EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

?INOEOOO I?AEIA?IAeIEO A?AeIINEI

OeEAOEAIEI ?AAAI IEEIEAEIAE*

OAeE 341.32

I?aeia?iaeii-I?AAIAA ?AAOETHAAIIss

CANOINOAAIIss CAE*AEIEO ICA?I?IUe

NIAOe?AEUeI?NOUe 12.00.11. — I?aeia?iaeia i?aaI

AAOI?AOA?AO

AeENA?OAOe?? IA CAeIAOOOss IAOEIAIAI NOOIAIss

EAIAeEAeAOA TH?EAeE*IEO IAOE

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Caaeioeueea
Ethaeieea A?eai??aia, ?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, aeioeaio

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeaienia
Aieiaeeie? Iaoiiae/, ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai
IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa oa ii??aiyeueiiai
i?aaiciaanoaa

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio ?aiaoeueeee Aaneeue Ieeieaeiae/,
Euea?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?aaia O?aiea, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?ith i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y ?i. ss?ineaaa
Ioae?iai I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 21 ethoiai 2000 ?ieo i 14.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.001.10 a ?inoeooo? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith:
04119, i. Ee?a, aoe. Iaeueieeiaa, 36/1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58, e. 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 17 a?oaeiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee CAAEIOeUeEA E.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?icaeoie i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ia no/aniiio aoai?
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui e?euee?noue ca?ieieo eiioe?eo?a c?inoa?. O?eueee
i?ney ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie o ??cieo ?aa?iiao caiii? eoe? aoei
cao?eniaaii a?eueo i?ae 250 ca?ieieo eiioe?eo?a, a ia?aaaaei?e
a?eueoino? aioo??oiueiai oa?aeoa?o.

O oeeo oiiaao aaaeeeao ?ieue o i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao a?ae?a?athoue
i?eioeeie ? ii?ie Aaacueeiai i?aaa, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia iaiaaeaiiy cania?a
? iaoiae?a aaaeaiiy a?eie c iaoith ciaioaiiy ?oei?aieo iane?aee?a
aieiaeo ae?e oa caaacia/aiiy aeio?eiaiiy aeaiaioa?ieo i?eioeei?a
aoiaiiino? a niaoeeo?/ieo oiiaao ca?ieiiai eiioe?eoo. Aea Aaacueea i?aai
? cie?aia iieiaeaiiy, ye? iaiaaeothoue caniae aaaeaiiy a?eie, o ca’yceo
?c coneeeyie na?oiai? ni?eueiioe o ni?aa? caa?aaeaiiy ie?o, aaaaeaeeny
a?aeie?ath/eie ? ?o ?icaeoeo ia i?eae?eyeany aeinoaoiy oaaaa. O oie aea
/an iiaea?i?caoe?y ? noai?aiiy iiaeo aeae?a cae/aeii? ca?i? oaeaeei
i?inoaaeeny aia?aae, ui i?ecaaei aei cia/iiai a?aenoaaaiiy
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy a?ae aeeoo?aeo ?aae?e.

E??i oiai, oea a?aenoaaaiiy iia’ycaia c iioe?aiith i?ney noai?aiiy III
aeoieith i?i oa, ui ?icaeoie i?aeia?iaeiiai aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa
noia?a/eoue coneeeyi o a?aeaa?iaii? a?eie. Oey oi/ea ci?o i?aeeyaa?
e?eoeoe? ine?eueee iacaaaeath/e ia an? coneeey na?oiai? ni?eueiioe,
ca?iei? eiioe?eoe ana ae o?eaathoue ? oiio ?nio? iaiao?aei?noue
?aaoethaaoe ?o aaaeaiiy c iaoith iii’yeoaiiy ?oi?o aaaeeeo iane?aee?a.
Noiniaii oe??? i?iaeaie AEai I?eoa a?aecia/ea: “an? aeciathoue
iaiao?aei?noue iaoe aoaeoeai? iiaeaaei? eiiaiaee — aea oea ia icia/a?,
ui ie ethaeii iiaeaae? ? caoeua?ii iae??a”. Eoeaooe ?. ?. ?icaeaa? oeth
aeoieo oaeei /eiii: “I?eeiyooy Noaoooo III ia iieeaei e?ae ca?ieiei
eiioe?eoai, a aoaeue-yea a?aeiiaa canoiniaoaaoe anoaiiaeai? iaiaaeaiiy
oyaia ca niaith aaeee? aea?oae. Ia iiaeia ?aii?oaaoe eia?eo ?aaeueiino?
a ?i’y oi?iaeueii? eia?ee”. Iaiao?aei?noue o i?aeia?iaeiiio
aoiai?oa?iiio i?aa? ? eiai ?icaeoeo a?aeiaaea o?eueee oiae?, eiee
ca?iei? eiioe?eoe ia?anoaiooue ?nioaaoe a ?aaeueiiio aeeoo?. A?eueoa
oiai, ca?aeii c Aeaaith VII Noaoooo III, canoinoaaiiy neee ? i?aaii??iei
ca ??oaiiyi ?aaee Aaciaee, a oaeiae o aeiaaeeo ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? aai
eieaeoeaii? naiiiai?iie. Ioaea, oaea canoinoaaiiy neee iiaeiii aooe
?aaeaiaioiaaia i?aeia?iaeiei aoiai?oa?iei i?aaii o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
no/anieo aeiia.

Oaeei /eiii, ia nueiaiaei? ?nio? aaeeea e?euee?noue cania?a aaaeaiiy
a?eie, aeei?enoaiiy yeeo ia ?aaoeth?oueny i?aeia?iaeiei aoiai?oa?iei
i?aaii, aai ?aaoeth?oueny iaaeinoaoithth i??ith.

Iaea?eueo aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith, ?icaeyiooith o i?iiiiiaai?e ?iaio?, ?
caai?iia aai iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy i?ioei?oioieo i?i. Ca?aeii c
i?ae?aooieaie Aaia?aeueiiai Nae?aoa?y III aeey aeeo/aiiy aaea
anoaiiaeaieo a ??ciiiai?oieo i?noeyo ieaiaoe i?i — a ?o iae?/o?oueny
a?eueo 110 i?eueeii?a — iai, c o?aooaaiiyi oaii?a ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
oeueiai aeaeo ca?i?, ciaaeiaeeiny a 1100 ?ie?a. Ui?ieo e?euee?noue
anoaiiaeaieo i?i c?inoa? ia aeaa i?eueeiie, ?acii c oei c?inoa? ?
e?euee?noue aea?oa; aaea ca?ac i?ie uii?nyoey aaeaathoue ?
caiiae?ththoue eae?oeoaa 2000-2500 iniaai.

Aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith, ui noaaeoueny o aeine?aeaeaii?, oaeiae ?
iaiao?aei?noue i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ca?i? ia’?iiiai
aeaooo, yea ia? an? ia?aaeoiiae noaoe iaeiei c iaea?eueo ?oei?aieo oa
aei?noieeo aeae?a ca?i? a ianooiiiio noie?oo?. I?eioeeie i?aeia?iaeiiai
aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa (IAI) /?oei aecia/athoue, ui iaoiaee ? caniae
aaaeaiiy a?eie ia ? iaiaiaaeaieie. I?e aea/aii?, ?ic?iaoe? aai i?eeiyoo?
ia ica?i?iiy iiaeo aeae?a ca?i? eiaeai o?yae ciaia’ycaiee aecia/eoe, /e
a?aeiia?aea? canoinoaaiiy oe??? ca?i? ii?iai aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa. O
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei oeeo ii?i caai?iiy?oueny canoiniaoaaoe ca?ith, ui
caaaea? iaaei??ieo no?aaeaeaiue, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaea??eiaith ae??th
? noia?a/eoue aeiiaai noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?.

Noai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie. O ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc?, a i?ci?oa ? a
iino-?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaaao, aeeth/ath/e Oe?a?io, na?eici?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c oe??? oaie ia i?iaiaeeeeny. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a
?iaioao aaaaoueio a?aeiieo a/aieo, th?eno?a-i?aeia?iaeiee?a, oaeeo ye
Ia?oain O. O., A?oeeaania ?. I., ?ai?ia N. I., Ae?uaiei ?. I., ?naeiae/
N. A., Iieoi?ae I. ?., Oo?eaei A. A., Oeanoia I. I., ?icaeyaeaeeny
caaaeuei? ieoaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie, aeaoaeueiiai ?? aea/aiiy cae?eniaii
ia aoei. Oiio ia nueiaiaei? ia ?nio? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
a?aeiia?aeii e?oa?aoo?e, ye? anaa?/ii aena?oethaaee a eiioeaioe?th
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy cania?a aaaeaiiy a?eie.

