei canoiniaoaaieo niieo/aiue iaoa??ae?a: noaeue
+ noaeue; noaeue + /aaoi; noaeue +a?iica. sse iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeia?o aca?iia?aeiia?aei?noue
caaacia/o? oe?ieee ae?aiacii ci?ie aioo??oiueiai oa?oy no?oeoo?e iaio
iaoa?iaeia, oiaoi aeiaiacii no?oeoo?ii? i?enoiniaaiino?, yeee ca?aeii c?
noaiith aei??aith?

(ao = (aeo max — (eno(min),

/ei a?eueoa (ao, oei iaioa ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy oa aeua
iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey ooai?aiiy caaee?o. Iieacaii, ui i?ae /an aeai?o
iaoa?iaeia o aocie oa?oy aeiionea?oueny iaoe ?ooiiee aeaiaio ia?e c
iaoa?iaeo c i?i?iaeueiei aioo??oi?i oa?oyi, i?ioa caeaoiei aei eiai
ca?eueoaiiy o i?ioeani i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy. Aei oaeeo iaoa?iaeia
a?aeiinyoue caaa?oiaai?, oeaiaioiaai? oa acioiaaii noae?. Aioo??oi?
oa?oy ii/aoeiai? no?oeoo?e iaoa?iaeo ia?ooiiiai aeaiaioo iiaeiii aooe
aenieei oa iaoe aaeeeo iiaeeea?noue aei eiai caieueoaiiy o i?ioean?
i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy. Iieacaii, ui ii/aoeiaiai aenieiai aioo?ioiueiai
oa?oy no?oeoo?e iaoa??aeo iaaeinoaoiuei aeey caaacia/aiiy
aca?iia?aeiia?aeiino? iaoa?iaeia o ia?? oa?oy. Aenia?eiaioaeueii
anoaiiaeaii, ui na?aaeiaeua c aenieei e?eoa?i?i Ao n? cia/ii ?icoe?th?
aeiaiacii ciiie aioo?ioiueiai oa?oy iaoa??ae?a o?eainenoaie, oei naiei
iie?iooth/e o?eaioaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee oa aca?iia?aeiia?aei?noue.

I’yoee ?icae?e ?iaioe i?enay/aiee o?ce/iiio iiaeaethaaiith a?aie/iiai
oa?oy oa ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy. Aeey io?eiaiiy
e?eoa???a iiae?aiino? aoee ia?ai? oae? oaeoi?e: iaaaioaaeaiiy N,I;
oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy (, i/n; aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e ia?e oa?oy Ko,1/i;
no?oeoo?a ni?yaeaieo iaoa?iaeia (ao, aeA/i; o?eaieiai/ii aeanoeaino?
ianoeeueiiai na?aaeiaeua Ao n?, Aeae/i3 oa eiai aeo?aoe e??cue aocie
oa?oy Q, ea/n, a oaeiae /an ?iaioe o?eaini?yaeaiiy t, n. Oe? oaeoi?e
a?aeiinyoue aei a?oie «ao?aeieo». Aei a?oie «aeo?aeieo» aiaeiinyoue:
oaeaeeinoue ia’?iiiai ciiooaaiiy Iv, i3/n oa neea oa?oy F, I.

Ia i?aenoaa? ae?oai? oai?aie iiaeiaiinoi oai??? iiaeiaiinoi oa
iiaeaethaaiiy io?eiaii:

-e?eoa?ie /ano

t ( N2/3 ( (2/3 ( (ao7/3

(t = ————————-;
(1)

Aon?1/3 ( Q1/3 ( Eo2/3

-e?eoa?ie oaeaeeino? ciiooaaiiy

Iv ( Aon?1/3 ( Q1/3 ( Eo2/3 (
(ao2/3

(I = —————————————-;
(2)

N2/3 ( (2/3

-e?eoa?ie neee oa?oy

Fo? ( Eo1/3 ( (ao/3

(F = ———————————-
(3

N1/3 ( (1/3 ( Aon?1/3 ( Q1/3

I?iaaaeaii oai?aoe/io oa aenia?eiaioaeueio ia?aa??eo a??iino? io?eiaiiy
e?eoa?i?a.

Ca?aeii c ia?oith oai?aiith oai?i? iiaeiaiinoi oa iiaeaethaaiiy a ?ac?,
eiee aoaea caaacia/aia ??ai?noue aecia/aeueieo e?eoa???a iiae?aiino? o
iaoo?e oa iiaeae? oa c?iaeaoe i?aenoaiiaeo oi?ioe e?eoa?i?a o ae?ac

((i)i=((i)i ,

aea: «i» oa «i» — ?iaeaene iaoo?e oa iiaeaei, iiaeia ae?aceoe ia?aiao?e
iaoo?iiai o?eaini?yaeaiiy /a?ac ia?aiao?e iiaeaei:

-aeey ?ic?aooieo oaeaeeinoi ciiooaaiiy

Ivi=Ivi[(Ni(iEoi(aoi)/(Ni(iEoi(aoi)]2/3[(Aon?i Qi)/(Aon?iQi)]1/3; (4)

-aeey neee oa?oy

Fo?i=Fo?i[(Ni(iEoi(aoi Aon?i Qi)/(Ni(iEoi(aoi Aon?iQi)] 1/3; (5)

-aeey ?ic?aooieo /ano, eiee ia iaoo?iiio o?eaini?yaeaiii aoaea
aeinyaiooa aaee/eia ciino, ??aia ciino, io?eiaiiio ia iiaeae?

ti=ti[(Ni(iEoi)/(Ni(iEoi)]2/3[(Aon?i Qi)/(Aon?iQi)]1/3[((aoi/(aoi)]7/3;
(6)

Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo oi?ioe (4)-(6) ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea o?ce/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy. Iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? aecia/aoe oaeaee?noue ciiooaaiiy,
neeo oa?oy oa ?ano?n iaoo?iiai o?eaini?yaeaiiy ca a?aeiieie aiaeia?/ieie
aeaieie aeey iiaeae?.

Aeaio iaoiaeeeo iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy aoce?a
oa?oy iaoei oa iaoai?ci?a, ye? i?aoeththoue i?e a?aie/iiio oa?o?, c
iaoith aecia/aiiy iieaciee?a oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy ca ?acoeueoaoaie
eaai?aoi?ieo aei?iaoaaiue aai ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeaieo, io?eiaieo i?ae
/an aenieoaoaoe?? iaoei — i?ioioei?a. Iayai?noue oi?ioe (4)-(6)
aeicaieeoue oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaoe noai?ai? o?eaieiai/ii aace aeaieo,
?acoeueoaoe yeeo iiaeia aoaea aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye aeai? iiaeaei.

