?INOEOOO O?EINIO??

?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee

IAOe?IIAEUeII? AEAAeAI?? IAOE OE?A?IE

OAeE 7.01:130.12

Oea/aiei Eany Iao??aia

Iiaea ye anoaoe/iee oaiiiai

09.00.08 — anoaoeea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a -1999

1

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiiec .

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie,
eaoaae?a o?einio?? oa eoeueoo?ieia??.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio Eaaaiueeee TH??e A?eai?iae/.
Aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y eaaei? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, caa. eaoaae?ith
aeecaeio.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Naiaoei Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/.
?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo ?noi??? ? oai???
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? A?iaei Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/.
Ee?anueeee Aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
o?einio??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, o?einionueeee
oaeoeueoao, eaoaae?a aoeee, anoaoeee oa eoeueoo?ieia??. I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 “ aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.161.01. a ?inoeooo?
o?einio?? ?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001, Ee?a —
1, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?einio??
?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001, Ee?a — ?, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 22 “ ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Aiae?in ?.?.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Oaiiiai iiaee aeiaaee /an iaaeiioe?ithaaany a
o?einionueeeo oa anoaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo. Iiaeo /anoi aaaaeaee
ae?oai?yaeiei yaeuai eoeueoo?e. I?ioa a eiioaeno? oeo o?ainoi?iaoe?e
noni?euenoaa ? eoeueoo?e, ye? a?aeaoeeny a OO noie?oo?, naia iiaea
a?aea?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue. Oi?aa?noi iiaeii? iiaaae?iee, ae?yeueiino?,
niiaeyaeaiiy iaaoaa? a iao /an iniaeeaeo iciae. Oae, iiaea ye
nioe?ieoeueoo?iee ? anoaoe/iee oaiiiai noa? no?oeoo?i-ooai?thth/ei
aeoieii ?iiiaaoe?e a ?a?iiaenuee?e eoeueoo??. A?eueo oiai, iiaea oaae
o?ainoi?io?oueny, ci?ith? na?e ?i?aeae, ui iaoiiaeth? iaia?aaeaa/ai?
ci?ie a aeooiai?e oa iaoa??aeuei?e eoeueoo??. Na?o iiaee ? na?o
eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio iathoue iaai? ?ene ?aeaioe/iino?. Eaoaai??? “noa?a”
? “iiaa” ye caaaeuei? e?eoa??? ioe?iee aaea ia ? aeinoaoi?ie, uia
ioe?ieoe o? ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a no/ani?e eoeueoo??. Aea/aiiy
iaoai?ci?a ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? a na?o? iiaee aea? iiaeeea?noue a?eueo
ei?aeoii iienaoe oaiiiai ?aeaioe/iino? ethaeeie ? na?oo a
iino?iaeono??aeuei?e eoeueoo??.

Iiaea ye iaaia oe?e?ni?noue eoeueoo?ieo ?iiiaaoe?e ? iaaiee ?aaoeyoea
eoeueoo?e noiaea ia oae? oi?aa?nae?? eoeueoo?e ye o?aaeeoe?y, cae/ae,
niae. Anoaoinoa?a iiaee ?ioaa?o? a aeooaeueiiio /ooo?aiio i?inoi??
oi?iiooai?aiue eoeueoo?e “o?aaeeoe?eia” ? “iiaaoe?eia”, aeooeai?
onoaiiaee anoaoe/iiai niaeo ? /anii a?ooaeuei? ?i?aeae? ianiai?
eoeueoo?e. Iiaa iiaee anainyaeia. Ii?iaoeai?noue ? aeaiie?aoeci,
ae?oa?i?noue ? ooee?oa?i?noue, naiiaeinoaoiy anoaoe/ia oe?ii?noue
?niothoue a na?o? iiaee ye ??aiiii?yaeeia? oe?iiino?. Oea niaoeeo?/ia
noa?a aoooy eoeueoo?e, aea ooieoe?iiothoue nai? nenoaiioai?/? iaoai?cie,
ye? yaeythoue niaith ? iaai? ?iaa??aioe eoeueoo?ioai?/ino?.

Na?o iiaee eiinoeooth?oueny o aeineoue iia?eueiiio, aeeiai?/iiio
i?inoi?? eoeueoo?e. Iiaea cana?ae/o? naith i?enooi?noue i?ae o
i?e?i?ioa?aaeao eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy. sse a?aeiii, iiaea o?eno? aeeiai?eo
? ci?ie, ?iiiaaoe??, aea o??th ae i??ith aiia a?aeia?aaea?
aii?yaeeiaai?noue, eaae, nenoaio i?? ? oe?iiinoae eoeueoo?e. Iioieia?/ii
noooaaith ? naia ?aei?noue ?iiiaaoe?e ? aii?yaeeiaaiino?.
O?einionueei-anoaoe/ia aenie?eaoe?y oaiiiaia iiaee ? aeooaeueiith
iio?aaith /ano. Iiaea ye nenoaiia yaeua, ni?ai??ia oaiiiaio oai?/ino? a
eiai oe?ieiio na?oiaoae?aiiio ?icoi?ii?, iio?aao? aeaoaeueiiai
o?einionueeiai aiae?co.

Aea/aiiy iiaee ia? ? iniaeeao aeooaeuei?noue o ca’yceo ?c iia?oi?ie
i?aeoeeaie eoeueoo?ioai?/ino?, ye? aeieeee ? noi?ioaaeeny iai?ee?ioe?
noie?ooy. Oae, iinoiiaea?i?nonueea i???ioaoe?y c ?? iinooeaoaie
“aeiaaeueiiai ieth?ae?cio” ? “?aaeeeaeueii? aeeaeoeee”, “ia?a?iaeueiiai
i?inoi?o eoeueoo?e” o?nii iia’ycaia c oaiiiaiii iiaee, yeui acaaae? ia
aaaaeaoe iinoiiaea?i iaaiith eoeueoo?iith iiaeith. Iiaea ooo aeaiiino?o?
aaciaaeiee iie?ii?o?ci, i?ieea?noue, nii?aaee/i?noue oi?iiooai?aiue.
Aea, yeui iiaea ao?a/a? na?oiaoae?ai? ?ioaioe??, oi aiia oaeaeei
ia?aoai?th?oueny ia aioena?o, i?i?e?o? a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? eoeueoo?ieo
ianoaiia a?ae e?o/o aei inaaaeioaaeaa??a iinoiiaea?io. C’ynoaaoe
no?aoaa?? aeoai?aiiy aioeiiaee a no/ani?e eoeueoo?? icia/a? oaeiae ?
c?icoi?oe ?ioaioe?? oi?iioai?aiue o eoeueoo?? acaaae?, ai ua i?eiee
iiaea ? eoeueoo?a a oe?eiio ia aoee oae iaaeeaeai? iaeei aei iaeiiai.

Ia iaio aeooaeueiei ? inieneaiiy na?oo iiaee o no/ani?e
iinoeiioi?noe/i?e eoeueoo??. sseui a ?aaeyinueeiio noni?euenoa? “ia
?nioaaei” iiaee, oi ca?ac iiaea iin?ea nai? i?noea a na?o? oioa?ciano,
OA, ano?aaee oiui. Oi?io?oueny oaeiae na?o a?o/eciyii? “aeniei? iiaee”,
yeee, iaeiae, cia/iith i??ith aeaiiino?o? inaaaeioe?iiino? ? iaaenie?
niaee niiini??a. Niaoe?aeuei? o?einionueei-anoaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaee ? iiee ui iiiaeeiieeie. A ?icoi?ii? iiaee /eiaei aeine?aeiee?a ua
ia iicaoeiny aoeueaa?iiai nioe?ieia?cio, oiae? ye a aiae?c? ienoaoeoaa a
oe?eiio a?i aaea aeaaii noaa aiao?ii?ciii. Iiaea, iaeiae, – ia
Iiiaethoea ia aaeo o?aaeeoe?eieo ioc ? ienoaoeoa, aiia ia?aaeeea
oeny/ie?ooy, ? aac iiaee iaiiaeeeai oyaeoe ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio.

Noai ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Aoaea caeaith o?ea?aeuei?noth noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
iiae? ia iiuanoeei ia o?einionuee? aiae?ce. Aaeaea aei iiaee caa?oaeeny
ieneeoae? ??cieo aiio ? ??cieo o?einionueeeo oe?e. Oae, ?.Eaio yaii
iaaeiioe?ithaaa iiaeo, yeo aaaaeaa ia?aoeaeoeaiith aa??aa?euei?noth
niaeo. Iaaeniei ioe?ithaaa iiaeo ? Aaaaeue, a oai?ao yeiai aiia caeiaea
i?noea a ieaei?o iiaa?oao ???a?o?? ienoaoeoa. Iiaea a na?o?
iiceoea?nonueei? o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe?? (Oa?ae, Eaaii, Niaina?)
ia?aoai?th?oueny ia iaoai?ci iane?aeoaaiiy “nioe?aeueii? ?ioaioa?aioe??
oaeeue” na?oiaiai ao??o (AE.Oa?ae). Iiaea ne??cue i?aeei?aia yeiionue
aeuiio ii/aoeo – nioe?aeueiiio, iaoai?noe/iiio, o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueiiio.
O oaeeo a?eueo i?aaeiaoii ci???ioiaaieo aeine?aeiee?a, ye Ciiaa?o, iiaea
iia’yco?oueny c aeeoo?aeie oiiaaie, ainiiaea?noaii, ae?iaieoeoaii oa ?i.

Aano?aeoiee aio?iiieia?ci iiaee o o?einio?a-i?ina?oiee?a (?onni,
Aieueoa?, Oaoonaa??) aecia/a?oueny oi?aa?naeueiith i?e?iaeith ethaeeie.
Ooo iiaea oaae “oeiaeeoue aeoo? ? o?eo”, ye ? o iiceoea?no?a. Oae, ca
Ae. Eaiia?ae?, iiaea iaaaaeo? nia?oue, ai aiia oaae “i?inaa?aeeo?” aooa,
aoae e iine, ano?iiey? a ieo ??ci? i?aaeiaoe. I?ci?oa O?oa? ii?aeia? a
iiae? iiaaae?ieo “oe?aeeeaiai i?aee?oea” ? “ao?eioeeai? aaaon?”,
aeeoeinoai ? noa??noue.

