19

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

?INOEOOO I?AEIA?IAeIEO A?AeIINEI

OAeE 341.24:342

Ae?EA O*AIIA EAIIAO

I?AEIA?IAeI? AeIAIAI?E O EIINOEOOOe?ssO

OAAeA?AOEAIEO AeA?AEAA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.11 — i?aeia?iaeia i?aai

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Ia?oeiaiei

Iao?i Oaaei?iae/, eaoaae?a ii??aiyeueiiai i?aaiciaanoaa ?inoeoooo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
i?ioani?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aieiaa Ea?ena

?aai?aia, ?inoianueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?in?enueei?
oaaea?aoe??, caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aeieo???a Aiaoie?e ?aaiiae/, Aeua
oeiea i?aaa i?e ?inoeooo? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie, i?i?aeoi?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y ?i.ss?ineaaa

Ioae?iai, i.Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 7 a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo i 14.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee E 26.001.10 a ?inoeooo? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith:
254119, i.Ee?a, aoe.Iaeueieeiaa, 36/1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: Ee?a,
aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea 58, e.10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 15 aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Caaeioeueea E.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ? nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiaoeee aeena?oaoe??. A
inoaii?e /an i?ae oai?aoe/ii ? i?aeoe/ii aaaiieie ieoaiiyie iaoee
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iin?aeathoue i?iaeaie
oaaea?ae?cio.

Eiei i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c i?aeia?iaeieie aniaeoaie, aeineoue oe?iea ?
??ciiiai?oia. Aaaeeeaa i?noea na?aae ieo caeia? i?iaeaia i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiaiai??a a Eiinoeoooe?yo oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaa, yea ? oaiith oeueiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oaaea?aoe?y — neeaaeia (nithcia) aea?aeaaa, yea neeaaea?oueny ?c
aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo oaaea?aoe?? ? yeei
i?eoaiaiia iaaia th?eaee/ia ? iie?oe/ia naiino?ei?noue. Aea?aeaai?
ooai?aiiy (ooaoe, caie?, i?ia?ioe??, eaioiie, iaueie, ?anioae?ee oa ?i.)
iathoue iciaee aea?aeaae, oi/a a ae?eniino? ieie ia aenooiathoue.

Aea?aeaai? ooai?aiiy, ye? neeaaeathoue oaaea?aoe?th, ia ? aea?aeaaaie o
aeaniiio ?icoi?ii? neiaa, ai ?i ia i?eoaiaiiee noaa?ai?oao, i?ae yeei
ne?ae ?icoi?oe aeanoea?noue aea?aeaaii? aeaaee aooe iacaeaaeiith a
noa??, ye aioo??oi?o oae ? ciai?oi?o a?aeiinei.

Oaaea?ae?ci — yaeua ?aaeueia. A?i iaae?a? neeo ? ana a?eueo
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny. A na?o? ?nio? 185 “noaa?aiieo” aea?aeaa, ?c yeeo a
58 i?eeiyo? th?eaee/i? no?oeoo?e, caniiaai? ia oaaea?aoeaieo i?eioeeiao.

Iaaaaeaii ye i?eeeaae oae? e?a?ie: Aano?ae?y, Aano??y, Eaiaaea, ?iae?y,
?iaeiiac?y, Iaeaec?y, I?aa??y, Oaaeoea??y, Ia’?aeiaia I?ia//eia,
Niieo/ai? Ooaoe Aia?eee, A?acee?y, Aaeuea?y, Oaicai?y, ?in?y oa ?i.

I?e aiae?c? iiiyooy oaaea?ae?cio, iaea?eueo neeaaeiei ? ieoaiiy i?i
th?eaee/ia oa oaeoe/ia ?iciaaeoaaiiy eiiiaoaioe?? i?ae nithcaie ?
noa’?eoaie oaaea?aoe??. Ooo iiaa eaea i?i anoaiiaeaiiy caaaeueieo
i?eioeei?a aecia/aiiy ianyao i?aaeiaoii? eiiiaoaioe?? ye nithco, eiai
aeuiai caeiiiaeaa/iai i?aaio — ia?eaiaioo, oae ? noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe??,
a naia — caeiiiaeaa/eo cai??a o noa?? ciai?oi?o a?aeiinei. Anoaiiaeaiiy
i?eioeei?a ?iciaaeoaaiiy eiiiaoaioe?? ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy, a ia?oo
/a?ao, oiio ui a?ae oeueiai caeaaeeoue th?eaee/ia noaiiaeua aea?aeaaiiai
ooai?aiiy a nithc? ? oa?aeoa? oeo a?aeiinei, ye? neeaaeathoueny i?ae
nithcii ? /eaiaie oaaea?aoe??. ?iciiae?e eiiiaoaioe??, ye a?aeiii,
aeineoue aaaeeeaee aeaiaio aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee eiaeii? eiie?aoii?
oaaea?aoe??.