I?ae /an aeeiiaiiy o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy iaiao?aeii, ca?aeii
?ic?iaeai?e o o?aoueiio ?icae?e? eeaneo?eaoe??, aecia/eoe, yeith ia?ith
oa?oy ? iiaeaeue oa iaoo?a. I?e iaa?aeiia?aeiino? oeeo ia? iaiaoiaeii
c?iaeoe ei?aeoe?th oaeaeeino? ia’?iiiai ciiooaaiiy, iiiiiaeeaoe aai
?icae?eeaoe io?eiaiee ?acoeueoao ia aaaiaee eiao?oe??io. Iaoiaeeea
aecia/aiiy aaaiaeo eiao?oe??io?a oa ii?yaeie ia?a?aooieo aeieeaaeii
aeeeaaeaii o i’yoiio ?icaeiei aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea i?aoeacaeaoiino? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee
iieacaea, ui i?i?iaeueia iiieeea aeinyaa?oueny i?e iiaeaethaaii?
(ia?a?aooieo aeaieo c iiaeaei ia iaoo?o) aoaeue-yeiai iaeiiai ia?aiao?a.
Iai?eeeaae, i?e ci?i? iaaaioaaeaiiy oa oaeaeeinoi eiacaiiy ia a?eueoa
12%, i?e ciiii aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a ia aieueoa 27%, i?e ciiii
ni?yaeaieo iaoa??ae?a aai ianoeeueiiai na?aaeiaeua ia aieueoa 30%. Iiae
/an ia?a?aooieo ii aeae?eueeio ia?aiao?ao iaeii/anii iiieeea
iiaeaethaaiiy ?inoa, i?ioa ia ia?aaeuo? 40%.

Oinoee ?icae?e ?iaioe i?enay/aiee iaoaiaoe/iiio iiaeaethaaiith
noaoe?iia?ieo oa ianoaoe?iia?ieo i?ioean?a i?e a?aie/iiio oa?oi.
Iiaeeeaino? oice/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy iaiaaeai?, ai iio?aaothoue iayaiino?
aeaieo i?i iiaeaeue oa ia aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe iioei?caoe?th
o?eainenoai. Iayaiinoue iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ?iaioe o?eainenoaie ia
noaoeiiia?ieo oa ianoaoeiiia?ieo ?aaeeiao aeicaieeoue ca aeiiiiiaith AII
aac iayaiinoi aeaieo i?i iiaeaeue aecia/eoe oaeaee?noue ciiooaaiiy, neeo
oa?oy oa ?ano?n iaoo?iiai o?eaini?yaeaiiy oa i?iaiaeeoe iioeiicaoeith
eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue, ?aaeei?a i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy oa aenieoaoaoe??.

Aeei?enoaaoe io?eiai? e?eoa??? iiae?aiino? (1)-(3) oa canoinoaaaoe
e?eoa?iaeueia ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo, io?eiaii e?eoa?iaeueii
caeaaeiino?

(I = f1((t), (F=f2((t). (7)

Aeaiee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe nooi?iue aieeao e?eoa???a iiae?aiino?
ia aeine?aeaeaiee i?ioean oa noi?ioethaaoe aeiiae aei oi/iino?
a?aeoai?aiiy e?eoa?i?a.

I?ney i?aenoaiiaee o ae?ac (7) cia/aiue e?eoa?i?a iiaeiaiinoi (1)-(3) oa
c o?aooaaiiyi oi?ioee

Iv = ((.Aa min)/t, [i3/n],

aea: ( — a?aie/ii-i?eionoeiee ciin, i; Aa min — iaioa ieiua iaeiiai c
aeaiaio?a ia?e, i2; t — ?ano?n ni?yaeaiiy, n, io?eia?ii ae?ace aeey
?ic?aooieo ?ano?no, oaeaeeino? ia’?iiiai ciiooaaiiy oa neee oa?oy
o?eaini?yaeaiiy:

t=732691,5((((Aa min)1,957(N((/Eo)-0,667(ao3,525(Ao n?(Q)0,333. (8)

Iv=1,356.10-6(((Aa min)-0,957(N((/Eo)0,667(ao-3,525(Ao n?(Q)-0,333;
(9)

Fo?=0,025(((Aa min)-0,562(N((/Eo)0,333(ao2,014(Ao n?(Q)0,333. (10)

Aiae?c io?eiaieo caeaaeiinoae iieacaa, ui ia ci?io oaeaeeino? ciiooaaiiy
a ia?oo /a?ao aieeaathoue ?aeaenaoe?ei? aeanoeainoi no?oeoo?e ni?yaeaieo
aeaiaio?a oa ?o aca?iia?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae niaith, aeae?, a iaio?e
i???, — aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e aocea oa?oy, iaaaioaaeaiiy oa oaeaee?noue
eiacaiiy. Iaeiaioee aieea ?c ?icaeyiooeo oaeoi??a cae?enith? ianoeeueia
na?aaeiaeua oa eiai aeo?aoe e??cue aocie oa?oy.

Ia ciiio neee oa?oy a ia?oo /a?ao aieeaathoue ?aeaenaoeieii aeanoeainoi
ni?yaeaieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?o aca?iia?aeiia?aei?noue iiae niaith, a aeaei,
a cia/ii iaioie oa iaeaea iaeiaeia?e ii?i, aaiiao?e/ii ?icii?e aocea
oa?oy, iaaaioaaeaiiy, oaeaeeinoue eiacaiiy, ianoeeueia na?aaeiaeua oa
eiai aeo?aoe e?icue aocie oa?oy.

I?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueio ia?aa??eo i?aoeacaeaoiino? io?eiaieo
caeaaeiinoae oaeaeeinoi ciiooaaiiy oa neee oa?oy. ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaio?a na?ae/aoue, ui ?ic?aooieia? caeaaeiino? iathoue oie naiee
oa?aeoa?, ye i aenia?eiaioaeuei? i?e caaeia?euei?e oi/iino?
iiaeaethaaiiy. Iiieeea iiaeaethaaiiy ia ia?aaeuo? 45%. Oea ?iaeoue
iiaeeeaei canoinoaaiiy io?eiaieo iaoaiaoe/ieo caeaaeiinoae aeey
ioe?ithaaiiy aaee/ei Iv, Fo? oa t ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy, nei?i/oth/e
eaai?aoi?i? oa noaiaeia? aei?iaoaaiiy.

Aeai? oi?ioee neeaee iniiao iaoiaeeee iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
noaoe?iia?ieo i?ioean?a. Iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe iioei?caoe?th
eiino?oeoe?? oa ?aaeei?a aenieoaoaoe?? o?eaini?yaeaiiy. Iioei?caoe?y
i?iaiaeeoueny ca e?eoa???i ieoiii? ?iaioe ciiooaaiiy Ae, Aeae/i3

Ae=1,844(104(((Aa min)0,395(N/Eo)-0,334(0,666(ao1,511(Ao n?(Q)0,666.
(11)

Aeey iaeano? ii?iaeueiiai iaoaii-oiii/iiai ciiooaaiiy a?aie/iith
oiiaith ? aaee/eia Ae > 1012, Aeae/i3, yeo aecia/aii A.I.Einoaoeueeei.
I?e ciaioaii? oe??? aaee/eie a?aeaoaeaoueny ci?ia aeaeo ciiooaaiiy,
iai?eeeaae, c ii?iaeueiiai ieenethaaeueiiai ciiooaaiiy ia iioeiaeaeaiiy.

Aoaeoaaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ?iaioe o?eainenoaie ia ianoaoe?iia?ieo
(ia?ao?aeieo) ?aaeeiao cae?enithaaeiny c canoinoaaiiyi oai???
aaoiiaoe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy i oai?i? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? aeeiai?/ieo ia’?eo?a
oa neeaaea?oueny c no?oeoo?ii? oa ia?aiao?e/ii? iaeaioeoieaoei?.

No?oeoo?ia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y. C aiae?co iaoiae?a iaeaioeoieaoei?
aeeiaii/ieo ia’?eoia ia?aii i?yiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy aeeiaii/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia’?eoo — ca aeaeii ?aaeoe??
o?eainenoaie ia ao?aeiee i?iaiee aieea (nooi?i/anoee neaiae).

Ca aoiaeiee neaiae aea?aii e?eoa??e /ano, yeee ci?ith?oueny c /anii. C
oei, uia i?eaanoe oa?aeoa? ao?aeiiai aieeao aei noaiaea?oiiai —
nooi?i/anoiai, iaiao?aeii ca aoiaeiee aieea ia o?eainenoaio i?eeiyoe
iio?aeio a?ae e?eoa??th /ano, yea ia caeaaeeoue aiae /ano. Oaeei /eiii,
aoiaeiee aieea iaoeia nooiii/anoee aeae. Ca aeo?aeiee ia?aiao?
aeei?enoiaoaaee noia?io oaeaeeinue ia’?iiiai ciiooaaiiy oa neeo oa?oy.

No?oeoo?ii-aeeiaii/ii noaie aeey iiaeaethaaiiy oaeaeeino? ia’?iiiai
ciiooaaiiy oa neee oa?oy iiaeai? ia ?en.7 oa 8.

A?aeiia?aei? aei io?eiaieo no?oeoo?ii-aeeiaii/ieo noai ia?aaeaoi/i?
ooieoe?? a iia?aoi?iie oi?i? iathoue aeaeyae:

-aeey oaeaeeinoi ciiooaaiiy:

WI(P) = K1P [1 — K2/(T1P + 1)]; (12)

-aeey neee oa?oy:

WF(P) = K1P [1 — K2/(T1P + 1)+ K3/(T2P + 1)]; (13)

aea: E? oa O? — aeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e, eiao?oe??ioe i?aeneeaiiy oa
iino?ei? /ano ia?aoiaeieo i?ioean?a a?aeiia?aeii.

?en.7. No?oeoo?ii-aeeiai?/ia noaia iiaeaethaaiiy oaeaeeino? ia’?iiiai
ciiooaaiiy

Aaee/eie E1 aecia/athoue ?aaeoe?th o?eainenoaie ia ci?io ao?aeieo oiia o
ii/aoeiaee iiiaio i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy, aai ?? /ooeea?noue aei iaaeieeoi?o
aieea?a. *ei a?eueoa cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a E1, oei a?eueo /ooeeaa
o?eainenoaia aei iaaeieeoi?o aieea?a.

Eiao?oe??ioe E2 oa E3 aecia/athoue cia/aiiy oaeaeeinoi ciiooaaiiy oa
neee oa?oy ia onoaeaiiio ?aaeei?, a /an i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy aecia/a?oueny
cia/aiiyi noaeeo /ano O. *ei aieueoa cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a iiaeneeaiiy
E2 ? E3 oa iaioa aaee/eie noaeeo /ano T, oei e?ooioee aeaeyae ia?
ia?ao?aeia oa?aeoa?enoeea, oei ?ioaineai?oa i?ioiaeeoue ia?aoai?aiiy
no?oeoo?e iiaa?oiiue oa i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy o?eaini?yaeaiue, oiaoi
iaoa??aee o?eaini?yaeaiiy iathoue aeia?? iieacieee
aca?iia?aeiia?aeiino?.

?en.8. No?oeoo?ii-aeeiai?/ia noaia iiaeaethaaiiy neee oa?oy

A?aeiia?aeii aei io?eiaieo ia?aaeaoi/ieo ooieoe?e (12) oa (13) aoee
caienai? aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ??aiyiiy, ye? a?aeaeaathoue iiaaae?ieo
oaeaeeino? ciiooaaiiy oa neee oa?oy c /anii.

Ianooiiei aoaiii aeine?aeaeaiue aoea ia?aiao?e/ia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y, yea
iieyaa? o aecia/aii? ae?ac?a aeey iiooeo eiaoioei?ioia iiaeneeaiiy K oa
noaeeo /ano T, ui aoiaeyoue aei aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue.
?ic?aooieia? oi?ioee oa ii?yaeie ?ic?aooieo iaaaaeaii o oaeno?
aeena?oaoe??.

Iayai?noue eiaoioei?ioia ii?yae c iio?aeieie aeueo ii?yaee?a o i?aaeo
/anoeiao aeeoa?aioeiaeueieo ?iaiyiue aeicaiey? aeaeaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei aoaeoeaieo ?aaeei?a i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy, yei iiaeii? i?ioiaeeoe ?c
ci?iiei iaaeieeoi?i aieeaii ia o?eainenoaio, oiaoi iio?aei? o i?aaeo
/anoeiao ia iiaeiii aei??aithaaoe ioeth. Aei oaeeo ?aaeeiia iiaeia
a?aeianoe i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy c iaaaioaaeaiiyi, yea ca?eueoo?oueny
nooiii/anoi aai c iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia iaae? ca?aeaiiy.

Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ianoaoe?iia?ieo i?ioean?a aeey a?aie/iiai
oa?oy. Iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? iacia/eoe iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie
i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy oa ioe?ieoe caian no?eei? ?iaioe, a oaeiae aecia/eoe
o?eaioaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee o?eaini?yaeaiiy o aoaeue-yeee /an.

Nueiiee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee i?aeoe/iiio ai?iaaaeaeaiith iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoao?a, a naia ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeieia?? iioeiaeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy
aoce?a oa?oy a?ae?iiaoei. Ia iiaenoaai io?eiaieo iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoaoia, ye? neeaaeathoue ?aeeiee eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue,
cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeieia?th canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee uiaei
iioei?caoe?? eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue aoceia oa?oy ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy
aiae?iiaoei. A iniiao iaoiaeieiai? iieeaaeaii iiaeaeue aaaaoi??aiaai?
iioeiicaoei? ia’?eoa i?iaeooaaiiy. Ioe?ieo oa aea?? i?iaeoieo ?ioaiue
o?eainenoai a?ae?iiaoeie iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe ca oaeeie aoaiaie.

1. Ioe?iea i?eioeeiiaeo noai ia’?eoo i?iaeooaaiiy. Aeaiee aoai
caniiaaiee aeey aiae?co ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a ia’?iieo aiae?iiaoei.
Aiane?aeie aeeiiaiiy aeaiiai aoaio aeae?a?oueny no?oeoo?a ia’?eoa
i?iaeooaaiiy.