Ui noino?oueny cao?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?aeia?iaeiiai aoiai?oa?iiai
i?aaa, oi oai ?nio? aace?/ aaoi??a, ye? o??th /e ?ioith i??ith
oi?eaeenue aeaii? i?iaeaie. Iaea?eueo oe?eaa? a oeueiio ieai? ?iaioe
I?eoa AE., Eaeuenoiaaia O., aea Ioe?iaia O., Iaoe?ea N., Aoaue? A.,
Oa?a? I., Aanna?a O-I., Iiiaiaaeia E., Aia?iuenueei? I., Aanoa A.,
Meyrowits H., Schindler D., Doswald-Besk L., Roecker E., Sandoz Y.,
Cauderay G., Swinarski C., David E., Arrassen M. oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo.

Ia aeaeue, o ?iaioao oeeo oai?aoee?a i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ?icaeyaeaeenue
ie?ai? aeiaaeee canoinoaaiiy eiie?aoieo aeae?a ica?i?iue c iaoith
ae??oaiiy iaaii? i?iaeaie, ui ia iiaei ia iicia/eoeny ia aeeaei?
th?eaee/iiai aiae?co ?oi?o aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaiao?aeii oaeiae cacia/eoe,
ui iaeaea an? iacaai? ?iaioe ia nueiaiaei? ? canoa??eeie ? ia
a?aeiia?aeathoue no/aniei aeiiaai.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui ? aein? a iaooe? i?aeia?iaeiiai
i?aaa ia ?nio? anaa?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/aiiai
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaiith cania?a aaaeaiiy a?eie. Ia
aeine?aeaeaii oaeiae aaaaoi ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c iauiaeaaii noai?aieie
oa ia?niaeoeaieie aeaeaie ica?i?iue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Oaiaoeea ?iaioe ? neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith ieaiiai? oaie “I?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? iniiae ci?oeiaiiy
aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie” a eiioaeno? eiiieaenii? aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea “?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie 1996-2005 ??.”

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?icaeyae, aiae?c oa
aeyaeaiiy i?iaaeei a ?nioth/eo ii?iao ? i?eioeeiao i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa,
ye? ?aaoeththoue ieoaiiy caai?iie aai iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy cae/aeieo
ica?i?iue; ?ic?iaea i?iiiceoe?e uiaei ?o onoiaiiy, iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae oai??? i?aaa Aaaae, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea eiie?aoieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy i?ioei?oioieo i?i oa ?ioeo
aeae?a ca?i?.

O ?iaio? oeyoii i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai aiae?co i?aaii??iino?
canoinoaaiiy iiaeo aeae?a ca?i? (ia?aaeon?i ca?i? ia’?iiiai aeaooo ?
no/anieo eoeue “aeoi-aeoi”, ye? ia i?aeiaaeathoue i?ae ae?th/?
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? ii?ie) oa a?aeiia?aeiino? oe??? ca?i? aei ?nioth/eo
? ia?niaeoeaieo ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, ia??oioiao?oueny
iaiao?aei?noue ?oiuei? caai?iie aai iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy ye
oei/aniaiai caoiaeo.

Caaaeaiiyi ?iaioe ? oaeiae iaiao?aei?noue caa?iooe oaaao ia aeoeaio
?ic?iaeo iia?oi?o aeae?a ca?i?. A?aeiiee a/aiee oe?a?inueeiai
iioiaeaeaiiy Iacaaeoianueeee A. A. ua a na?aaeei? XIX noie?ooy aeacoaaa
ia oaea: “Oaeineiiaeaia i?aai?caoe?y aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, iei?oiy
nenoaia e?aaeeoo ? iiaeaoe?a, aenieee ?icaeoie i?e?iaeieo iaoe ? anyeiai
?iaeo oaoi?ee aeathoue a?ei? aaee/aci? eiooe ? iiao iaa?aeiio ca?ith.
Caea?oueny iaa?oue, ui i?e?iaeiee caeii ?icaeoeo, c aeeaii? ??ii??,
iiaa?oa? oni?oe ethaenoaa eiio ae ia caaeaaeue”. Naia oiio na?oiaa
ni?aoiaa?enoai iiaeiia cae?enithaaoe iino?eiee eiio?ieue ca ?ic?iaeith
ca?i? aeaeo?iiaai?oii?, ?io?a/a?aiii?, eaca?ii?, ineoio?iiii?,
aeonoe/ii? ? aaiaoe/ii?; e??i oiai, aiii iiaeiia noaaeeoe ca oei, uia
iaoeia? a?aee?eooy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ia ei?enoue ethaenoao, a ia aeey
ca?eueoaiiy eiai no?aaeaeaiue.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeena?oaoe??. C iaoith
?ice?eooy oaie aeena?oaoe??, a oaeiae aeoiaey/e c oa?aeoa?o iinoaaeaieo
caaaeaiue, a iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaii, a ia?oo /a?ao,
oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/iee iaoiae iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, yeee aeicaiey?
neiioeaio?oaaoe oaaao aeiyoeiai ia th?eaee/i?e noi?ii? iaiaaeaiiy
cania?a aaaeaiiy a?eie, a oaeiae a?aeie?aieoe iie?oe/i? oa ii?aeuei?
aniaeoe i?iaeaie. O aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoai? oaeiae
?noi?e/iee, ii??aiyeueiee, ae?aeaeoe/iee, eia?/iee, nenoaiiee oa aeaye?
?io? iaoiaee.

A oie ae /an a aeaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?enooi? iaai? oaoi?/i? aeaoae?.
Ia iaoo aeoieo, oe? aeaoae? iathoue ?noioia cia/aiiy, ai naia iaciaiiy
?o th?enoaie i?ecaiaeeei aei oiai, ui /eneaii? aaaeeea? o nai?e noo?
eiiaaioe?? aeoaea oaeaeei ao?a/aee nai? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ai
a?enueeia? ?iaeaia?e eaaei ciaoiaeeee oeyoe uia ?o iaieiooe. Oeiiaeie
i?eeeaaeaie ? Aeaeea?aoe?y i?i iacanoinoaaiiy eoeue, ui eaaei
niethuothoueny ? ?icai?oathoueny (eoeue “aeoi-aeoi”) 1899 ?ieo oa
Aaacueea Eiiaaioe?y (VIII) i?i anoaiiaeaiiy i?aeaiaeieo i?i, ui
aaoiiaoe/ii aeaooathoue a?ae aeioeeo, 1907 ?ieo.

O aeena?oaoe?? oe?iei aeei?enoai? iieiaeaiiy caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieo ?
niaoe?aeueieo ?ia?o a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo c i?iaeaiaoeee
iaiaaeaiiy cania?a aaaeaiiy a?eie.

?noioiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo iieiaeaiue i?iiiiiaaii?
?iaioe iaee ?aea?, ui i?noyoueny a ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ?iaioao c
oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, cie?aia a ?iaioao
Aooeaae/a A. A., ?a?ioiaa A. ?., Aeaieniaa A. I., Io?aaeiaa A. ?.,
Naiae?ianueeiai E. E., ?naeiae/a N. A., Caaeioeueei? E. A., Ieoeeea A.
A., Ao?iiainueeiai I. A., ?aiaoeueeiai A. I., Aeoeaiea A. ?., Aeieo?eaaa
A. ?., Ia?aaeea I. I., Eoeaooea ?. ?., Aaneeaiea A. A., Ooie?ia A. ?.,
Iia/aia A. I., Itheea?niia ?. A., Ea?oaoe?ia A. A., Eaa?ia Ae. A.,
Oaeueaeiaia O. ?., E?eeiaa N. A. oa ?ioeo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa a
Oe?a?i? nenoaiaoeciaaii aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy, ui noinothoueny
cania?a aaaeaiiy a?eie, ?icaeyaea?oueny ?noi??y ?icaeoeo aaacueeiai
i?aaa ? eiie?aoi? i?eeeaaee caai?iie aai iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a cae/aeii? ca?i?.

O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa o iaooe? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa aeieeaaeii
ia??oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue caai?iie aai, ye oei/aniaiai caoiaeo,
iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy ca?i? ia’?iiiai aeaooo, a oaeiae aia?oa ia
iino-?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi?? ?ic?iaeai? eiie?aoi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
iaoai?ci?a caai?iie no/anieo eoeue, ui eaaei ?icai?oathoueny aai
niethuothoueny a o?e? ethaeeie oa ia i?aeiaaeathoue i?ae ae?th/? ii?ie
Aaacueeiai i?aaa, iacaeaaeii a?ae i?e/ei, ye? aeeeeeathoue iiae?aiee
aoaeo.

Ii?yae c oai?aoe/iith noi?iiith ?iaioe cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia aeayeei
i?aeoe/iei iiiaioai, ni?yiiaaiei ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?nioth/eo
ia nueiaiaei? ?inoeooo?a aaacueeiai i?aaa, ui caai?iiythoue aai
iaiaaeothoue canoinoaaiiy eiie?aoieo aeae?a cae/aeii? ca?i?, cie?aia
i?ioei?oioieo i?i.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O aeena?oaoe??
i?iaaaeaii anaa?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaiaeo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo ?c
caniaaie aaaeaiiy a?eie.

