IAOeIIIAEUeIA AEAAeAIIss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO A?IEIA?? I?AAeAIIEO II??A

ii.I.I.EIAAEAANUeEIAI

AAAI?A?C

?oneai Aai?a?eiae/

OAeE 519.2 : 579 : 582.26/27

IIAeAEUe NAIOEICAEAAEIIAI AIINOO IIAIAIOIA O IIE?IAIAeI?INOssO

03.00.17 — a?ae?ia?ieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Naaanoiiieue — 1998

Aeina?oaoeiy ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? a?ieia?? i?aaeaiieo ii??a ?i. I.I.
Eiaaeaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Naaanoiiieue

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee

N?ee?i Aieiaeeie? A?naioieiae/

?inoeooo a?ieia?? i?aaeaiieo ii??a IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?iaiaeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

O?aieaioo ?oaeieueo Iaaeiae/

?inoeooo a?ieia?? i?aaeaiieo ii??a IAI Oe?a?ie,

a.i. caa?aeoth/iai aiaeaeieii

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ni?iei Eiaeiy sseeiiaia

?inoeooo aiae?iaiieiai IAI Oe?aie,

caa?aeoth/a a?aeae?eii

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Aieueaeii aaai Ai?eniae/

E?einueeee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao

noa?oee iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

oaeoeueoao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, eaoaae?a aiae?iaiieiaii,

i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno aeena?oaoei aiaeaoaeaoueny “_28_”_a?oaeiy_1998 ?. i
_10.00_aiaeeii ia caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii a/aii ?aaee Ae.50.214.01
i?e Iinoeoooi aiieiai iiaaeaiieo ii?ia ii. I.I.Eiaaeaanueeiai IAI Oe?aie
ca aae?anith: 335011, i. Naaanoiiieue, i?. Iaoiiiaa, 2

C aeena?oaoe?th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o aiaeiioaoei Iinoeoooo aiieiai
iiaaeaiieo ii?ia ii. I.I.Eiaaeaanueeiai IAI Oe?aie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaii _”1” a?oaeiy__1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoeiaeiciaaii a/aii ?aaee Ae 50.214.01,

eaiaeeaeao aiieiai/ieo iaoe I.E.Iaa?iaa18

ANOOI

Aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaie. A /eneaiieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo oa aenia?eiaioao
aeyaeaii, ui ci ciaioaiiyi iioaineaiinoi naioea aiino iiaiaioia o
iie?iaiaei?inoae caieueoooueny, a caieueoaiiy naioeiaiai caaacia/aiiy
eeioei noi?iaiaeaeooueny ciaioaiiyi oiuei caeiaiinoi aei iiaeeiaiiy
naioeiaiai iioieo. Oea aeinyaaoueny cieaeaiiyi aiaeiiniiai aiinoo
iiaiaioia o eeioeiao. Oaeei /eiii, iiaeeiaiiy naioeiai aia?ai
?aaoethoueny /a?ac ciiie eiioeaio?aoei iiaiaioia o eeioeiao. Naioei, ui
iiaeeiaoueny, aeeiio iiaeaieio ?ieue. Ii-ia?oa, naioei aeaea?aeii
aia?ai aeey oioineioaco i iniiaiei /eiieeii, yeee ?aaoeth aiineioac
i?aaii/ii ?a/iaeie oioiieaieoiio. Ii-ae?oaa, naioei caeaoia
ooeiaeaeoaaoe iiaiaioio nenoaio (/enoi oioioiii/iee i?ioean).
Eiie?aoiiai iaoaiicio, yeee iiynith ciiie eiioeaio?aoei iiaiaioia,
i?aeoe/ii ia aea/aii, a oeueiio iai?yieo iniothoue eeoa ie?aii ni?iae
(?aaeiiae/, 1951; O?aieaioo e ae?., 1981; O?aieaioo, Aiieeiaa, 1984;
Caai?oaaa, 1985; Aiieeiaa, 1985; Geider et al., 1996)

Oaeei /eiii, iniothoue ia?aaeoiiae aeey iiyniaiiy oeyoia e iaoaiiciia
aaeaioaoei iie?iaiaei?inoae aei naioea ca aeiiiiiaith oic?ieiai/iiai
iaoaiicio, yeee caniiaaiee ia oyaeaiii i?i aeaa i?ioeeaaeieo i?ioeane:
neioac? i oioiaeano?oeoei iiaiaioia (?aaeiiae/, 1951; Nelson, 1993;
Ia?ceye oa ii., 1996).