2. Eiino?oeoeaia iioei?caoe?y ia’?eoo i?iaeooaaiiy. Iaaeinoaoiy oaaaa
aei eiino?oeoeaii? iioeiicaoei? aiae?iiaoei iia’ycaia c oei, ui oai?/?
cae?aiino? ethaeeie i?e ae??oaii? oeeo caaaeaiue ia?aaa?oothoue
iiaeeeaino? AII. O oie aea /an, cia/aiiy a??iiai aeai?o eiino?oeoe??
aaaaoi a /iio ia?aaa?oo? aoaeo a?ae ia?aiao?e/ii? iioeiicaoei?. Ae?enii,
i?e iiieeeiaiio aeai?? eiino?oeoei? ie?aieo o?eainenoai oa aiae?iiaoei a
oe?eiio iaoiaee iioeiicaoei? aeai?o iaoa??ae?a, i?aeai?o ianoeeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua, ?aaeei?a i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy ia a ciic? eiiiainoaaoe caeoe?a
ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy oa ?aiiio.

O iaea?eueo caaaeueiiio aeae? caaaeaiiy eiino?oeoeaii? iioeiicaoei?
iiaeia noi?ioethaaoe ye caaaeaiiy aeai?o iaee?aui? eiio?ao?aoe??
o?eainenoai, aeey /iai iaiaoiaeii, ii-ia?oa, ?icaeoe a?ae?iiaoeio ia
o?eainenoaie, ye? aoiaeyoue aei eiino?oeoei?; ii-ae?oaa, aaanoe aeaye?
e?eoa??? ia?aaaae iaei??? eiino?oeoe?? iaae ?ioith. Oaeeie e?eoa??yie ?
iayai?noue i?yieo oa cai?ioieo ia? a eiino?oeoei? oa eiao?oe??io oi?ie
oeeo ia?.

Ca?aeii c aeniiaeaie aei o?aoueiai ?icae?eo, eiino?oeoi? iiaeiai
i?yioaaoe aei aeei?enoaiiy o?eueee i?yieo ia? oa?oy oa aei
iaeneiaeueiiai eiao?oe??ioo oi?ie.

3. Ia?aiao?e/ia iioei?caoe?y iiaeiia aeeiioaaoenue i?ney aeai?o
eiino?oeoei? o?eainenoaie aeey ae?iao; oea a?aeaeaa?oueny, aieiaiei
/eiii, a ??oaii? caaea/: o aeai?? iaoa??ae?a aeey aoceo oa?oy; o
i?aeai?? ianoeeueiiai aai ?iai/iai na?aaeiaeua aei aea?aieo iaoa?iaeia,
caaacia/oth/e aeia?o aca?iia?aeiia?aei?noue o??aaee oeeo iaoa?iaeia; o
aecia/aii? ia?aiao??a oaeaeeino? ia’?iiiai ciiooaaiiy, neee oa?oy,
?ano?no ni?iaeoiaaii? o?eainenoaie c ?o iiaeaeueoith iioei?caoe??th.

Ca aeo?aei? aeai? aeey aeeiiaiiy ia?aiao?e/ii? iioei?caoe??
aeei?enoiaothoueny iiia?aaeiuei i?ecia/ai? ?ici??e ni?yaeaieo aeaoaeae.

Iaeiei c iniiaieo aeniiae?a /aoaa?oiai ?icae?eo ? noaia aeai?o
aca?iia?aeiia?aeieo iaoa?iaeia o aocie oa?oy. Caiaeii c aeaiith noaiith
aeey aca?iia?aeiia?aeiino? a o?eaiaocei aeiionea?oueny i?eeiaoe aeey
?ooiiiai aeaiaioo ia?e iaoa??ae ?c i?i?iaeueiei aioo??oi?i oa?oyi oa
iiaeeea?noth eiai i?aeaeuaiiy i?ae /an i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy.

Iio??aii i?eae?eyoe iniaeeao oaaao aeai?o no?oeoo?e iaoa??aeo ia?ooiiiai
aeaiaioo. Aioo??oi? oa?oy ii/aoeiai? no?oeoo?e oaeeo aeaiaio?a iiaeiii
aooe aenieei oa iaoe aaeeeo iiaeeea?noue aei eiai ca?eueoaiiy a i?ioean?
i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy ca ?aooiie ??ciiiai?oieo iaoai?ci?a ?aeaenaoe??
aia?a??.

Ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeee o?ce/iiai oa iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy,
?ic?iaeaieo o i’yoiio oa oinoiio ?icae?eao, i?iaiaeeoueny aecia/aiiy
oaeeo ia?aiao?ia aeae?eaieo o?eaini?yaeaiue: oaeaee?noue ia’?iiiai
ciiooaaiiy, neea oa?oy, ?ano?n. Ao?aeieie aeaieie aeey ?ic?aooieo ?:
iio??aiee no?ie neoaeae oa (aai) aaee/eia aeiionoeiiai caci?o a
ni?yaeaii?; iaioa ?iai/a ieiua oa?oy iaeiiai c aeaiaioia ia?e;
eiao?oe??io oi?ie ia?e oa?oy; ae?aiacii ci?ie aioo??oiueiai oa?oy
no?oeoo?e ni?yaeaieo iaoa??ae?a; o?eaieiae/i? aeanoeaino? ianoeeueiiai
na?aaeiaeua oa eiai aeo?aoe e??cue aocie oa?oy, a oaeiae iaaaioaaeaiiy
oa oaeaeeinoue eiacaiiy. Iaaaioaaeaiiy oa oaeaeeinoue eiacaiiy aa?ooue,
a iniiaiiio, c caaaeaiiy ia i?iaeooaaiiy.

Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaieo caoiae?a aecia/a?oueny «neaaea eaiea» a
eiino?oeoe?? a?ae?iiaoeie. I?ae «neaaeith eaieith» o eiino?oeoei?
?icoi??oueny o?eainenoaia, yea ia? i?i?iaeueiee ?ano?n aai iaeneiaeueio
oaeaeeinoue ia’?iiiai ciiooaaiiy. Oaea o?eainenoaia aoaea aecia/aoe
?ano?n an??? aiae?iiaoeie a oe?eiio, a yeui aeae?eaia o?eainenoaia ?
cai?ioiith ia?ith, oi, ye iieaco? aeina?ae noaiaeiaeo aei?iaoaaiue oa
aenieoaoaoe??, oaea o?eainenoaia aoaea aecia/aoe i /an iaeaoee
aiae?iiaoeie, iaiaaeoth/e ?aaeeie iaeaoee.

4. Aoiaeieie aeaieie uiaei aeeiiaiiy inoaiiueiai aoaio aaaaoi??aiaai?
iioei?caoe?? ? ia?aiao?e oaeaeeino? ia’?iiiai ciiooaaiiy, neee oa?oy, oa
?ano?no «neaai? eaiee» a eiino?oeoei? aiae?iiaoeie. Naia oey
o?eainenoaia ? oith, yea aecia/a? aea?? iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a iaeaoee oa
aenieoaoaoei? ani?? aiae?iiaoeie.