Cie?aia iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae? aniaeoe aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeena?oaoe??:

I?aeoe/iee — o ?iaio? ICN Oe?a?ie i?e oi?ioaaii? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai
eo?no aea?aeaae a aoiai?oa?i?e noa??, a oaeiae o ?iaio? I?i?noa?noaa
iai?iie i?e i?eeiyoo? ia ica?i?iiy iiaeo aeae?a cae/aeii? ca?i?.

I?aaioai?/ee — i?ae /an ?ic?iaee, iaaiai?aiiy ? oeeaaeaiiy
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo aeieoiaio?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia caai?iio e iaiaaeaiiy
canoinoaaiiy eiie?aoieo cania?a aaaeaiiy a?eie, a oaeiae i?e i?eeiyoo?
aeiiiaiaiue aei E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie.

?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/iee — o i?ioean? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ? i?iiaaaiaee
i?aeia?iaeiiai aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa.

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee — o ieoaiiyo aecia/aiiy i?aaii??iino? aeei?enoaiiy
eiie?aoieo aeae?a cae/aeii? ca?i?;

Iaoeiai-ina?oi?e — o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy eo?n?a c i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa
a oe?eiio ? i?aeia?iaeiiai aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa cie?aia.

E??i caaaeaiiai aeua, oey ?iaioa aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c
ae?yeuei?noth Ee?anueei? ?aa?iiaeueii? aeaeaaaoe?? (i?aaenoaaieoeoaii)
I?aeia?iaeiiai eii?oaoo *a?aiiiai O?anoa (IE*O), o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
Oaiaee a?ae 5 a?oaeiy 1995 ?ieo, oeeaaeaii? c O?yaeii Oe?a?ie.

Iaeiei c iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo caaaeaiue IE*O a ?aa?ii? ? ?iieaiaioaoe?y
ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa o aioo??oi? caeiiiaeaanoai, a
oaeiae eiai aeoeaia ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie.

Aaaeeea?noue ?iaioe, yea i?iaiaeeoueny IE*O a Oe?a?i?, aoea a?aecia/aia
I?aceaeaioii Eo/iith E. Ae. i?ae /an eiai a?ceoo a ooaa-eaa?oe?o IE*O a
AEaiaa? ? cono??/? c I?aceaeaioii IE*O ae-?ii. Niiia?oaith 21 aa?aciy
1996 ?ieo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaio noi?ioethaaa ieceo iiaeo
iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

Aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai a?aaoeueiaoaaoe canoinoaaiiy
ie?aieo aeae?a cae/aeii? ca?i? aeey caaacia/aiiy aaeaeaaoiiai
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo aeae?a ica?i?iue.

Aeie?aieai? e?eoa??? aeey aecia/aiiy ca?i?, ui caeaoia caaaeaaaoe
“iaaei??i? iioeiaeaeaiiy aai iaaei??i? no?aaeaeaiiy” — oaea ca?iy i?e
aeei?enoaii? i?ioe ethaeeie caeaoia ni?e/eiyoe:

— niaoeeo?/io oai?iao, niaoeeo?/iee iaii?iaeueiee o?c?ieia?/iee noai,
niaoeeo?/iee iaii?iaeueiee ineoieia?/iee noai, niaoeeo?/io oa iino?eio
iai?aoeacaeaoi?noue aai niaoeeo?/ia eae?oeoai;

— iieueiao eaoaeuei?noue iiiaae 25 % aai e?ea?iyio eaoaeuei?noue iiiaae
5 %;

— ii?aiaiiy o?aoueiai ??aiy (grade 3) ca eeaneo?eaoe??th ii?aiaiue
*a?aiiiai O?anoa;

— iane?aeee, i?ioe yeeo ia ?nio? aecia/aiiai oa aeiaaaeaiiai e?eoaaiiy.

Ia??oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue caaaeueii? caai?iie i?ioei?oioieo i?i ye
oaeeo, ui noia?a/aoue oaeei i?eioeeiai Aaacueeiai i?aaa:

— noi?iie, ui aa?ooue o/anoue o eiioe?eo?, iiaeii? caaaeaee
?iciaaeiaoaaoe oeea?eueia ianaeaiiy ? eiiaaoaio?a. Oeea?eueia ianaeaiiy
ia iiaeiia aooe ia’?eoii iaiaaeo. Iaiaaee iaaea??eiaiai oa?aeoa?o ?
canoinoaaiiy ca?i? iaaea??eiai? ae?? caai?iiythoueny;

— caai?iiy?oueny canoiniaoaaoe ca?ith, ui caaaea? iaaei??ieo
no?aaeaeaiue;

— caai?iiy?oueny canoiniaoaaoe ca?ith, ?oei?aia ae?y yei? ?
iaa?aeiia?aeiith o a?aeiioaii? aei iinoaaeaii? a?enueeiai? iaoe.

Aae aei iiaii? caai?iie i?i iaiao?aeii ye oei/aniaee cao?ae aeeiioaaoe
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, aeeeaaeai? a i?ae?icae?e? 2.2.

Cai?iiiiiaaii i?eaanoe caai?iio canoinoaaiiy eoeue “aeoi-aeoi” o
a?aeiia?aei?noue aei no/anieo aeiia aeey oiai, uia caoeno a?ae
iaaei??ieo ooeiaeaeaiue, yeee aiia iiaeiia aoea iaaeaoe, caa??any ? a
no/anieo oiiaao, a naia caai?iieoe canoiniaoaaiiy ca?i? ? ai?i?eian?a
eae?a?o iaioa i?ae 12,7 ii., ye? ia a?aenoai? no??eueae ye i?i?ioi o 25
iao??a aea?eueiththoue a?eueoa i?ae 20 aeaeioe?a aia?a?? ia eiaeiiio
naioeiao?? ia?oeo 15 naioeiao??a oeyoo eoe? a o?e? ethaeeie.

Ae?iaeai? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaoaiecio
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai caoenoo iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?ae /an
ca?ieieo eiioe?eo?a.

Aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue caai?iie ca?i? ia’?iiiai aeaooo ye oaeie, ui
ia? iaaea??eiaee oa?aeoa?, caaaea? iaaei??ieo no?aaeaeaiue ? caaaea?
i?inoi?ia?, aeiaai/ani? ? na?eici? caeoee iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeuo.
sseui caai?iieoe oaeo ca?ith ia no/aniiio aoai? ia aaeanoueny, oi ye
oei/aniaee cao?ae iaiao?aeii iaiaaeeoe ?? canoinoaaiiy oeyoii i?eeiyooy
iieiaeaiue, aiaeia?/ieo oei, ui iaiaaeothoue canoinoaaiiy
caiaethaaeueii? ca?i?.

I?iiiio?oueny i?iaeo noaoo? E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie uiaei
ii?ooaiiy ii?i, ui ?aaoeththoue iaoiaee oa caniae aaaeaiiy aieiaeo ae?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? aeena?oaoe?ei? iieiaeaiiy
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?ia ?
i?aeia?iaeia i?aai ia iaae? oeny/ie?oue (aei caaa?oaiiy 10-e?ooy
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa III 1989-1999)” (eenoiiaae 1999 ?., i. Ee?a), ia
aeanyoe nai?ia?ao “I?aai ca?ieiiai eiioe?eoo”, i?iaaaeaieo IE*O aeey
Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie ? iaeiiio aiaeia?/iiio nai?ia?? aeey Ca?ieieo Nee
A?ea?on?, cie?aia a Aeaaeai?? Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie (aeiaoaiue 1996 ?.,
i. Ee?a), Oa?e?anueeiio a?enueeiaiio oi?aa?neoao? (aeiaoaiue 1996 ?., i.
Oa?e?a), Iaeanueeiio ?inoeooo? Nooiiooieo a?enuee (eenoiiaae 1996 ?., i.
Iaeana), Ee?anueeiio a?enueeiaiio aoiai?oa?iiio ?inoeooo? (aa?acaiue
1997 ?., i. Ee?a), aeey eiioeiaaioo ie?ioai?/eo nee Oe?a?ie (aa?anaiue
1997 ?., i. Ee?a), aeey eiiaiaeoaaiiy aieiaiiai ooaao
A?enueeiai-Iia?o?yieo Nee Oe?a?ie (aa?anaiue 1997 ?., i. A?iieoey), a
Oa?e?anueeiio a?enueeiaiio oi?aa?neoao? (eenoiiaae 1997 ?., i. Oa?e?a),
Ee?anueeiio ?inoeooo? Nooiiooieo a?enuee (ethoee 1998 ?., i. Ee?a), a
oaeiae ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ?inoeoooo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?aea? aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a 9 iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. C o?aooaaiiyi iinoaaeaieo ia?aae
aeena?oaoe?eiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi caaaeaiue, aeena?oaoe?y no?oeoo?ii
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a (a?n?i i?ae?icae?e?a),
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoeo.

Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 184 noi??iee, nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae caeia? 17 noi??iie, aeiaeaoie caeia? 2 noi??iee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? ?ice?eaathoueny nooi?noue ? noai iaoeiai? i?iaeaie oa ??
cia/ou?noue, i?aenoaae ? aeo?aei? aeai? aeey ?ic?iaee oaie,
ia??oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy e iiaea?oueny
caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeena?oaoe??.

?icae?e ia?oee — “Iiiyooy oa aaiethoe?y ?icaeoeo Aaacueeiai i?aaa” —
i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith ?noi?eei-i?aaiaiai aniaeoo i?iaeaie,
oai?aoe/iei canaaeai iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy cae/aeii? ca?i?, a oaeiae
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiio aiae?co Eiiaaioe?? i?i cae/aeio ca?ith 1980 ?ieo,
cie?aia iiaiai I?ioieieo IV aei ia? — i?i caai?iio cane?iethth/i?
eaca?ii? ca?i?.

O oeueiio ?icae?e? aena?oeth?oueny eiiieaen aca?iiiia’ycaieo ieoaiue, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ii?ie Aaacueeiai i?aaa, ye? caai?iiythoue aai
iaiaaeothoue canoinoaaiiy eiie?aoieo aeae?a cae/aeii? ca?i?, aeey /iai
aeieeaaeii, c aeei?enoaiiyi ?noi?e/ieo oaeo?a, ?icaeyaeathoueny oae?
i?eioeeie no/aniiai IAI, ye aoiaii?noue, ni?a?ici??i?noue
(i?iii?oe?ei?noue), aea??eia?noue oa a?enueeiaa iaiao?aei?noue.

?icaeoie i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ia no/aniiio aoai? na?ae/eoue i?i oa,
ui e?euee?noue ca?ieieo eiioe?eo?a c?inoa?. O?eueee i?ney ae?oai?
na?oiai? a?eie o ??cieo ?aa?iiao caiii? eoe? aoei cao?eniaaii a?eueoa
i?ae 250 ca?ieieo eiioe?eo?a o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aioo??oiueiai
oa?aeoa?o.

O oeeo oiiaao aaaeeeao ?ieue o i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao a?ae?a?athoue
i?eioeeie ? ii?ie Aaacueeiai i?aaa, ni?yiiaai? ia iaiaaeaiiy cania?a ?
iaoiae?a aaaeaiiy a?eie c iaoith ciaioaiiy ?oei?aieo iane?aee?a aieiaeo
ae?e oa caaacia/aiiy aeio?eiaiiy aeaiaioa?ieo i?eioeei?a aoiaiiino? a
niaoeeo?/ieo oiiaao ca?ieiiai eiioe?eoo.

I?aai Aaaae iiaeia aecia/eoe ye noeoii?noue cae/a?aeo oa aeiaia??ieo
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo ii?i, ui ?aaoeththoue i?aaa ? iaia’ycee
ai?iaoth/eo noi??i i?ae /an ca?ieiiai eiioe?eoo (ye i?aeia?iaeiiai, oae
? aioo??oiueiai oa?aeoa?o) oa iaiaaeothoue caniae ? iaoiaee aaaeaiiy
aieiaeo ae?e. O noeoiiino? c i?aaii AEaiaae, yea ?aaoeth? caoeno aea?oa
a?eie, i?aai Aaaae neeaaea? i?aeia?iaeia aoiai?oa?ia i?aai, ui
canoiniao?oueny i?ae /an ca?ieieo eiioe?eo?a. Aeaye? aeine?aeieee
aaaaeathoue, ui aei neeaaeo i?aeia?iaeiiai aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa aoiaeeoue
oaeiae i?aai Iueth-Ei?ea, yea ?icaeaa?oueny i?ae iao?iiaoii III oa
?aaoeth?, a ia?oo /a?ao, aeio?eiaiiy iniiaieo i?aa ethaeeie i?ae /an
ca?ieieo eiioe?eo?a, iiea?aiiy ai?iieo cei/eioe?a oa aeei?enoaiiy
yaea?ii? ca?i?.

I?ioyaii an??? ?noi??? ethaenoaa iiaeia i?inoaaeeoe, ye ?icaeaaeeny
i?aaeea, ye?, iacaaaeath/e ia ooiaeaiaioaeueio ?ica?aei?noue
iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/ieo, ii?aeueieo, eoeueoo?ieo ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iiiyoue, i?eoaiaiieo ??ciei oeea?e?caoe?yi, iaee
aeoaea noiaeee ci?no o oiio, ui noinoaaeiny iiaiaeaeaiiy o ai?iieo
neooaoe?yo. I?iaeaia iieyaaea a oiio, ui oe? iaiaaeaiiy aai iineee
cae/a?ai-i?aaiaee oa?aeoa?, aai i?noeeeny o aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaieo
aeieoiaioao.

O no/aniiio ?icoi?ii? ?icaeoie Aaacueeiai i?aaa ii/aany a na?aaeei? XIX
noie?ooy. Ia?aeaeueiee ?icaeoie a?enueeiai? oaoiieia?? oa caeii?a ?
cae/a?a a?eie aoa caniiaaiee ia i?eioeei?, i?iaieioaiiio ua a 1863 ?ioe?
a “?ino?oeoe?? iieueiaei a?enueeai NOA”, ?ic?iaeai?e O?ain?nii E?aa?ii.
O noaoo? 15 Eiaeaeno E?aa?a caienaii: “Ethaee, ui i?aei?iathoue ca?ith
iaeia i?ioe iaeiiai a oiae? a?eie i?ae aea?aeaaaie, ia ia?anoathoue aooe
i?e oeueiio iin?yie ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae, a?aeiia?aeaeueieie iaeia
ia?aae iaeiei ? ia?aae Aiaii”.

O Iaoa?ao?cuee?e aeaeea?aoe?? 1868 ?ieo, aeaco?oueny ia oaea: “…
?aeeiith caeiiiith iaoith… o oiae? a?eie ? ineaaeaiiy a?enueeiaeo nee
noi?ioeaieea; [aeey /iai] aeinoaoiuei aeaanoe c eaaeo iaeneiaeueii
iiaeeeaa /enei a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe?a; [?] ui oaea iaoa ia?aaeuo?oueny
i?e aeei?enoaii? ca?i?, yea i?ecaiaeeoue aei aea?aiiiai ca?eueoaiiy
no?aaeaeaiue aeaaaeaieo c eaaeo nieaeao…”.

Iaea?eueo caaaeueiii?eeiyoia aecia/aiiy oeeo i?eioeei?a i?eaiaeeoueny a
Ienoi?aenueeiio ea??aieoeoa? 1880 ?ieo, a oaeiae o i?eeiyoeo i?ci?oa a
1899 ? 1907 ?ieao Iieiaeaiiyo, ui ? aeiaeaoeaie aei Aaacueeeo eiiaaioe?e
(II) ? (IV) a?aeiia?aeii, i?i caeiie ? cae/a? nooiiooii? a?eie. O noaoo?
22 Iieiaeaiiy 1907 ?ieo aeaco?oueny, ui i?aai i?ioeae?th/eo noi??i
canoiniaoaaoe caniae iaianaiiy caeoe?a noi?ioeaieeia? ia ? iaiaiaaeaiei.

O 1977 ?ioe? an? oe? aeaiaioe aoee caaaeai? a noaoo? 35 Aeiaeaoeiaiai
I?ioieieo I aei AEaiaanueeeo eiiaaioe?e a?ae 12 na?iiy 1949 ?ieo, ui
noino?oueny caoenoo aea?oa o ia??iae i?aeia?iaeieo ca?ieieo eiioe?eo?a.
O noaoo? 36 oaeiae cacia/aii, ui caeiii?noue iiaeo aeae?a ca?i?,
iaoiae?a ? cania?a aaaeaiiy a?eie iiaeiia ioe?ithaaoenue, aeoiaey/e c
ii?i ? i?eioeei?a i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa. I?eioeeie, cae??ieai? a noaoo?
35 I?ioieieo I, i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny ? a i?aaiaoe? Eiiaaioe?? i?i
cae/aeio ca?ith 1980 ?ieo.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaaiaeyony /ioe?e eiie?aoieo e?eoa??? aeey aecia/aiiy
ca?i?, niaoe?aeueii neiino?oeiaaii? aeey oiai, uia aooe caeaoiith
caaaeaaaoe “iaaei??i? iioeiaeaeaiiy aai iaaei??i? no?aaeaeaiiy”.

?icae?e ae?oaee — “I?iaeaie II ?aaoethaaiiy iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy
i?ioei?oioieo i?i” — i?enay/aiee II aiae?co ?nioth/i? ii?iaoeaii? aace,
ieoaiiyi i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy o
canoinoaaii? i?ioei?oioieo i?i, a oaeiae ?iieaiaioaoe?? ii?i,
?aaoethth/eo iaoiaee oa caniae aaaeaiiy aieiaeo ae?e, o aioo??oi?
caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie, cie?aia a E?ei?iaeueiee Eiaeaen.

