IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AeA?AEAAE ? I?AAA ?i. A.I.EI?AOeUeEIAI

AE-?AAAOAeAO AAEAE

OAeE 341. 1

I?AEIA?IAeII-I?AAIA? ANIAEOE *EAINOAA

EI?AeAI?? A NENOAI? AAOO/NIO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.11 — i?aeia?iaeia i?aai

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ? ii??aiyeueiiai
i?aaiciaanoaa ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe

AeIEO???A Aiaoie?e ?aaiiae/,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa

?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe

AO?IIAINUeEEE Ieoaeei Anaaieiaeiae/

aeioeaio eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeiiai
i?aaa oa

?iicaiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa
Iaoe?iiaeueii?

th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i. ss?ineaaa
Ioae?iai

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

?OEUeEI ?aaai O?ioeiiae/

ia?oia? Oe?a?inueei?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

aaeaieaonueei? eiioi?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

(eaoaae?a i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “___”____________1999 ?ieo i _____aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.236.03 a ?inoeooo?
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001, i.Ee?a, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ?
i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “____” aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Onaiei ?.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie i?aeia?iaeiiai
aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa ? eiai i?aeaaeoc? — i?aeia?iaeiiai oi?aiaaeueiiai
i?aaa aecia/athoueny iniaeeainoyie no/aniiai na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ye
nenoaiiiai oe?eiai, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiaeeaeaiiyi i?ioean?a
i?aeia?iaeii? niaoe?ae?caoe??, ?ioaa?aoe??, aca?iicaeaaeiino? i?ae
noa’?eoaie ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. Iniaeeaino?
?aaoeueiaaiiai ia’?eoa iaoiiaeee a?aeiia?aei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy no/anii? i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? ?,
ianaiia?aae, nenoaiiee oa?aeoa? i?eioeei?a ? ii?i, ?aaeaiaiooth/eo ??ci?
aniaeoe i?aeia?iaeiiai oi?aiaaeueiiai iai?io oiaa?aie ? iineoaaie,
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e o ?aaoethaaii? no/anii?
na?oiai? oi?a?ae?, oaiaeaioe?th aei oi?aa?nae?caoe?? ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai
oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aaa oa ?i.

Iniaeeaino? no/aniiai aoaio i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ao?eai? a ae?yeueiino? Aaia?aeueii? oaiaee i?i
oa?eoe ? oi?a?aeth (AAOO), yea anoaiiaeea iniiai? i?eioeeie
i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue aeinyaiooiio ??aith
nenoaiiino? anana?oiueiai ainiiaea?noaa. I?ney caaa?oaiiy O?oaaaenueeiai
?aoiaeo ia?aaiai??a ? noai?aiiy Na?oiai? I?aai?caoe?? Oi?a?ae? (NIO),
noa?ith ae?yeueiino? yei? noaei ?aaoethaaiiy 15 ??cieo aniaeo?a
i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?, ui ?ai?oa ia aoiaeeee a ae?th/? ?aaeaiaioaoe??
AAOO, ii?ie ? i?eioeeie i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? ii/aee iaaoaaoe
aeiaaeueiiai ? oi?aa?naeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. O ca’yceo c oeei i?e?aeiaiiy
??cieo aea?aeaa aei nenoaie aaaaoinoi?iiiuei? oi?a?ae?, ui ?aaoeth?oueny
i?eioeeiaie AAOO/NIO, noa? ia o?eueee oaeoi?ii i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ?o iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e, aea ? ieoaiiyi aeeoo?caeaoiino?
a oiiaao aeiaaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai ioi/aiiy.

I?e?aeiaiiy aei nenoaie aaaaoinoi?iiiuei? e?aa?ae?caoe?? oi?a?ae? ia?
iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeiiii?ee Ei?aeai??, ui aecia/a?oueny
aaiiie?oe/iei iieiaeaiiyi e?a?ie, caaaeaiiyie noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii?
aenii?oii-i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?ee, caaacia/aiiy noaa?eueiiai aeiiii?/iiai
c?inoaiiy ca oiia iaaaeeeiai aioo??oiuei ?eieo ? iaiaaeaieo i?e?iaeieo
?ano?n?a; ??aiai aeiiii?/ieo aca?iica’yce?a c ie?aieie ?icaeiooeie
aeiiii?eaie — /eaiaie AAOO/NIO ? c aaeeeeie aeiiii?/ieie nithcaie
(iai?eeeaae, ?N), caaaeaiiyie noai?aiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo cii a?eueii?
oi?a?ae? ? o.i.

Aoiaeaeaiiy a nenoaio AAOO/NIO aeiaaa? a?ae aea?aeaa i?iaaaeaiiy
no?oeoo?ieo ?aoi?i iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e ca?aeii c i?eioeeiaie ?
ii?iaie aaaaoinoi?iiiuei? e?aa?ae?caoe??. Iiae?ai?noue i?ioean?a
?aoi?ioaaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ?o caeiiii??i?noue ? aea? iiaeeea?noue
i?iaiicoaaoe iaeiioeiaeuei?o? oi?ie i?e cae?eniaii? e?aa?ae?caoe??
aeiiii?ee Ei?aeai??.

Anaa?/iei aena?oeaiiyi an?o aeacaieo ieoaiue iaoiiaeaia aeooaeuei?noue
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a naia: 1) caa?iaiiyi no/aniiai
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ? i?aeia?iaeiiai oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aaa aei i?iaeai
?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei-aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ia
i?e?iainiiaea?nueeiio oa iae?i??aiyo, a oaeiae aei ieoaiue ?ic?iaeaiiy
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e o noa?? no?oeoo?iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e ??cieo e?a?i a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia AAOO/NIO; 2)
caaaeaiiyie eiaeeo?eaoe?? oa nenoaiaoecaoe?? no/aniiai i?aeia?iaeiiai
aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa a ca’yceo c caaa?oaiiyi O?oaaaenueeiai ?aoiaeo
ia?aaiai??a AAOO, ooai?aiiyi NIO; 3) iio?aaith Ei?aeai?? o
aeyaeaii? ?iaa??aioieo iniaeeainoae ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e
??cieo aea?aeaa-/eai?a AAOO/NIO c iaoith aecia/aiiy iaeiioeiaeuei?oeo
iiaeeeainoae e?aa?ae?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aiaaeueiiai ?aaeeio;
4) ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/iei ni?a?ia?oieoeoaii Ei?aeai??
c ?aa?iiaeueieie aeiiii?/ieie ia’?aeiaiiyie ? c ie?aieie e?a?iaie,
??ciianiaeoiei ?aoi?ioaaiiyi aeiiii?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Ei?aeai??,
iia’ycaiiai c ia?niaeoeaith anooio aei AAOO/NIO.

??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie. O i?ioean? aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoaia oe?iea eiei a?aanueeeo, oe?a?inueeeo ?
cao?aeieo aeaea?ae, ui aena?oeththoue ye caaaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aaiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy no/anii? i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?; oae ? ieoaiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aeiiii?/iiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Ei?aeai??, Oe?a?ie oa a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa
ca?aeii c aeiiaaie AAOO/NIO. A oe?a?inuee?e i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia?e iaooe?
aaaiiee aeeaae a oai??th i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa aianee
N.A.Aieoiae/, A.O.Ii?eoei, ?.O.?oeueei. Na?aae ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo
ieoaiiyie i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa oa eiai ie?aieo ?inoeooo?a
caeiaeeny A.I.Aaeueyi?iia, E.A.Eaa?ia, A.I.Oao?ia, ?.A.Oeaa?aa, O.?aeea,
A.Oaa?oeaiaa?aa?, O.O??aeiai. Aea aiie ia aeine?aeaeoaaee niaoe?aeueii
ieoaiiy ae?yeueiino? AAOO/NIO.