A?ia?e?eoe/iee aeeneo?n iiaee (iiaeo e?eoeeoaee ua a Aeaai?e A?aoe??),
ia?aaeeaoe oeny/ie?ooy, ci?ith?oueny eeoa o iinono?oeoo?ae?nonuee?e
anoaoeoe?, aea a?i ia?aoai?th?oueny ia nai???aeiee iaiaa??ee iiae?
(?.Aa?o, AE.Aiae??ey?). Iiaea aea/a?oueny ye ie?aia nioe?ieoeueoo?ia
i?aeoeea, ui ia? naith iiao, ye iaaia aeeneo?neaia oe?e?ni?noue. Iaeaea
aia?oa eaeaoueny i?i naiiaeinoaoi?noue anoaoe/iiai na?oo iiaee ye
?a?iai? no?oeoo?e eoeueoo?e (AE.Aiae??ey?).

A iaaeao anoaoeee nioe?ae?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa aeine?aeaeaiue iiaee
iaeaea ia ?nioaaei, ye ? naii? iiaee. E?eoeeoaaee “ao?aeoacio iiaeo” ?
“ao?aeoaci?” eiioeaioe?? iiaee. Oey e?eoeea a?ae?iaeaeoaaea a?aeiio
iiceoea?nonueeo o?aaeeoe?th, a ?aieao yei? iiaea caiaaeoi
nioe?ieia?coaaeany. A.?.Oienoeo, A.O.Ii?oi?a, E.A.Iao?ia, O.A.Etha?iiaa,
?.ss.Aan?i, A.I.E?aniia, ?.A.Caoa?aeaanueea ??aiith i??ith a?aeaeathoue
aeaieio oe?e o?aaeeoe??.

A.A?ien, aiae?coth/e oaiiiai ?iiiaaoe?e a eoeueoo??, oi?eioany ? iiaee,
yea iaaoaa? o iueiai ?en “a?/iiai iiiceoe?iia?a”, ui i?ioenoi?oue
oioae?oa?ecio. I?ioa ?c iiaee aeoaea aaaeei c?iaeoe ai?oey i?ioe
oioae?oa?ecio, ai ? nai oioae?oa?eci iiaeia c?icoi?oe ye iaaio iiaeo.
Eoeueoo?ii-nioe?ieia?/i? ?aeiino?oeoe?? iiaee, cai?iiiiiaai?
A.Aioiaiii, oaae ? ni?iaith noai?eoe iaaio nenoaiaoeeo iiaee, aeoiaey/e
c ?? neoaeaiai-?ieueiaeo ooieoe?e. Aa?o?aeith eoeueoo?ii-o?einionueeiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaee o a?o/eciyi?e eoeueoo?ieia?? ? anoaoeoe? ?
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ia aenie?eaoe?y iiaee TH.I.Eioiaiii, ?aae?ciaaia o
eiioaeno? iiaooo ? eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy –– iiaea ye eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ia oe?e?ni?noue.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — anoaoe/i? oi?ie i?iyao iiaee a eoeueoo??.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — aecia/eoe anoaoe/io niaoeeo?eo iiaee a eiioaeno?
eoeueoo?ieo ?iiiaaoe?e.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— aeaoe o?einionueei-anoaoe/iee aiae?c iiaeieo ?iiiaaoe?e;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe nioe?ieoeueoo?i? aeaoa?i?iaioe iiaee;

— iienaoe oi?iiooai?aiiy iiaee a?aeiia?aeii aei ?aae?e ?noi??? einothia
a eiioaeno? na?oiai? eoeueoo?e;

— ?aeiino?othaaoe ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?io aio?iiieia?th iiaee;

— eiioeaiooae?coaaoe oaiiiai iiaee a nenoai? ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino?
oaiienaoe niaoeeo?eo iiaeieo ?iiiaaoe?e a eiioaeno? noeeueiaiai
oi?iioai?aiiy eoeueoo?e;

— ?aeiino?othaaoe anoaoe/io oe?e?ni?noue iiaee a ?aieao eaoaai??e
“a?ioane”, “?aeaae”, “ii?ia”.

Iaoiaeieia?/ieie ? oai?aoe/ieie canaaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiioeaioe?y
anoaoinoa?e, ?ic?iaeaia I.N.Eaaaiii, eoeueoo?ieia?/i? nooae??
TH.I.Eioiaia, eoeueoo?ii-anoaoe/ia eiioeaioe?y o?eanieo i?aeoee I.Ooei,
eiioeaio “a?ioaneiiai o?ea” I.I.Aaoo?ia, oaiiiaiieia?/ia eiioeaioe?y
anoaoe/iiai o I.O.Ein?aa. A caaaeueiianoaoe/iiio aa/aii? oaiiiaia iiaee
aaoi? nie?aany ia ?iaioe E.O.Eaa/oe, A.?.Iacaie, I.A.A?eiai, A.A?iena,
E.I.Iia?eiai? oa ?i. A eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?yo iiaee
aeena?oaio iineeaany ia ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy A.Aaena,
O.Aiooai?ioa, ?iaioe ?.?.?iooa, TH.I.Eioiaia, ?.A.Caoa?aeaanueei?,
A.I.?no??ia, I.E.Iao?iaa oa ?i. A ?aeiino?oeoe?? aeeneo?no iiaee aaoi?
caa?oaeany aei i?aoeue ?.Aa?oa, AE.Aiae??ey?a.

Iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aiiy anoaoe/ii? ?aaeueiino?
iiaee ye iaoaeoeueoo?ii? oa iie?nenoaiii? oe?e?niino? aeaei iiaeeea?noue
iaa?oiooaaoe ianooii? iieiaeaiiy, ye? e aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— nioe?iaeeiai?ea iiaee ?ioaa?o? aeo?aei? oe?iiino? eoeueoo?e
(ae?yeuei?noue, ni?eeoaaiiy, noai) a oe?e?ni?noue ?a?iai? iiaaae?iee
ethaeeie. Iiaea ? ooiaeaiaioaeueiei iaoai?ciii eoeueoo?ioai?/ino?,
niaoeeo?ea yeiai iieyaa? a ooai?aii? naiiaeinoaoiuei? anoaoe/ii?
?aaeueiino? eoeueoo?e, yea caia?a/o?, a ?ieiee onoaa? /an;

— anoaoe/ia i?e?iaea iiaee aeyaey?oueny o iacaaa?oaiiio i?iaoeci?
(/ooo?aa noeo?y iiaee ?nio? aeioe, iiee ia a?aeaoaa?oueny iiaia
?aeaioeo?eaoe?y ?i?aeaeo, ia?nii?o?eaoi?a iiaee ? ?? noa’?eoa),
iacaaa?oaiiio ae?yii?, iaiiaiio? aieiae?iiy iiaeiei i?aaeiaoii;

— o o?einionueei-anoaoe/iiio aei??? iiaee aecia/aia ye niaoeeo?eaoe?y
oi?i noaiiaeaiiy eoeueoo?e, ye ia?iaiaioia ioioiaeiaiiy aoooy ? iaaoooy
eoeueoo?ieo ?aae?e, i?ae?aniiai ? iioai?iiai. Anoaoinoa?a iiaee
eiinoeooth?oueny a eiioaeno? o?eanieo i?aeoee eoeueoo?e ? iieno?oueny
eaoaai??yie “i?aeianaia”, “iecueea”, “a?ioane”, “??ii?y”, “o?eaieueia”,
“a?aoe?y”;

— niaoeeo?ea eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? aio?iiieia?? iiaee iieyaa? o
ia?iaiaioi?e thaaiae?caoe?? ethaeeie a eoeueoo??, ui e iaoiiaeth?
iaea?/io i?eaaaeea?noue ? aeooaeuei?noue iiaee;

— oaiiiai iiaee ei?aeth? ?c oai?/eie oa ?iiiaaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie
eoeueoo?e. A eoeueoo?? OO noie?ooy iiaea noa? naiiaeinoaoi?i anoaoe/iei
oaiiiaiii (aeniea iiaea, ia?oiiain, oaao? iiaee);

— iiaea ? aeyaeaiiyi ?a?iai? noeo?? eoeueoo?e, aea ye a?a ia?
ii?iaoeaii-noaa?e?coth/o oa aaeaioeaio ooieoe??, ye? ?aaeoeothoueny a
oi?o?eaoe??, noaiaea?oecaoe?? iiaaae?iee ? ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie;

— a eiioaeno? ieth?ae?caoe?? eoeueoo?e iiaea aeeiio? no?oeoo?ioai?/o
(aaeaioeaio, i???iooth/o) ooieoe?th.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o eoeueoo?ii-anoaoe/i?e
?aeiino?oeoe?? oaiiiaia iiaee a eiioaeno? na?oiai? eoeueoo?e.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaia ia iaae? aeenoeeie?i: eoeueoo?ieia??, anoaoeee,
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, aeecaeio, ia? i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee oa?aeoa?, ui
aeaei iiaeeea?noue ocaaaeueieoe aeina?ae aea/aiiy iiaee ye niaoeeo?/ii?
eoeueoo?ii? i?aeoeee. Cae?eniaii e?eoe/iee aiae?c iiceoea?nonueeeo ?
aano?aeoii-aio?iiieia?/ieo oeoia/aiue iiaee. Naia oea iaoiiaeth?
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe: aeaoaeueiee aiae?c aaiace ? i?iaeoeoaaiiy
i?oieiaai iiaee aeiiiiiaea c’ynoaaoe niaoeeo?eo iiaeieo ?iiiaaoe?e o
eiie?aoieo aeiaaeeao eoeueoo?ioai?/ino?. Anoaoe/ia inieneaiiy ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo aiaaoueio eiie?aoieo ?ic?iaie uiaei iiaooo,
iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeey /eoaiiy
eaeoe?e c anoaoeee, oai??? oa ?noi??? ienoaoeoaa, aeecaeio.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaea neoaoaaoe canaaeith aeey oi?ioaaiiy
eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo oa anoaoe/ieo aeenoeeie?i, iia’ycaieo c aiae?cii
iiaooo ? iiaee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? ia
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo: «Aoi?/i?noue a ?noi??? oa
eoeueoo??,» — Iaeana, 23-24 aa?aciy 1998 ?.; «?i?aeae no/anii? oeiee ia
ii?ic? OOI noie?ooy», — Ee?a, 13-14 aa?aciy 1998 ?.; «Noaiiaeaiiy oeiee
?iaeeie o eiioaeno? aeeoo?oai?/ino?»,- Ee?a, 23-24 ea?oiy 1998
?.Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy noaei canaaeith aeey i?aeaioiaee
aaoi?nueeiai niaoeeo?no c ?noi??? aeecaeio, aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa, iiaee aeey nooaeaio?a, ye? iaa/athoueny ca niaoe?aeuei?noth
«aeecaei». Oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee aeena?oaio oaeiae ai?iaaaeaeoaaea o
aeani?e ooaeiaeiuei-iiaeaeuei?e oai?/ino?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. O anooi?
ia??oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie, aecia/ai? iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeooaeuei?noue, iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. A ?icae?e? I.
«Iiaea ye oaiiiai eoeueoo?e» aea?oueny ?aeiino?oeoe?y iiiyooy “iiaea” o
eiioaeno? o?einionueei? oa anoaoe/ii? ?aoeaen??. Aiae?co?oueny
eoeueoo?ieia?/iee ? anoaoe/iee aeeneo?n iiaee. ?icae?e II. «Iiaea ye
noeeueiaa ia?aaeeaia» i?enay/aiee eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiio aiae?co iiaee o
eiioaeno? na?oiai? eoeueoo?e. Aea?oueny ?aeiino?oeoe?y aeeiai?/iiai
oi?iioai?/iai i?inoi?o a eoeueoo?? Aeaaiueiai na?oo, na?aaeiueia?//y,
A?ae?iaeaeaiiy, Iiaiai ? Iia?oiueiai /ano. A ?icae?e? III. “Anoaoinoa?a
iiaee” oaiiiai iiaee aea/a?oueny a ?aieao eaoaai??aeueieo no?oeoo?,
iienaieo ye “a?ioane”, “?aeaae”, “ii?ia”.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