Aoaeue-yea aoaeoeaia oi?ia oaaea?ae?cio iiaeiia ooieoe?iioaaoe o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c Eiinoeoooe??th, yea a /?oei aecia/aea ooieoe??
oeaio?aeueiiai ? ?aa?iiaeueieo o?yae?a, ?ieue ?aa?iiaeueieo o?yae?a a
i?ioean? i?eeiyooy iii?aaie aei caeiiiaeaa/eo ii?i, a oaeiae i?aaa
a?iiaaeyi. ?nio? aecia/aiiy oaaea?ae?cio, ye oaei? oi?ie i?aai?caoe??
o?yaeo, yea i?aaia canoinoaaoe ?aa?iiaeueio ??ciiiai?oi?noue c iaaiei
??aiai eieaeoeaii? ?aeiino? ? ?iaeoue oea oaeei oeyoii, i?e yeiio
?aa?iiaeuei? o?yaee a?ae?a?athoue oe?eeii eiie?aoio ?ieue.

Ieoaiiy i?aeia?iaeii? i?aainoa’?eoiino? ? ii?yaeeo o/ano? oaaea?aoe?? a
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai?ao ia? nooo?aa cia/aiiy. Aeey i?aeia?iaeiiai
i?aaa ? oi?oa?i?, ? oaaea?aoeai? aea?aeaae — noa’?eoe iaeiiai ii?yaeeo,
ui iathoue ??ai? i?aaa ? iaiaycee. Aiii ia ?iciiae?ey? ii
i?aainoa’?eoiino? aea?aeaae ia i?ino? ? neeaaei?. A oaia??oi?e /an a
oai??? oaaea?ae?cio aeii?io? iiceoe?y, ui oaaea?aoe?y — oea aea?aeaaa,
yea ia’?aeio? aea? ? a?eueoa noaa?aiieo aea?aeaa. Noai?thth/e
oaaea?aoe?th, ?? noa’?eoe ia?aaeathoue oaaea?aoe?? nai? noaa?aii? i?aaa,
aea iaeii/anii cian?i ia ao?a/athoue nai?? aea?aeaaiino?. Aeey
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa a oeueiio, ia?o ca ana, i?noeoueny ye?nia
iniaeea?noue oaaea?aoe??, ?? a?aei?ia a?ae oi?oa?ii? aea?aeaae, c
iaeiiai aieo, ? a?ae i?aeia?iaeiiai nithco aea?aeaa — c ae?oaiai. I?aai
oeeaaeaoe i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e (aeiaia??ia i?aaicaeaoi?noue) ?
iaeaaaeeea?oei aeaiaioii i?aeia?iaeii? i?aainoa’?eoiino?, ao?eaooii
noa’?eoo i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, oi?eath/enue i?aaa oaaea?aoe?? ? /anoi
– i?aaa ?? noa’?eo?a.

Ii?ie, ui aecia/athoue noaoon aea?aeaae, ?aae?cothoueny, a ia?oo /a?ao,
a eiai i?aainoa’?eoiino?. Oaeei /eiii aecia/a?oueny i?noea aea?aeaae a
i?aeia?iaei?e ni?eueiino?, eiai iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino?. I?aeia?iaeia
i?aainoa’?eoi?noue, ye a?aeiii, ia? aeaa aniaeoe: i?aaicaeaoi?noue
(caeaoi?noue iaoe i?aaa ? iaiaycee uiaei i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa) ?
ae??caeaoi?noue (caeaoi?noue iacaeaaeii cae?enithaaoe i?aaa ? iaia’ycee
uiaei i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa). I?aai oeeaaeaoe i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e —
oea aniaeo i?aaicaeaoiino? eiaeii? aea?aeaae. Oea iieiaeaiiy
cao?eniaaia oaeiae o A?aeaiuenuee?e Eiiaaioe?? i?i i?aai i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiaiai??a 1969 ?ieo: “Eiaeia aea?aeaaa ia? i?aaicaeaoi?noue ia
neeaaeaiiy aeiaiai??a” (no.6). I?e oeueiio noa’?eoaie i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiaiai??a iiaeooue aooe, ye i?aaeei, noaa?aii? aea?aeaae.