C o?aooaaiiyi ?ano?no «neaaei? eaiee» iiaeia cieceoe noia?i? aeo?aoe ia
aeaioiaeaiiy oa aenieoaoaoe?th aiae?iiaoeie ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy. sseui
«neaaea eaiea» ? e?i?oiith ca no?ieaie aenieoaoaoe?? a?ae?iiaoeie a
oe?eiio, oi aeioe?euei?oa caaacia/oaaoe ?ano?n ?aooe o?eainenoai aac
cia/iiai ia?aaeuaiiy ?ano?no «neaaei? eaiee». A oeueiio aeiaaeeo,
i/aaeaeii, iiaeeeai nei?ioeoe aa?o?noue canoiniaaieo iaoa?iaeia o
o?eainenoaiao ?c a?eueoei ?ano?nii ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy iaio
eiooiaieo iaoa??ae?a.

Iioei?caoe?th ?aaeeiia aenieoaoaoei? c?o/i?oa anueiai ?iaeoe ca
e?eoa?i?i ieoiii? ?iaioe ciiooaaiiy oa iioeiaeaeaiiy, yea aecia/a?oueny
aeey «neaaei? eaiee».

Iioeiicaoeith ?aaeeiia iaeaoee iaiao?aeii ?iaeoe ca /anii
i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy «neaaei? eaiee», aeeiioth/e oiiao (i? ( min.
Cae?enieoe aeaiee aoai iiaeia, aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiaeeeo iiaeaethaaiiy
ianoaoe?iia?ieo i?ioean?a, ?ic?iaeaio a oinoiio ?icae?e?.

AENIIAEE

1. Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co a?o/eciyii? oa ?iicaiii? e?oa?aoo?e,
i?enay/aii? iiaeaethaaiith oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy, ?ic?iaeaii caaaeueiee
iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae o aeine?aeaeaii? i?ioeania a?aie/iiai oa?oy,
yeee aaco?oueny ia iiiyooyo nenoaiiiai aiaeico i i?e «iiaoaeia? iiaeae?»
aeei?enoiao? oae? aoaie: aecia/a?oueny ia’?eo, oe?eue oa caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy; ie?aneththoueny iaae? aeine?aeaeoaaii? nenoaie oa
aecia/a?oueny ?? no?oeoo?a; i?iaiaeeoueny ia?aiao?ecaoeiy nenoaie.

2. Aecia/aii no?oeoo?o iiaeaeueii? o?eainenoaie, yea neeaaea?oueny c
/ioe?ueio aeaiaio?a, ?icoaoiaaieo ia /ioe?ueio ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ieiueiao. Ooieoe?iiaeuei? ieiueie yaeythoue c naaa ieiueie aeey
iiaeaethaaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy, neee oa?oy, oi?noeino?,
o?eaioiii/ieo i?ioeania, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ia iiaa?oiyo oa?oy.
Iieacaii, ui aeey ae??oaiiy caaea/ o?ce/iiai oa iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy iaiao?aeia canoinoaaiiy e?eoa?iaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo, aac
yeiai ia iiaea aooe aeinoaoiuei oi/ii? oa iaa?oioiaaii? iiae?aiino?,
ioaea, i iiaeaethaaiiy.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiae?e ia? oa?oy ia i?yi? oa cai?ioi?, a iniiao yeiai
iieeaaeaii ?icoaooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a o ?ooiieo oa ia?ooiieo aeaiaioao ca
oaa?ae?noth oa ?iai/eie ieiueiaie oa?oy. Iieacaii, ui an? ia?e iiaeia
iiae?eeoe ia: i?yii ia?e; cai?ioii ia?e ca iaoa??aeaie; cai?ioii ia?e ca
aaiiao???th; cai?ioii ia?e ca iaoa?iaeaie oa aaiiao?i?th iaeii/anii.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeyaeaii ??cieoeth a ciinino?eeino? i?yieo oa
cai?ioieo ia?. Iieacaii, ui i?i?iaeueio ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy
iathoue i?yii ia?e. O cai?ioieo ia? ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy cia/ii
aeua, iniaeeai o cai?ioii? ia?e ca iaoa?iaeaie oa aaiiao?i?th
iaeii/anii. Eiao?oe??io oa?oy ia i?yieo oa cai?ioieo ia?ao ia
ci?ith?oueny.

4. Aeey ioe?iee ianooaaiiai oaeoi?o i?yieo oa cai?ioieo ia? oa?oy
?ic?iaeaii oa cai?iiiiiaaii ia?aiao?, iacaaiee eiao?oe??ioii oi?ie ia?e
oa?oy. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui eiao?oe??io oi?ie ? ooieoe??th
?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy, eiao?oe??ioo oa?oy oa i?ioean?a, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao iaoa?iaeia. Iieacaii, ui /ei
a?eueoee eiaoioei?io oi?ie, oei e?aueie o?eaioaoii/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
aieiae?? ia?a oa?oy. Ca aeiiiiiaith aeaiiai eiao?oe??ioa iiaeia ?iaeoe
aenia?oio ioe?ieo i?iaeoiaaieo aoce?a oa?oy oa aeyaeyoe oeyoe
i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ciinino?eeino? ia aoai? i?iaeooaaiiy.

5. Aeyaeaii caeiiii??i?noue ci?ie aioo??oiueiai oa?oy no?oeoo?e
ni?yaeaieo iaoa?iaeia o i?ioean? ?iaioe aocea oa?oy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
ca?eueoaiiy aioo?ioiueiai oa?oy iaoa?iaeia o?eaiaeaiaioia iia’ycaia c
ooai?aiiyi ci?oeiaieo iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a. Iieacaii, ui ?niothoue
iaoa??aee, yei iiaeooue cia/ii ca?eueooaaoe aioo??oi? oa?oy a i?ioeani
i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy. Oea, a iniiaiiio, aaoa?iaaii? oa iaeii/anii
ieanoe/i? iaoa?iaee. I?e oeueiio ?nio? eean aaoa?iaaiieo iaoa??ae?a, yei
ia a ciic? caieueooaaoe aioo?ioi? oa?oy ia aoaii i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy,
oi/a nii/aoeo iathoue aeniea aioo?ioi? oa?oy.

6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeia?a aca?iia?aeiia?aei?noue iaoa?iaeia a
o?eainenoaii ? ooieoei?th oe?ieiai ae?aiaciio ciiie aioo?ioiueiai oa?oy
no?oeoo?e iaio iaoa?iaeia oa aeanoeainoae ianoeeueiiai na?aaeiaeua. Ia
i?aenoaa? oeueiai cai?iiiiiaaia noaia aeai?o iaoa?iaeia o aocie oa?oy,
oa iieacaii, ui i?e aeai?? iaoa?iaeia ? iiaeeeaei iaoe ca ?ooiiee
aeaiaio ia?e iaoa??ae c i?i?iaeueiei aioo??oi?i oa?oyi. Aei oaeeo
iaoa?iaeia iiaeia a?aeianoe caaa?oiaai? (oeaiaioiaai?, acioiaaii) noae?.
Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii, ui iaoa?iae ?ooiiiai aeaiaioo a iaio?e
i??? aieeaa? ia o?eaioaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee. Aeai?o no?oeoo?e iaoa??aeo
ia?ooiiiai aeaiaioo iio??aii i?eae?eyoe iniaeeao oaaao. Aioo??oi? oa?oy
oaeeo iaoa?iaeia iiaeiii aooe aenieei oa iaoe aaeeeo iiaeeea?noue aei
eiai caieueoaiiy a i?ioeani i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy. Iieacaii, ui nii/aoeo
aenieiai aioo??oiueiai oa?oy ii/aoeiai? no?oeoo?e iaoa?iaeo
iaaeinoaoiuei aeey caaacia/aiiy aeia?i? aca?iia?aeiia?aeiino? iaoa??ae?a
o ia?? oa?oy.