I?iaeaiai aea/aiiy i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio, i?eioeei?a ? ii?i
AAOO /anoeiai i?enay/ai? ?iaioe I.Aa?oa, Na?aea Iooaiiaaea, A.Ooaeaea,
I.Oiaia, AE.Ooneica, ?ae.?aoiaoa Oeeaoa.

Iaiao?aeii oaeiae iacaaoe oe?a?inueeeo oa ?in?enueeeo i?aaenoaaiee?a
iaoee i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, /e? ?iaioe iaaiei /eiii aieeioee ia
?ic?iaeaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo ieoaiue aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ianaiia?aae, oea ?iaioe A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai,
A.N.Aa?auao?ia, A.I.Aeaieniaa, A.?.?a?ioiaa, A.A.?aiaoaiea,
?.A.Eaeaiea?yia, ?.?.Eoeaooea, A.?.Io?aaeiaa, ?.A.Itheea?niia oa ?i.

Ine?eueee a aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? aeaye? iiiyooy ? eaoaai??? c iaoith
anaa?/iiai aena?oeaiiy ia’?eoa i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa —
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, oea iaoiiaeei caeo/aiiy ye
caaaeueieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo aeaea?ae ?ia?o oaeeo i?aaenoaaiee?a
i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, ye A.?.E?aae?nia, A.?.Iai?inueeee,
I.?.Ieeeiaiei, N.?.Nieieaiei, N.I.Aoeoe?iian, Aeae.Eaein, I.Naioaeuenii
oa ?i.

O oie aea /an i?iaeai? aea/aiiy i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai iaoai?cio
ae?yeueiino? AAOO/NIO a aniaeo? no?oeoo?ii-i?aaiai? aaeaioaoe?? aei
i?eioeei?a a?eueii? oi?a?ae? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee ie?aii? aea?aeaae
aai a?oie aea?aeaa ia aoei i?enay/aii aeiaeiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiiia?ao?/iiai oa?aeoa?o.

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiaoeee, ia?aii? aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe iiaea iaaiith i??ith neoaoaaoe iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeia? oai??? oa
i?aeoeee i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa ? caiiaieoe iaaio i?iaaeeio a
oe?a?inuee?e oa a?aanuee?e i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia?e e?oa?aoo??.

Neeaaei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?? noiniaii cae?aiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy
aaee/aciiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, iia’ycaiiai c ae?yeuei?noth AAOO,
onoaiiaaie NIO, ci?iaie a aeiiii?/iiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Ei?aeai??,
a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa oa Oe?a?ie, aecia/eea nai???aei?noue aeaea?aeueii?
aace i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oae, o ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
??ciiiai?oi? iaoa??aee AAOO ? NIO, aeiiia?ae? oa iaeyaee ?ioeo
i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, ye? oi?eathoueny ieoaiue na?oiai? oi?a?ae?
oa ?? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy; iaeyaee Eii?n?? Na?oiaiai
Aaieo noiniaii Cao?aeii? Ac??; Ie?iee Aeiaia?? i?ae Ei?aeai??th oa
?c?a?eai 1994 ?.; ca?oe aeaia?oaiaioo noaoenoeee Ei?aeai?? c
i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?; iaeyaee Oeaio?aeueiiai Aaieo Ei?aeai??;
aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aeaioiaeai? Ei?ii?aoe??th ni?eyiiy
?iaanoeoe?yi (Ei?aeai?y). Aeey ocaaaeueiaiiy ??ciianiaeoiiai oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo oe?iei caeo/aeeny iaoa??aee no/anii? ei?aeainueei? oa
oe?a?inueei? i?ane ca 1995- 1998 ??.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue a ocaaaeueiaii?
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo oa aioo??oiuei-i?aaiaeo aniaeo?a /eainoaa
Ei?aeai?? a nenoai? AAOO/NIO. A ca’yceo c oeei iniiaio oaaao a
aeena?oaoe?? i?eae?eaii ae??oaiith ianooiieo caaaeaiue:

— aecia/eoe cia/aiiy nenoaie AAOO ye oaeoi?a ?icaeoeo no/aniiai
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa;

— anoaiiaeoe iniiai? iie?oeei-i?aaia? ia?aaeoiiae i?e?aeiaiiy Ei?aeai??
aei nenoaie AAOO/NIO;

— ?ice?eoe caaaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioean?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e ??cieo aea?aeaa ye oaeoi?a e?aa?ae?caoe??
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a i?ae ieie ? ia?aaeoiiae iiaeaeueoi?
aeiaaeueii? e?aa?ae?caoe??.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeee aeei?enoaiiy ii??aiyeueiiai,
aiae?oe/iiai oa ?noi?e/iiai iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae caa?iaiiy
aei eaoaai??e caaaeueiiai oa iniaeeaiai, noo? oa yaeua, aano?aeoiiai ?
eiie?aoiiai. I?eioeei ia’?eoeaiino? oa aeieaciaino? ?aae?co?oueny a
aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? c iiceoe?e ae?aeaeoe/iiai aiae?co oa
neioaco i?aaiaeo i?ioean?a, ?o i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a ?
e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoao?a.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?? iieiaeaiiy
iaa?oioiaothoue caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? i?aaiaiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e a oiiaao aeiaaeueiiai na?oiaiai ?eieo oa
iaoai?ci?a eiai i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe
oaiaeaioe?? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo i?eioeei?a ? ii?i no/aniiai
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa ye th?eaee/ii? iniiae iioei?caoe?? oa
?ioaa?aoe?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a i?ae aea?aeaaaie a oiiaao
ia’?eoeaii? iaiaaeaiino? iaoe?iiaeueieo oaeoi??a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a ?? iniiaieo
iieiaeaiiyo aecia/a?oueny cia/aiiy i?eioeei?a ? ii?i a?eueii? oi?a?ae?
aeey noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii? aenii?oii ci???ioiaaii? iiaeae? aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo a?aanueeeo e?a?i, ?, cie?aia, Ei?aeai??, ?ice?eaathoueny
iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ii?iaoeaiiai aeina?aeo uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e ??cieo aea?aeaa ca?aeii c i?eioeeiaie AAOO/NIO o
i?aeoeoe? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, o oiio /ene? i?aeoeee Oe?a?ie oa
Ei?aeai??.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue oae? aniaeoe i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:

iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee — o noa?? aea/aiiy oai??? i?aeia?iaeiiai
aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa ? eiai i?aeaaeoc? — i?aeia?iaeiiai oi?aiaaeueiiai
i?aaa uiaei iiaeeeainoae ?o iiaeaeueoi? eiaeeo?eaoe?? oa
nenoaiaoecaoe??;

ina?oi?e — o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy aoc?anueeeo eo?n?a i?aeia?iaeiiai
aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa oa i?aeia?iaeiiai oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aaa, a oaeiae
ie?aieo niaoe?aeueieo iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a aiae?co i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai
aniaeoo no?oeoo?ieo ?aoi?i iae?iaeiiii?e ??cieo e?a?i;

ii?iioai?/ee — o i?aeoeoe? iiaeaeueoiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo
?aaeei?a a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa, cie?aia Ei?aeai??, ca?aeii c aeiiaaie
no/anii? i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?, a o/ano? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo a?aeiinoa
a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa ? Oe?a?ie a iiaeaeueo?e eiaeeo?eaoe?? i?aeia?iaeiiai
aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui a
iueiio aia?oa a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? i?iaiae?ciaaii iniaeeaino? oa
iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee a?aanueei?
aea?aeaae ca?aeii c i?eioeeiaie aaaaoinoi?iiiuei? /anoeiai?
e?aa?ae?caoe?? oi?a?ae?, anoaiiaeaieie O?oaaaenueeei ?aoiaeii
ia?aaiai??a AAOO; aia?oa i?aaenoaaeai? aaaaoianiaeoi?
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? oa aioo??oiuei-i?aaia? oaeoi?e ?ioaa?aoe??
Ei?aeai?? aei nenoaie AAOO/NIO; ia iniia? ii??aiyeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?ioean?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy a Oe?a?i?, Ei?aeai?? oa a?aanueeeo e?a?iao, ye?
cae?eniththoue iie?oeeo aeiiii?/ii? e?aa?ae?caoe??, aeyaeaii iniaeeaino?
oi?aiaaeueieo ?aaeei?a ??cieo e?a?i, ye? ? iniiaith ia?aoai?aiiy
ni?eueieo nenoaiieo aca?iica’yce?a o ooieoe?iiaeuei?, iiina?aaeeiaai?
eiie?aoieie iieacieeaie i?aeaea?aeaaii? ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?; a iaoeiaee
ia?a aia?oa aaiaeyoueny i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? aeieoiaioe oa o?aaiaioe
aioo??oi?o caeiiiaeaanoa, ye? ?ai?oa ia aoee i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy
aai aeei?enoiaoaaeeny /anoeiai.