Aea?aeaae-/eaie oaaea?aoe?? iiaeooue iaoe i?aaicaeaoi?noue oeeaaeaoe
i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e, yeui oaea i?aaicaeaoi?noue aecia?oueny
oaaea?aoeaiith Eiinoeoooe??th ? a iaaeao, anoaiiaeaieo iath. Oea ieoaiiy
– ? aioo??oiueith ni?aaith aea?aeaae. No/ania i?aeia?iaeia i?aai ia ia?
?ioi? ii?ie, yea a i?yii iaiaaeoaaea aeiaia??io i?aaicaeaoi?noue
e?a?i-/eai?a oaaea?aoe??. I?e oeeaaeaii? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a c
oaaea?aoe??th ne?ae iaoe ia oaac?, ui i?aeoe/ii ? th?eaee/ii, c oi/ee
ci?o i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, oaaea?aoe?y ? oaeith ae noi?iiith, ye ?
oi?oa?ia aea?aeaaa. Aea?aeaae — oaaea?aoe??, ye? ? noaa?aiieie
o/anieeaie i?aeia?iaeieo i?aaia?aeiinei, aenooiathoue iaeii/anii ye
aaoi?e, aae?anaoe, oae ? aa?aioe aeeiiaiiy th?eaee/ii iaia’yceiaeo ii?i,
a oiio /ene?, ? a oeo i?aaia?aeiineiao, o/anieeaie yeeo aenooiathoue
/eaie oaaea?aoe?? .

I?aeia?iaeiee aeiaia?? ciaia’yco? aea?aeaao a oe?eiio, aeio?eioaaoenue
ii?yaeeo ?aae?caoe?? oeeo ciaia’ycaiue o aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaieo
a?aeiineiao, ye? aecia/athoueny iniaeeainoyie eiinoeoooe?eiiai ono?ith
aea?aeaae. Aea?aeaaa a?eueia o aeai?? oeyo?a ? cania?a ?aae?caoe??
i?aeia?iaeieo ciaiaycaiue o aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaieo a?aeiineiao, a yeee c
eiai i?aai?a ia? i?aai i?eeiaoe a oeueiio o/anoue, anoaiiaeth?oueny a
eiai eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa?.

Eiee oeeaaeaiee i?aeia?iaeiee aeiaia?? ciaia’yco? eiio?aaaioa
aei ae?? o aioo??oiueiaea?aeaai?e noa??, aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiee
?iciiae?e eiiiaoaioe?? i?ae i?aaiaie aea?aeaae, i?ae oaaea?aoe??th ? ??
/eaiaie iaaoaa? nooo?aiai cia/aiiy. Oea iia’ycaii aieiaiei /eiii ?c oei,
ui ?iieaiaioaoe?y i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ciaia’ycaiiy o noa??
aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei aeinyaa?oueny, ye i?aaeei, aeaeaiiyi
aeiaeaoeiaeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, a o oaaea?aoe?? caeiiiaeaa/a
ae?yeuei?noue noai?i ?iciaaeiaaia i?ae eiiiaoaioe??th nithco ? ??
/eaiaie.

I?aeoeea a?eueoino? aea?aeaa iieaco?, ui /eaie oaaea?aoe?? ia iathoue
aeiaia??ii? i?aainoa’?eoiino?. On? iiaiiaaaeaiiy uiaei oeeaaeaiiy ?
cae?eniaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a, ye i?aaeei, oe?eeii ciaoiaeyoueny
a ?oeao oaaea?aoe??, oi/a oae? aea?aeaae, ye na?ae/eoue i?aeia?iaeia
i?aeoeea, iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoe oaeo naiai oaaea?ae?cio a
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo a?aeiineiao aaeath/enue aei oae caaiiai
oaaea?aoeaiiai canoa?aaeaiiy.

?io? oaaea?aoe?? — Aano??y, ?in?y, Oaaeoea??y, I?ia//eia ? o.ae. o nai?o
Eiinoeoooe?yo iaaeathoue i?aai nai?i aea?aeaaai-/eaiai: caieyi,
?anioae?eai ? eaioiiai — oeeaaeaoe a?aeiia?aei? aeiaiai?e c iaaieo
ieoaiue. O cayceo ?c ?icaeoeii i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei niinoa??aa?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y ?icoe?aiiy i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo cayce?a /eai?a oaaea?aoe??.