A ?icae?e? I. «Iiaea ye oaiiiai eoeueoo?e» aea?oueny aiae?c
iie?nenoaiii? oe?e?niino? iiaee. Iiaea ?ioa?i?aoo?oueny ye i?aenenoaia
nioe?aeueieo niae?a, iio?aa, i?aenenoaia ?ieaai? oa ?ai?acaioaoeaii?
ooieoe?? iaeyao, oaiiiai ienoaoeoaa. Iiaea iienaia oaeiae ye oaiiiai
?aeaieia?/ii? i?oioai?/ino?, ye eoeueoo?ioai?/?noue, ye aaei?noue
eoeueoo?ieo ?inoaeyoe?e no/aniino?. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui oi?aa?noi iiaee ia
iiaeia ae/a?iaoe iaaieie noa?aie ?? i?iyao a eoeueoo??, oea ? ?
anai?iieeeeaa noeo?y iiiaeaiiy, i?aaiaiiy iaaiiai ?aeaaeo, ?i?aeaeo,
iiaeiino? ye oaei?.

Eoeueoo?ioai?/a yae?i iiaee iieno?oueny ye iaaia oe?e?ni?noue eoeueoo?e
— ye ?aei?noue iiaeii? iiaaae?iee, ae?yeueiino?, noaio. Aeey
aenie?eaoe?? eoeueoo?ii? oe?e?niino? iiaee aeena?oaio caa?oa?oueny aei
?ai?acaioaoe?? “iiae iiaee” ye iaaii? i?aeoeee thaaiae?caoe?? ethaeeie a
eoeueoo??. “THaaiaeuei?noue”, “aenaea?aonueeee eiiieaen” iiaee iii?oeee
aeaaii. Iiaea i???ioiaaia ia ia?aoeaeooth/o na?aeii?noue iieiae?, ethaee
ae iioeeiai a?eo iiethaeythoue a iiae? oa, ui ?i iaaaaeo? ?o
iieiae?noue. Aoin iiaee ? ?ioaioeeueiei, i?aenen iaaeineiiaeei, a
anoaoeea aenoaoe/iith.

Iaea?eueo aino?i oaiiiai thaaiaeueiino? iiaee aeaiiino?o? naaa a
?aeiaonueeiio ia?yae? — ?eooae? iinia?oiiai i?ioiaeaeaiiy o?ea e??cue
oeo?o oaa?eie (inoaii?e iaeya ia caie?). O?ei “iiieiaeaeo?oueny”,
io?eio? iiaa aeeooy ? iiaee iaeya. Iino?ei?noue ? iaci?ii?noue —
aeno?aei? ianoaiiae iiaee aeaai?o oeea?e?caoe?e. Iiaea ci?ithaaeany c?
ci?iaie na?oicaaoaeiae. Oae, a?aoeueea iiaea ia i?ioyc? oeny/ie?oue
aaiethoe?iioaaea aeineoue iia?eueii, ainaiaeue iaeyao caaaeaee
a?aeoai?thaaa aio?iiiii?oio ieanoeeo einiino. Oe?eaai, ui ae-ii
(a?/i?noue) ia? ei??iue thi — thiee (Aaiaai?no). A?aoeueea iiaea — oea ?
a?/ia iieiae?noue ?a?iiaenueei? ethaeeie. Oeae aio?iiieia?/iee aei??
iiaee noaa a aeena?oaoe?? nenoaiiooai?thth/ei aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?? ye
iaoaeoeueoo?ii? iie?nenoaiii? oe?e?niino?.

Aoeiieia?y neiaa “iiaea” ?ai?acaioo? eiioeaioe “i??a”, “niin?a”,
“iiaeon”, “iaoiae”. Aa?iii?y iiaee iiey?ia — oea aai aeinyaiooa, aai
ao?a/aia aa?iii?y. “Aenaea?aonueeee eiiieaen” iiaee aiai?eoue i?i
iaea?eueo a?oa?/io eoeueoo?io no?oeoo?o a?ia?ieo iiiiceoe?e iiaee.
Aa?iii?y iiaee ia ia?aaeeaa?oueny ye aeinyaiaiiy, oea a a?eueo?e i???
eoeueoo?ia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y iniaenoino? c iiaeiei ?i?aeaeai, yea
ia?aaeeaa?oueny ye iaaiee iaaenoai ethaeeie, iaaeoe?ii?noue.

Aeeneo?n iiaee ? cia?aaeoaaeueiith ? iaa?oue nai???aeiith
“i?eoia?ao?/iith” no?oeoo?ith. Iiao iiaee iiaeia ?ioa?i?aooaaoe ca
aiaeiaii a?oa?/ii? i?aeoeee i?eoia?ao?/iiai ienueia, aea iaaecae/aeii
oe?ie? iaeano? aeaiioaoe??, ui aecia/ai? i?eoia?aiaie, aeiiiaithaaeeny
aeaoa?i?iaoeaaie — cia?aaeaiiyie, ye? eiie?aoii icia/oaaee aeno?aeio
aaciao iiaeaeue. Iiaea oaae iaaei??ii caaaeueia o nai?o ?ioaioe?yo ?
oiio aano?aeoia, aea aiia caaaeaee aoiaeeoue a aeeooy ? noa? aeaaeiaith,
iio?aaith, “iaoith aeeooy” ??cieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy. Oea cae?enith?oueny
caaaeyee ?icaeioo?e ia?oeoo?? iniaeno?nieo icia/ath/eo — nai???aeieo
aeaoa?i?iaoea?a iiaee. Oae, e??iie?i, a?aee?eoee *.Ai?oii, oaeaeei
caaithaaa i?ino?? eoeueoo?e oiio, ui a?i aoa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiith
no?oeoo?ith. E??iie?i aeey ei?ieaa ? i?eioean, i?eaeai?ieo aeai, ?o
neoaeieoeue ? ?i. Eiee eathoue iiaeo, oi eathoue ?? aaciao iiaeaeue
(iaaei??ii aano?aeoia, oi?aa?naeueia yae?i), eiee ae iiaeo oaaeyoue, oi
oaaeyoue, ia?aaeon?i, nenoaio ?? iniaeno?nieo icia/ath/eo.

Oaea ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aeeneo?no iiaee aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe ?
eoeueoo?ieia?/iee niaoeeo?eoi iiaee. THaaiaeuei?noue iiaee o
eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio aei??? aeyaey?oueny ye ?? aeeaeiiee o?aaeeoe?iiae?ci.
Iiaea o na?oiaeyaeii-oi?iioai?/iio aacen? caaaeaee iane?aeo? iiia?aaeith
o?aaeeoe?th (iiaeaeue na?oicaaoaeiae) ? iiaeaeth? ?? , ia?aoai?th? o
iiaeaeueiee ?yae, ui aaaea aei iaaieo ?iiiaaoe?e. Oey oaca
?ai?acaioo?oueny ia aaeeeiio ?noi?e/iiio iaoa??ae?, aea aeiaiaeeoueny,
cie?aia, ui aeeneo?n iiaee A?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? iaiue??enoe/iei caaa?oaiiyi
(?niainueeee iaiue??eci, iai?eeeaae) ua ?einueeiai ?icoa?iaaiiai
i?inoi?o o iaeyc?.

Noa’?eo iiaee iie?oii?/iee. Oea ??ae Ethaeeia. I?iya ?iaeiaiai
oi?aa?nae?cio iiaee iieno?oueny eaoaai???th ”aio?iiinoa?a”, iiea eiai
aeyaeaiiy — aoiiiiaea, aoiiaeecaei. Oea ? noa’?eo eoeueoo?e, ae?y yeiai
eiinoeooth?oueny noeeueiaith ia?aaeeaiith iiaee. Oea ? iaaia a?oia,
oeao, ni?eea ? ?i. Noa’?eo iiaee caaaeaee ? iaaiei eieaeoeaiei ae?y/ai,
yeee ?ai?acaioo? ni?euei?noue iio?aa, niae?a, ?ioa?an?a, ?i?aeae?a.
Iiaeia aiai?eoe ? i?i iaoe?iiaeueio iiaeo, i?i iiaeo ?iaeea?aeoaeueio,
yeo ooai?ththoue ooaeiaeieee-iiaeaeue??e. Aea a iiiyoo? “noa’?eo iiaee”
ie o?eno?ii niaoeeo?eo aeeneo?no iiaee, eiai eiinoeooaoeai? ?ene, ye?
aecia/athoueny oei, ui iiaea caaaeaee ? aio?iiioeaio?e/iith,
eoeueoo?ioeaio?e/iith ? ianiaith ca nai?th i?e?iaeith.