Ca’ycie i?aoei c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa, yea aoea
i?iaaaeaia, /anoeiith eiiieaenii i?ia?aie aeineiaeaeaiue aiaeaeieo
oioiaaioino e eoeueoeaoaaiiy aiaei?inoae Iinoeoooo aiieiai iiaaeaiieo
ii?ia IAI Oe?aie, yea aeeiioaaeanue ca aea?aeathaeaeaoiith oaiith:
“Aea/eoe caaaeuei? aeieiai-i?iaeoeoeiei? i?ioeane iaeii?aoei na?aaeiaeua
i ia?ieoeueoo?e o i?eaa?aaeieo ?aeiiao *i?iiai ii?y.” (1996-1999 ??.).

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iniiaia iaoa oei ?iaioe iiaoaeiaa
iiaeaei, ui iiynith caeaaeiinoue aiinoo iiaiaioia a ?ineeiieo eeioeiao
aiae aieeao /eiieeia ciaiioiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ca aeiiiiiaith yei iiaeia
i?iaiicoaaoe iiaaaeiieo iiaiaioii nenoaie i?e ciiiao iioaineaiinoi
naioea, eiioeaio?aoei aiiaaiieo aeaiaioia i o.ae.

O ca’yceo c iinoaaeaiith iaoith ae?iooaaee oaei caaaeaiiy:

1. Cai?iiiioaaoe caaaeueiee iaoaiici, yeee aeicaiey iiynieoe ciiie
eiioeaio?aoei iiaiaioia o eeioeiao.

2. Iiaoaeoaaoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ia iniiai cai?iiiiiaaiiai
caaaeueiiai iaoaiicio e io?eiaoe ?iaiyiiy aeey noaoeiiia?iiai i
ianoaoeiiia?iiai i?ioeania eoeueoeaoaaiiy iie?iaiaei?inoae.

3. Aeineiaeeoe aieea iioaineaiinoi naioea ia aiino iiaiaioia o eeioeiao
aiaei?inoae ?iciiiaiioieo nenoaiaoe/ieo a?oi.

4. Aea/eoe aeeiaiieo oioiaeano?oeoeaieo i?ioeania a oiiaao eiiiooaaiiy
iiia?aeueieie eiiiiiaioaie ia i?eeeaaei /a?aiieo oa neiuei-caeaieo
iie?iaiaei?inoae.

5. Iieacaoe ianoia?a/iinoue cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaei aenia?eiaioaeueiei
?acoeueoaoai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Ia iniiai eioa?aoo?ieo aeaieo i?iiiiooueny caaaeueiee
iaoaiici, yeee aeeth/a oioioice/ii, oioioiii/ii oa oic?ieiai/ii i?ioeane
aaeaioeaieo ciii eiioeaio?aoei iiaiaioia a eeioeiao ?ineei a caeaaeiinoi
aiae naioeiaeo oiia, oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio i o.ae. Aia?oa ca
aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeia oai?i ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy Oai?iy ianiaiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?icaeie oai?i iiiai?iinoae, ui aea/a nenoaie, i?ecia/aii
aeey ianeoaiaoaaiiy ianiaiai iioieo aeiia aeiaaeeiaiai oa?aeoa?o. A
aeaiie i?aoei aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoiaee oai?i ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy,
i?e oeueiio iiaiaioia nenoaia ?icaeyaeaoueny ye nenoaia, yea ianeoaiao
aeiaaeeiaee iioie eaaioia naioea. ?ac?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue, yea
iieno oi?io caeaaeiinoi aiaeiiniiai aiinoo iiaiaioia aeey iaeii-, aeaio
oa aaaaoieaaioiaeo iaoaiiciia oioiaeano?oeoei iiaiaioia. Eiaoioeiioe
?iaiyiue ianooue aiieiai/iee ciino oa iiaeooue aooe aeaeiaith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?iaiyiiy, yei iienothoue ciiie
aiaeiiniiai aiinoo iiaiaioia, iiaeiii iaoe iiiiioi o?e eiaoioeiioe.
Aeei?enoiaoth/e aenia?eiaioaeueii aeaii, ?ic?aoiaaii eiaoioeiioe
io?eiaieo ?iaiyiue aeey ?iciiiaiioieo nenoaiaoe/ieo a?oi
iie?iaiaei?inoae.

Ia i?eeeaaei eoeueoo? /a?aiieo oa neiuei-caeaieo iie?iaiaei?inoae
iieacaii, ui i?e iiaiie aiaenooiinoi acioo o iiaeeaiiio na?aaeiaeui
?oeioaaiiy iiaiaioia a eeioeiao aiaei?inoae aiaeaoaaoueny oieueee o
naioei ? oaeaeeinoue ?oeioaaiiy caeaaeeoue aiae iioaineaiinoi naioea.

Io?eiaii ?iaiyiiy, yei iienothoue aeeiaiieo oioiaeano?oeoeaiiai
ieeneaiiy iiaiaioia, oa ?ic?aoiaaii eiaoioeiioe ?iaiyiue aeey /a?aiieo
oa neiuei-caeaieo iie?iaiaei?inoae.