Aaeeea oaaaa a ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?eae?eaia aea/aiith i?iaeai II
?aaoethaaiiy aeei?enoaiiy i?ioei?oioieo i?i, ui ia nueiaiaei? ? iaeiei c
iaeaeooaeuei?oeo ieoaiue a IAI. Aaoi? ?icaeyaea? ye cae/a?a?, oae ?
aeiaia??i? i?eioeeie oa ii?ie no/aniiai IAI. Cie?aia a ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii
aeieeaaeiee aiae?c iiai? ?aaeaeoe?? I?ioieieo II i?i caai?iio aai
iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy i?i, i?i-ianoie oa ?ioeo i?eno?i?a, c
iii?aaeaie, aianaieie 3 o?aaiy 1996 ?., a oaeiae cai?iiiiiaaii eiie?aoi?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iie?ioaiiy Eiiaaioe?? III i?i caai?iio aai
iaiaaeaiiy o canoinoaaii? eiie?aoieo aeae?a cae/aeii? ca?i?, ye?
iiaeooue aaaaeaoeny oaeeie, ui caiiae?ththoue iaaei??i? iioeiaeaeaiiy
aai iathoue iaaea??eiao ae?th, 1980 ?. Aeae? aeieeaaeii ?icaeyaea?oueny
iiaa Eiiaaioe?y i?i caai?iio aeei?enoaiiy, iaeiie/aiiy, ae?iaieoeoaa ?
ia?aaea/? i?ioei?oioieo i?i oa ?o ciaoeiaeaeaiiy (Iooaanueea
eiiaaioe?y).

Ia iniia? aiae?co aaoi? i?eeoia aei aeniiaeo, ui iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui
eiee Iooaanueeo Eiiaaioe?th aoaea ?aoeo?eiaaii ia?aaaaeiith a?eueo?noth
aea?aeaa, iiaeia aoaea cayaeoe, ui c oi/ee ci?o i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiai?
ii?iioai?/ino? ieoaiiy i?i caai?iio i?i ? ae??oaiei, iaaoaa? aieiaiiai
cia/aiiy ?iieaiaioaoe?y i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo ii?i, ine?eueee a?ae
oeueiai ae??oaeueiith i??ith caeaaeeoue aoaeoeai?noue i?aeia?iaeiiai
i?aaa.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a?eueoa /anoeia iieiaeaiue i?aeia?iaeiiai
aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa ? ii?iaie i?yii? ae?? (naiicae?enithaaieie), aaaaoi
iieiaeaiue oeueiai i?aaa ia?aaeaa/athoue ciaia’ycaiiy aea?aeaa aaeeaaoe
ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai? iniaeea? caoiaee c ?iieaiaioaoe?? aeey oiai,
uia noai?eoe eiie?aoiee iaoai?ci canoinoaaiiy ianaiicae?enithaaieo ii?i.

?iieaiaioaoe?y i?aeia?iaeiiai aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa ia?aaeaa/a? aaeeooy
oe?eiai ?yaeo caoiae?a ca o/anoth aaaaoueio i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee.
Caoiaee uiaei ?iieaiaioaoe?? aeeth/athoue, iai?eeeaae, ia?aeeaae
a?aeiia?aeieo eiiaaioe?e ? i?ioieie?a iaoe?iiaeueieie iiaaie
e?a?i-o/anieoeue, aaaaeaiiy a ae?th e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa aeey
i?eieiaiiy ii?ooaiue i?aeia?iaeiiai aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa, iioe?aiiy
ciaiue i?i oea i?aai, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?inoeoooo th?eaee/ieo ?aaeiee?a o
ca?ieieo neeao ? o. ae.

C onueiai eiiieaeno caoiae?a uiaei ?iieaiaioaoe??, ye? iiaeii? aooe
aaeeo? aea?aeaaaie, a ?aieao ae?oaiai ?icae?eo aeieeaaeii ?icaeyiooi
aeaa i??i?eoaoieo iai?yiee. Eaeaoueny i?i i?eeiyooy e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, iaiao?aeiiai aeey caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaieo e?ei?iaeueieo
iiea?aiue aeey in?a, ui a/eieee aai iaeacaee a/eieoe ii?ooaiiy
i?aeia?iaeiiai aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa, a oaeiae iioe?aiiy ciaiue i?i
i?aeia?iaeia aoiai?oa?ia i?aai.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei no. no. 49 ? 50 ? AEaiaanueei? eiiaaioe??, no. no.
50 ? 51 ?? AEaiaanueei? eiiaaioe??, no. no. 129 ? 130 ??? AEaiaanueei?
eiiaaioe??, no. no. 146 ? 147 IV AEaiaanueei? eiiaaioe??, no. no. 11, 85
? 86 Aeiaeaoeiaiai i?ioieieo ?, ye? canoiniaothoueny o aeiaaeeo
i?aeia?iaeiiai ca?ieiiai eiioe?eoo, Oe?a?ia, yea ?aoeo?eoaaea ye
AEaiaanuee? eiiaaioe??, oae ? Aeiaeaoeia? i?ioieiee aei ieo, ciaia’ycaia
i?eieiyoe ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai? cacia/ai? a ieo na?eici? ii?ooaiiy,
ui oaeiae iaceaathoueny «a?enueeiaeie cei/eiaie» o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
i. 5 no. 85 Aeiaeaoeiaiai i?ioieieo ?. Oaeei /eiii, ca?aeii ?c
cacia/aieie i?aeia?iaeieie aeieoiaioaie ia Oe?a?io iieeaaeaii th?eaee/ia
ciaia’ycaiiy ia?aaeaa/eoe o nai?io aioo??oiueiio caeiiiaeaanoa? iiaiee
ia?ae?e oaeeo na?eicieo ii?ooaiue, cae?eniaieo i?ae /an i?aeia?iaeiiai
ca?ieiiai eiioe?eoo.

?acii c oei Oe?a?ia ia? iiaia i?aai ia?aaeaa/eoe o nai?io aioo??oiueiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? iiaeeea?noue e?ei?iaeueiiai ia?ane?aeoaaiiy ? ca ?io?
ii?ooaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa, a oiio /ene? Iooaanueei?
Eiiaaioe?? iaa?oue aei i?e?aeiaiiy aei ia?, aai ca o? nai? ii?ooaiiy,
a/eiai? a ?ioeo neooaoe?yo, iai?eeeaae i?ae /an aioo??oiueiai ca?ieiiai
eiioe?eoo. Ui noino?oueny eiie?aoieo neeaae?a cei/ei?a, E?ei?iaeueiee
eiaeaen Oe?a?ie iaiao?aeii aeiiiaieoe noaooath, yea aoea a ?ic?iaeaia o
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei ciaia’ycaiue, ia?aaeaa/aieo i?aeia?iaeieie
aeiaiai?aie, ?aoeo?eiaaieie Oe?a?iith. O aeiaeaoeo i?iiiio?oueny i?iaeo
noaoo? E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie uiaei ii?ooaiiy ii?i, ye?
?aaoeththoue iaoiaee oa caniae aaaeaiiy aieiaeo ae?e.

Noiniaii oiia i?eieiaiiy ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai? na?eicieo ii?ooaiue
AEaiaanueeeo eiiaaioe?e ? Aeiaeaoeiaiai i?ioieieo I iaiao?aeii
i?aee?aneeoe, ui ca?aeii c ie?aieie iieiaeaiiyie i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa a
e?ei?iaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? aea?aeaa iiaeii? aooe ia?aaeaa/ai?
iniaeea? i?eioeeie i?eieiaiiy na?eicieo ii?ooaiue. Eaeaoueny cie?aia
i?i: oi?aa?naeueio th?enaeeeoe?th iaoe?iiaeueieo noae?a; iacanoinoaaiiy
no?ie?a aeaaiino? aei a?enueeiaeo cei/ei?a; a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ia/aeueiee?a; iai?eionoei?noue iineeaiue ia oie /e ?ioee ?ioa?an aai
iaiao?aei?noue aeey aei?aaaeaiiy na?eiciiai ii?ooaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai
aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa.

E??i caiia?aaiiy ii?ooaiue ? iiea?aiiy ca ?o cae?eniaiiy, Oe?a?ia i?ney
?aoeo?eaoe?? Iooaanueei? Eiiaaioe?? iiaeiia aoaea cae?enieoe ieceo
iiceoeaieo caoiae?a uiaei caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy Eiiaaioe??. Oe? caoiaee
iiaeooue aeeth/aoe:

?ic?iaeo oa ?aae?caoe?th ieai?a c? cieuaiiy neeaaeiaaieo i?ioei?oioieo
i?i;

?ic?iaeo oa ?aae?caoe?th ieai?a c ?ici?ioaaiiy;

?ic?iaeo oa ?aae?caoe?th i?ia?ai c ?ioi?ioaaiiy i?i i?iio iaaaciaeo oa
iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae aea?oaai;

?ic?iaeo oa ?aae?caoe?th i?ia?ai c io?eiaiiy aeiiiiiae o i?iaaaeaii?
caoiae?a, cacia/aieo a ioieoao 7 (a, b, n) noaoo? 6, o ?aieao
i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa;

i?aeaioiaeo ? iiaeaiiy aeaiiceoa??th ui??/iiai ca?oo i?i aeeiiaiiy
Eiiaaioe?? oa ?io? caoiaee uiaei ci?oeiaiiy aeia??e (noaooy 7). Ia?oee
oaeee ca?o iiaeiai aooe iaaeaiee /a?ac 180 aei?a i?ney oiai, ye
Eiiaaioe?y noaia iaia’yceiaith aeey Oe?a?ie.