Iiooe aoaeoeaiiai ??oaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a a
eiinoeoooe?yo oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaa ye a i?ioean? ?o oeeaaeaiiy, oae ?
a iiiaio ?iieaiaioaoe?? ciaia’ycaiue, ui aeo?eathoue c ieo, noai?ea
aaaaoi neeaaeieo ? i?eioeeiiai iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai a
iaooe? eiinoeoooe?eiiai ? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

Ii-ia?oa, aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? aecia/aiiy niaoeeo?ee oaaea?aoeaii?
aea?aeaae ye noa’?eoa i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a. Iiaa eaea i?i
a?aei?ii?noue oaaea?aoe?? ye ?aeeii? iniae a i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaia??ieo
a?aeiineiao, i?i ianya ?? i?aeia?iaeii? i?aainoa’?eoiino?. Aeae?,
ieoaiiy, yea aeeeeea? iniaeeaee ?ioa?an, noino?oueny a?aeciae aioo??oi?o
eiinoeoooe?eieo ii?yaee?a, ye? iaoiiaeththoue ae?? oaaea?aoeaieo
aea?aeaa i?e oeeaaeaii? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a. Ooo ne?ae caaaeeoe ia
oa, ui eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aao a?aeaaaeaii aieiaio ?ieue o aecia/aii?
aca?iiae?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa. Caeaaia ?nio?
i?eioeei, ca?aeii c yeei anoaiiaeaiiy ii?yaeeo aca?iiae?? aeaio i?aaiaeo
ii?yaee?a — noaa?aiia i?aai naii? aea?aeaae. I?aeia?iaeia i?aai
cae??ieth? i?eioeei iiaaae aei anoaiiaeaiiai Eiinoeoooe?eiiai ii?yaeeo.
?acii c oei, aiii aecia/a?, ui aea?aeaaa ia iiaea iineeaoeny ia
eiinoeoooe?th aeey aei?aaaeaiiy iaaeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue c
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

Ii-ae?oaa, ?nio? i?iaeaia a?aei?iiinoae iaoe?iiaeueii-i?aaiai?
?iieaiaioaoe?? oeeaaeaieo i?aeia?iaeieo oaiae a oiiaao oaaea?aoe??.
Iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe oie oaeo, ui oaaea?aoeai? ono?i? aacothoueny ia
eiinoeoooe?eiiio ?iciiae?e? eiiiaoaioe?? i?ae caaaeueiioaaea?aeueiith
aeaaeith (oeaio?ii) ? aea?aeaaaie-/eaiaie, ye? iathoue nai?
caeiiiaeaa/?, aeeiiaa/? ? noaeia? i?aaie. Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
eiinoeoooe?eiiio iaiaaeaiith aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai aeeiiaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a, ?ie? noaeiaeo i?aai?a o ae??oaii? eiioe?eo?a
i?ae eiinoeoooe??th ? i?aeia?iaeiei aeiaiai?ii a ia??iae eiai
aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai aeeiiaiiy ia ??ai? ye oaaea?aoe??, oae ?
aea?aeaa-/eai?a.

O?aoy i?iaeaia iia’ycaia c aecia/aiiyi i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai noaoono
noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe??. Aaeaea iaei??th c aieiaieo ?en no/anii?
oaaea?aoe?? ? cia/iee c??no i?aeia?iaeii? aeoeaiino? noa’?eo?a ??cieo
oaaea?aoe?e. Aano??enuee? ? i?iaoeuee? caie?, aano?ae?enuee? ?
aia?eeainuee? ooaoe, eaiaaenuee? i?ia?ioe?? ? aaeuea?enuee? iaueie,
noa’?eoe ?in?enueei? oaaea?aoe?? i?aeienothoue aeiaiai?e c ?iicaiieie
aea?aeaaaie, a?aee?eaathoue ?iicaii? i?aaenoaaieoeoaa, aa?ooue o/anoue o
ae?yeueiino? i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e.

Anoia?a/ caaaeuei?e iaiaaeaiino? eiinoeoooe?eii? aace, noa’?eoe-/eaie
oaaea?aoe?? aeoeaii ?icaeaathoue nai? ciai?oi? ca’ycee. Ci?no
i?aeia?iaeii? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe?? iiaeooue aooe caaaeai?
a iniiaiiio aei ianooiieo aeae?a ae?yeueiino?:

1)oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai??a c ?iicaiieie aea?aeaaaie;

2)a?aee?eooy ?iicaiieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa;

3)o/anoue a ae?yeueiino? aeayeeo i?aeia?iaeieo i?aeaea?aeaaieo
i?aai?caoe?e.

Ca inoaii? aeanyoe??//y noa’?eoe oaaea?aoe?? oeeaee c ?iicaiieie
aea?aeaaaie aeanyoee aeiaiai??a. Oae? aeiaiai?e ? cae/aeiith
i?aeia?iaeiith i?aeoeeith, yea aeeiio?oueny aac yeiainue iniaeeaiai
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai aeciaiiy (yeui aoea aeciaia oaaea?aoe?y).

Aeooaeueiith caeeoa?oueny ? i?iaeaia /eiiino? aeiaiai??a, oeeaaeaieo c
ii?ooaiiyie i?aa oaaea?aoe??. Aeieea? ieoaiiy i?i a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
oaaea?aeueii? aea?aeaae ca ae?? aai aacae?yeuei?noue eiai
aea?aeaae-/eaia.