Aeei?enoaiee iiaeoiae aei aea/aiiy aaeaioiaaieo yaeu i?iiiiooueny aia?oa
i ia ia aiaeiaia o eioa?aoo?i.

I?aeoe/ia oeiiiinoue. ?ac?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaia aeey ?icoeo?iaee aeaieo, io?eiaieo aeenoaioeieieie
aa?ieinii/ieie iaoiaeaie, i?i ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oioiieaieoiio, a oaeiae
aeey iiaoaeiae iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, yei i?iaiicothoue ia?aeiio
i?iaeoeoeith a Naioiaiio ieaaii (Aaaeaaa, 1991; Behrenfeld, 1997).

E?ii oiai, i?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeey
iioeiicaoei oiia ?inoo iie?iaiaei?inoae i?e i?iaeooaaiii ae?iaie/eo
i?ioeania ianiaiai ae?iuoaaiiy aiaei?inoae o E?eio e ia Oe?aii.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Aeaia ?iaioa i?iaeiaaeaiiyi ?icaeoeo iaeae i?i
canoinoaaiiy oai?i ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy a aiieiai (O?aieaioo, 1982,
1984, 1992; ?oaii, Oeiea?aa, 1984 oa ii.). Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoei
?ic?iaeaii iiaeaei caeaaeiinoi aiinoo iiaiaioia a eeioeiao ?ineei aiae
aieeao ?iciiiaiioieo /eiieeia iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua (cie?aia
naioea) i i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioe aeey ia?aai?ee io?eiaieo ?iaiyiue
naioeicaeaaeiiai aiinoo iiaiaioia o eeioeiao iie?iaiaei?inoae.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei. Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei
aeiiiaiaeaeenue ia naiiia?ao o aiaeaeiei oioiaaioino oa eoeueoeaoaaiiy
aiaei?inoae (1993-1997 ??.), ia naiiia?i eaoaae?e oic?ieiai ?ineei
(i. Aeiii?iiao?ianuee, 1995), ia 31 a?iiaenueeiio Neiiicioii c ii?nueei
aiieiai (i. N.-Iaoa?ao?a, 9-13 aa?aniy 1996 ?.).

Ca iaoa?iaeaie aeena?oaoei iioaeieiaaii 6 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya i?aoei. Aeena?oaoeith aeeeaaeaii ia 132 noi?iieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, neeaaeaoueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icaeie?a,
aeniiaeia, aeiaeaoeo, nieneo eioa?aoo?e (167 iaeiaioaaiue). Oaeno
iethno?iaaii 9 oaaeeoeyie i 23 iaethieaie.

CIINO ?IAIOE

?ICAeIE 1. IAEssAe EIOA?AOO?E

A oeueiio ?icaeiei aeeeaaeaii iniiaii oyaeaiiy i?i eeaneoieaoeith
iiaiaioia, o aiino o eeioeiao iie?iaiaei?inoae, aieea niaeo?aeueiiai
neeaaeo oa iioaineaiinoi naioea ia aaee/eio aiaeiiniiai aiinoo
iiaiaioia. ?acaeyiooi aeaii ca iaoaiiciii oioiaeano?oeoeaiiai ieeneaiiy
iiaiaioia iie?iaiaei?inoae. Iniaeeao oaaao i?eaeieaii inioth/ei
iaoaiaoe/iei iiaeaeyi iiaiaioieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?ineei. I?iaaaeaii aiaeic
iiaeaeae, yei aei oeueiai aeiy iaeaieueo ?ac?iaeaieie.

?ICAeIE 2. CAAAEUeIA IIAeAEUe

Aeaiee ?icaeie i?enay/aii aecia/aiith iniiaieo iiiyoue: eiioeaio?aoeiy
iiaiaioia (), aiiiane (x), aeoiae iiaiaioia (niinoa?aaeeeaa oaeaeeinoue
neioaco V), i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ca aiiianith (?), ieoiia oaeaeeinoue
aeoiaeo iiaiaioia () i aiiiane (x). Io?eiaii niiaaiaeiioaiiy aeey
aaee/ei aiaeiiniiai aiinoo iiaiaioo a aiiiani eeioei ():

= / x = V / P 

Ia iniiai oyaeaiiy i?i aeaa i?ioeeaaeieo i?ioeane neioac e ?oeioaaiiy
iiaiaioia, ?ac?iaeaii caaaeueiee iaoaiici, ui aeeth/a oaei iiiyooy:
iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa cia/aiiy:

MAX = VS / P ,

aea VS oaeaeeinoue neioaco iiaiaioia, V = VS — Vd. Vd oaeaeeinoue
?oeioaaiiy iiaiaioia.