?icae?e o?ao?e — “I?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaee iaoai?ci caai?iie iiaeo aeae?a
ca?i?” — i?enay/aiee aieeao cae/aeii? ca?i? ia iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua, a
oaeiae iaoai?cio caai?iie eiie?aoieo aeae?a cae/aeii? ca?i?, cie?aia
eoeue “aeoi-aeoi” oa ca?i? ia’?iiiai aeaooo.

O aeaiiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aeieeaaeiee aiae?c II ii?i, ui
iaiaaeothoue aieea cae/aeii? ca?i? ia iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua, cie?aia
Eiiaaioe?? i?i caai?iio a?enueeiaiai aai aoaeue-yeiai ?ioiai ai?iaeiai
aeei?enoaiiy cania?a aieeao ia i?e?iaeia na?aaeiaeua (Eiiaaioe?y
YIIIAe), oa Aeiaeaoeiaiai i?ioieieo I 1977 ?..

Iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a ianooiiiio noie?oo? caai?iia
canoiniaoaaoe caniae aaaeaiiy aieiaeo ae?e, ye? iathoue nai?th iaoith
caaaeaoe aai, ye iiaeia i/?eoaaoe, caaaeaaeooue i?inoi?iaeo,
aeiaai/anieo ? na?eicieo caeoe?a i?e?iaeiiio na?aaeiaeuo, aoaea iaeiei c
aieiaieo e?eoa???a caai?iie iiaeo aeae?a ca?i?. E??i oiai, iaiao?aeii
?iciianthaeeoe ae?th ?nioth/eo i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo ii?i ia ca?iei?
eiioe?eoe iai?aeia?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?o.

O noaoo? 36 “Iia? aeaee ca?i?” Aeiaeaoeiaiai i?ioieieo I 1977 ?.
cacia/a?oueny: “I?e aea/aii?, ?ic?iaoe?, i?eaeaaii? aai i?eeiyoo? ia
ica?i?iiy iiaeo aeae?a ca?i?, iaoiae?a aai cania?a aaaeaiiy a?eie Aeniea
Aeiaia??ia Noi?iia iiaeiia aecia/eoe, /e i?aeiaaea? ?oi? canoinoaaiiy
i?e aeayeeo aai i?e an?o ianoaaeiao i?ae caai?iie, ui i?noyoueny a
iei?oiueiio I?ioieie? aai a aoaeue-yeeo ?ioeo ii?iao i?aeia?iaeiiai
i?aaa, ui canoiniaothoueny aei Aeniei? Aeiaia??ii? Noi?iie”.

Oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui iaa?oue ca a?aenooiino? oaeiai ?iaeo noaoo? ia
aea?aeaao iieeaaeaii iaia’ycie aecia/eoe, /e ? caeiiieie iaoiaee aai
caniae aaaeaiiy a?eie, ye? aiia canoiniao?. Iaaaaeaia iieiaeaiiy
i?aee?aneth? oaeee iaia’ycie ? eiai nooue aaea ciaeoea ii?iaoeaia
ae?aaeaiiy a aeae?eueeio aea?aeaaao, oaeeo ye NOA, Aaeeeia?eoai?y,
Eaiaaea, Oaaoe?y, ui ia?aaeaa/eee i?ioeaaeo?e aai iaoai?cie oeueiai
aecia/aiiy. Oea iiaa iieiaeaiiy aeicaiey? i?eaa?iooe oaaao o?yae?a aei
i?iaeaie, ui aeieea? a ca’yceo c ioe?ieith a?enueeiaeo ia?aaaa ?
iaaaoeaieo aeey ethaeeie noi??i iiaeo aeae?a ca?i?.

O 1899 ?. Aaacueea ie?ia eiioa?aioe?y i?eeiyea Aeaeea?aoe?th, ui
caai?iiy? canoinoaaiiy “eoeue, ui eaaei ?icai?oathoueny aai
niethuothoueny a ethaenueeiio o?e?, aei yeeo a?aeiinyoueny iaieiieia?
eoe?, o yeeo oaa?aea iaieiiea ia iie?eaa? onueiai na?aea/ieea, aai ia?
iaae??ce”. I?ioyaii iaeaea 100 ?ie?a, ui i?ieoee c oiai /ano, oey
Aeaeea?aoe?y a iniiaiiio aeio?eioaaeany — a onyeiio aeiaaeeo a ??
aoeaaeueiiio ?icoi?ii?: eoe?, i?i ye? a i?e aiai?eoueny, iaeaea i?eiee
ia canoiniaoaaeenue o a?eiao. Iaeiae eiiaaioe?y aeoaea oaeaeei ao?aoeea
nai? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, oiio ui a?enueeia? ?iaeaia?e eaaei ciaoiaeeee
oeyoe, uia ?? iaieiooe. Cie?aia, yeui eoey ia aeaoi?io?oueny iiae?aii
aei eeane/ii? eoe? “aeoi-aeoi” ? ana ae oaee oaeaeei ia?aaea? naith
aia?a?th o?eo yeei-iaaoaeue ?ioei /eiii, oi aiia ia i?aeiaaea? i?ae
caai?iio i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa. Oaeei /eiii, caai?iio ia canoinoaaiiy
eoeue “aeoi-aeoi” iaiao?aeii i?eaanoe o a?aeiia?aei?noue c no/anieie
aeiiaaie aeey oiai, uia caoeno a?ae iaaei??ieo iioeiaeaeaiue, yeee aiia
iiaeiia aoea iaaeaoe, caa??any ? a no/anieo oiiaao, a naia caai?iieoe
canoiniaoaaoe ca?ith ? ai?i?eiane eae?a?o iaioa i?ae 12,7 ii., ui ia
a?aenoai? no??eueae ye i?i?ioi a 25 iao??a aea?eueiththoue a?eueoa i?ae
20 aeaeioe?a aia?a?? ia eiaeiiio naioeiao?? ia?oeo 15 naioeiao??a oeyoo
eoe? a o?e? ethaeeie.

Aaeeea oaaaa a ?iaio? i?eae?eaia aea/aiith i?iaeai aeei?enoaiiy ca?i?
ia`?iiiai aeaooo, yea ia? on? ia?aaeoiiae noaoe iaei??th c iaea?eueo
?oei?aieo oa aei?noieeo aeae?a ca?i? a ianooiiiio noie?oo?. O ?iaio?
i?iaaaeaii aeieeaaeiee aiae?c iaa?aeiia?aeiino? oe??? ca?i? ?nioth/ei
ii?iai ? i?eioeeiai i?aeia?iaeiiai aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa, cie?aia
i?eioeeiai aea??eiaino?, i?iii?oe?eiino? oa caai?ii? caaaeaaaoe
iaaei??i? no?aaeaeaiiy. Aaoi? ia??oioiao? iaiao?aei?noue caai?iie, aai,
ye oei/aniaiai caoiaeo, iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy ca?i? ia’?iiiai aeaooo,
a oaeiae i?iiiio? eiie?aoi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo
iaoai?ci?a ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie.

Aiae?c, cae?eniaiee a aeine?aeaeaii?, aeaa iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe oae?
aeniiaee:

1. Caaaeuei? aeniiaee:

ii?ie i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, ye? anoaiiaeththoue iaiaaeaiiy noiniaii
iaoiae?a ? cania?a aaaeaiiy a?eie, ia nueiaiaei?, yaeythoue niaith
aeinoaoiuei ?icaeiaiee aacen caaacia/aiiy caoenoo oeea?eueiiai ianaeaiiy
oa ?ioeo aea?oa ca?ieieo eiioe?eo?a, aea iaiao?aeii ? iaaeae?
a?aaoeueiaoaaoe canoinoaaiiy ie?aieo aeae?a cae/aeii? ca?i? aeey
caaacia/aiiy aaeaeaaoiiai i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo aeae?a ica?i?iue. E??i oiai, aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ii?i Aaacueeiai i?aaa aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? eiai
?iieaiaioaoe?y. Oe?a?ia ciaia’ycaia i?eieiyoe ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai?
na?eici? ii?ooaiiy IAI, ye? ? «a?enueeiaeie cei/eiaie», a oaeiae ia?
i?aai ia?aaeaa/eoe a nai?io aioo??oiueiio caeiiiaeaanoa? iiaeeea?noue
e?ei?iaeueiiai ia?ane?aeoaaiiy ca ?io? ii?ooaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai
aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa. O aeiaeaoeo i?iiiio?oueny i?iaeo noaoo?
E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie uiaei ii?ooaiiy ii?i, ye? ?aaoeththoue
iaoiaee oa caniae aaaeaiiy aieiaeo ae?e.