“Iiaa c’yaey?oueny a ?noi???, — ieoa A.A?ien, — /ano?oa anueai ye
iiaea”, “nenoaia ?noi?e/ii? iai’yoe, ia yeo i???ioiaaia a e?ioe? e?ioe?a
aoaeue-yea o?einionueea ? ooaeiaei? i?iaeoeoaaiiy, ne?aeo? ca iiaeith”,
ine?eueee caa??aa? ana oa, ui aoei iiaeiei a oie /an[1].

sse aa/eii, aaoi? ia?aooai?th? iiaeo o iaaio ?iiiaaoe?eio noanoaioe?th
eoeueoo?e. Oaiiiai iiaee caiaaeoi oi?aa?nae?co?oueny ? i?oieia?co?oueny.
Eoeueoo?ioai?/ee iioaioe?ae iiaee, iaeiae, ia ? /enoei i?iaeoeoaaiiyi
iiaiai. A?o?oaeoii?ea oai?/iai aeoo iiaee a?eueo neeaaeia ?
ae?aeaeoe/ia.

sseui aeei?enoaoe aeo/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo oai?/iai aeoo I.Ein?aei, aea
a?i aiai?eoue i?i ae?aeaeoeeo oai?/ino? (oai?/ee aeo caaaeaee
caaa?oo?oueny noai?aiiyi ia i?inoi iiaiai, a “eoeueoo?ii? e?aaoeaii?
?a/?”), oi iiaeo iiaeia oyaeoe ye oaeo oai?/?noue, aea ii?aeiothoueny
noaiiaeaiiy (iaeaano?aeoi?oa e ia?aeiia aecia/aiiy oai?/ino?) ?
naiiaeinoaoiy anoaoe/ia yaeaii?noue ?a/? (eiie?aoiee /ooo?aee i?iya
oai??iiy).

Noaiiaeaiiy a iiae? cae?enith?oueny ye c?oeiaiiy eoeueoo?ieo oi?i aoooy
? iaaoooy /a?ac naiiaeinoaoith i?aaeiaoi?noue iiaeiiai i?aaeiaoa. An?
caniae ? oi?ie eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy a iiae? i?aaeththoueny aei
aano?aeoiiai iioieo noaiiaeaiiy, yeee iaeii/anii ? iaia?aaecaaeaiei ye
eoeueoo?iee ?aaoeyoea (aaciaa iiaeaeue) ? /ooo?ai naiiaeinoaoi?i ye
iaaeoe?ii?noue noaio, oaiiiai iiaeiino? ye oaei?. Oea aaea o?einionueea
aecia/aiiy iiaee ia a?aei?io a?ae ?? nioe?ieia?/ieo ? ineoieia?/ieo
aecia/aiue. Aeua noaae?y eoeueoo?ioai?/ino? a iiae? caaaeaee
?aaeoeo?oueny aei ieaeiuei? (aano?aeoiiai iioieo noaiiaeaiiy) ?
niaoeeo?eo? ??.

Ia aaaeei iiaa/eoe, ui iiaea ia? ?a?iaee oa?aeoa?. Oai?/?noue-a?a
noai?th? ia no?eueee i?aaeiaoe, ne?eueee noai a?ath/eo. AE.Aiae??ey?
iacaaa iiaeo aeoaea eiiiioiaaiith nenoaiith, aea ia?aaaaeathoue
i?aeciaeia?, neiaie?/i? a?aeiioaiiy ia a?aei?io a?ae ciaeiai-i?aaeiaoieo
a?aeiioaiue. ?a?iaa aia?aaeaioi?noue iiaee (noa’?eo iiaee caaaeaee
ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae a aeaio na?oao — iaaeoe?iiiio na?o? ?aeaaeo ? na?o?
?aaeueiino?) naiiaeinoaoiy ye a?/ia iieiae?noue ? iiaiioa A?e ye oaei?.
Ethaeeia a?a?, aeicaiey? caoiieoe naaa iiaeith, uia noaoe iieiaeoith,
iiaa?iooeny o thi?noue, aeeoeinoai, uia a?aenoiooe noa??noue.
AE.Aiae??ey? a?aei?/a?, ui ethaeeia i?ae a?a? a “nai? ia?iaeaeaiiy ?
nia?oue”[2].

E?aaoeaii-?a?iaee oa?aeoa? iiaee aeinoaoiuei aecia/aii a eoeueoo??:
iiaea aecenoaioe?eii thaaiae?co? na?o eoeueoo?e, a?oa?co? /an aei iaaieo
noaa?eueieo, iino?eieo no?oeoo? (aiaeia?a a?/iino?), aea ?acii c oei
iiaea aeeiai?co? i?ino?? eoeueoo?e, ia?aoai?th? eiai o a?/ia noaiiaeaiiy
i?aaeiaoieo oe?iiinoae, o ia?iaiaioi? ci?ie oe?e?niino? eoeueoo?e ye
oaei?. Oae ii?aeiothoueny noaoeea ? aeeiai?ea, /ania?noue, i?ieea?noue
? a?/i?noue iiaee. A ianooiiiio ?icae?e? oe? iieiaeaiiy aenie?eothoueny
ia eiie?aoiiio eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiio iaoa??ae?.

?icae?e II. “Iiaea ye noeeueiaa ia?aaeeaia” i?enay/aii
eoeueoo?ii-anoaoe/iiio aiae?co iiaee a ?aae?yo iaeyao, ca/?nie, iiaooo a
oe?eiio. Iiiyooy “noeeue” aeei?enoiao?oueny aeena?oaioii a oe?ieiio
o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio ?icoi?ii?, yea iaa?oiooaaee a na?e /an
A.Aueieueoe?i, ?.?.?iooa, O.?.Oi?o, I.O.Ein?a. Oae, noeeue, ca
I.O.Ein?aei, ? i?eioeeiii eiino?othaaiiy iioaioe?aeo ooaeiaeiueiai
oai?o. Noeeue — oea na?oiaee ii?yaeie “i?oeue oai?o”, yea aeyaey?oueny
/a?ac nai? ?ioa aoooy o eoeueoo??. Oaea no?oeoo?ae?nonueea o?aeoiaea
noeeth aea? iiaeeea?noue ?icaeyiooe iiaeo ye noeeueiao ia?aaeeaio.

Aiai?y/e i?i iiaeo ia?a?niiai noni?euenoaa, ie, cae/aeii, ?icoi??ii onth
iaoaoi?e/i?noue oe??? iii?iaoe??. Iiaea ooo ?icai?oa? nai?
oi?iiooai?aiiy o eiioaeno? iaa?/ieo, ?eooaeueieo i?aeoee. Aeeneo?n iiaee
o ia?a?ni?e eoeueoo?? oi?io?oueny ye cia?aaeaeueii-aa?aaeueia
oe?e?ni?noue. Oea ? na?oiaee a?ca?oiie (oaoothaaiiy, iai?eeeaae, aai
iioa?aoaaiiy o?ea ethaeeie), oea ? ?i’y, yea io?eio? ethaeeia, ui
i?ioiaeeoue ia?yae ?i?oe?aoe??. Ia?oee iaeya — oea nioe?aeueia o?ei, yea
ooai?th?oueny ye iaaia na?oicaaoaeiaa, ye o?eania i?aeoeea. Iaee//y
ia?a?nii? ethaeeie — oea iaee//y na?oo (Iieue Aetha?). Iao no/aniee
aeaoa?oueny a?ae oiai, ye? a?oa? o?aie iaiineee aai??aaie ia nai?
iaee//y. Aaeaea aiie o oe?e i?ioeaaeo?? eeoa oaeineiiaethaaee ?iaeiaa
o?ei, eiee iaiineee ia o?ei ethaeeie ienueiaia naiai ieaiai?.

“Oe?e? iiioiaioe ia?oea?nueeiai ienoaoeoaa /anoi noai?ththoueny c
aeiiiiiaith ea?eano ?c noaaeei eenoe?a, na?oeaaeie iaeueie aai ia?inoe?a
iioo; i?ee?aoaeeny yaiaeaie, ?aeiaeiaie eao?e, i?aeieie i?ee?anaie,
aoaeceeaie ? i??’yi”, — ieoa TH.E?in [3]. Ca/?nee caaa?oothoue o?ei
aai?? ? noathoue ia?ea?ii nioe?ae?caoe?? ethaeeie. Ienueiaia eini?/ii?,
?iaeiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ieoooueny ye ia o?e?, oae ? ia eiai noanoeooo?
(cai?nieeo) — iaeyc?. Aaaeeeai a?aei?oeoe, ui oea ? iaeia o?eania
i?aeoeea. Nai?inoa?a ia?a?nii? iiaee ua ia cia? aio?iiioeaio?ecio, yeee
aeieeia i?ci?oa o Aeaai?e A?aoe??.

Ca?aeii c I.E.Iao?iaei, Ae?aai?e na?o no?oeoo?oaaa nai? na?oia?aeiineie
ye iniaenoi-?iaiiee nioe?ieiae. ?i’y icia/aei ? ?ieaao a?o, ? i?noea a
nioe?oi?, ? ooieoe?th. Oea /oaeiai i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ainaiae? iiaee
Aeaaiueiai ?aeioo, Ianiiioai??, ??aio. Neiai, cia?aaeaiiy, i?aaeiaoiee
na?o aoee ?aeeiinoueie, aca?iicai?iieie. Iiaea ooo ? eaiii?/iith,
iaci?iiith a oeny/ie?ooyo. Iaaaae?aiia i?aea’ycea, eaeane?en a ?aeio?,
ieau ? ni?i/ea eaiae? — a Ianiiioai?? ? aeno?aeieie a?oaoeiaie iaeyao.
Oe?eaai, ui eaiae? — oea i?ae noanoeooo oe??e oaa?eie, yeo ethaeeia
iaeyaa? ia naaa, ui ? a?ae?aco ae ? ?iea?iaoe??th — ia?aoai?aiiyi ia
oaa?eio. Ieau oaae aeiaai caa??aa? ?oaeeiaioa?i? iciaee oe??e — aao?iio.

Iaeya aeaai?o a?ae?a aeaiiino?o? iciaee aaea ?ioa?aeoeaii?
oeea?e?caoe??. Iaiein, o?oii, oeai?n — aacia? iiaeae? ae?ai??oaaeueiiai
eiiieaeno iaeyao. A?oa?/iee iaiein ua ? noanoeoooii oe??e oaa?eie, eiai
aeaioiaeyee ?c a?oai? aiaie. O?oii iineee iaeaea an?, ? eeoa eiai
aeiaaeeia aoea ia?ea?ii nioe?aeueii? iaeaaeiino? ethaeeie. Aaeeeo ?ieue
a?ae?a?aaaea eiei?enoeea iaeyao. Oae, a?eee eie?? aoa eieuei?ii
a?enoie?ao??. Caeaiee, n??ee, ei?e/iaaee — iciaee n?euenueeeo
iaoeaioe?a. Ieau iaeyaaee iiaa?o o?oiio, ui ooai?thaaei ae?aci?
neeaaeee. ?eieyie a?eueo aeaei?oaaee iaeya, o?oii ia?aoai?th?oueny ia
ooi?eo, ieau — o oiao. Aeiaaeeia oiae c?inoa? iaeaea aaea?/?, ui
ooai?th? a?eueo neeaaeiee ? aeaei?aoeaiee ae?ai??oaaeueiee ainaiaeue.
Iaaei??i?noue ? iaaeeeoeia?noue ?einueei? iiaee ci?iththoueny oioith
iaeyao ?aii?o o?enoeyi.