Ca’ycie oaie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa iaae aeena?oaoe??th
i?iaiaeeeany a ?one? aeeiiaiiy ?iai/iai ieaio a?aeae?eo i?aeia?iaeiiai
i?aaa ? ii??aiyeueiiai i?aaiciaanoaa ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.
A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo i?aeia?iaeiiai
i?aaa oa ii??aiyeueiiai i?aaiciaanoaa ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.
A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie. ?? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?icaeyaeaeeny oaeiae
ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia?ao.

Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a o?ueio
iioae?eiaaieo iaoeiaeo noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny iinoaaeaieie a i?e iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie.
Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ?
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 159 noi??iie, ?c ieo iniiaiee oaeno —
148 noi??iie. Nienie oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e ia?aoiao? 169 iineeaiue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oa aaaeeea?noue oaie
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?icaeyaea?oueny ??aaiue ?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino?,
aecia/athoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea
ia’?eoo, i?aaeiaoo oa iaoiaeieia?? ?iaioe, ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoeiaa
iiaecia ? aeeeaaeathoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
a oaeiae iieacaii oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??, ??
ai?iaaoe?th, ioae?eaoe?? oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Nenoaia AAOO o eiioaeno? ?icaeoeo no/aniiai
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa” aeyaeaii iniiai? iniaeeaino?
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy no/anii? nenoaie na?oiaeo
ainiiaea?nueeeo ca’yce?a, aecia/aii ?ieue AAOO/NIO o oi?ioaaii?
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa, cie?aia — iaa?oioiaaii cia/aiiy
O?oaaaenueeiai ?aoiaeo ia?aaiai??a aeey ?icaeoeo oe???
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiai? aaeoc?; ioa?aeoa?eciaaii caaaeuei? i?ioeane
?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e, ui ? oiiaith i?e?aeiaiiy aea?aeaa
aei nenoaie AAOO/NIO.

O ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny iniaeeaino? no/anieo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
ye ia’?eoa ?aaoethaaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa. O oeueiio
ca’yceo ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee no/aniiai na?oiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa — aaaaoineeaaeiaiai aeiiii?/iiai i?inoi?o, a yeiio,
caaaeyee ?aeiino? ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ae?? caeii
nenoaiii? naiii?aai?caoe??. Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeniiaie, ui aca?iiae?y
aeaiaio?a nenoaie na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa (iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e)
cae?enith?oueny ia no?oeoo?iiio oa ooieoe?iiaeueiiio ??aiyo. Ia
no?oeoo?iiio — oea ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e ia iniia?
a?aooaaiiy ? ?icoe?aiiy noa?e ae?? ?aeeieo aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a —
aa?oino?, eiieo?aioe??, iioei?caoe??, i?eioeei?a aieeao ?iaanoeoe?e ia
iaoe?iiaeueiee i?eaooie oa ?i. I?iyaii ae?? oeueiai no?oeoo?iiai ca’yceo
neoao? ?oo a?ae aoaoecio aei ?eieo, a?ae aei?noei? oeaio?ae?caoe?? — aei
aeiiii?/ii? e?aa?ae?caoe??. O ?acoeueoao? cae?enith?oueny oi?ioaaiiy
?aeeii? aeiaaeueii? no?oeoo?e ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? ia?aoai?aiiy
no?oeoo?ieo ca’yce?a o ooieoe?iiaeuei?, iane?aeeii yeeo ? iiaeeaeaiiy
i?aeia?iaeiiai iiae?eo i?aoe?, c?inoa? ?ieue na?oiai? oi?a?ae? ye
nenoaiiooai?thth/iai oa ?ioaa?oth/iai oaeoi?a ?icaeoeo na?oiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ine?eueee i?aeia?iaeia oi?a?aey iiina?aaeeiao? an? aeaee
i?aeia?iaeiiai iiae?eo i?aoe?. E?aa?ae?caoe?y oi?aiaaeueieo ?aaeei?a (ye
/anoeia no?oeoo?ieo ?aoi?i) noa?, a?aeiia?aeii, iniiaith aeey ?icaeoeo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ca’yce?a — i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? oa i?aeia?iaeiiai
iiae?eo i?aoe?. Iacaaaeath/e ia ?yae iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a
i?aeia?iaeiiai iiae?eo i?aoe?, a oe?eiio a?eueia oi?a?aey ca?eueoo?
iaoe?iiaeueiee i?iaeoeo on?o e?a?i, i?enei?th? oaiie ?o aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo.

O ?icae?e? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeniiaie, ui ii?ie ? i?eioeeie
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa a?aeaeaathoue iniaeeaino? a?aeiinei,
ye? aiie ?aaoeththoue, ianaiia?aae — i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? ? a oeueiio
ciaoiaeeoue na?e aeya caeii a?aeiia?aeiino? aoaeue-yei? oi?aaeyth/i?
nenoaie c nenoaiith, yeith oi?aaeythoue. I?aee?aneth?oueny cia/aiiy ii?i
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa, ui aeyaey?oueny o ?o ca’yceao c
aen?ieia?/iith iniiaith no/aniiai i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa. Oae, o ci?no?
an?o i?eioeei?a ? ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa ciaoiaeyoue
na?e aeya, ianaiia?aae, i?eioeei-?aeay naiaiaee, yeee aeyaey?oueny a
i?eioeei? iaaeene?ei?iaoe?? oi?a?ae?, ? i?eioeei-?aeay ??aiino? (??ai?
iiaeeeaino? a oi?a?ae? oa caaacia/aiiy ??aiino? a iaea?aeaii?
?acoeueoao?a). A?aeiia?aeii, niaoe?aeueiei i?eioeeiii i?aeia?iaeiiai
aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa, ?aaoethth/ei iiaoaeiao iiai? aaeoc?, ? i?eioeei
naiaiaee oi?a?ae? (ye aeiiii?/ii? iaaeene?ei?iaoe??), ui ciaoiaeeoue
aeya o anueiio ii?iaoeaiiio ianea? aaeoc?. A ?icae?e? aeaoaeueii
aiae?cothoueny iniiai? aoaie ae?yeueiino? AAOO o oi?ioaaii? ii?i ?
i?eioeei?a i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa.