i?e aea/aii?, ?ic?iaoe?, i?eaeaaii? aai i?eeiyoo? ia ica?i?iiy iiaeo
aeae?a ca?i?, cania?a aai iaoiae?a aaaeaiiy a?eie aea?aeaaai iaiao?aeii
aecia/aoe, /e i?aeiaaea? ?oi? canoinoaaiiy ca aeayeeo aai ca an?o
ianoaaei i?ae caai?iie, ui iaeeaaeathoueny i?aaii Aaaae. Aeey aecia/aiiy
ca?i?, yea caeaoia caaaeaaaoe “iaaei??i? iioeiaeaeaiiy aai iaaei??i?
no?aaeaeaiiy”, aea?aeaae iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoe oae? e?eoa??? — oey
ca?iy i?e aeei?enoaii? i?ioe ethaeeie caeaoia ni?e/eiyoe:

— niaoeeo?/io oai?iao, niaoeeo?/iee iaii?iaeueiee o?c?ieia?/iee noai,
niaoeeo?/iee iaii?iaeueiee ineoieia?/iee noai, niaoeeo?/io oa iino?eio
iai?aoeacaeaoi?noue aai niaoeeo?/ia eae?oeoai;

— iieueiao eaoaeuei?noue iiiaae 25 % aai e?ea?iyio eaoaeuei?noue iiiaae
5 %;

— ii?aiaiiy o?aoueiai ??aiy (grade 3) ca eeaneo?eaoe??th ii?aiaiue
*a?aiiiai O?anoa;

— iane?aeee, i?ioe yeeo ia ?nio? aecia/aiiai oa aeiaaaeaiiai e?eoaaiiy.

2. Noiniaii i?ioei?oioieo i?i:

i?ioei?oioi? i?ie i?aeeyaathoue caaaeuei?e caai?ii? ye oae?, ui
noia?a/aoue ianooiiei i?eioeeiai Aaacueeiai i?aaa:

— noi?iie, ui aa?ooue o/anoue o eiioe?eo?, iiaeii? caaaeaee
?iciaaeiaoaaoe oeea?eueia ianaeaiiy ? eiiaaoaio?a. Oeea?eueia ianaeaiiy
ia iiaeiia aooe ia’?eoii iaiaaeo. Iaiaaee iaaea??eiaiai oa?aeoa?o ?
canoinoaaiiy ca?i? iaaea??eiai? ae?? caai?iiythoueny;

— caai?iiy?oueny canoiniaoaaoe ca?ith, ui caaaea? iaaei??ieo
no?aaeaeaiue;

— caai?iiy?oueny canoiniaoaaoe ca?ith, ?oei?aia ae?y yei? ?
iaa?aeiia?aeiith o a?aeiioaii? aei iinoaaeaii? a?enueeiai? iaoe;

aae aei iiaii? caai?iie i?i iaiao?aeii ye oei/aniaee cao?ae aeeiioaaoe
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, aeeeaaeai? a i?ae?icae?e? 2.2.

3. Noiniaii eoeue “aeoi-aeoi”:

caai?iio canoinoaaiiy eoeue “aeoi-aeoi” iaiao?aeii i?eaanoe o
a?aeiia?aei?noue ?c no/anieie aeiiaaie, c oei, uia caoeno a?ae
iaaei??ieo iioeiaeaeaiue, yeo aiia iiaeiia aoea iaaeaoe, caa??any ? a
no/anieo oiiaao, a naia caai?iieoe canoiniaoaaiiy ca?i? ? ai?i?eian?a
eae?a?o iaioa i?ae 12,7 ii., ye? ia a?aenoai? no??eueae ye i?i?ioi o 25
iao??a aea?eueiththoue a?eueoa i?ae 20 aeaeioe?a aia?a?? ia eiaeiiio
naioeiao?? ia?oeo 15 naioeiao??a oeyoo eoe? a o?e? ethaeeie.

4. Noiniaii ioi?iie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua:

aeey aoaeoeaiiai caoenoo iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua iaiao?aeii
?iciianthaeeoe ae?th ?nioth/eo i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo ii?i ia ca?iei?
eiioe?eoe iai?aeia?iaeiiai oa?aeoa?o.

5. Noiniaii ca?i? ia’?iiiai aeaooo:

ca?iy ia’?iiiai aeaooo i?aeeyaa? caai?ii?, ine?eueee ia? iaaea??eiaee
oa?aeoa?, caaaea? iaaei??ieo no?aaeaeaiue ? caaaea? i?inoi?ia?,
aeiaai/ani? ? na?eici? caeoee iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeuo;

yeui caai?iieoe oaeo ca?ith ia no/aniiio aoai? ia aaeanoueny, ye
oei/aniaee cao?ae iaiao?aeii iaiaaeeoe ?? canoinoaaiiy oeyoii i?eeiyooy
iieiaeaiue, aiaeia?/ieo oei, ui iaiaaeothoue canoinoaaiiy
caiaethaaeueii? ca?i?.

Aaacueea i?aai ? ia no?eueee oe?eeth, ne?eueee caniaii aeinyaiaiiy iaoe
— caa?aaeaiiy ethaeyiino? ia?aae iaee//yi noai?i? ?aaeueiino? a?eie. C
oe??th ?aaeuei?noth ie noeea?iiny uiaeiy, oiio ? oeae can?a caeeoa?oueny
iaiao?aeiei.

Ieoaiiy aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa, yeeie a aiie ia aoee ??ciiiai?oieie ?
neeaaeieie, iiaeooue aooe caaaeai? aei iniiaii? i?iaeaie: i?iaeaie
??aiiaaae i?ae aeiiaaie aoiaiiino? ? a?enueeiai? iaiao?aeiino?.
Aeiaaaeaiiy “a?enueeiai? iaiao?aeiino?” ? ia ui ?ioa, ye cayaa i?i oa,
ui a oiae? ca?ieiiai eiioe?eoo aeaye? ae?? iaiiaae aeicaieai? o?eueee
oiio, ui aiie i?iaeeeoiaai? aei?noieith eia?eith a?eie. Iieiaeaiiy
Aaacueeiai i?aaa noaa?aeaeothoue i?ioeeaaeia, a naia, ui iaa?oue o oiae?
ca?ieiiai eiioe?eoo aeaye? ae?? iaaeiionoei?, oiio ui aiie ? e?e/ouei
ii?ooaiiyi caeii?a aoiaiiino?. Aacoiiaii, aeoaea aaaeei a??aiiaaaeeoe
oe? aea? i?ioeeaaei? aeiiae, aea ?iaeoe oea iaiao?aeii.

Aa?iii?caoe?y iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie c i?aeia?iaeiei
i?aaii ? iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaith i?iaeaiith, a?ae ?ica’ycaiiy yei?
caeaaeeoue oni?o i?aaiai? ?aoi?ie oa ?icaeoie i?aeia?iaeiiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ca o/anoth iaoi? aea?aeaae.

Iniiai? ?aea? aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii, cie?aia, a oaeeo
iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Oeeaoeaiei ?.I. I?iaeaia caai?iie i?i oa cane?iethth/i? eaca?ii?
ca?i? // Oe?a?inueeee /aniien i?aa ethaeeie. — 1996. — ?1. — N. 49-53.

2. Oeeaoeaiei ?.I. Ca?iy ia’?iiiai aeaooo o na?oe? i?aeia?iaeiiai
aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa. // A?niee ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. I?aeia?iaei?
a?aeiineie. — 1997. — aeione 7, /anoeia ??. — N. 124-128.

3. Oeeaoeaiei ?.I. Ca?iy ia’?iiiai aeaooo a na?oe? i?aeia?iaeiiai
aoiai?oa?iiai i?aaa. (aeiiiaiaia) // I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ?12. — N.
109-113.

4. Oeeaoeaiei ?.I. Iooaanueea eiiaaioe?y — ?ino?oiaio caai?iie
i?ioei?oioieo i?i. // I?aai Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ?9. — N. 118-121.

5. Oeeaoeaiei ?.I. I?ioei?oioi? i?ie ? i?aeia?iaeia aoiai?oa?ia i?aai //
Aea?aeaaa ? i?aai. Ui??/iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo a/aieo. — E.:
?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, ?i TH?a. —
1999. — Aeione 2. — N. 423-428.

6. Oeuaoeaiei A.I. I?ioeaiiaoioiua ieiu — aucia, a?ioaiiue /aeiaa/anoao.
// E?aniue E?ano. Atheeaoaiue Aaei?onneiai E?aniiai E?anoa. — 1997. —
?1. — N. 10-11.