7. Ia iiaenoaai iieiaeaiue oai??? iiae?aiino? oa iiaeaethaaiiy io?eiai?
e?eoa??? iiaeiaiinoi, ye? aecia/athoue i?ioean oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy i?e
a?aie/iiio ciauoaaii?. C aeei?enoaiiyi io?eiaieo e?eoa???a ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy a?aie/iiai oa?oy a o?eainenoaiao.
?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee i?aoeacaeaoiino? cai?iiiiiaaii?
iaoiaeeee i?aeoaa?aeeee, ui ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? aecia/aoe
o?eaioaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoo?iiai o?eaini?yaeaiiy ca aeaieie
aei?iaoaaiiy ?o iiaeaeae aai o?eainenoai-i?ioioeiia ia o?eueee i?e ci?i?
aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a, a e e?iaiaoe/ii? noaie, oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy,
iaoa??ae?a o?eaiaeaiaioia oa aeanoeainoae ianoee. Aeaia iaoiaeeea
aeicaiey? oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaoe o?eaieiai/ii aace aeaieo, yei
noai?ththoueny aeey ioe?iee ciinino?eeino? i?iaeoiaaieo nenoai.

8. Ia i?aenoaa? io?eiaieo e?eoa?i?a iiaeiaiinoi oa iieiaeaiue
e?eoa?iaeueiiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo io?eiaii caeaaeiino? e?eoa??th
oaeaeeino? ia’?iiiai ciiooaaiiy oa e?eoa?ith neee oa?oy a?ae e?eoa?ith
/ano. Aiae?c io?eiaieo caeaaeiinoae iieacaa, ui ia ci?io oaeaeeinoi
ciiooaaiiy a ia?oo /a?ao aieeaathoue ?aeaenaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? no?oeoo?e
ni?yaeaieo iaoa?iaeia oa ?o aca?iia?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae niaith, a aeae?,
a iaio?e i???, — aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e aocea oa?oy, iaaaioaaeaiiy oa
oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy. I iaeiaioee aieea c ?icaeyiooeo oaeoi??a ia?
ye?noue ianoeea oa eiai aeo?aoa e??cue aocie oa?oy. Ia ciiio neee oa?oy,
a ia?oo /a?ao, aieeaathoue ?aeaenaoeieii aeanoeainoi ni?yaeaieo
iaoa?iaeia oa ?o aca?iia?aeiia?aei?noue iiae niaith, a aeaei a cia/ii
iaioie oa iaeaea a iaeiaeia?e i???, — aaiiao?e/ii ?icii?e aocea oa?oy,
iaaaioaaeaiiy, oaeaeeinoue eiacaiiy, ianoeeueia na?aaeiaeua oa eiai
aeo?aoa e?icue aocie oa?oy.

9. Aeei?enoiaoth/e io?eiai? iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiinoi, ?ic?iaeaii
iaoiaeeeo iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy noaoe?iia?ieo i?ioean?a i?e
a?aie/iiio oa?o?. Iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
o?eaioaoii/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?iaeoiaaieo o?eainenoai aac iiia?aaei?o
eaai?aoi?ieo aai noaiaeiaeo aei?iaoaaiue c iioei?caoe??th eiino?oeoeaieo
??oaiue oa aecia/aoe iaae? ao?aeieo ia?aiao??a, i?e aeinyaiaii? yeeo
aeo?aei? ia?aiao?e iiaeooue aeeoe ca iaaei i?eionoeieo cia/aiue.

10. Ia i?aenoaa? iieiaeaiue oai??? aaoiiaoe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy oa oai?i?
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? aeeiai?/ieo ia’?eo?a i?iaaaeaii no?oeoo?io
?aeaioeo?eaoe?th o?eainenoaie, ?acoeueoaoii yei? c’yaeeany iiaoaeiaa
no?oeoo?ii-aeeiaii/ieo noai oa io?eiaiiy aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue
i?ioeania oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy a oiiaao a?aie/iiai ciauoaaiiy. I?iaaaeaii
aiae?c eiao?oe??io?a, ye? aoiaeyoue aei aeeoa?aioeiaeueieo ??aiyiue, oa
iieacaii oeyoe iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy oa
aenieoaoaoe??.

11. I?iaaaeaii ia?aiao?e/io iaeaioeoieaoeith o?eainenoaie, aiane?aeie
yei? io?eiaii iaoaiaoe/ii ae?ace aeey aecia/aiiy eiaoioei?ioia, yei
aoiaeyoue aei aeeoa?aioeiaeueieo ?iaiyiue. Ii aaee/ei? oeeo
eiaoioei?ioia iiaeia aecia/eoe i??o aieeao aoiaeieo ia?aiao?ia ia
aeoiaeii oa aecia/eoe caian no?eei? ?iaioe o?eainenoaie.

12. Ia iiaenoaai io?eiaieo aeeoa?aioeiaeueieo ?iaiyiue ?ic?iaeaii
iaoiaeeeo iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ianoaoe?iia?ieo i?ioeania i?e
a?aie/iiio oa?oi. Iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? i?ecia/aoe iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie
i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy oa ioe?ithaaoe caian noieei? ?iaioe, a oaeiae
aecia/aoe o?eaioaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iaeoiaaieo o?eainenoai a
aoaeue-yeee iiiaio ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

13. Ia iiaenoaai io?eiaieo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a oa ?ic?iaeaieo
iaoiaeee, yei neeaaeathoue ?aeeiee eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue,
cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeieia?th canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee aeey
iioei?caoe?? eiino?oeoeaieo ?ioaiue aoceia oa?oy ia aoaii i?iaeooaaiiy
a?ae?iiaoei. A iniiao iaoiaeieia?? iieeaaeaii iiaeaeue aaaaoi??aiaai?
iioeiicaoei? ia’?eoa i?iaeooaaiiy, yea aeicaiey? i?ney aeai?o no?oeoo?e
ia’?eoa c?iaeoe eiino?oeoeaio oa ia?aiao?e/io iioei?caoe?th, a oaeiae
iioeiicaoeith ?aaeeiia iaeaoee oa aenieoaoaoei?. Ia eiie?aoieo
i?eeeaaeao aen?aeueii-ii?oiaaeo aiae?iiaoei iieacaii aoaie
eiino?oeoeaii? oa ia?aiao?e/ii? iioeiicaoei? oa cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe
i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aeiaaia?/iino? oa iaae?eiino?.

14. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeieia?y ai?iaaaeaeaia a IAeI Aiae?ii?eaiae,
i. Oa?e?a, o aeaeyae? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa i?ia?aiiiai
caaacia/aiiy ia aoaii i?iaeooaaiiy aiae?iiaoei.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Aieoia A.A., Iiae?eaaei I.A., Aaioe?eue ?.N. Eiino?oeoeaia
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Aieoia A.A. Eiino?oeoeaia ciinino?ee?noue aoce?a oa?oy a?ae?iiaoei.
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Iioi?iaoeaiinoue aeonoe/iiai neaiaeo, yeee aeieea? a cii? o?eeoe?eiiai
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Aea?? ?ioi?iaoeaieo e?eoa???a ooieoe?iioaaiiy aocea oa?oy ia i?aenoaa?
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Ae?aaiinoeea oa i?iaiicoaaiiy iaae?eiino? aoce?a oa?oy ia i?aenoaa?
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aeonoe/ii? ai?n?? aeey ae?aaiinooaaiiy o?eainenoai. Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue
OAeIO, -1998. Aei.6. *.4. N.22-24.

Aieoia A.A., ?naeia Ae.?., Io?aoei I.I. Aniaeoe iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a
oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy o o?eainenoaiao iaoei. //A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue. –Oa?e?a: OAeAAeOO. –1998. Aei.7. N.33-36.

A.n.1497495 N?N? I.Ee. G 01N 3/56/ Niin?a eiio?ieth neoaeaiaeo
aeanoeainoae ianoee /I.A.Iinianueeee, A.O.Oaney, A.A.Aieoia,
I.I.Iinianueeee, I.I.Aaean (N?N?). cayaeaii 22.12.87; iioae?eiaaii
30.07.89, Athe.?28, -2n.

A.n.1562758 N?N? I.Ee. G 01N 3/56/ Niin?a eiio?ieth i?ei?aoeueiaoaaiiy
ia?e oa?oy /I.A.Iinianueeee, A.O.Oaney, A.A.Aieoia, I.I.Iinianueeee,
I.I.Aaean (N?N?). cayaeaii 06.04.88; iioae?eiaaii 07.05.90, Athe.?78,
-3n.

A.n. 1573392 N?N? I.Ee. G 01N 3/56/ Niin?a aei?iaoaaiiy iaoa?iaeia ia
aoiieai?noue i?e caeiaii? /I.A.Iinianueeee, I.I.Aaean, O.A.Oeeaaiaa,
A.O.Oaney, A.A.Aieoia, I.I.Iinianueeee (N?N?). cayaeaii 11.08.88;
iioae?eiaaii 23.06.90, Athe.?23, -3n.

A.n.1577492 N?N? I.Ee. G 01N 3/56/ Niin?a aei?iaoaaiiy ia?e oa?oy
/I.A.Iinianueeee, I.I.Aaean, O.A.Oeeaai?a, A.O.Oaney, A.A.Aieoia,
I.I.Iinianueeee (N?N?). cayaeaii 11.08.88; iioae?eiaaii 07.08.90,
Athe.?25, -3n.

A.n. 1597694 N?N? I.Ee. G 01N 3/56/ Niin?a eiio?ieth ?aaeei?a oa?oy
iaoaeaaeo iiaa?oiiue aocea oa?oy /I.A.Iinianueeee, A.O.Oaney,
A.A.Aieoia, I.I.Iinianueeee, I.I.Aaean (N?N?). cayaeaii 25.11.88;
iioae?eiaaii 07.10.90, Athe.?37, -3n.

A.n. 1533426 N?N? I.Ee. G 01N 3/56/ Ia?a oa?oy /A.A.Aieoia,
E.A.Eioey?aiei, A.O.Eaaee?ia oa iio. (N?N?). cayaeaii 14.12.87;
iioae?eiaaii 30.12.89, Athe.?48, -2n.

A.n. 1803811 I.Ee. G 01N 3/56/ Iaoeia aeey aei?iaoaaiue ia oa?oy oa
ciiooaaiiy /A.A.Aieoia, A.I.Aacaeuei?eii, I.I.Iinianueeee oa iio. (N?N?)
cayaeaii 05.12.90; iioae?eiaaii 23.03.93, Athe.?11, -6n,.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aieoia A.A. Iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy o o?eainenoaiao
a?ae?iiaoei ye iniiaa ??oaiiy caaea/ i?iaeooaaiiy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ii
niaoe?aeueiino? 05.02. 04 — Oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy o a iaoeiao.
Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey, i.Oiaeueieoeueeee1999.

Caoeua?oueny aeena?oaoe?y o aeaeyae? ?oeiieno. Ii iniiaiei ?acoeueoaoai
iioae?eiaaii 23 iaoeia? ?iaioe ? 7 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa, ui i?noyoue
oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio iaoiaeee iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a oa?oy
oa ciiooaaiiy, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?iaeaii? eeaneo?eaoe?? ia? oa?oy ia i?yi? ? cai?ioi?,
a?aooaaiiy ianooaaiiai oaeoi?a oeeo ia?, ?aeaenaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae
ni?yaeaieo iaoa??ae?a ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeieia?y iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a
oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy o o?eainenoaiao. Iaoiaeieia?y i?noeoue iaoiaeeee
o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy; iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy noaoe?iia?ieo oa
ianoaoe?iia?ieo i?ioean?a. Aeai? iaoiaeeee neeaaeathoue iniiao
aaaaoi??aiaai? iioei?caoe?? ia’?eoo i?iaeooaaiiy ia aoai? eiai
noai?aiiy. Cae?eniaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeieia?? o aeaeyae?
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy a
iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e ? i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nuee?e i?aai?caoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?ce/ia iiaeaethaaiiy; iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy;
a?aie/ia ciauoaaiiy; o?eainenoaia; iioeiaeueia i?iaeooaaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aieoia A.A. Iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeannia o?aiey e eciaoeaaiey a
o?eainenoaiao aeae?iiaoei eae iniiaa ?aoaiey caaea/ i?iaeoe?iaaiey. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.04 — O?aiea e eciin a iaoeiao. – Oaoiieiae/aneee
oieaa?neoao Iiaeieuey, a. Oiaeueieoeeee, 1999.

Caueuaaony aeenna?oaoeey a aeaea ?oeiiene. Ii iniiaiui ?acoeueoaoai
iioaeeeiaaii 23 iao/iua ?aaiou e 7 aaoi?neeo naeaeaoaeuenoa, eioi?ua
niaea?aeao oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ninoiyiey iaoiaeee iiaeaee?iaaiey
i?ioeannia o?aiey e eciaoeaaiey, a oaeaea ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee.

No?oeoo?ii aeenna?oaoeey ninoieo ec aaaaeaiey, naie ?acaeaeia, auaiaeia,
nienea eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia e i?eeiaeaiee.

A ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca aieueoiai ?aciiia?acey eiino?oeoeaiuo ?aoaiee
oceia o?aiey i?aaeeiaeaii aeaeaiea ia? o?aiey ia i?yiua e ia?aoiua.
Yenia?eiaioaeueii auyaeaii ?acee/ea a eciininoieeinoe i?yiuo e ia?aoiuo
ia? o?aiey. Iieacaii, /oi ieieiaeueioth eioaineaiinoue eciaoeaaiey
eiatho i?yiua ia?u. Ia ia?aoiuo ia?ao eioaineaiinoue eciaoeaaiey
cia/eoaeueii auoa, iniaaiii o ia?aoiie ia?u ii iaoa?eaeai e ii aaiiao?ee
iaeiia?aiaiii. Aeey o/aoa ianooaaiiai oaeoi?a oaeeo ia? iieo/ai ia?aiao?
– eiyooeoeeaio oi?iu. Yenia?eiaioaeueii iieacaii, /oi eiyooeoeeaio oi?iu
ia?u o?aiey yaeyaony ooieoeeae eioaineaiinoe eciaoeaaiey, eiyooeoeeaioa
o?aiey e i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyuee a iiaa?oiinoiuo neiyo. *ai aieueoa
eiyooeoeeaio oi?iu, oai eo/oeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iaeaaeaao ia?a o?aiey.