??oaiiy cacia/aieo i?iaeai /eiaei iiaea ni?eyoe ?o aeeaieiio
oai?aoe/iiio ?icoi?iith, aeei?enoiaoth/e nenoaiii-eiioeaiooaeueiee ?
oe?e?niee iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa a
ieoaiiyo i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a a eiinoeoooe?yo oaaea?aoeaieo
aea?aeaa, ui aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoith oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai aiae?co
i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o a eiinoeoooe?yo oaaea?aoeaieo
aea?aeaa. Oey iaoa eiie?aoeco?oueny oaeeie iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie:

· aeine?aeeoe iiiyooy oaaea?aeueii? aea?aeaae ye noaa?aiiiai noa’?eoa
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa a yeino? iaei??? iniae a i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaia??ieo
a?aeiineiao;

· aeyaeoe eiinoeoooe?eiee ii?yaeie oeeaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a
oaaea?aoeaiith aea?aeaaith ;

· aeine?aeeoe eiinoeoooe?eio ?iieaiaioaoe?th i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a o
oaaea?aoeai?e aea?aeaa?;

· i?iaiae?coaaoe ?ieue noaeiaeo i?aai?a o ae??oaii? eiioe?eo?a, ui
aeieeathoue i?ae oaaea?aoe??th ? ?? /eaiaie a i?ioean? ?iieaiaioaoe??
oeeaaeaieo i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a a oiiaao oaaea?aoe??;

· ?icaeyiooe eiei i?iaeai, ui noinothoueny i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai
noaoono noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe??;

· aea/eoe ? ocaaaeueieoe aeina?ae eiinoeoooe?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa
no/anieo oaaea?aoe?e c i?eaiaeo i?yiiai anooio noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe?? a
i?aeia?iaei? aeiaia??i? a?aeiineie;

· aea/eoe i?iaeaie /eiiino? i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o, oeeaaeaiiai c
ii?ooaiiyie ii?i i?aaa oaaea?aoe??.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?iaeaia eiinoeoooe?eieo iiaiiaaaeaiue ia
oeeaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a o oaaea?aoeai?e aea?aeaa?,
eiinoeoooe?eii-iaoiiaeaiiai aea?aeaaiiai iaoai?cio ?iieaiaioaoe??
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a, a oaeiae ?ieue noaeiaeo i?aai?a oaaea?aoeaii?
aea?aeaae a i?iaaaeaii? eiio?ieth ca eiinoeoooe?ei?noth aeeiiaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a. E??i oeueiai, a ?iaio? aena?oeth?oueny
i?iaeaia i?aeia?iaeii? i?aainoa?eoiino? /eai?a oaaea?aoe??, /eiiino?
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o, oeeaaeaiiai c ii?ooaiiyi ii?i i?aaa
oaaea?aoe??.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy
i?aaia?aeiinei, ui aeieeathoue a i?ioean? oeeaaeaiiy ? aeeiiaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a oaaea?aoe??th ? ?? /eaiaie, a oaeiae
eiinoeoooe?eii-i?aaiaee noaoon aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, ui i?aaenoaaeythoue
oaaea?aoeaio aea?aeaao a i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaia??ieo a?aeiineiao.

Caycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie. Oaiaoeea aeena?oaoe??
a?aeia?aaea? iaeei ?c iai?yie?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe
eaoaae?e i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa oa ii??aiyeueiiai i?aaiciaanoaa ?inoeoooo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
cie?aia, i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeii? i?aainoa?eoiino?
? o/ano? aea?aeaa a i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai?ao.

Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy

Oea aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia iaoiaeieia??
i?aeia?iaeiiai ? ii??aiyeueiiai eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa. Iniiaieie
niaoe?aeueieie iaoiaeaie ?: nenoaiiee