O ?icae?e? a?aoiaioo?oueny iniaeeaa ?ieue o ?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeiiai
aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa O?oaaaenueeiai ?aoiaeo ia?aaiai??a AAOO, yeee icia/aa
?ai?aai?caoe?th o nenoai? oi?aiaaeueieo iai?i?a ? iaaeaa ii?iai,
?aaoethth/ei i?aeia?iaei? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie, aeiaaeueiiai oa
oi?aa?naeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. ?ai?aai?caoe?y a nenoai? oi?aiaaeueieo
iai?i?a ia? ia iao? iiaeaeueoo aaaaoinoi?iiith /anoeiao e?aa?ae?caoe?th,
yea ia?aaeaa/a? neanoaaiiy 30%-ai ieoa oa noaneae?e, a?aee?eooy ?eieo
aea?aeaa-o/aniee?a, ?o ciaia’ycaiiy a?eueoa ia aaeeaaoe
i?ioaeoe?ii?nonueeeo caoiae?a, oaiaeo i?i canioaaiiy aaaaoinoi?iiiuei?
oi?aiaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? — NIO.

O ?icae?e? cai?iiiiiaaia ni?iaa aecia/aiiy th?eaee/iiai ci?noo eaoaai???
oi?aa?naeueiino? ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa, yea, ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, iieyaa? a oiio, ui nenoaia ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy,
anoaiiaeaia i?aeia?iaeieie aeiiii?/ieie i?aai?caoe?yie (ianaiia?aae
AAOO/NIO), ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei ?icoe?aiiy a naieo i?aai?caoe?yo.

Aeiaaeuei?noue ii?i AAOO/NIO iieyaa? a oiio, ui caaaeyee nai?io
iaoa??aeueiiio ?icoe?aiith aiie iathoue oaiaeaioe?th iioe?thaaoeny ia
an? aeaee ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, iacaeaaeii a?ae iaoe ?
i?e?iaee inoaii?o.

Ia?aoo?, ocaaaeueiththoueny o? ii?ie ? aeiiae AAOO/NIO, ca?aeii c yeeie
ia? cae?enithaaoeny ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e aea?aeaa,
aaaeath/eo i?e?aeiaoeny aei nenoaie aaaaoinoi?iiiuei? e?aa?ae?caoe??
oi?a?ae?. Na?aae i??i?eoaoieo caaaeaiue o oeueiio ca’yceo aeae?eythoueny
ianooii?: ciaioaiiy ? iinooiiaa a?aeiiaa a?ae iaaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo
noaneae?e ae?iaieeai i?iieneiai? oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe??; cai?ia aa?oa?a oa ?ioeo oi?i oeaio?ae?ciaaii? oi?a?ae?
naiino?eiith i?aeo??iiaith oi?a?aeath; a?aeiiaa a?ae e?oeaicoaaiiy
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueieo iia?aoe?e; i?eaaoecaoe?y aea?aeaaii? oi?a?ae?;
o?ainoi?iaoe?y ieoieo oa?eo?a oa ?i.

Iaa?oioiaaii oaeiae ?ieue i?eioeei?a ? ii?i AAOO/NIO aeey ?ic?iaeaiiy
?aa?iiaeueieo ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo no?aoaa?e, cie?aia, aeey noai?aiiy
iiaeo ?ioaa?aoe?eieo aeiiii?/ieo ooai?aiue ia Aeecueeiio Noiae? — a?ae
a?eueieo aeiiii?/ieo cii — aei cii a?eueii? oi?a?ae? oa noai?aiiy
“ni?eueiiai” a?aai-?c?a?euenueeiai ?eieo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iniiai? iie?oeei-i?aaia? oa aeiiii?ei-i?aaia?
oaeoi?e anooio Ei?aeai?? a nenoaio AAOO/NIO” aeyaeaii ciai?oi? oa
aioo??oi? iie?oeei-i?aaia? oa aeiiii?ei-i?aaia? ia?aaeoiiae oa e?eoa???
?ioaa?aoe?? Ei?aeai?? aei nenoaie aaaaoinoi?iiiuei? e?aa?ae?caoe??
oi?a?ae?.

Aiae?coth/e iie?oeei-i?aaia? oaeoi?e i?e?aeiaiiy Ei?aeai?? aei nenoaie
AAOO/NIO, aaoi? ?icaeyaea? ?o a aeaio iniiaieo aniaeoao, iieacoth/e
ciai?oi? oa aioo??oi? oiiae cae?eniaiiy ei?aeainueeeo ?aoi?i.

Na?aae iaecaaaeuei?oeo iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo oaeoi??a aeiiii?/ii?
?ioaa?aoe?? aea?aeaa ? ?o anooio aei i?aai?a, eii?aeeioth/eo
i?aeia?iaeio oi?a?aeth, ?icaeyaeathoueny i?ioeane iie?oe/ii?
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? oa e?aa?ae?caoe?? o no/aniiio na?o?, o oiio /ene? — a
e?a?iao a?aanueeiai ?aa?iio.

Aaaeeeaei ?aa?iiaeueiei oaeoi?ii, ui caaacia/o? a?aeiia?aeiee
iie?oeei-i?aaiaee oii aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i a Ei?aeai??, ca?aeii c aeiiaaie
AAOO/NIO, noaa ?icaeoie ie?iiai i?ioeano ia Aeecueeiio Noiae? ?,
ianaiia?aae, noaa?e?caoe?y a?aai-?c?a?euenueeeo a?aeiinei. O ?icae?e?
?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? aeoe, uiaei a?aaoethaaiiy
a?aai-?c?a?euenueeiai eiioe?eoo ?, ia?aaeon?i, Ie?iee Aeiaia?? i?ae
Ei?aeai??th oa ?c?a?eai 1994 ?., yeee iai?oea no?aoaa?/i? aeiiii?/i?
oe?e? ei?aeaii-?c?a?euenueeiai ? a?aai-?c?a?euenueeiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa,
aeeth/ath/e noai?aiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo cii a?eueii? oi?a?ae?. I?aeienaiiy
Aeiaiai?o 1994 ?. aianei iaaiee aeeaae o ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie ciai?oiueiai
ai?ao Ei?aeai??, a oaeiae ni?eyei caeo/aiith aei Ei?aeai?? ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e. O ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny ia o?eueee aeiiii?/i? oa
o?iainia? iane?aeee Aeiaiai?o aeey i?enei?aiiy e?aa?ae?caoe??
ei?aeainueei? aeiiii?ee, aea e cia/aiiy oeueiai i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai
aeoo a aniaeo? ?aa?iiaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? ?ioaa?aoe??, ia?aoiaeo a?ae
i?aea?aanueei? iiaeae? aeiiii?/ii? eiiia?aoe?? c i?aoa?aioe?eiei
oi?aiaaeueiei ?aaeeiii aei noaiaea?o?a no/anii? i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?,
ia iniia? i?eioeei?a ? ii?i AAOO/NIO.

sse aioo??oi? aeiiii?ei-i?aaia? oaeoi?e cae?eniaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i a
Ei?aeai?? a ia??iae ?? i?aeaioiaee aei anooio aei AAOO/NIO o ?icae?e?
?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? iie?oeei-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ono?ith
ei?aeainueeiai noni?euenoaa, i?eoeeuei?noue aei i?eioeei?a ieth?ae?cio,
??aiino?, naiaiaee neiaa oa ae?oeo, ye? ae?noaee eiinoeoooe?eia
cae??ieaiiy a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e Oa?o?? Ei?aeai?? 1991 ?., a oaeiae o
caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao 1992-1997 ??. (“I?i iie?oe/i? ia?o??”, “I?i i?ano oa
ioae?eaoe??”, “I?i aeai?e” oa ?i.) ? aeyaeeeny i?ae /an i?aeaioiaee aei
ia?eaiaionueeeo aeai??a a Ei?aeai?? 1997 ?., a ae?yeueiino?
ei?aeainueeiai ia?eaiaioo, a ?icaeoeo a 90-x pp. ?io?aeno?oeoo?e
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, iann-iaae?a, iao?yaeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e oa ?ioeo
a?iiaaenueeeo ?inoeooo?a. Oe? aioo??oiuei-i?aaia? oaeoi?e
caaacia/othoue, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iaai? aa?aio?? aaciiai?ioiino?
aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a Ei?aeai?? oa neoaothoue oaeoi?ii caeo/aiiy
aei e?a?ie ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e.