Aeiaaaeaii aei iaaiiai aeaeyaeo:

‘ =  / MAX , ‘=  / S 

aea S =  + d — caaaeueia eiioeaio?aoeiy iiaiaioo, d — eiioeaio?aoeiy
c?oeiiaaiiai iiaiaioo.

Iiaeaeue oioiaeano?oeoei

A iiaeaiiio ia?aa?aoi, aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiaee oai?i ianiaiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy,io?eiaia noaia ia?aoiaeo iiaiaioo ic iaeiiai noaio a
iioee:

wmetafile8? ??¬???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
Aa:???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy :??u?? ???&?
?MathType??????u?th??????aea 0(t) — iioi/ia cia/aiiy iiaa?oiaai
eiioeaio?aoei iiaiaioia o iniiaiiio noaii; 1(t) iioi/ia cia/aiiy
iiaa?oiaai eiioeaio?aoei iiaiaioia o iaeiicaoaeaeaiiio noaii; n(t)
iioi/ia cia/aiiy iiaa?oiaai eiioeaio?aoei iiaiaioia o n-caoaeaeaiee
noai; d (t) iioi/ia cia/aiiy iiaa?oiaai eiioeaio?aoei c?oeiiaaiiai
iiaiaioo; — iioaineaiinoue iioieia eaaioia, yei iiaeeiathoueny iaeiith
iieaeoeith iiaiaioo; 1, 2, … n — iioaineaiinoue ia?aoiaeo iiaiaioo ic
caoaeaeaiiai noaio a iniiaia, c aeai/i caoaeaeaiiai noaio a
iaeiicaoaeaeaiee i o.ae.; — iioaineaiinoue ia?aoiaeo iiaiaioo a
c?oeiiaaiee noai o i?enooiinoi eenith; k — iioaineaiinoue ia?aoiaeo
iiaiaioo ic c?oeiiaaiiai noaio a iniiaiee (aiaeiiaeaiiy).

?iaiyiiy aeey noaoeiiia?iiai noaio.

Ia iniiai io?eiaii noaie, a?aoiaoth/e oni noaie, a yeeo iiaea
ciaoiaeeoenue iiaiaio, i aaee/eie, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue eiaeiee ia?aoiae
ic iaeiiai noaio a iioee, aoea io?eiaia nenoaia aeeoa?aioeieieo
?iaiyiue, yea iiaiinoth iieno i?ioean oioiaeano?oeoeaiiai ieeneaiiy
iiaiaioia o aoaeue-yeee iiiaio /ano. Ae?ioea nenoaio aeey noaoeiiia?iiai
noaio, ie aecia/eee caeaaeiinoue aiinoo iiaiaioia aiae iioaineaiinoi
naioea i?e ?iciie eieueeinoi eaaioia, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei
oioiaeano?oeoei iiaiaioia. ?iaiyiiy ia aeaeyae:

wmetafile8? ??¤ ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@ D???&??yyyy?????Ay»y`Du ???&?
?MathType?????u????????????-?????¦U ???¦o
???¦”%???¦^0???¦6???¦I@???8E???8a???8…$??
?8O/???u?th??????aea n — eieueeinoue eaaioia, iaeii/anii
iiaeeiaieo iieaeoeith iiaiaioo, yei i?ecaiaeyoue eiai aei ?oeioaaiiy.
Ia’aeioth/e eiaoioeiioe, yei noiyoue ia?aae io?eiaii:

wmetafile8? ??P???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?@???&??yyyy?????Ay«y?+ ???&?
?MathType??p???u????????????-?????=???u???u?th??????
Aiaeic ?iaiyiiy. Aiaeic ae?aco aeey (i?e aoaeue-yeeo n) iieaco, ui i?e
0, = iao. Aeoiaeeoue, ui i?e iecueeeo cia/aiiyo iioieo eaaioia,
aeecueeeo aei ioeueiaeo, aiino iiaiaioo iaeneiaeueiee i aeecueei aei
aaee/eie iao o. iao. Aaee/eia iao aeaeiniaoeeoi/iith aaee/eiith,
iiaea aooe aaaeeeaith oic?ieiai/iith oa?aeoa?enoeeith aeaiiai aeaeo
aiaei?inoae ? iieacaoe iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaee aiino iiaiaioia o eeioeii.
A eiiaoe/iiio cia/aiii oey aaee/eia aiaeiioaiiyi oaeaeeinoae neioaco
iiaiaioo aei noia?ii oaeaeeinoi neioaco anio eeioeiieo no?oeoo?.
Iiaeeeai, oea niiaaiaeiioaiiy aaiaoe/ii caeeaaeaii a eeioeii, ia ui
aeaco aeieeaaeia aea/aiiy iaoaiiciia aiineioaco iiaiaioia, ia?aoiaeo
oi?i oei?ioieo oa eiai cae/aeiiai iaiiaeaiiy (Aaa?eia, 1988).