aiae?c th?eaee/ieo eaoaai??e ? yaeu, ui aea/athoueny, ?noi?e/iee ?
ii??aiyeueiee iaoiaee. Oaeiae aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoiae ii??aiyeueiiai
aiae?co nenoai aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaii? ? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiai?
?aaeaiaioaoe?? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a. E?eoa???i ii??aiyiiy neoaoaaea
iayai?noue o oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaa niaoe?aeueieo caeii?a i?i
i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee ?iaioe th?eno?a-i?aeia?iaeiee?a
? eiinoeoooe?iiae?no?a, a oiio /ene?: N.N.Ae?en??aa, A.I.A?eiiiaiaa,
A.A.Aooeaae/a, A.I.Aaeueyi?iiaa, A.N.Aaaa?aeianueeiai, A.I.Aeaieeaiea,
Ae.A.Eaa?ia, A.A.?aiaoaiea, ?.?.Eoeaooea, I.O.Ia?oeiaiea, A.I.I?oeia,
A.A.Iaaeinueeiai, ?.A.Itheea?niia, A.A.Ionoiai?iaa, A.I.?eyea,
A.I.Oaeaea?aa, A.?.Ioie?ia, A.O.Onaiea, I.I.Ooaeiaa, I.I.*aeiai,
N.A.*a?i?/aiei, A.I.Oii?ia, Ae.Aioe?eioo?, A.Ae?ena, Aeae.A?aea?e?,
Aeae.Aaiae??, A.Eaooa?iaooa, Aeae.O?oii??na, A.Oa?ae?inna, I.Oaeeioeay,
Aeae.Oaa?aaiaa?aa?a, E.Iiiaeeeia, O.I.Aeaeca, Aeae.Aeaca?a oa ?i.

A aeena?oaoe?? aaoi? oe?iei aeei?enoiao? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? aeaea?aea,
ui a?aeiinyoueny aei eiai oaie, a oiio /ene? aeoe III, i?aeia?iaei?
aeiaiai?e ? aeieoiaioe eii?n?e i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, iaoa??aee
aeiaia??ii? ? i?aeia?iaeii? noaeiai? i?aeoeee, a oaeiae eiinoeoooe?eia
caeiiiaeaanoai ? eiinoeoooe?eio i?aeoeeo ??cieo oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
c?iaeai? a ?iaio? aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai?
i?aaiaie ciai?oi?o a?aeiinei a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee ? oeeaaeaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a c oaaea?aoeaieie aea?aeaaaie, i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?
oaeineiiaeaii? caeii?a i?i i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e oaaea?aoe??, a
iniaeeaino? o I?aa???. A?aoo?, ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy o/aiaeo eo?n?a ? niaoeeo?n?a o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao, a oiio /ene? a ?inoeooo? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e aeine?aeaeaia
ii??aiyeueia eiinoeoooe?eia ?iieaiaioaoe?y ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai oa
aeiaia??iiai i?aaa oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaa, c?iaeaii oai?aoe/i?
ocaaaeueiaiiy oe??? i?aeoeee; iaaaaeaia a?aeiia?aeia a?aoiaioaoe?y, yea
iaa?oioiao? iaeaaeia, c oi/ee ci?o i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, eiinoeoooe?eia
a?aaoethaaiiy i?aeia?iaeii? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe?? ? ?o
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai noaoono.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia i?aaenoaaey? aia?oa
a oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ni?iao c?iaeoe
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c eiinoeoooe?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ??cieo
oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaa a noa?? ciai?oi?o ca’yce?a, niaoeeo?ee
aca?iia?aeiinei i?aeia?iaeiiai ? aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai i?aaa c oi/ee
ci?o ae?? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ia oa?eoi??? oaaea?aoeaii? aea?aeaae ?
aeeiiaiiy aeiaia??ieo ciaia’ycaiue oaaea?aeueiith aea?aeaaith ? ??
/eaiaie. Iiaecia i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? ua e a oiio, ui a
iueiio cai?iiiiiaai? iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? i?iiiceoe?? noiniaii
ci?noo ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa i?i aeciaiiy noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe?? ye
iniaeeai? eaoaai??? noa’?eo?a i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ?, a?aeiia?aeii,
?aaoethaaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino? ca aeiiiiiaith caaaeueieo ii?i
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

Aeena?oaio noi?ioethaaa eiei iiaeo iieiaeaiue, ye? aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno:

1. Iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? i?i aeciaiiy noa?eo?a oaaea?aoe?? ye iniaeeai?
eaoaai??? noa?eo?a i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

2. Iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui Eiinoeoooe?eia caeiiiaeaanoai ? ?aaeueia
iie?oe/ia i?aeoeea no/anieo oaaea?aoe?e th?eaee/ii ? oaeoe/ii aeciathoue
i?aai noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe?e ia a?aeiinii naiino?eio i?aeia?iaeio
ae?yeuei?noue, ia a?aeiinii naiino?ei? ciai?oi? caycee c ?iicaiieie
ia?oia?aie. Nooi?iue aaoiiii?? noa?eo?a oaaea?aoe?? a aeine?aeaeoaai?e
iaeano?, ianya ?o i?aeia?iaeii? ae?yeueiino? a ??cieo nenoaiao
iaiaeiaeiaee.