O ?icae?e? i?noeoueny anaa?/iee aiae?c ciai?oi?o oa aioo??oi?o
aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeo oaeoi??a i?e?aeiaiiy Ei?aeai?? aei nenoaie AAOO/NIO
iieacaii, ui ?ioaa?aoe?y Ei?aeai?? aei nenoaie na?oiai? oi?a?ae?
cae?enith?oueny a aeaio iniiaieo iai?yieao — “aoe?” ? “aaeea”: ca
?aooiie ?icoe?aiiy ei?aeainueeiai ?eieo caaaeyee i?iieeiaiith
ei?aeainueeeo oiaa??a ? iineoa ia i?aeia?iaei? ?eiee ? ca ?aooiie
“iiaeeaeaiiy” ei?aeainueeiai ?eieo a ?acoeueoao? cae?eniaiiy iaiao?aeieo
no?oeoo?ieo ?aoi?i iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee.

O oeueiio ca’yceo iaa?oioiaaii cia/aiiy oaeeo ciai?oiuei-aeiiii?/ieo
oaeoi??a, ye i?aoa?aioe?eiee aeinooi Ei?aeai?? aei iaea?eueoeo na?oiaeo
?eie?a, e?aa?ae?caoe?y ei?aeaii-?a?iiaenueei? oa ei?aeaii-a?aanueei?
oi?a?ae?, caeiiiaeaa/i cae??ieai? ia?niaeoeae a?aai-?c?a?euenueei?
a?eueii? oi?a?ae? oa ooai?aiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo cii a?eueii? oi?a?ae?. Oae,
iei? Ei?aeai?y ei?enoo?oueny aeiiii?/ieie i?ea?eayie ia aia?eeainueeiio,
yiiinueeiio, aano?ae?enueeiio, neaiaeeiaanueeiio, a oaeiae ia ?eieao
?ioeo e?a?i, ye? ia aoiaeyoue aei ?a?iiaenueeiai Nithco.

E??i aeiaiai??a i?i i?aoa?aioe?eio oi?a?aeth, i?aeienaia oaiaea i?i
e?aa?ae?caoe?th ei?aeaii-?a?iiaenueei? oi?a?ae? (Oaiaea i?i a?eueio
oi?a?aeth i?ae ?N oa Ei?aeai??th a?ae 16 ea?oiy 1997 ?., oiiae yei?
iia’ycai? c caeiiiaeaa/eie ?aoi?iaie a Ei?aeai??, aaaaoi a /iio
ni?aiaaeathoue c oiiaaie /eainoaa a NIO).

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oaiae i?i i?aoa?aioe?eio oa a?eueio
oi?a?aeth Ei?aeai?? c ?icaeiooeie ?iaeono??aeueieie aea?aeaaaie oa
aeiiii?/ieie aeieaie, aaoi? aeyaey? ?o cia/aiiy a aniaeo? ?ioaa?aoe??
Ei?aeai?? aei anana?oiuei? nenoaie oi?a?ae?. Oae, oi?a?aey c oeeie
e?a?iaie noaaeoue iia? aeiiae aei yeino? ei?aeainueeeo oiaa??a, ?o
na?oeo?eaoe??; o i?ioeano cae?eniaiiy oe??? oi?a?ae? Ei?aeai?y
iaaeeaea?oueny aei iiaeo oaoiieia?e, iio-oao, ?iiiaaoe?yi,
i?aeeeth/a?oueny aei ia?eaoeiaiaeo ia?aae oi?aiaeo ia?oia??a ? o.i.;
ia?aoo?, ?icoe?th?oueny ianya ei?aeainueeiai aenii?oo a oe?eiio, yeee ?
iniiaith aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy e?a?ie. Iei? Ei?aeai?y ? iaei??th c
iaea?aee?eo?oeo aeiiii?e ?aa?iio (ca eiao?oe??ioii ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?
aei AII, yeee o 1996 ?. noaiiaea 85%).

O ?icae?e? iaa?oioiao?oueny cia/aiiy oaeiai aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaiai oaeoi?o
?ioaa?aoe?? Ei?aeai?? aei anana?oiuei? nenoaie oi?a?ae?, ye
e?aa?ae?caoe?y aeainoi?iii?o ei?aeaii-a?aanueeeo oa
ei?aeaii-?c?a?euenueeeo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei. Oea ciaoiaeeoue aeya a
oaiaeaioe?? ia?aoai?aiiy i?aoa?aioe?eieo ? i?ioieieueieo oi?aiaaeueieo
oaiae a aeiaiai?e i?i a?eueio oi?a?aeth. I?eeeaaeaie iiaeooue neoaoaaoe
ei?aeaii-?aeiaonuee?, ei?aeaii-?c?a?euenuee?, ei?aeaii-n???enuee? oa
ei?aeaii-iaeanoeinuee? oaiaee. C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui i?e iine?aeiaiiio
i?iaaaeaii? a?aeiia?aeieo ?aoi?i Ei?aeai?y iiaea noaoe oeaio?ii
aeiiii?/ii? ?ioaa?aoe?? ?aa?iio, ui iia’ycaii c aaiiie?oe/iei noaiiaeuai
aea?aeaae ia ia?an?/aii? o?ueio eiioeiaio?a, a oaeiae c ?nioth/eie
?c?a?euenueei-iaeanoeinueeeie, ei?aeaii-?c?a?euenueeeie oaiaeaie i?i
a?eueio oi?a?aeth oa ei?aeaii-iaeanoeinueeith “?aieiaith” oaiaeith i?i
ciio a?eueii? oi?a?ae? o aeieei? ??/ee Ei?aeai, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
aiai?eoe i?i ia?niaeoeao noai?aiiy
ei?aeaii-?c?a?euenueei-iaeanoeinueeiai aeiiii?/iiai nithco, ia iniia?
i?eioeei?a AAOO/NIO.

Aaoi? ?icaeyaea? aioo??oi? aeiiii?ei-i?aaia? oaeoi?e i?e?aeiaiiy
Ei?aeai?? aei nenoaie AAOO/AOI, iniiai? iai?yiee aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i a
Ei?aeai?? oa a?aeiia?aei? ci?ie caeiiiaeaa/i? aace, iieaco?, ye
cae?eniththoueny i?ia?aie no?oeoo?iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy ei?aeainueei?
aeiiii?ee ca o/anoth i?aeia?iaeieo o?iainiaeo i?aai?a: I?aeia?iaeiiai
aaethoiiai oiiaeo oa I?aeia?iaeiiai aaieo ?aeiino?oeoe?? oa ?icaeoeo.
Oea i?ia?aia no?oeoo?ii? aaeaioaoe??, yea ae?? c 1989 ?. ? caaaeyee ye?e
a Ei?aeai?? noai?aii iaeni?eyoeea?oee a ?aa?ii? ?iaanoeoe?eiee ee?iao, ?
I?ia?aia nioe?aeueii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?, yea ae?? c ii/aoo 1997 ?.
Aiae?cothoueny iaei?ia?aneai?o? caeiie Ei?aeai??, i?eeiyo? a na?aaeei?
oa a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 90-x ?ie?a, na?aae yeeo iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia?
Caeii i?i ni?eyiiy ?iaanoeoe?yi (Caeii ? 16 1995 ?.). Oeae caeii
o??aith? a i?aaao ?iicaiieo oa ei?aeainueeeo ?iaanoi??a ? ia?aaeaa/a?
iaaeaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo i?euea aeey ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a,
iia’ycaieo c ?yaeii no?aoaa?/ieo naeoi??a ei?aeainueei? aeiiii?ee oa
?icaeoeii aenii?oii-i???ioiaaieo aaeocae. Cie?aia, iaecia/i?o? i?eueae,
aeeth/ath/e 75%-ia ca?eueiaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a,
ia?aaeaa/ai? aeey i?iaeo?a o noa?? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa,
oaa?eiieoeoaa, aioaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ii?nueeiai oa cae?cie/iiai
o?ainii?oo.