Aeey o/aoa no?oeoo?u nii?yaeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia a ?ac?aaaouaaaiuo iiaeaeyo
o?eaieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia iao/ii iainiiaaia e aaaaeaia
no?oeoo?ii-/oanoaeoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoa?eaeia – aioo?aiiaa
o?aiea. Ii?aaeaeaia a i?ioeanna ?aaiou ocea o?aiey caeiiiia?iinoue
eciaiaiey aioo?aiiaai o?aiey no?oeoo?u nii?yaeaiiuo iaoa?eaeia e
onoaiiaeaii, /oi oaaee/aiea aioo?aiiaai o?aiey iaoa?eaeia o?eaiyeaiaioia
naycaii, a iniiaiii, n ia?aciaaieai oi?i/iaiiuo iiaa?oiinoiuo neiaa.
Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou iicaieeee ?ac?aaioaoue noaio auai?a niaianoeiuo
iaoa?eaeia a ocae o?aiey, eioi?ay iicaieyao ?aoaoue i?eeeaaeiua caaea/e.

Ia iniiaaiee oai?ai oai?ee iiaeiaey e iiaeaee?iaaiey iieo/aiu iaiauaiiua
e?eoa?ee iiaeiaey, oa?aeoa?ecothuea i?ioeannu o?aiey e eciaoeaaiey a
o?eainenoaia. E?eoa?ee iicaieytho auiieiyoue oece/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea
i?ioeannia a o?eainenoaia ia oieueei i?e eciaiaiee eo aaiiao?e/aneeo
?acia?ia, a e i?e eciaiaiee oneiaee iaa?oaeaiey, eeiaiaoe/aneie noaiu,
iaoa?eaeia o?eaiyeaiaioia, niaci/iuo n?aae.

N eniieueciaaieai oeacaiiuo e?eoa?eaa ia iniiaaiee oai?ee
aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e oai?ee eaeaioeoeeaoeee aeeiaie/aneeo
i?ioeannia ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey
noaoeeiia?iuo e ianoaoeeiia?iuo i?ioeannia. Iao/iay cia/eiinoue
?ac?aaioaiiuo iiaeaeae e iaoiaeee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ?aoaiea
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo o?aaiaiee iicaieyao ii?aaeaeyoue yooaeoeaiua ?aaeeiu
i?e?aaioee e ioeaieoue caian onoie/eaie ?aaiou o?eainenoaiu.

I?aeoe/aneoth cia/eiinoue ?aaiou ninoaaeyao nenoaia iiiaio?iaiaaie
iioeiecaoeee iauaeoa i?iaeoe?iaaiey. O?iaiyie nenoaiu yaeythony
?ac?aaioaiiua a aeenna?oaoeee iaoiaeeee oece/aneiai e iaoaiaoe/aneiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey noaoeeiia?iuo e ianoaoeeiia?iuo i?ioeannia a
o?eainenoaiao. A ?aaioa iao/ii iainiiaaiu e i?aaeeiaeaiu e?eoa?ee
iioeiecaoeee o?eainenoai.

?ac?aaioaiiay nenoaia aiaae?aia a IEEAeae?ii?eaiae, a. Oa?ueeia a aeaea
iaoiaee/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ia yoaia
i?iaeoe?iaaiey aeae?iiaoei. Yoe ?ac?aaioee iicaieytho:

iaania/eoue ia noaaeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey niioaaonoaea nicaeaaaaiie
eiino?oeoeee o?aaiaaieyi e iae;

eneeth/eoue aieaaie iiaeoiae e iacia/aieth aaiiao?e/aneeo ?acia?ia,
iaoa?eaeia, ?aai/eo n?aae a eiino?oeoeeth;

nie?aoeoue a?aiy ia i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?neea ?aaiou, aeeth/ay aeiaiaeeo
iiuoiuo ia?acoeia e naycaiiua n iae eciaiaiey a oaoie/aneie
aeieoiaioaoeee, a oii /enea a ?aai/eo e nai?i/iuo /a?oaaeao;

a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa:

nie?aoeoue iauai aeiaiaei/iuo ?aaio;

nieceoue o?oaeiaieinoue neana?ii-nai?i/iuo ?aaio;

a noa?a yenieoaoaoeee:

oeo/oaiea cia/aiee auoiaeiuo iieacaoaeae ?aaiou ecaeaeee e iiauoaiea
noaaeeueiinoe eo cia/aiee;

iiauoaiea iaaeaaeiinoe ca n/ao oiaiueoaiey /enea ia?aiao?e/aneeo
ioeacia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oece/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea; iaoaiaoe/aneia
iiaeaee?iaaiea; a?aie/iay niacea; o?eainenoaia; iioeiaeueiia
i?iaeoe?iaaiea.

ABSTRACT

Voitov V.A. Modeling of processes of friction and wear process in
tribological systems of hydromachines as the basis of problem solving of
designing. — Manuscript.

The dissertation on scientific degree — doctors of technical sciences
with specialization — 05.02.04 — Friction and wears in machines.
Technological University Podillya, Khmelnytsky, 1999.

Thesis is defended in the form of a manuscript. Main results include 23
scientific works and 7 patents, which contain theoretical research of
the current condition of methods for modeling boundary conditions, and
experimental research. The Methodology of modeling boundary
lubrication for tribological systems was worked-out on the base of
classification of friction pairs: right ad reverse, applying the scale
factor and the relacsation properties of cinematic friction pairs. The
Methodology contains a physical modeling, mathematical modeling of
stable processes; mathematical modeling of transitional processes. These
theoretical and research foundations are the basis for the highlevel
optimization of tribological system on the projection stage. The methods
of physical and mathematical modeling as a soft wear for PC was used in
research and undertaking enterprises.

Keywords: physical modeling, mathematical modeling boundary lubrication,
tribological systems, and optimization of tribological systems on the
projection stage

Iiaeienaii a ia/aoue 1.07.99 a. Oi?iao 60o84 1\16 Aoiaaa ionaoiay

Ioia/aoaii ia ?ecia?aoa Iauai 2,25 one.ia/.e Cae. ? 301

Oe?aae 100 yec. Oeaia aeiaiai?iay

Aae?an ?aaeaeoeee ecaeaoaeuenoaa e iieea?aoi?aaei?eyoey

OAAAeOO, 310776, Oa?ueeia-ANI, oe.Iao?ianeiai, 25

Ecaeaoaeuenoai Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aaoiiiaeeueii-aei?iaeiiai

oaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa

PAGE 30

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