3. Iiaa a?aoiaioaoe?y i?i oa, ui i?aeia?iaeia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
ii?ooaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai ciaiaycaiiy, i?eeiyoiai ia naaa /eaiii
oaaea?aoe?? ? a iaaeao nai?? i?aeia?iaeii? i?aainoa?eoiino? aoaea
iieeaaeaoeny ia oaaea?aoeaio aea?aeaao, oae ye aaaaoianiaeoi? a?aeiineie
a noa?? i?aeia?iaeieo ca’yce?a /eai?a oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaa,
aeeth/ath/e ieoaiiy ?o a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ua ia iathoue aeineoue
/?oeiai i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Aeey onoiaiiy oaeiai iieiaeaiiy
iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeoe eiiieaen aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo ii?i
aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai ? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa (noi?.10).

4. Iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith ae?th/i? A?aeaiuenueei?
Eiiaaioe?? ii i?aeia?iaeiei aeiaiai?ai 1969 ?ieo a /anoei? iaaeaiiy
noa’?eoai oaaea?aoe?? i?aaa ia oeeaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a.

5. Aoea a aei?aaaeaia ni?eueia ?i?oe?aoeaa oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaa uiaei
eiaeeo?eaoe?? a?aeiia?aeieo i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo ii?i a iaaeao III.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oe??? ?iaioe iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa oa ii??aiyeueiiai i?aaiciaanoaa ?inoeoooo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.
?? iniiai? ?aea? oaeiae ?icaeyaeaeeny ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia?ao,
ui i?iaiaeeeeny o oeueiio ae ?inoeooo?, a oaeiae aeeeaaeai? a 4
iioae?eiaaieo noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, ye? iiae?eythoueny o naith /a?ao ia ia?aa?aoe, a
oaeiae aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Caaaeueiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? 182 noi??iee, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoee
caeiathoue 15 noi??iie.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, aecia/a?oueny
iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, oai?aoe/ia aaca ? iaoeiaa
iiaecia i?aoe?, ?? oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, aeacothoueny noa?e
iiaeeeaiai canoinoaaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno.

Aeaaa ia?oa “Oaaea?aoeaiee ono??e ? eiinoeoooe?eiee ii?yaeie oeeaaeaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a”, i?enay/aia aecia/aiith eeth/iaeo iiiyoue
oaaea?aoeaii? aea?aeaae, ye noa’?eoa i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

A ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? aaoi? ?icaeyaea? ?noi??th aeieeiaiiy ?aeae
oaaea?ae?cio, yea aa?a na?e ii/aoie a?ae eiioeaioe?? i?aeo?yaeiaeo
a?aeiinei, ui ca?iaeeeany ua a aeaaiueia?aoeuee?e oeea?e?caoe??. Oaeiae
aaoi? i?eae?ey? oaaao iiaei eiioeaioe?yi oaaea?ae?cio, ui aeieeee i?ney
i?eeiyooy Aia?eeainueei? Eiinoeoooe?? 1787 ?ieo. C oiai /ano iiiyooy
oaaea?ae?cio aeeth/a? a naaa ?aea? aca?iia?aeiinei ia aeaio ??aiyo: ia
o?yaeiaiio ??ai?, i?ae ooaoaie, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo oaaea?aoe??,
oa i?ae a?iiaaeyiaie oeeo ooao?a.

Aeena?oaio aeio?eio?oueny iiceoe?e aaaaoueio aenia?o?a, eio??
aaaaeathoue, ui aoaeue-yea aoaeoeaia oaaea?aoeaia oi?ia iiaeiia
ooieoe?iioaaoe o a?aeiia?aeiino? c Eiinoeoooe??th, aea /?oei aecia/ai?
ooieoe?? oeaio?aeueiiai ? ?aa?iiaeueiiai o?yae?a, ?ieue ?aa?iiaeueieo
o?yae?a o i?ioean? i?eeiyooy iii?aaie aei caeiiiaeaa/eo ii?i, a oaeiae
i?aa a?iiaaeyi. I?aai oeeaaeaoe i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e (aeiaia??ia
i?aaini?iiiaei?noue) ? aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii i?aeia?iaeii?
i?aainoa’?eoiino?, ao?eaooii noa’?eoo i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa. I?aai
oeeaaeaoe aeiaiai?e iaeaaeaoue an?i aea?aeaaai. Oea iieiaeaiiy
cao?eniaaia o A?aeaiuenuee?e Eiiaaioe?? i?i i?aai i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiaiai??a 1969 ?ieo : “Eiaeia aea?aeaaa aieiae?? i?aaiaith caeaoi?noth
oeeaaeaoe aeiaiai?e” (No. 6).