O ?icae?e? iaa?oioiao?oueny aca?iica’ycie ci?i o ?iaanoeoe?eiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? Ei?aeai?? c anooiii aea?aeaae a AAOO/NIO. Oae, cia/i?
i?eueae, ye? iaaeathoueny ?iaanoeoe?eiei n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei
i?iaeoai, iia’ycai? c iiaeeeaeie iaaaoeaieie iane?aeeaie anooio
Ei?aeai?? aei nenoaie aaaaoinoi?iiiuei? e?aa?ae?caoe?? oi?a?ae?
(i?aeaeuaiiyi oe?i ia no?aoaa?/i? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? eoeueoo?e,
iaeiio?ieueiaaiith oaeeath aenii?oo n?eueaini?iaeoeoe?? ? o.i.). O
ca’yceo c oeei ?iaanoeoe?? a oaoiieia??, aeei?enoiaoaai? i?e ?ic?iaeaii?
???eaaoe?eiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, nenoai aoi?eiii? i/enoee aiaee, iaoiae?a
aaaeaiiy oa?ia?nueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, caeaoi? i?eaanoe aei ca?eueoaiiy
aenii?oo n?eueainieoeueoo? oa i?aeaeuaiith ?o eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino? ia
na?oiaeo ?eieao. Oi/ iiaee ?iaanoeoe?eiee caeii ? iaea?eueo e?aa?aeueiei
na?aae iiae?aiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ?yaeo e?a?i ?aa?iio ? a?aeiia?aea?
caaaeueiii?eeiyo?e na?oia?e i?aeoeoe? caoenoo ?iaanoeoe?e, ianooiiee
eiai ?icaeoie (a Iinoaiiaao § 1 ? ? 2, 1996 ?., ? 39, 1997 ?.)
cae?enith?oueny a iai?yieo iiaeaeueoi? e?aa?ae?caoe??. Cie?aia, a
Iinoaiia? 39 neaniaothoueny 50%-i? iaiaaeaiiy ia /anoeo ?iicaiiiai
?iaanoi?a o noa?? o?ainii?oo, no?aooaaiiy, oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e oa ?ioeo
i?ia?aeieo naeoi?ao aeiiii?ee Ei?aeai??.

Iieacaii, ui iei? Ei?aeai?y ia? iaeia c iaei?ia?aneai?oeo a ?aa?ii?
aaethoia ? aaie?anueea caeiiiaeaanoai. Aiia ? ?aeeiith e?a?iith na?aae
aea?aeaa Aeecueeiai Noiaeo, a ye?e a?aenooi? iaiaaeaiiy uiaei oi?a?ae?
?iicaiiith aaethoith, ui neoao? iaei??th c iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee
nooiaiy a?aee?eoino? aeiiii?ee.

O?yae Ei?aeai?? cae?enith? eiiieaenia ?aoi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai,
ieoiiai, o?oaeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ?aaoethth/iai ae?yeuei?noue
aeoe?iia?ieo eiiiai?e, ieoaiiy caoenoo i?aaa ?ioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniino?
? o.i. Iiaa caeiiiaeaanoai Ei?aeai?? iiai?noth a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai
AAOO/NIO. Cie?aia, caeiiiaeaanoai, yea caoeua? i?aai ?ioaeaeooaeueii?
aeaniino? oa aaoi?nuee? i?aaa, a oe?eiio ocaiaeaeo?oueny c oaiaeith NIO
i?i aniaeoe ?ioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniino?, ui noinothoueny oi?a?ae?, yea
i?ney cae?i/aiiy O?oaaaenueeiai ?aoiaeo ia?aaiai??a iai?/a? iaeia c
iaei??i?eoaoi?oeo iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino? NIO.

Oaeei /eiii, e?aa?ae?caoe?y caeiiiaeaanoaa Ei?aeai?? ni?yiiaaia
ianaiia?aae ia caaacia/aiiy iaea?eueo aeeiai?/ii? oa i?ici?i? nenoaie
?aaoethaaiiy aioo??oiueiai ?eieo, eiai iiaeeaeaiiy oa ?icoe?aiiy,
aa?aioo? iaeneiaeueio a?aee?eo?noue ei?aeainueei? aeiiii?ee,
aa?iii?caoe?th aioo??oi?o niinia?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy c i?aeia?iaeieie
noaiaea?oaie no?oeoo?io aaeaioaoe?th aei oiia na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa oa
na?oiaiai ?eieo.

O?ao?e ?icae?e — “Ni?euei?noue i?ioean?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
aeiiii?e ??cieo aea?aeaa ye iaeia c oiia e?aa?ae?caoe?? oi?aiaaeueieo
ca’yce?a i?ae ieie oa Ei?aeai??th” — i?enay/aiee ?icaeyaeia?
iniaeeainoae ?aoi?ioaaiiy ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? Ei?aeai??,
aiae?cia? no?oeoo?ieo aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a a?aanueeeo
aea?aeaaao-/eaiao AAOO/AOI ? a Oe?a?i? ye oaeoi?o e?aa?ae?caoe??
aca?iieo oi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a. Iaa?oioiao?oueny niaoeeo?ea ?aae?caoe??
aenii?oii-?iii?oiei caeiiiaeaanoaii Ei?aeai?? (cie?aia, Caeiiii i?i
?iii?o ? aenii?o 1992 ?.), Caeiiii i?i oi?o?eaoe?th ieo ? ieoieo cai??a
(Caeii ? 7, 1997 ?.), caeiiiaeaanoaii i?i a?euei? aeiiii?/i? ciie, oaeeo
iniiaiiieiaeieo i?eioeei?a AAOO/NIO, ye i?eioeei iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaeeio
uiaei ?iii?oiaaieo oiaa??a, ie?ai? aeaiaioe i?eioeeio iaea?eueo
ni?eyoeeai? iaoe?? oa i?eioeeio, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? caaaeueio a?aei?io
e?euee?nieo iaiaaeaiue aenii?oo oa ?iii?oo.

Oae, ine?eueee iniiai? iaiaaeaiiy uiaei ?iii?oo oa aenii?oo oiaa??a
caa??aathoueny a Ei?aeai?? ia?aaaaeii o oi?i? eaio oa ?iii?oieo
(aenii?oieo) e?oeaic?e, oi caoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia nei?i/aiiy iaoa?eoieo
aa?’???a, caiaeyoueny aei a?aei?ie e?euee?nieo iaiaaeaiue ia ?iii?o oa
aenii?o oiaa??a.