?aaeueii iao aeinyaoe oa aeii?yoe iaiiaeeeai, oiio ui neioac iiaiaioia
aiaeaoaaoueny ia naioei, yeee iaeii/anii aeano?oeoaioii iiaiaioia.
Io?eiaii ?iaiyiiy ni?aaaaeeeai eeoa aeey iioieo eaaioia naioea, yei
ia?aaeuothoue eiiiainaoeieiee ioieo oioineioaco, ine?eueee aiie
aeaaaeaii aeey noaoeiiia?ieo oiia, yei ia aeeiiothoueny aeey ii?iiiiaiue
ieae/a eiiiainaoeieiiai ioieoo.

I?e , iao k /(k + ). Oaeei /eiii, ci caieueoaiiyi cia/aiiy iioieo
eaaioia naioea, aiino iiaiaioia o aiiiani eeioei iaaea aei iiiiiaeueii
aaee/eie min = iao k / (k + ). Oea ni?aaaaeeeai aeey aoaeue-yeeo
cia/aiue n, oiio ui ic caaaeueiiai ?iaiyiiy aeaeii, ui i?e aenieeo
iioaineaiinoyo naioea () aecia/aoueny aiaeiioaiiyi eiaoioeiioia, yei
noiyoue ia?aae . Iiiiiaeueiee aiino iiaiaioia (min) aecia/aoueny
iinoieieie k i , yei ii nooi aiaeia?aaeathoue i?ioeane ?oeioaaiiy oa
aiaeaoaeiae iiaiaioia i?e oioiaeano?oeoeaiiio ieeneaiii.

?iaiyiiy aeey ianoaoeiiia?iiai noaio.

Aiaeicoth/e aeiaaeie, eiee neioac iiaiaioia ia aiaeaoaaoueny, aoei
io?eiaii ?iaiyiiy aeey iaeiieaaioiaiai iaoaiicio oioiaeano?oeoei
iiaiaioia, yea ia aeaeyae:

= A exp(r1t) + B exp(r2t) + C (2.2)

aea — aiaeiiniee aiino iiaiaioia o aiiiani eeioei; A, B, C, r1, r2
ia’aeiaii eiaoioeiioe, ui io?eiothoue naioeicaeaaeii,
oaiia?aoo?icaeaaeii oa ii. eiaoioeiioe; t /an.

?icaeyae aeaio, o?ueio i o.ae. eaaioiaeo iaoaiiciia iieacaei, ui
eiioeaai ?iaiyiiy aiae?iciythoueny eieueeinoth aeniiiaio?a i e?eai
iathoue iaeiaeiaee oa?aeoa?, oiio oei ?iaiyiiy ia ?icaeyaeaii.

Aiaeic ?iaiyiue. Aiaeic ae?aco aeey ianoaoeiiia?iiai i?ioeano iieaco,
ui: i?e t = C, oiaoi eiioeaio?aoeiy iiaiaioia cieaeooueny aei aeayei
aaee/eie = N. I?e t0, = A+B+N, oiaoi a oiiaao aeieoaaiiy neioaco
iiaiaioia i?e ioeueiaeo oei/aniaeo aiae?iceao ii?iiiiaiiy eoeueoo?e
eiioeaio?aoeiy iiaiaioia caeeoaoueny ia eieeoiueiio ?iaii.

?ICAeIE 3. IAOA?IAEE OA IAOIAeE AeINEIAeAEAIUe

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ia’eoia aeineiaeaeaiue. A aeaiie ?iaioi ia’eoii
aeineiaeaeaiiy aoee neiuei-caeaii (Oscillatoria sp.) oa /a?aiii
(Porphyridium cruentum (Ag.) Naeg.) aiaei?inoi. Oscillatoria sp.
aeaeieaia a aeueaieia?/ii /enoo eoeueoo?o eaai?aoi?ith
aeieiai-oic?ieiai/ieo oa aiae?ioiii/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue Iinoeoooo aiieiai
iiaaeaiieo ii?ia (IiAII). *a?aiii aiaei?inoi aoee io?eiaii c eieaeoei
eoeueoo? Eainueei E.I., IiAII. Iaa?oiooaaiiyi oaeiai aeai?o iineoaoaaa
oie oaeo, ui aiaei?inoi aiaeiinyoueny aei ?icieo nenoaiaoe/ieo a?oi ?
iathoue ?iciiiaiioiee iaai? oioineioaoe/ieo iiaiaioia.