Oeeaoeaiei ?.I. I?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy canoinoaaiiy cae/aeieo
ica?i?iue. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.11 — i?aeia?iaeia i?aai. — ?inoeooo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith oai?aoe/ieo canaae
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy canoinoaaiiy cae/aeieo ica?i?iue,
?noi?eei-i?aaiaiai aniaeoo i?iaeaie, a oaeiae eiie?aoieo i?eeeaae?a
caai?iie aai iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a cae/aeii?
ca?i?. O aeena?oaoe?? ia??oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue caai?iie ca?i?
ia’?iiiai aeaooo, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeai? eiie?aoi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
iaoai?ci?a caai?iie no/anieo eoeue, ui eaaei ?icai?oathoueny aai
niethuothoueny a o?e? ethaeeie oa ia i?aeiaaeathoue i?ae ae?th/? ii?ie.

Cia/io oaaao i?eae?eaii i?aeoe/iei ieoaiiyi, iai?aaeaiei ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy canoinoaaiiy cae/aeieo
ica?i?iue, cie?aia i?ioei?oioieo i?i. ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy
?iieaiaioaoe?? ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa a caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie.
I?iiiio?oueny i?iaeo noaoo? E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie uiaei
ii?ooaiiy ii?i, ye? ?aaoeththoue iaoiaee oa caniae aaaeaiiy aieiaeo
ae?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy, cae/aei? ica?i?iiy,
caai?iia, iaiaaeaiiy canoinoaaiiy, ?iieaiaioaoe?y, iaoiaee oa caniae
aaaeaiiy aieiaeo ae?e.

Tsybulenko E.M. International law regulation on the use of conventional
weapons. — Manuscript.

Thesis for obtaining a scientific degree of Candidate of Legal Sciences
(Ph.D. in Law) under speciality 12.00.11 — International law. — The
Institute of International Relations of Taras Shevchenko Kyiv
University, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the study of theoretical basis of
International law regulation on the use of conventional weapons,
historical-legal aspects of the problem, as well as concrete examples of
prohibitions or restrictions on the use of different kinds of
conventional weapons. The necessity of prohibition of fuel air explosive
weapons (FAEs) is grounded, as well as concrete recommendations
concerning the mechanism of prohibition of modern bullets which expand
or flatten easily in the human body and have not been covered by current
norms are put forward in the dissertation.

Significant attention is paid to the practical issues, directed to
increasing the effectiveness of International law regulation on the use
of conventional weapons, in particular of antipersonnel mines. The
issues of implementation of the norms of international law in the
legislation of Ukraine are examined. A draft article of the Criminal
Code of Ukraine concerning the violation of norms regulating the methods
and means of warfare is proposed.

Key words: International law regulation, conventional weapons,
prohibition, restriction on the use, implementation, methods and means
of warfare.

Oeuaoeaiei A.I. Iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea i?eiaiaiey
iau/iiai i?oaeey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.11 — iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?aai. — Einoeooo
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei,
Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth oai?aoe/aneeo iniia
iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?eiaiaiey iau/iiai i?oaeey,
enoi?e/ii-i?aaiaiai aniaeoa i?iaeaiu e aii?inia aicieeathueo ia
nia?aiaiiii yoaia. Ia eiie?aoiuo i?eia?ao ?anniao?eaaaony eiiieaen
acaeiinaycaiiuo aii?inia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo ii?iu Aaaaneiai i?aaa,
eioi?ua cai?auatho eee ia?aie/eaatho i?eiaiaiea eiie?aoiuo aeaeia
iau/iiai i?oaeey, aeey /aai aeaoaeueii, n eniieueciaaieai enoi?e/aneeo
oaeoia, ?anniao?eaathony oaeea i?eioeeiu nia?aiaiiiai IAI, eae
aoiaiiinoue, ni?acia?iinoue (i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue), ecae?aoaeueiinoue e
aiaiiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue. Oaeaea ?anniio?ai i?eioeei caueou
a?aaeaeaineiai ianaeaiey. A aeenna?oaoeee i?eaiaeyony /aou?a eiie?aoiuo
e?eoa?ey aeey ii?aaeaeaiey i?oaeey, niaoeeaeueii neiino?oe?iaaiiiai aeey
oiai, /oiau i?e/eiyoue “/?acia?iua iia?aaeaeaiey e eceeoiea no?aaeaiey”.
Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeaii iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaiio aiaeeco Eiiaaioeee ia
iau/iii i?oaeee 1980 aiaea, a /anoiinoe iiaiai i?ioieiea IV e iae — i?i
cai?auaiea ineaieythuaai eaca?iiai i?oaeey.

Aeaoaeueii ?anniao?eaaaony aii?in aicaeaenoaey iau/iiai i?oaeey ia
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo. Aaoi? i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi a neaaeothuai
noieaoee caia?o ia eniieueciaaiea n?aaenoa aaaeaiey aiaauo aeaenoaee,
eioi?ua eiatho naiae oeaeueth iaianoe eee, eae iiaeii iaeeaeaoue,
iaianoo iaoe?iue, aeieaia?aiaiiue e na?ueaciue oua?a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea
aoaeao iaeiei ec aeaaiuo e?eoa?eaa cai?auaiey iiauo aeaeia i?oaeey.

Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeaii eco/aieth i?iaeai eniieueciaaiey i?oaeey
iauaiiiai ac?uaa, eioi?ia eiaao ana i?aaeiinueee noaoue iaeiei ec
iaeaieaa ?ac?ooeoaeueiuo e aeanoieeo aeaeia i?oaeey a neaaeothuai
noieaoee. A ?aaioa i?iaaaeai aeaoaeueiuo aiaeec ianiioaaonoaey yoiai
i?oaeey nouanoaothuei ii?iai e i?eioeeiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
aoiaieoa?iiai i?aaa, a /anoiinoe i?eioeeiai ecae?aoaeueiinoe,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe e cai?aoo i?e/eiyoue /?acia?iua no?aaeaiey. Aaoi?
iainiiauaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue cai?auaiey eee, a ea/anoaa a?aiaiiie ia?u,
ia?aie/aiey i?eiaiaiey i?oaeey iauaiiiai ac?uaa iooai i?eiyoey
iieiaeaiee, aiaeiae/iuo oai, /oi ia?aie/eaatho i?eiaiaiea
caaeeaaoaeueiiai i?oaeey.

A aeenna?oaoeee oaeaea ?ac?aaioaiu eiie?aoiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
ioiineoaeueii iaoaieciia cai?auaiey nia?aiaiiuo ioeue, eioi?ua eaaei
?acai?a/eaathony eee niethueaathony a /aeiaa/aneii oaea (ioeue
“aeoi-aeoi”) e ia iiaeiaaeatho iiae aeaenoaea ii?i iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
i?aaa, iacaaeneii io i?e/ei, eioi?ua aucuaatho iiaeiaiue yooaeo.

Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii i?aeoe/aneei aii?inai, iai?aaeaiiui ia
iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey
i?eiaiaiey iau/iiai i?oaeey, a /anoiinoe, i?ioeaiiaoioiuo iei. Iniaia
aieiaiea a nayce n yoei oaeaeaii iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaiio aiaeeco
Iooaaneie eiiaaioeee, a oaeaea oai iiceoeaiui ia?ai, ii iaania/aieth aa
auiieiaiey, eioi?ua niiaeao i?aaei?eiyoue Oe?aeia a neo/aa ?aoeoeeaoeee
aeaiiiai iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai aeieoiaioa.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaathony aii?inu eiieaiaioaoeee ii?i
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aoiaieoa?iiai i?aaa, i?eiaiyaiiai a ia?eiae
aii?oaeaiiuo eiioeeeoia a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu. Ec anaai eiiieaena
ia? ii eiieaiaioaoeee, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue inouanoaeaiu
ainoaea?noaaie, a ?aieao aeenna?oaoeee aeaoaeueii ?anniio?aiu aeaa
i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiey: i?eiyoea oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey iaania/aiey iaiaoiaeeiuo oaieiaiuo iaeacaiee aeey
eeoe, eioi?ua niaa?oeee eee i?eeacaee niaa?oeoue ia?ooaiey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aoiaieoa?iiai i?aaa, a oaeaea ?ani?ino?aiaiea ciaiee i
IAI. Oe?aeia iaycaia i?anaeaoue ia iaoeeiiaeueiii o?iaia na?ueaciua
ia?ooaiey IAI, eioi?ua yaeythony “aiaiiuie i?anooieaieyie”, a oaeaea
eiaao i?aai i?aaeoniio?aoue a naiai aioo?aiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
aiciiaeiinoue oaieiaiiai i?aneaaeiaaiey ca i?i/ea ia?ooaiey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aoiaieoa?iiai i?aaa. I?aaeeaaaaony i?iaeo noaouee
Oaieiaiiai eiaeaena Oe?aeiu ioiineoaeueii ia?ooaiey ii?i, ?aaoee?othueo
iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa aaaeaiey aiaauo aeaenoaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea, iau/iia
i?oaeea, cai?auaiea, ia?aie/aiea i?eiaiaiey, eiieaiaioaoeey, iaoiaeu e
n?aaenoaa aaaeaiey aiaauo aeaenoaee.

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