Ie?ai? aeaiaioe i?eioeeio iaea?eueo ni?eyoeeai? iaoe?? ?aae?cothoueny o
i?aeoeoe? noai?aiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia oa?eoi??? Ei?aeai?? a?eueieo
aeiiii?/ieo cii, ui ? nai???aeiei aoaiii no?oeoo?ii? aaeaioaoe?? aei
ii?i a?eueii? oi?a?ae?. I?iaiae?ciaaii oaeiae cia/aiiy a oeueiio ca’yceo
a?eueieo aeiiii?/ieo cii, ia oa?eoi??? yeeo noai?ai? iaea?eueo i?eueaia?
oiiae aeey ?iicaiiiai ?iaanooaaiiy, aeey oi?ioaaiiy ?io?ano?oeoo?e, yea
a?aeiia?aea? noaiaea?oai i?aeia?iaeiiai a?ciano, a oaeiae aeey
aaeaioaoe?? i?noeaaeo o??i aei ?iaioe a oiiaao eiieo?aioe?? ia na?oiaeo
?eieao.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i aea? no?aoaa?/i? e?i??, ye? oiiaii aeae?eythoueny,
a ?aoi?ioaaii? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? Ei?aeai??, iaeia c
yeeo, ni?yiiaaia ia cieaeaiiy ?iii?oieo oa?eo?a, nei?i/aiiy iaoa?eoieo
iaiaaeaiue, noeioeyoe?th ?iaanooaaiiy oa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, ia? ia iai?
?icoe?aiiy oi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a c ??cieie e?a?iaie na?oo,
“ai?eciioaeueio” ?ioaa?aoe?th aei na?oiai? nenoaie oi?a?ae?; ?ioa
no?aoaa?/ia e?i?y, ni?yiiaaia ia iiaeeaeaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a c
?iicaiieie ia?oia?aie, “aa?oeeaeueio” ?ioaa?aoe?th aei nenoaie na?oiaeo
ainiiaea?nueeeo ca’yce?a, i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? aeiiii?ee Ei?aeai?? a
i?aeia?iaeiiio iiae?e? i?aoe?.

O ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iniiai? caoiaee, uiaei e?aa?ae?caoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?eieo Ei?aeai?? oa caaacia/aiiy
eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino? ei?aeainueei? aa?ii?iaeoeoe??. Oea — i?ia?aia
oe?ieiai caeo/aiiy aei aa?inaeoi?o ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e; ciaioaiiy
noaneae?e ia ae?iaieoeoai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa??a ca?aeii c
aeiiaaie AAOO/NIO; a?aei?io ieoieo cai??a ia ?iii?oiaaia
n?eueainionoaoeoaaiiy, aeia?eaa oa aoaeue-ye? iiooaeiino?, iaiao?aei?
aeey aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa, noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii?
nenoaie iaa/aiiy oa?ia??a a aaeoc? aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa ? cae?eniaiiy
oi?aiaaeueieo iia?aoe?e ia aioo??oiueiio oa i?aeia?iaeieo ?eieao;
iineeaiiy ?ie? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a noa?? iie?ioaiiy iieaciee?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? ciaioaiiy nia?aa?oino?
i?iaeoeoe??; noai?aiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? e?aaeeoii? ei?ii?aoe??
c iaoith ni?iuaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e iaea?aeaiiy e?aaeeo?a ia aoaeue-yeee
no?ie aeey ?icaeoeo oa?ia?nueei?, eiiia?aoeaii? oa ?ioi?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Aena?oeaii cia/aiiy ?ioeo oaeoi??a ?ioaa?aoe?? ei?aeainueei? aeiiii?ee
aei ?aeeii? aeiaaeueii? nenoaie na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? oi?a?ae?
oiaa?aie ia iniia? ii?iai AAOO/NIO. Oea, cie?aia, caoiaee, iia’ycai? c
e?aa?ae?caoe??th ei?aeainueeiai ?eieo eai?oae?a: ni?iuaiiy iaoai?cio
oi?aae?iiy ca?oa?aeieie ?iaanoeoe?yie ei?aeainueeeo a?iiaaeyi,
e?aa?ae?caoe?y iia?aoe?e ii ianyao oa ?ooo ?iicaiieo aaetho, caaaeueia
eiii’thoa?ecaoe?y oa iiaea?i?caoe?y aaie?anueeeo iineoa, ui aea? ?i
iiaeeea?noue aaeaiooaaoeny aei iiai? ?ioaa?oth/i? ?ie? o na?oia?e
aeiiii?oe? i?ney anooio aei NIO. Ca inoaii? ?iee i?aeoe/ii cae?eniaii
e?aa?ae?caoe?th ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a a Ei?aeai??, ui ioe?ith?oueny
niaoe?ae?noaie ye iaeei c oaeaeei c?inoath/eo iiaeo i?aeia?iaeieo
o?iainiaeo ?eie?a.

Aiae?c no?oeoo?ieo aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a Oe?a?i? oa a aea?aeaaao
a?aanueeiai ?aa?iio — /eai?a AAOO/NIO aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
iacaeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy aaia?ao?/ii? aeecueeino? /e a?aeaeaeaiino? oeeo
e?a?i a?ae ??aiy ?o aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa iniaeeainoae iie?oe/iiai
ono?ith, i?ae ieie ?niothoue ni?euei? no?oeoo?i? aca?iica’ycee, a yeeo
aeyaey?oueny nenoaiiee oa?aeoa? no/aniiai na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa oa
aeiaaeueii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aiaeia?yie a
iae?iaeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?iao oeeo e?a?i, aeeth/ath/e ?aoi?ioaaiiy
oi?aiaaeueieo ?aaeei?a ca?aeii c aeiiaaie AAOO/NIO. A naith /a?ao,
aiaeia?? a i?ioeanao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ia?aaeaa/eoe
iine?aeiai?noue o i?iaaaeaii? ?aoi?i oa ?o iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee, a
oaeiae aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ia iaaiiio aoai? aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue ni?euei? (aioo??no?oeoo?i?) aca?iica’ycee i?ae aea?aeaaaie
iiaeii? noaoe ooieoe?iiaeueieie ? i?eaanoe aei ?icaeoeo ? ?icoe?aiiy
oi?a?ae? ia iniia? ?aeeieo i?aaiaeo i?eioeei?a.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? ocaaaeueiaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— iniiai? caeiiii??iino? o niinia? ?aaoethaaiiy no/anii? nenoaie
na?oiaiai ?eieo neeaeeny a iaaio ii?iaoeaio nenoaio, aieiai? oe?e? oa
i???ioe?e yei? noi?ioeueiaai? i?eioeeiaie ? ii?iaie AAOO/NIO;

— ?ioaa?aoe?y Ei?aeai?? aei nenoaie na?oiai? oi?a?ae? cae?enith?oueny a
aeaio iniiaieo iai?yieao: ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy ciai?oi?o
aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeo oaeoi??a, ?icoe?aiiy ei?aeainueeiai ?eieo aiane?aeie
i?iieeiaiiy ei?aeainueeeo oiaa??a ? iineoa ia i?aeia?iaei? ?eiee; ca
?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy aioo??oi?o aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeo oaeoi??a,
“iiaeeaeaiiy” ei?aeainueeiai ?eieo caaaeyee cae?eniaiith no?oeoo?ieo
?aoi?i, noai?aiith ni?eyoeeaiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ee?iaoo,
?iii?oiicai?uath/eo oa aenii?oiii???ioiaaieo aaeocae, c?inoaiith
i?aeia?iaeii? eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino? ei?aeainueeeo oiaa??a oa iineoa;

— iiaa aenii?oii-?iii?oia ? ieoia caeiiiaeaanoai Ei?aeai?? a oe?eiio
a?aeiia?aea? oaeei iniiaiei i?eioeeiai AAOO/NIO, ye i?eioeei
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaeeio uiaei ?iii?oiaaieo oiaa??a, i?eioeei iinooiiaiai
cieaeaiiy ??aiy ieoieo cai??a, i?eioeei iinooiiai? ? caaaeueii? a?aei?ie
e?euee?nieo iaiaaeaiue aenii?oo oa ?iii?oo, aeeth/ath/e nei?i/aiiy
iaoa?eoieo aa?’???a o aeaeyae? eaiooaaiiy oa e?oeaicoaaiiy;

— caa?aaeaiiy ie?aieo i?ioaeoe?ii?nonueeeo caoiae?a o ?aaoethaaii?
?iii?oo oa aea?aeaaia noaneaeoaaiiy ie?aieo aaeocae ia iiaeooue aooe
iniiaiith ia?aoeiaeith aeey /eainoaa Ei?aeai?? a AAOO/NIO, ine?eueee
aiie ocaiaeaeothoueny c nenoaiith aeiyoe?a ?c i?eioeei?a AAOO;