Aeueaieia?/ii /enoi eoeueoo?e ae?iuoaaeenue ia na?aaeiaeui A?iiiaa i?e
neaaeiio i?e?iaeiiio inaioeaiii. Iniiaith aeey aeeaieueiiai na?aaeiaeua
aoea ia?aae/anii noa?eeiciaaia ca iaoiaeii Eainueei A.I. aiaea ic
aiaee?eoi /anoeie *i?iiai ii?y (Eainueea, 1971). Aiaei?inoi
iiaeo?eioaaee a aeniiiaioeieiie oaci ?inoo ia?iiaee/iei ?icaaaeaiiyi
niiaeeaiiai na?aaeiaeua.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii onoaiiaee, aeaea?aei naioea, aeeaieueii na?aaeiaeua.
Neiuei-caeaii aiaei?inoi ae?iuoaaee a aeeaeeueiiio na?aaeiaeui Ca??ioea
(Ieiaae/, 1970), /a?aiii — a aeeaeeueiiio na?aaeiaeui O?aieaioo
(O?aieaioo, 1981). Aeey ae?iuoaaiiy iie?iaiaei?inoae aeei?enoiaoaaee
eoeueoeaaoi? c ?aaeoi?aie ieinei-ia?aeaeueiiai oeio c ?iai/ith oiaueiith
oa?o noniaici 1 ni., a oiiaao oeieiaeiaiaiai inaioeaiiy eaiiith
Ae?E-400. Iioaineaiinoue naioea (aenia?eiaio ?1 c Oscillatora sp.) a
?icieo oi/eao ia iiaa?oii ?aaeoi?a (5060 ni.) eieeaaeany aiae 10 aei 15
eee, o na?aaeiueiio neeaaeath/e 12 eee aeey ?aaeoi?a 1 i 13.5 eee — aeey
?aaeoi?a 2. O aenia?eiaioi ?2 c P. cruentum oa ?3 c Oscillatora sp.
iioaineaiinoue naioea aoea ?iaia 12 eee. Aeii?thaaiiy iioaineaiinoi
naioea i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeith, yea iienaia a ?iaioi (*o?eeiaa, 1992).
?iaiiii?ia ia?aiiooaaiiy noniaici aiaei?inoae o ?aaeoi?i aiaeaoaaeiny
oeyoii aa?aaoe?oaaiiy iiaio?y ca aeiiiiiaith eiii?ani?iii onoaiiaee (0.5
e. iiaio?y ia 1 e. eoeueoo?e ca 1 oa.). Aeey P.cruentum caeienithaaeanue
iiaea/a NI2 (3 % aiae ia’io iiaio?y).

Iaoiaee iinoaiiaee aenia?eiaioia. Aiaei?inoi ae?iuoaaee, aeei?enoiaoth/e
iaoiae aacia?a?aiiai eoeueoeaoaaiiy (Oa?neia, Aeoaeuecii, 1967). Iiney
noaaieicaoei iioe/ii aonoeie noniaici aiaei?inoi aoee ia?aaaaeaii a
aacacioia na?aaeiaeua. Aeey oeueiai 1,2 eio?a noniaici Oscillatoria sp.
aoei aiaeoeaio?eooaiaaii (20 oa. i?e 3000 ia./oa.), a io?eiaio ianoo
aoei caeeoi ia?aae/anii iiaeaioiaeaiei na?aaeiaeuai Ca??ioea aac
aeaea?aea acioo (NaNO3) oiai ae ia’io. Aiaei?inoi o aacacioiiio
na?aaeiaeui aoei ?iceeoi o aeaa ?aaeoi?e ii 600 ie. Oeae ia’i
iiaeo?eioaaany aeenoeeueiaaiith aiaeith i?ioyaii anueiai aenia?eiaioo. O
ae?oaiio aenia?eiaioi aiaei?inoi aoee ia?aaaaeaii a na?aaeiaeua aac
aeaea?aea oinoi?o (KH2 PO4) oaeei /eiii ye i o ia?oiio aeinaiaei.

Aiaeiai/ii i /a?aiii aiaei?inoi (ia’i 2.5 e.) aoee ia?aaaaeaii a
na?aaeiaeua O?aieaioo aac NaNO3. Noniaicith P.cruentum o aacacioiiio
na?aaeiaeui aoei ?icaeieaii ia o?e /anoeie. Aeai /anoeie ia’iii ii 1 e.
aoei ?iceeoi a aeaa ?aaeoi?e, ui inaioethaaeeny oeieiaeiaiai. O?aoth
/anoeio, ia’iii 0.5 e., ia?aiiuaii o oai?yao.

A aenia?eiaioi ? 1 c Oscillatoria sp ia aeaaaeoeaoue ia?oee aeaiue
aeinaiaeo a eiaeiee ?aaeoi? aoei aianaii ii?oeith NaNO3 (1.25a.), ic
?ic?aooieo 2.5 a. ia eio? eoeueoo?e.

Iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aiaeicia. Eiaeiee aeaiue i?iaiaeeeenue
aeii?thaaiiy ?I ca aeiiiiiaith oiiaa?naeueiiai iiiiiao?a YA-74 i
oaiia?aoo?e. Aiino iiaiaioia o eeioeiao aecia/aee ca iioe/iith aonoeiith
eoeueoo?e, c iii?aaeith ia ianiaoeeoi/ia iiaeeiaiiy i?e aeiaaeeii oaeei
750 ii. Iioe/ia aonoeia aecia/aeanue ca aeiiiiiaith niaeo?ioioiiao?a
“Specord UV-VIS”(Karl Zeis, Aa?iaiiy). Ne?o aiiiano aiaei?inoae a
noniaici aecia/aee ca aaee/eiith aonoeie inaaeea eeioei iiney
oeaio?eooaoaaiiy. Aeey oeueiai o niaoeiaeueii aeaioiaeaii i?iai?ee c
ii?iei eaiiey?ii caeeaaee aecia/aiee ia’i noniaici aiaei?inoae,
oeaio?eooaoaaee (10 oa. i?e 2000 ia./ oa.), iioii ii?yee ia’i inaaeea a
eaiiey?iie aeieueieoei i?iai?ee i ?ic?aoiaoaaee aiino ne?i aiiiane (a/e)
noniaici, i?eeiath/e aonoeio aiaei?inoae ?iaiith aonoeii aiaee. Iioe/ia
aonoeia eoeueoo?e i?e aeiaaeeii oaeei 750 ii ciaoiaeeoueny a i?yiie
caeaaeiinoi aiae aonoioe eeioei o noniaici. Ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aie, a
yeie ?aaeiciaaii iaoiae iieii?aeeiaoiiai nioneo ia IAAI, aoee aecia/aii
eiaoioeiioe caeaaeiinoi aeey Oscillatoria sp. (0.098) oa aeey
P.cruentum (0.0275).

A onio o?ueio aeineiaeao iinoieieie caeeoaeenue oaiia?aoo?a i pH (t=181
oC, pH=7.50.5 aeey P. cruentum oa t=282 oC, pH=100.5 aeey Oscillatoria
sp.).

?ICAeIE 4. ?ACOEUeOAOE AeINEIAeAEAIUe

Iien aenia?eiaioaeueieo e?eaeo

Noaoeiiia?iee i?ioean

O aeaiiio ia?aa?aoi aoa c?iaeaiee ia?aoiae aiae caeaaeiinoi aiae aei
caeaaeiinoi aiae iiaa?oiaaiai inaioeaiiy (E0) o ?iaiyiii aeey
noaoeiiia?iiai noaio:

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@`???&??yyyy?????Ay¦y ae ???&?
?MathType??`???u????????????-?????¬??????u`y??????wm
etafile8? ??6???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
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a????&??yyyy?????Ay?y@? ???&?
?MathType??@???u????????????-?????ae/???ae:???u@th?????
?aea a1 a2 b1 b2 b3 c1 c2 c3 c4 ia’aeiaii iinoieii eiaoioeiioe.

Oaeei /eiii, io?eiaii ?iaiyiiy (4.1) — (4.3), a yeeo aecia/aii
caeaaeiinoue aiinoo iiaiaioia aiae iioaineaiinoi naioea aeey iaeii-
aeaio- oa o?ueioeaaioiaiai iaoaiicio oioiaeano?oeoei.

Iiaeeeainoue iaeii/aniiai iiaeeiaiiy /ioe?ueio, i’yoe i o.ae. eaaioia
naioea iieaeoeith iiaiaioo aeoaea iaea. Oiio oei aeiaaeee ia
?acaeyaeaii.

Io?eiaii ?iaiyiiy (4.1) — (4.3) ni?aaaaeeeai aeey i?ioeano, yeee
i?ioiea a noaoeiiia?ieo oiiaao, oiio ie aeei?enoaeenue
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie, io?eiaieie a aacia?a?aiiio ?aaeeii
ae?iuoaaiiy eeioei, i?e yeiio noaaieicoaaeanue iioe/ia aonoeia noniaici
iie?iaiaei?inoae. Aeaii aoee acyoi c ?iaioe O?aieaioo e ae?. (1981) aeey
ii?nueei iie?iaiaei?inoi Platymonas viridis Rouch. A aenia?eiaioi
canoiniaoaaee uieueiinoaoiee iaoiae eoeueoeaoaaiiy (Oa?neia, Aeoaeuecii,
1967). I?e?ino aiaei?inoae aeii?yee ii aaee/eii iioe/ii aonoeie a
/a?aiiie iaeanoi niaeo?o (D680), yea oa?aeoa?eco iiaeeiaiiy oei?ioieo a.
Caien niaeo?o caeienithaaee /a?ac 1-2 aiaeeie ia ?aaino?oth/iio
niaeo?ioioiiao?i. Iioii /anoeio noniaici ceeaaee e aeieeaaee
aiaeiiaiaeiei ia’iii aeeaeeueiiai na?aaeiaeua, /ei caaania/oaaeanue
noaaieicaoeiy iioe/ii aonoeie. Iiney aeinyaiaiiy noaoeiiia?iiai ?inoo
aecia/aee eiioeaio?aoeith nooi aiiiane a noniaici. Aiino oei?ioieo
?ac?aoiaoaaee ca iaoiaeeeith, yea iienaia a ?iaioi (Oeiaiei e ae?.,
1971). Aeieeaaeiee iien iaoiaeia eoeueoeaoaaiiy iie?iaiaei?inoae iiaeia
ciaeoe a ?iaioi (O?aieaioo e ae?.1981).