Aea na?aaeiueia?//y aaaaoi a /iio iane?aeo? ?einueeo iiaeo. Oae, aia?oa
a ?ei? noaee iaeyaaoe iaeya iaeei ia iaeiiai. Aaea a ?ei? “o?ei iaeyao”
noa? ieineei, aeieea? c/eooaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? a?ae iaeiiai oa?o iaeyao
aei ?ioiai — iaeya iiae?ey?oueny ia aa?oi?e ? ieaei?e. A ?aiiueiio
na?aaeiueia?//? iaieaia o?ei aaaaeaeiny a??oiaiei ? eiai ?aoaeueii
oiaaee o iaeya. Ieaei?e iaeya noa? noanoeoooii o?ea. Aoaeue-yea
iaaei??i?noue i?ee?an iia’ycoaaeany c aeeyaieuenueeeie niieonaie. Iiaea
ciaaaaeaeany ye a?aoiy ia?aae Aiaii, yeee noai?ea ethaeae iaieaieie. Aea
a?ae oeueiai oeo, ooi caoiiethaoaaany iiaeith, ia noaaaei iaioa.

Caaino?eaoe aioeiii?? “aa?o — iec”, “nae?aeueia — i?ioaiia”, eoeueoo?a
na?aaeiueia?//y ooai?eea oe?eo ieceo iiaeoeyoi??a a iaeyc?, ye?
?ai?acaiooaaee na?oiaoae?ai? ?ioaioe??. A iaeiiio a?ioaneiiio “o?e?
iiaee” aeeaooue i?ae aeaa o?ea — neoeueioo?ii-ieanoe/ia o?ei aioe/iino?
? i?noe/ia o?ei o?enoeyieia. A /ieia?/iio iaeyc? i?ae aieeaii aa?aa??a
aeieeathoue ooaie, ei?ioe? /iaioe. AE?ii/ee iaeya ooai?th?oueny ye
neeaaeiee ainaiaeue c aeiiiiiaith ei?naoo, ue?ieeo aeaeieueoa, ianeaieo
thaie ? aenieeo ca/?nie. Ia inoaiith ?ieue a na?aaeiueia?/i?e iiae?
a?ae?a?a? eeoea?nueea eoeueoo?a c eoeueoii aeaie na?oey ? a?aeaa?oei
oai?i?ciii. Aioe/ia iiaea, ui i?aaenoaaeaia nai?th aa?o?aeith —
ao?aoiaenueeith iiaeith, ia?aoai?th? ae?ieo ia iaaiee aeoa?? ienoaoeoaa.
AE?iea, iaia/a ei?aaaeue, ieeaea a neeaaeeao iaeyao.

A no?aeiio?enoeyinuee?e o?aaeeoe?? (A?caio?y, Ee?anueea ?onue)
aeaaiuei?einuee? onoaiiaee oi?iioai?aiiy caa??aathoueny iaeaea aac
o?ainoi?iaoe?e ia i?ioyc? oeny/ie?ooy. A?ae Ee?anuee?? ?on? a?eueiee
e??e ni?i/ee, ye ? an?o ?? ?ioeo iiaeeo?eaoe?e, ia?aaeeaa? noie?ooy,
caa??aa?oueny aae aei ii/aoeo OVIII noie?ooy. A Ee?anuee?e ?on? neeaany
?aeaae aeia?iai iieiaeoey ? e?anii? ae?a/eie, ye? iaiaei?iii iaee
no?oieo noaoo?o, no??ieo oiaeo. Einothi aoa iaaecae/aeii aeaei?aoeaiei,
eieuei?enoei.

I?yiei niaaeei?ioeai noeeth iaeyao Ee?anueei? ?on? ? oe?a?inueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee iaeya, cae/aeii, o?ainoi?iiaaiee o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieie aieeaaie iiaeieo ianoaiia, i?e?iaeieie ?aae?yie
?noi?e/iiai ?nioaaiiy aoiino oiui. Oae, ia?aci?noue a?enueeiaiai
einothia eicaoeueeeo /an?a iaiiaeeeai oyaeoe aac ia?aco noaio, a?eueiiai
?ooo a i?inoi?? aeaeaeeo ia???a.

Ia aa?oi oaeiae ia?aioe?ithaaoe cia/aiiy aiioe A?ae?iaeaeaiiy o
oi?iioai?aii? aeeneo?no iiaee. sse no?ie aioe/ieo o?ai?a i?aei?iaee ia
aaii?, ui aoei c?iaeaii oeyoii ia?aiaethaaiiy ?einueeeo noaooe, oae ?
eoeueoo?a A?ae?iaeaeaiiy oniaaeeiao? aaeeeee ianea na?aaeiueia?/ii?
eoeueoo?e. Iiaea ua a?eueo i?aee?aneth? oea oaa?aeaeaiiy. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy
eeoa a?aeo?ieei iaea?/iee aio?iiioeaio?eci iiaee. Aeeneo?n iiaee
?ai?acaioo? ? o?ainoi?io? ?icoa?iaaiee i?ino??, yeee aeiee ua o ?ei?.
Aa?o?aea oe??? o?ainoi?iaoe?? — iin?/aia oeaieia iaeyao o ?niainueeiio
iaiue??eci?.

Iiaeo aaea noai?ththoue ooaeiaeieee. Iiaeia iiaa/eoe aca?iicaaaa/aiiy
ia?ac?a iiaee: a a?o?oaeoo??, aeeaiien?, a?ao?oe? c iaeiaeiaith oaaaith
a?aeia?aaeothoue ?aae?? iaeyao. Oea aaea “?iaeea?aeoae?noe/iee”
(I.Ein?a) neioac ?aea? ? iaoa???, aea aeieea? aa??aaaeuei?noue
(aa?ue?oa) ?aeaaeo. A nenoai? iiaee iiaeia oaae iiaa/eoe ?icaeiooa
aa?’thaaiiy aeaoa?i?iaoea?a ? iaci?ii?noue ieanoe/iiai eaiiio aaciai?
iiaeae? — oea oie aea aioe/iee io?ioai, aei yeiai i?eoi/othoueny ?oeaaa
ni?i/ee, ooaieie ooai?a. Iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i iaaiee oi?aa?nae?ci ?
“oeoai?ci” iiaee, aea ?icea?oaa thiee oi?aa?nae?ci iniaenoino? aeiae
A?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

?aeaae e?ane, ui aeieea? a oeth aeiao, /oaeiai iienaa Aiueiei
O??aioeoaea: ”Aieinny ae?iie iiaeiii aooe i?aeiei, aonoei, aeiaaei ?
oaeeynoei, eieuei?ii aiii iiaeiii oiiaeiaethaaoeny cieioo aai iaaeo, aai
yne?aaiio i?ii?ith niioey. O?ei iiaeiii aooe aaeeeei, i?oeiei, aea
aeaai?iaeieo oi?i. Iaaei??ii aaeeea o?ei ia iiaea iiaeiaaoeny oaeiae, ye
? iaaaeeea ? ooaea. A?eee eie?? oe??e ia ? i?ae?aniei, ai aiia ?
iaaei??ii ae?aeith; oe??a iiaeiia aooe eaaeaa /a?aiiith a?ae ?ooo e?ia?”
[4]. sse aa/eii, a?aeaa?oee iaoo?ae?ci iieno o oeueiio aeeneo?n?
ii?aeiaii c ?iia?aoeaii iaeaaeiiai (iiaeiii aooe), yeee o naith /a?ao ?
iaiue??enoe/iei ?aeaaeii e?ane.

A aeiao A?ae?iaeaeaiiy io?eiaa ? iaiue??enoe/ia caaa?oaiiy aeeneo?n
?icoa?iaaiiai i?inoi?o a iaeyc?. Oea aoa aeeneo?n iaae?. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy
iaaecae/aeii caaino?eei iaaeo aeaio na?o?a — iae?ieinio ? i?e?ieinio.
Oey iaaea, ye ? o aioe/iino?, ? ?aeue?oiith, neoeueioo?iith. Aea oea
aaea cian?i ia ? o?ei-einiin aeaaiueiai a?aea. Iaiii?oii oea o?ei noa?
iiiaaeith Eyeaieoey. Iniaeeaa ye ianoaiiaa /ano, “thia
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue” iniaenoino? oi?o?eo?oueny a aa?iii?th iane?i/aiii
iaeeo i?inoi??a eoeueoo?e Iiaiai /ano. OVII noie?ooy a?ae?iaeeei
aioe/iee aoii?ci o eiai nioe?i-iaoo?ae?noe/iiio aeaeyae? ei?ioneoey?ii?
oai???. I.Iaiaeaeueooai, aiae?coth/e oai?/?noue Oaiue?, caeeoea /oaeia?
aeoiee uiaei aeiae oiai /ano: “Oaiue? iaeaaeaa aei iieie?iiy
o?aioeocueeeo iiao?a, aeey yeeo neioaenen aoa cieioith ee?oeith, ca?aeee
ia i??yeiny aeno?eaiooe. Oey cieioa ee?oea aoea iio?i iiaoaeiaaia
?an?iei ? icaeiaeaia ye aaee/iee iaeaoe. Neioaene/ia naiaiaea iiao?a
na?aaeiueia?//y — Aaeeiia, ?aae?, aanue noa?io?aioeocueeee neioaenen —
caeeoeeeny iicaaeo, a ?iiaioe/ia aoei?noue Oaoia??aia ? Eaia?o?ia ia
ii/aeany. Cieioo ee?oeo noa??a iaioaa — Aoaei” [5]. Iaaooue aoaea
aaiaeuei?noth eiinoaooaaoe, ui oie aea ii?iaoea?ci neioaeneno aoa
i?eoaiaiiee ? aeeneo?no iiaee.