— oaeoi?ii ?ioaa?aoe?? ei?aeainueei? aeiiii?ee aei ?aeeii? nenoaie
na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? anana?oiuei? oi?a?ae?, ui ?aaeaiaioo?oueny
ii?iaie AAOO/NIO ? anaa?/ia cae?eniaiiy iie?oeee aeiiii?/ii?
e?aa?ae?caoe??, yea aeyaey?oueny o ?aoi?ioaaii? ?iaanoeoe?eiiai,
ieoiiai, iiaeaoeiaiai, o?iainiaiai, aaie?anueeiai, iaoaioiiai,
?iii?oii-aenii?oiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea ?aaoeth?
ae?yeuei?noue aeoe?iia?ieo eiiiai?e, ieoaiiy caoenoo i?aaa
?ioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniino?;

— iniiaieie ciai?oi?ie aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaeie oaeoi?aie ?ioaa?aoe??
Ei?aeai?? aei nenoaie AAOO/NIO ? oaiaea i?i i?aoa?aioe?eio oa a?eueio
oi?a?aeth c ?icaeiooeie ?iaeono??aeueieie e?a?iaie oa c aeiiii?/ieie
aeieaie; oaiaeaioe?y aei ia?aoai?aiiy i?aoa?aioe?eieo oaiae c
a?aanueeeie aea?aeaaaie a oaiaee i?i a?eueio oi?a?aeth; ia?niaeoeae
a?eueii? oi?a?ae? c ?c?a?eai oa ooai?aiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo cii a?eueii?
oi?a?ae?, ooieoe?iioth/eo ia iniia? i?eioeei?a AAOO/NIO;

— i?e?aeiaiiy Ei?aeai?? aei nenoaie AAOO/NIO iiaeiii noaoe oaeoi?ii
?icoe?aiiy ei?aeainueei? oi?a?ae? c Oe?a?iith ? c aea?aeaaaie ?aa?iio,
ye? aaea ? /eaiaie AAOO aai i?aaiooue ieie noaoe, cae?enithth/e
a?aeiia?aei? ?aoi?ie iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e;

— ni?euei?noue i?ioean?a aeiiii?/iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy a aea?aeaaao-/eaiao
AAOO aai i?aoaiaeaioao ia /eainoai aea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe
oaiaeaioe?? oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo ?aoi?i a ei?aeainuee?e aeiiii?oe?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o oaeeo iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Iie?oeei-i?aaia? ? aeiiii?/ii-i?aaia? ia?aaeoiiae i?e?aeiaiiy
Ei?aeai?? aei nenoaie AAOO/NIO // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei. — Aei. 7 (/anoeia ??). — E., Ee?anuee. oi-o ?i. O.Oaa/aiea,
?i-o i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, 1998. — N. 93-99.

2. Iiceoeai? ? iaaaoeai? oaeoi?e i?e?aeiaiiy Ei?aeai?? aei nenoaie
AAOO/NIO // I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ? 1. — N. 133-135.

3. Ie?iaay oi?aiaey e iniaaiiinoe aa iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai
?aaoee?iaaiey // Aea?aeaaa ? i?aai. Ui??/iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo
a/aieo. Aei. 2. — Ee?a, 1998-1999. — N. 482-488.

Ae-?aaaoaeao Aaeae. I?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? aniaeoe /eainoaa Ei?aeai?? a
nenoai? AAOO/NIO. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
?c niaoe?aeueiino? 12.00.11 — i?aeia?iaeia i?aai. — ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ?
i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaii ciai?oi? oa aioo??oiuei aeiiii?ei-i?aaia?
oa iie?oeei-i?aaia? oaeoi?e /eainoaa Ei?aeai?? a nenoai? AAOO/NIO.
Anoaiiaeaii a?aeiia?aei?noue ?aoi?i a aeiiii?oe? Ei?aeai?? i?eioeeiai ?
ii?iai AAOO/NIO. Aecia/aii iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee no/anii? nenoaie
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiiii?/iiai i?aaa oa ?? i?aenenoaie — i?aeia?iaeiiai
oi?aiaaeueiiai i?aaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?eioeeie ? ii?ie AAOO/NIO, i?aeia?iaeia aeiiii?/ia
i?aai, i?aeia?iaeia oi?aiaaeueia i?aai, aeiiii?ei-i?aaia? oa
iie?oeei-i?aaia? oaeoi?e /eainoaa a AAOO/NIO; ?aoi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee.

Ae-?aaaoaeao Aaeae. Iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaua aniaeou /eainoaa Ei?aeaiee
a nenoaia AAOO/AOI. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.11 — iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?aai. — Einoeooo
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ei. A.I.Ei?aoeeiai IAI Oe?aeiu.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeiaaiu aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea yeiiiieei-i?aaiaua e
iieeoeei-i?aaiaua oaeoi?u /eainoaa Ei?aeaiee a nenoaia AAOO/AOI.
Auyaeaii niioaaonoaea ?aoi?i a yeiiiieea Ei?aeaiee i?eioeeiai e ii?iai
AAOO/AOI. Ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee nia?aiaiiie nenoaiu
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai i?aaa e aa iiaenenoaiu —
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oi?aiaiai i?aaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?eioeeiu e ii?iu AAOO/AOI, iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
yeiiiie/aneia i?aai, iaaeaeoia?iaeiia oi?aiaia i?aai, yeiiiieei-i?aaiaua
e iieeoeei-i?aaiaua oaeoi?u /eainoaa a AAOO/AOI; ?aoi?ie?iaaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee.

Al-Rawashdech Belal. International Law Aspects of Jordan Membership in
GATT/WTO system. — Manuscript.

Thesis for obtaining a scientific degree of candidate of sciences (law)
on the speciality 12.00.11 — International Law. — V.M.Koretsky Institute
of the National Academy of Sciences, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the research of international legal
problems of Jordan membership in GATT/WTO system. Great attention is
paid to the investigation of correspondence of Jordan economic reforms
to GATT/WTO principles and norms. The main characteristics of modern
system of international economic law and its subsystem — international
trade law have been examined.

The first chapter deals with analysis of role and significance of
GATT/WTO in the shopping and development of modern economic law,
the peculiarities of international legal regulation of economic
world ties. It also contains the characteristics of Uruguay round
of negotiations as a new stage in the system of international
trade exchanges.

The second chapter covers the main external and internal legal.
economic and political preconditions and criteria of Jordan
integration into the system of multi-sided liberalization of world
trade in accordance with the principles and norms of GATT/WTO. The
author stresses that the development of peaceful processes in the
middle East is closely connected with the stabilization of
Arab-Israeli relations and the conclusion of the Treaty of Peace
between Jordan and Israel in 1994 that make it possible the
acception by Jordan of standards of modern international trade
existing in the GATT/WTO system.

The third chapter is devoted to the reforms of external economic
activities of Jordan and economic transformations in other Arab
counties, member-states of GATT/WTO as well as in Ukraine that are
important for libaralization of international trade ties.

The chapter contains a thorough analysis of all main measures
taken in Jordan economy and trade with the aim of integration
into the system of world trade.

In the conclusion the author stresses, inter alia, that the Jordan
internal reforms of investment, custom, tax, financial, banking
patent, import-export legislation as well as its external measures
agreements on preferential and free trade with developed industrial
countries, perspectives of free trade with Israel and creation of
fee trade zones are the important factors of Jordan integration with
the system of GATT/WTO. Such integration will facilitate the growth of
Jordan trade and economic ties with Ukraine and other countries of the
world.

Key words: GATT/WTO principles and norms, international economic law,
international trade law, economic reforms.

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