Neiaeoth/i aenia?eiaioaeueii aeaii, yeeie ie nei?enooaaeenue, aoee
iaaeaii iniaenoi aaoi?aie ?iaio (Caai?oaaa, Aaeyiei, 1984; Aaeyiei oa
ii., 1980; Aienoiianueeee, Aeaaa?iaiaeaee, 1982). A aeineiaeaeaiiyo
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue neiuei-caeaii i caeaii aiaei?inoi: Spirulina
platensis (Nordst.) Geitl., Synechococcus elongatus Nag oa Chlorella
vulgaris Beijer. Aeey aacia?a?aiiai ae?iuoaaiiy oeeo iie?iaiaei?inoae o
noaoeiiia?ieo oiiaao aeei?enoiaoaaeanue iaoiaeeea, yea aoea aeua iienaia
aeey Platymonas viridis.

O oeeoiaaieo i?aoeyo i?eaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueii aeaii caeaaeiinoi
aiae iiaa?oiaaiai ii?iiiiaiiy eeioei. Ia iniiai oeeo aeaieo aoee
io?eiaii eiaoioeiioe ?iaiyiue (4.1) — (4.3) aeey eiaeiiai aeaeo
aiaei?inoae, yei i?aaenoaaeaii a oaaeeoeyo 4.1-4.3.

Eiaoioeiioe aecia/aeenue c oiia iiiiioia na?aaeiuei eaaae?aoe/ii
iiieeee. Aeey oeueiai aeei?enoiaoaaeanue i?ia?aia, aea ?aaeiciaaii
iaoiae iieii?aeeiaoiiai nioneo.

Ic ?ic?aooieia eiaoioeiioia ?iaiyiue caeaaeiinoi aiaeiiniiai aiinoo
oei?ioieo a aiae ii?iiiiaiiy oa ic cinoaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
c oai?aoe/ieie e?eaeie aeaeii, ui iiaeaeeth, yea iaeaieueo oi/ii iieno
aenia?eiaioaeueii aeaii, iiaeaeue aea a iniiai eaaeeoue iaoaiici
oioiaeano?oeoeaiiai ieeneaiiy iiaiaioia i?e iiaeeiaiii aeaio eaaioia
naioea (iae. 4.1).

Oaaeeoey 4.1

Eiaoioeiioe, yei ?ic?aoiaaii ca ?iaiyiiyi (4.1).

Aeaeiaa EiaoioeiioeIiieeeaiaeaaeiinoueiao,
%a1a2E1Chlorella4.941.510—3 3.3210—20.063Platymonas1.997.110—32.1110—20.
063Synechococcus1.824.6310—32.1410—20.810—2Spirulina 2.69.610—33.110—22.
410—3Oaaeeoey 4.2

Eiaoioeiioe, yei ?ic?aoiaaii ca ?iaiyiiyi (4.2).

Aeaeiaa EiaoioeiioeIiieeeaiaeaaeiinoueiao,
%b1b2b3E2Chlorella3.27 1.9710—34.1810—53.1610—43.110—2Platymonas21.510—2
4.410—41.110—33.110—2Synechococcus1.086.710—42.710—56.310—55.910—3Spirul
ina1.933.9910—313410—42.8710—41.0210—2Oaaeeoey 4.3

Eiaoioeiioe, yei ?ic?aoiaaii ca ?iaiyiiyi (4.3).

Aeaeiaa
EiaoioeiioeIiieeeaiaeaaeiinoueiao,%c1c2c3c4E3Chlorella2.81.7310—31.410—5
7.110—73.7310—60.310—1Platymonas1.869.1510—28.1210—43.210—57.4410—50.310
—1Synechococcus0.931.7710—42.310—91.1210—72.1110—70.01Spirulina1.784.451
0—41.9610—81.3210—62.5110—63.210—2wmetafile8? ??N???I????????

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