Iaeya ?aoaeueii iai?oathoue o ia?aaeeai, ia iueiai iaoeaathoue aaioe
(aei 500 oooe ia iaeio noeith). A?aeoai?th?oueny ee?oea — i?ino??,
noai?aiiee “ee?oeiaie” ia?aaeeaa. Aaio — noanoeooo ethaeeie-iiiaaee.
Aeii?io? i?e?ina?o, a yeiio iaeiaeiai ? ?aaeueieie ? i?e?ina?o
E?aaiaoea, ? iiiaaea Eyeaieoey, ? i?eaeai?iee neoaeea. An? iaeiaeiai ?
iaeaiueeeie. An? iaeiaeiai aienai? a aoii?ciaaiee nioe?aeueiee ?
eoeueoo?iee i?ino??.

I?ino?? ?c oa??a iaeyao , ye oea aoei o iiia?aaei?o eoeueoo?ao, aaea ia
ni?aoeueiao? ye eiino?oeoeaia ianoaiiaa. I?ino?? i?ae ?icaooa?,
?icea?oa? aaciaeie oa?oaie ? aoaeyie, ia?aaeeaii. ?ieue eiino?oeoeaieo
canaae aeeiiothoue anaeye? i?aea’ycee, ye? ciiothoue ?oo?eiee i?ino??
iaeyao ? o?ea ia naiaioe/i? ciie. Ia aeeaii, ui ? oeae aeeneo?n io?eiaa
a?ia?e?eoeeo. *ieia?e?a /anoi-aonoi caooue iaioaaie, a ae?iie naa?youe
ca /iii?i?noue ? iaia?i?noue. Naia ii?aeiaiiy /iii?iino? ? iaia?iino? a
eiioaeno? an??? aeiae noa? noeeueiaith ianoaiiaith, ia?aaeeaiith iiaee.
Aea a?e oe??? aeeoioii?? oaae aoa iaaeiaaei. *iii?iino? iicaoaeooueny
aaea o ianooiiiio noie?oo?, noai?thth/e oe?eo ieceo iaiue??enoe/ieo
oi?iiooai?aiue iiaee a?ae ?ieiei aei eeaneoeecio, aii??o ? iiaea?io.

sseui ciia caa?iooeny aei iiaoe/ieo iaoaoi? I.Iaiaeaeueooaia, oi eiai
oa?aeoa?enoeea OVIII noie?ooy o aeaeyae? “ionoiai ica?a “, aea aaea
iaia? ai? aeeaeie, ai? aieiae, a ? eeoa aano?aeoe??, oi eaaei iiaa/eoe,
ye iiaeeo?eo?oueny no?aoaa?y iiaeieo oi?iioai?aiue. Ia?aaea?nieeii iiai?
aa?iii?? noa? O.Oiaa?o c eiai ieineeie ea?oeieaie ? iaoo?ae?noe/iith
oai???th e?ane. Aeeneo?n “cieioi? ee?oee” ia?aoai?th?oueny ia aeeneo?n
“aeenoeeie?ia?ieo i?aeoee” (I.Ooei) iiaee. Aeenoeeie?ia , iaeiae, eaea
aaea ia cciai?, a ?c na?aaeeie, ?c iaea?/ii?, ye caeaaaeiny
i?ina?oieeai, i?e?iaee ethaeeie. A iiae? oea aecia/a?oueny oei, ui o
?icoa?iaaiee i?ino?? aoiaeyoue aei?noe? no?oeoo?e — ei?nao, e??iie?i, a
aaea ia ieo ooai?th?oueny aeaei? ?c ia?aaeeaa ? aaio?a.

?aaiethoe?y o O?aioe?? aeaooioea o iiae? ei?ioei/aniith iinoaeuea??th ca
i?inoioith ?einueei? ooi?ee. Aii?? oea?a iaaeiaai, aea oea aeanyoee?ooy
i???iooaaei i?ino?? eoeueoo?e ia c?acee i?inoi? iiaee. AE?iee a?aeeeioee
aoaeue-ye? ea?eane ? iaeeaaeee, ii/aee iaeyaaoe ia naaa eaae? oeaieie
o?eaniiai eieuei?o, ye? iaaaaeoaaee o??ei. Ii?o?aoe I.Aia?a aeathoue
i?ae?anio oyao i?i ?aeaaee e?ane ? iiaee naia oeueiai /ano.

A iiae? OIO noie?ooy ua a?eueoa ?icea?oa? aa??aoeaiee ?yae
aeaoa?i?iaoea?a. Iniaeeaei na?oii noa? iaa?oue aeaoaeue iaeyao. Ana
aeeaa ia i?aaao ie?aii? nooiino? — ? o?ae, ? nth?ooe, ? iiiieeue, ?…
i?n ?c iaeii?iaiii? iia?no? I.Aiaiey. Naia ca?ac i?n i?a a?eueii “aeeoe”
ia aoeeoeth. ?aei?noue ainaiaeth iaeyao aeieea? ye ooaeiaei?e aeoa??.
Oae, I.Aiaieue iieno? aeaio-ea?oeo c oae??th, yea noiaea ia oeeeo
ieyoee, i?eaeecii oae ciaeueiaothoue ae?ieo ? o ia?ecueeiio iiaeiiio
aeo?iae?. E??iie?ie aeiiiaiththoueny oo?ith?aie, ye? ia?aaeeaooue ia?oo
na?oiao a?eio ? oa?eaeooue o ?aaeoeiaaiiio aeaeyae? o iiaeo
aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy. O?ae aaea noa? iciaeith nayoeiaeo aa/a??a ?
eiioea?o?a. A?enueeiaee o?ai/ canaith? i?ino?? eoeueoo?e, aea c???
i?e?oa?enoe/ia oeea?e?caoe?y oioaeueieo a?ei, eiioeoaai??a ?
a?caoeeoeueoo?e ianiaae?a.

Iiaeo aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy iaaecae/aeii aaaeei oeeanoe o aoaeue-yeo
noaio. Aea ? iaeei aaaeeeaee iiiaio — aaea caoeoaeany na?oicaaoaeiaa a
eoeueoo?? ? iiae?. Ia?a?iaeueiee i?ino?? ?aaeeeaeueii? aeeaeoeee
iinoiiaea?io caa?iaeo? cieueoe nai iii?ci ? a?oa?ci iiaeieo i?aeoee
eoeueoo?e. Iiaea ana a?eueoa iaaoaa? aeaeyaeo aeeooa?aioe?eiaaii?
ae?yeueiino? eooth?ue?, ooaeiaeiee?a-noee?no?a, cae??eiee?a ? ?i. Na?o
iiaee noa? ie?aiei anana?oii ianiaae?a ? aeooeaiith anoaoinoa?ith
aeniei? iiaee.

Iinoiiaea?i o?ainoeaiaeo? na?o eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio, ui caio?th? iiaeo a
na?o i?aena?aeiiiai, yeee a a?eueo?e i??? ? aeoai?ii ?aeeaie, ianiai?
eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio. Ao?aoeaoe o?aaeeoe?iiae?noe/i? ?ioaioe??, iiaea ana
a?eueoa noa? aeeoa?aioe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth ieooey, noa? ua iaeiei
aeaeii ienoaoeoa o na?o? oaoiiaaiii? oeea?e?caoe??. Aea
neeaaeiiaeeoa?aioe?eiaaiee na?o iiaee caaaeaee caa??aa? na?e aeeaeiiee
aioeiii?ci — niiioaii?noue, i?ieea?noue ? aii?yaeeiaai?noue, eaae,
ono??e iiaeii? na?oicaaoaeiae.

O ?icae?e? III. “Anoaoinoa?a iiaee” aea?oueny aiae?c anoaoe/ii?
niaoeeo?ee iiaee ye ie?aii? noa?e eoeueoo?e. Anoaoinoa?a iiaee
iieno?oueny a ?aieao eaoaai??e “a?ioane”, “?aeaae”, “ii?ia”. Oe?eaai, ui
iiiyooy “a?ioane” aaea ca nai?i iioiaeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c iiaeith. Oae,
A?o?oa?e a?aei?/a?, ui a?ioaneiee i?iaiaio aeieea? caaaeyee i?iieeiaiith
a ?einueeo eoeueoo?o aa?aa?nueei? iiaee. Eia?ea a?ioaneiiai ia?aco
oieea? caieiaiino? ? o?eno? o?eueee c?inoaiiy oi?i. “Aaooe ?
i?aecaiaeey” (I.I.Aaoo?i) neeaaeathoue oiiii?i?th a?ioaneiiai o?ea.
Iiaea ye a?ioane acaaae? ? c?oeiaiiyi i?ioeeaaeieo aeoie?a. Oae, a?e?
ia?eee, ui neiaie?coaaee noa??noue, ? /a?aii? ?oi’yie — neiaie
iieiaeino?, a?thee (/ieia?/ee iaeya), iaeyaioo? ia ae?ieo, ooai?ththoue
iaaia a?ioaneia o?ei, yea TH.I.Eioiai iieno? ye c?inoaiiy ?aeiino?
“/ieia?/iai” ? “ae?ii/iai”, “?a?iiaenueeiai” ? “aia?eeainueeiai”.

Eaoaai??y “a?ioane” a iiae? iaieth? aaci??ia, noeo?eia, oain
einiiii?oiaaiaco, yeee ii?iaeaeo? naio noeo?th eoeueoo?e a ?aieao iiaee.
“Einiin”, eaae a iiae? iana a nia? “aaceaaeaey” — iaa??aiiaaaeai?
aiioe??, i?oieia?/io ianoaiiao ?a?iaiai aeeooy a iiaeiiio
i?aaeiao?-?i?aeae?. Oeth noeo?th a eoeueoo?? ii-??ciiio iienaee
O.I?oaaa-?-Aannao ? A.A?oi. Oaiiiaie “iianoaiiy ian” ? “oaao?o
aei?noieino?” ? aeecueeeie ye iaai? ?aiee (nioe?aeuei?, oaao?aeuei?)
ii/oooy a ao?o?, ii/oooy ia ieiu?, aea iaeii/anii ? aeano?oeoeaiei ?
aoae?aiei. Oea aoaeoeaia o?ei aiioe??, yea ?ooa? na?oii, yea ye
noaaano?y ooai?th? na?o iaaii? “ai?aeai??” (A.A?oi) ii/ooo?aeo noai?a ?
ianoaiia.

A?ioaneia o?ei iiaee ? noeo??th a?/iiai iiiaeaiiy. Ooo aoeaaeueii aie?a?
/anoeiaa, ?iaeea?aeoaeueia o?ei noa’?eoa iiaee ? ia?iaeaeo?oueny a?/ia
(thaaiaeueia) ?iaeiaa o?ei ethaeeie iiaee. Anoaoinoa?a iiaee
eieae?co?oueny ia iaae? eoeueoo?ieo ?aaoeyoea?a, ? iino?eiith
aenia?eiaioaeueiith ia?aa??eith iaae? aeicaieaiiai (TH.I.Eioiai).

sseui eaoaai??y “a?ioane” iieno? iaoaeoeueoo?ia, i?e?iaeii-o?eania ?noai
iiaee, oi “?aeaae” ? ?? nioe?aeueii-anoaoe/iei aei??ii. Iiaea aac
?aeaaeo ao?a/a? na?e noa?aeaiue. Ao?aoeaoe ?aeaae, iiaea oaeaeei ao?a/a?
? i??o niaeo, e?ane, eoeueoo?e, nioe?aeueiino? a oe?eiio. Aaeaea ?aeaae
iiaee caaaeaee iniaeeaee. A?i aeoaea iaaaaeo? aeaaaiai oeii/enueea, yeee
o iaeyc? noa?oiai a?aoa aaaea? aeaeyaeaoe noa?oei ca nai? ?iee.
“THaaiaeuei?noue ?aeaaeo” iiaee — aeeaiee iaieia?ci, ca yeei oiaa?oueny
oe?eaaee oaiiiai eoeueoo?e.

AEeooy ?aeaae?a a?eueo ei?ioea, i?ae aeeooy caaaeueieo
eaoaai??e-oi?aa?nae?e aai aeia?ioii c?iaeaieo ?a/ae. ?aeaae oei??iaii o
nioe?aeueiiio aei??? eoeueoo?e. Iiaea niaoeeo?/ii i?aoeth? c ?aeaaeii,
aiia “iiieiaeaeo?” eiai ca ?aooiie caio?aiiy o a?eueo a?oa?/iee, a?eueo
aeeaeiiee oa? eoeueoo?e, yeee iia’yco?oueny c a?eueoith noaa?euei?noth ?
oii?yaeeiaai?noth. ?aeaae a na?o? iiaee iaiiaeeeai caanoe aei aaaeaiiai
c?acea, oea a a?eueo?e i??? ? nioe?aeueii-anoaoe/iee aei?? iaea?/iiai
(iaaeoe?iiiai a eoeueoo??).

Oae, aeeooy ?aeaaeo iiaee aeaai?o oeea?e?caoe?e cae?enith?oueny a ?aieao
?eooaeo (?aeaaoe??). ?aeaae a?ae?a ? iioieia?/iei ? einiieia?/iei, aea
na?aaeiueia?//y aaea aeoeaioo? iniaeno?nio i?e?iaeo aiaeanoaa. Iiaea
Iiaiai /ano ao?aoeea ao?o a?aoeueei? a?/ii? i?e?iaee ?aeaaeo, ethaeeia
ooea? iiao aa?iii?th o nioe?aeueiiio aoii?ci?. ?aeaaee iia?oiueiai /ano
iicaoaathoueny aaea ? noeeueiai? ia?aaeeaie, “aaniethoiiai aeooo,
“cieioeo ee?oie”, aoaeue-yeeo eoeueoo?ieo oaao. Nooo?aei aeey ?aeaaeo
iiaee ? oa, ui a?i aiaeth? aei ?aeaae?a iiia?aaei?o aiio ye aei
“ioeueiaiai nooiaith” nai?o oi?iioai?aiue.

Iiaeia aecia/eoe iaaio oeiieia?th ?aeaae?a iiaee a eoeueoo??, yea
ioiieth?oueny ?aeaaeii-?aeaaoe??th, ui i?eoaiaiiee aeaai?i
oeea?e?caoe?yi, ?aeaaeii-aeaeinii (aioe/i?noue), ?aeaaeii-neia?a??th
(na?aaeiueia?//y), ?aeaaeii-ea?oeiith, aeaeii (A?ae?iaeaeaiiy),
?aeaaeii-noeeueiaith ia?aaeeaiith, ?aeaaeii-aioenenoaiith. An? oe? oeie
?niothoue a eiaei?e eoeueoo??, ?? na?o? iiaee. Aea iiaeiee ?aeaae ia? o
eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo oo /e oo aeii?iaioo. Nai???aeia
thaaiaeuei?noue ?aeaae?a iiaee iieyaa? a oiio, ui oey aeii?iaioa
caa??aa? ? ?ai?acaioo? ?ene iiia?aaei?o eoeueoo? ? nenoai iiaee. Oae, ie
aaea eiinoaooaaee, ui iiaeaeueia eiia?iaoi?eea o aeiao A?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia
iniia? io?ioaio, yea aoea ua a?aeiia o na?aaeiueia?//?, aeinyaa? a oie
/an nai?? caaa?oaiiino? — ?aeaaeueiiai aei??o. Aei?? ?aeaaeo a iiae?
aiai?eoue ? i?i naio neioaoe/io i?e?iaeo “iiaeon?a” — oi?iioai?/eo
no?oeoo? iiaee.

?aeaae iiaee ei?aeth? c ii?iith ye ?aaoeyoeaii eoeueoo?e. Ii?ia — ia
eeoa “i?aeoeea iiea?aiiy” (I.Ooei), a e iaaia iaaea eoeueoo?e, yea
eiinoeooth? naio eoeueoo?o ye oe?e?ni?noue. Ii?ia a iiae?
iie?iiaeaeueia, aiia a?eueoa aeicaiey?, i?ae caai?iiy?. Ii?ie, iaeiae,
iaio ieanoe/i?, i?ae ?aeaaee, ni?aoeueiaothoue ye aaoiiaoecie. Ii?ie
iiaee caaaeaee ia?niiae?ciaai?, ? c?aceaie iiaeii? iiaaae?iee.
Iaeaaaeeea?oei ? oa, ui ii?ie iiaee ? aecenoaioe?eieie ?aaoeyoeaaie, ?
iaaieie aoaeiiaie iaaeoe?iieo noai?a ? ianoaiia.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiiai a ?iaio? aiae?co ?iaeyoueny ianooii?
aeniiaee:

— iiaea ? ooiaeaiaioaeueiei ?a?iaei yaeuai eoeueoo?e, ui oa?aeoa?eco? ??
ye iaoaeoeueoo?iee ? aio?iiieia?/iee oaiiiai. Ethaeeia a?a? a iiae?, uia
iiaa?iooeny o /ane iieiaeino?, uia iicaaaeoeny noa?ino? ? nia?o?. Oea ?
? aeno?aeiith eoeueoo?ii-aio?iiieia?/iith eiinoaioith iiaee;

— eoeueoo?ii-e?aaoeaiith ooieoe??th iiaee ? ia?iaiaioia thaaiae?caoe?y
noa’?eo?a iiaee. Oaiiiai thaaiaeueiino? o eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio aei???
aeyaey?oueny ye a?oa?caoe?y o aeeneo?n? iiaee ?aeaae?a oa ii?iaoeaieo
eiinoaio;

— eoeueoo?ia oe?e?ni?noue iiaeieo ?iiiaaoe?e ei?aeth? c? na?oiaeyaeieie
oa noeeueiaeie ianoaiiaaie /ano. Iiaea caaaeaee caa??aa? ? o?ainoi?io?
?aaoeyoeaiee iioaioe?ae aaeeeeo noee?a;

— anoaoinoa?a iiaee ? ii/ooo?aith ?aaeuei?noth eoeueoo?e, yea ii?aeio?
a nia? ?iaeia?, ioae?/i? ii/oooy ? iieno?oueny eaoaai??yie “a?ioane”,
“?aeaae”, “i?aeianaia”, “iecueea”, “a?aoe?y”, “ii?ia” ? ?i.;

— iiaea caaaeaee aeeiio? nioe?ae?coth/o ? aaeaiooth/o ooieoe?th. Oae,
iiaea no/aniino? /anoi noa? ?aeeiei aaia?oth/ei iaoai?ciii a na?o?
ieth?ae?caoe?? ? aeeoocii? aeaoeaio?aoe?? eoeueoo?;

— a eoeueoo?? OO noie?ooy iiaea iaaoaa? iciae ie?aieo aeae?a ienoaoeoa
aeniea (iiaea, ia?oiiain, oaao? iiaee) ? aeaiiino?o? iaea?/io ianiao
noeo?th iiaeii? iiaaae?iee.

1. A?ien A. Ooiiey e iaiai. — I., 1993. — n. 137 — 138.

2. Aiae?eey?.AE. Nenoaia aauae. — I., 1995. — n. 87.

3. Eein TH. I?ienoiaeaeaiea aauae. — I., 1995. — n. 113.

4. Oeeo. ca: Caoa?aeaaneay ?. Einothi aeey noeaiu — I., 1967.— n. 38.

5. Iaiaeaeueooai I. Neiai e eoeueoo?a. — I., 1987. — n. 97.

C oaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? oae? ?iaioe:

1. Eaaaiueeee TH.A., Oea/aiei E.I. Nenoaia iiaeu: eoeueoo?ieiaey,
yoaoeea, aeecaei. — E.: AAEIO, 1998. — 224 n.

2. Oea/aiei E.I. Oaiiiai iiaee // Eaaaiueeee TH.A., Eaa/aiei I.A.,
Oea/aiei E.I. OO aae: i?iaeaiu ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u. — E.: AAEIO,
1998. — n. 138 — 154.

3.Oea/aiei E.I. Iiaea eae eoeueoo?ioai?/anoai // Eaaaiueeee TH.A.,
Eaa/aiei I.A., Oea/aiei E.I. OO aae: i?iaeaiu ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u
— E.: AAEIO, 1998. — n. 154 — 165.

4.Oea/aiei E.I. Ynoaoinoa?a iiaeu // Eaaaiueeee TH.A., Eaa/aiei I.A.,
Oea/aiei E.I. // OO aae: i?iaeaiu ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u. — E.:
AAEIO, 1998. — n. 170 — 193.

Aiioaoe?y

Oea/aiei Eany Iao??aia. Iiaea ye anoaoe/iee oaiiiai. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.08 — anoaoeea, ?inoeooo o?einio?? ?iai?
A.N.Neiai?iaee Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeine?aeaeo?oueny oaiiiai iiaee o eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio ? anoaoe/iiio
aei???. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? anoaoe/i? oi?ie i?iyao iiaee a
eoeueoo??. A ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c o?einionueeeo, anoaoe/ieo,
ienoaoeoaiciaa/eo oeoia/aiue iiaee.

Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui iiaea ? oi?aa?naeueiei iaoai?ciii eoeueoo?ioai?/ino?.
Anoaoe/ia niaoeeo?ea iiaee aeyaey?oueny o iacaaa?oaiiio i?iaoeci? oa
iaiiaiio? iaieiae?iiy i?aaeiaoii iiaee. Eoeueoo?i-aio?iiieia?/ia
niaoeeo?ea iiaee iieyaa? o ia?iaiaioi?e thaaiae?caoe?? ethaeeie a
eoeueoo?? caniaaie ?a?iai? iiaaae?iee.

Iiaea ?aeiino?oth?oueny a ?aae?yo ?noi??? iaeyao, iiaooo oa eoeueoo?e a
oe?eiio.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiaea, aeeneo?n iiaee, eoeueoo?ioai?/?noue, noeeue,
ia?ac.

Aiiioaoeey

Oea/aiei Eany Iao?iaia. Iiaea eae ynoaoe/aneee oaiiiai. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.08 — ynoaoeea, Einoeooo oeeinioee eiaie
A.N.Neiai?iaeu Iaoeeiiaeueiie Aeaaeaiee Iaoe Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Enneaaeoaony oaiiiai iiaeu a eoeueoo?ieiae/aneii e ynoaoe/aneii
ecia?aiee. I?aaeiaoii enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony ynoaoe/aneea oi?iu
i?iyaeaiey iiaeu a eoeueoo?a. A ?aaioa i?iaaaeai aiaeec oeeinioneeo,
ynoaoe/aneeo, eneonnoaiaaae/aneeo iiiyoee iiaeu.

A ia?aie aeaaa iainiiauaaaony iaoiaeieiaey iieenenoaiiiai aiaeeca
iiaeu, e?eoeeothony aano?aeoii-aio?iiieiae/aneea, iiceoeaenoneea,
nioeeieiae/aneea iiaeoiaeu a enneaaeiaaiee iiaeu, eioi?ua iau/ii
i?eaiaeyo e ?aaeoeoeee iiaeu e eaeie-eeai iaeiie ec aa ooieoeee.
Nenoaiiia aaeeinoai eoeueoo?u e iiaeu ?aeiino?oe?oaony eae oeaeinoiinoue
«iiaaaeaiey», «ninoiyiey» e «aeayoaeueiinoe». Ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiiiai
aiaeiaiaiai aiaeeca nenoai ienueia e aeeneo?na iiaeu iineaaeiee
eioa?i?aoe?oaony eae naiaia?aciay eeiie/aneay nenoaia, ninoiyuay ec
«aaciaie iiaeaee» (eaeaaea, ii?iu iiaeu) e iiaenenoaiu
«aeaoa?ieiaoeaia», oi anoue ee/iinoiuo icia/athueo iiaeu.

Aiaeiaey aeeneo?na iiaeu e nenoai ienueia iicaieeea auyaeoue
ooiaeaiaioaeueioth caeiiiia?iinoue iiaeu — aaeeinoai aano?aeoiie
(anaiaua cia/eiie) oieaa?naeueiinoe aa?uee?oaiie iniiau (aaciaie
iiaeaee) e eiie?aoiuo (ee/iinoii i?eaioe?iaaiiuo) aeaoa?ieiaoeaia iiaeu.
Ynoaoe/aneay niaoeeoeea iiaeu ?ane?uaaaony, oaeei ia?acii, ia a aa
aano?aeoiuo, eaeaieiae/aneeo eee ?iaeiauo aeaoa?ieiaioao, a eae aeeneo?n
eoeueoo?u ni naiaia?aciie ia?oeoo?ie aeaoa?ieiaoeaia. Yoa ia?oeoo?a
iiaeoee?oao ee/iinoiua niuneu e iio?aaiinoe, ia?aaiaeeo eo a
iauacia/eiue ieai, neoaeeo iniiaie eaeaioeoeeaoeee /aeiaaea e iiaeiiai
eieaeaea, i?aaenoaaeaiiiai ia?niieoeeaoi?ii eioi?iaoeee.

AEeciaoai?/aneee aniaeo iiaeu oiaea enneaaeoaony ia iniiaa aiaeiaiauo
ia?aeeaeae iiaeu n ea?iaaaeii, i?acaeieeii, oaao?ii, iocueie, /oi aeaei
aiciiaeiinoue eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue aeo oai?/anoaa a eiioaenoa iiaeiuo
eiiiaaoeee eae «aiaeaaeaioioth no?oeoo?o», «a?ioaneiia oaei» (I.Aaooei),
«ea?o» (E.O?eceiaa, O.-A.Aaaeaia?), «eioaioeeiiaeueiia aaeeinoai»
eioiie?iaaiey (Y.Aonna?eue, ?.Eiaa?aeai). No?oeoo?ii-naieieiae/aneee
eiioaeno iiaeiuo eiiiaaoeee iienuaaaony a ?aieao eiioeaioia
«ino?aiaiea», «eiiaaioeey» (A.Oeeianeee), «eiiiioaoeey», «aeaiioaoeey»
(?.Aa?o, I.Ooei, AE.Aiae?eey?).

Aoi?ay aeaaa iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth eoeueoo?iuo i?aeoee iiaeu a
eiioaenoa noeeaauo ia?aaeeai. Oaea ia?auaiea e «ia?aiauoiie iiaea»
aiai?eo i oii, /oi iiaea aicieeaao eae naieioe/aneee
(ciaeiai-neiaiee/aneee) eiiieaen. ?ane?anea oaea, oaooe?iaea,
iaaaae?aiiay iiaycea ia?ee?otho nioeeaeueiia oaei ?iaea (ieaiaie).
Ia?yae eieoeeaoeee, naycaiiue n ia?aoaieai iiaiai eiaie, i?eaiaeee e e
ia?aainnicaeaieth (iiaiio ?iaeaeaieth) oaea.

Enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iue aiaeec iiaeu a ?aaeeyo enoi?ee einothia iieacae
ianeieueei naycaiu e neeou ie?iaicc?ai/aneea, noeeaaua e ynoaoe/aneea
ia?aaeeaiu yiioe n aa iiaeiuie no?aoaaeyie. Iiaea oaeeaeoaeueii
iinoiyiia a naiae iiaeaeueii-ie?iaicc?ai/aneie ooieoeee. Iiaea
i?iaeoe?oao ie? /aeiaaea a iiea aa/iiai («ae-ii»), a iiea aa/ii
iieiaeiai e iieiiai nee, ea?athuaai n naiei niaie homo ludens.

A aeaaa o?aoueae aieiaiea enneaaeiaaiey neiioeaio?e?iaaii ia
ynoaoe/aneii ie?a iiaeu. Iainiiauaaaony, /oi iiaeo eae ynoa/aneee
oaiiiai iaeuecy aano?aae?iaaoue io yoe/aneie e i?aeoe/aneie aeecie
eoeueoo?u e iauanoaa. Iiaea aiaeece?oaony a ?aieao eiioeaioia «a?ioane»,
«eaeaae», «ii?ia», /oi i?aaeiieaaaao aaeeinoai i?e?iaeiuo, nioeeaeueiuo
e eoeueoo?iuo ia/ae «iiaeiinoe» — ynoaoe/aneie noanoaioeee iiaeu.

Ie? iiaeu ?aeiino?oe?oaony eae naiaia?aciay eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneay
aio?iiieiaey (no?aoaaey thaaiaeecaoeee ?iaea *aeiaae), eae enoi?e/aneay
aeeciue eaeaaeia iiaeu, eioi?ua i?aaenoatho a eiioaenoa ?eooaeueiuo
i?aeoee, einiieiae/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey, neia?aee o?enoeaineiai
aaniethoa, ea?oeiiinoe, yeaeaoe/iinoe aic?iaeaeai/aneiai eaeaaea
/aeiaaea e ie?a, eae noeeaaia iiiaiia?acea, eae aioenenoaia.
Yecenoaioeeaeueiue aiaeec ii?i iiaeu aeae aiciiaeiinoue aiai?eoue e i
iaeiae «yecenoaioeeaeueiie enoi?ee iiaeu» — eae i enoi?ee
o?ainoeaiaee?iaaiey /aeiaaeii naiaai ie?a, naiaai «ss», anaai iau/iiai e
iauaeaiiiai a ie?oaeathuae aai ?aaeueiinoe. Iiaea a oaeii ecia?aiee oaea
n?iaeie ieoo, /oaeo, iaoaiiiio oaioace?iaaieth eae naiioeaee.
Ynoaoinoa?a iiaeu iauaieao a naaa anth iieiioo /oanoaaiiiai ie?a,
ia?aaeeaaaiiai a ?aieao noaaoae, iioa?yiiie e i?iaeoe?oaiie aa?iiiee
/aeiaaea e ie?a. Ioia/aaony, /oi ynoaoe/aneay niaoeeoeea iiaeu
au?aaeaaony iacaaa?oaiiui ieiaoeciii e iaiieiioie iaeaaeaiey i?aaeiaoii
iiaeu. Eoeueoo?ii-aio?iiieiae/aneay niaoeeoeea iiaeu ninoieo a
ia?iaiaioiie thaaiaeecaoeee /aeiaaea a eoeueoo?a n?aaenoaaie ea?iaiai
iiaaaeaiey.

Iiaea ?aeiino?oe?oaony a ?aaeeyo enoi?ee iaeaaeaeu, auoa e eoeueoo?u a
oeaeii.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiaea, aeeneo?n iiaeu, eoeueoo?ioai?/anoai, noeeue,
ia?ac.

Summary

Tkachenko Lecya. The Fashion as an aesthetic phenomenon. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the Degree of Candidate of’Science in Philosophy, speciality
09.00.08- aesthetics. Grigoriy Skovoroda Institute of philosophy of
UNAS, Kyiv, 1999.

The phenomenon of fashion is explored in the aesthetic and
culturological measuring.The main subjects of this research are
aesthetic forms of fashion’s manifestation in culture. The analysis of
philosophical, aesthetic, art conceptions of fashion is done in this
research.

The author emphasised that the fashion is universal mechanism of
cultureformation. The aesthetic specific of fashion expresses in
unfinished mimesis and icomplete possesson of the fashion’s subject.The
cultural- antropological fashion is been in consistent uvenilization of
the person in culture with the help of playful behavious means.

The fashion is reconstructed in images of the history of clothes made of
life and culture in the whole.

Key words: fashion, fashion discourse, cultureformation, style, image.

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