Noa’?eoaie i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a iiaeooue aooe ye oi?oa?i? oae ?
oaaea?aoeai? aea?aeaae. Aea?aeaae-/eaie oaaea?aoe?? iiaeooue aieiae?oe
i?aaiaith caeaoi?noth oeeaaeaoe i?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e, yeui oaea
i?aaiaa caeaoi?noue aecia/a?oueny oaaea?aeueiith eiinoeoooe??th, oa a
iaaeao onoaiiaeaieo iath.

Ia iniia? aiae?co aaoi? i?eeoia aei aeniiaeo, ui iaeaaaeeea?oei
aeaiaioii i?aainoa’?eoiino? a i?aeia?iaeiiio i?aa? ? i?aaiaa
ae??caeaoi?noue, oiaoi o/anoue o noai?aii? oa i?eeiyoo? ii?i
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa oeyoii oeeaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo oaiae. Noa’?eoe
i?aeia?iaeiiai ioae?/iiai i?aaa ? iaeii/anii ? noa’?eoaie i?aaa
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a. Eiaeai i?aaii??iee aeiaia?? noai?th?
ia’?eoeaia i?aai aeey aea?aeaa, ye? aa?ooue a iueiio o/anoue, a oaeiae
aeey ?ioeo noa’?eo?a i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa. Oea i?aai aecia/a?
i?aaicaeaoi?noue noa’?eo?a, ?o caeaoi?noue aieiae?oe i?aaaie oa
iaia’yceaie aaciina?aaeiuei ia iniia? ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.
I?aeia?iaeia i?aaicaeaoi?noue ia?aaeaa/a? oaeiae iiaeeea?noue aeey
noa’?eo?a io?eioaaoe i?aaa ? aooe o/anieeii i?aeia?iaeieo
i?aaia?aeiinei, ai aiia ia iiaea ioiieoe niaith ci?no an???
i?aainoa’?eoiino?, a aeeth/a? a naaa eeoa caaaeuei? i?aaa oa iaia’ycee.

Oaeei /eiii, aea?aeaaa, ye noa’?eo i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, aieiae??
caeaoi?noth anoaiiaethaaoe i?aaa ? iaia’ycee, iaaoaaoe i?aaa ? ianoe
iaia’ycee, a oaeiae naiino?eii cae?enithaaoe ?o. O/anoue aea?aeaae o
i?aeia?iaeiiio i?aaioai?aii? iia’ycaia ia o?eueee c i?eeiyooyi
iaia’yce?a ? ?o aeeiiaiiyi, a oaeiae i?aaiaiiyi aei oiai, uia ii?ie
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa aeeiioaaeeny on?ia eiai noa’?eoaie ? iaee
th?eaee/io caaacia/ai?noue. I?aainoa’?eoi?noue aea?aeaae ?nio?
iacaeaaeii a?ae aie? ?ioeo noa’?eo?a i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ?
caa??aa?oueny aei oiai /ano, iiee aea?aeaaa ?nio?. Aiia oi?aa?naeueia,
ioiieth? an? eiiiiiaioe i?aaeiaoo i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

Coieiyth/enue ia ?icaeyae? ieoaiiy i?i i?aeia?iaeio i?aainoa’?eoi?noue
oaaea?aoeaii? aea?aeaae, iaiao?aeii anoaiiaeoe, ui oaaea?aoe?y — oea
nithcia aea?aeaaa, a ye?e noa’?eoe iathoue cia/io naiino?ei?noue o
aioo??oi?o ni?aaao ? iathoue iaai? eiinoeoooe?eii iaoiiaeai? i?aaa,
cie?aia, anooiaoe a i?aeia?iaei? aeiaia??i? a?aeiineie. Eiei oaeeo
ieoaiue iaiaaeaia ? cae?eniththoueny oae? i?aaa i?ae eiio?ieai
oaaea?aoe??.

A I?aeaia?eeainuee?e Eiiaaioe?? i?i i?aaa ? iaia’ycee aea?aeaa 1933 ?ieo
a?aeiia?aeia ii?ia noi?ioeueiaaia oaeei /eiii: “Oaaea?aoeaia aea?aeaaa
neeaaea? eeoa iaeio iniao ia?aae i?aeia?iaeiei i?aaii” (no.2).
Oaaea?aoeaia aea?aeaaa aenooia? ciai? o i?aeaea?aeaaieo a?aeiiniao ye
oe?e?niee noa’?eo i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa. Oea i?iyaey?oueny a noaa?aii?e
iniia? ? iiaiio? iiaiiaaaeaiue a i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao, oeeaaeaii?
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a a?ae naiai ?iai?, a oiio, ui o a?aeaii?
oaaea?aoe??, ? ?? aeueo i?aaiao ciaoiaeeoueny aeua ea??aieoeoai e?a?ie ?
oeeaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a, ? a oiio, ui a iaaeao th?enaeeeoe??
oaaea?aoeaii? aea?aeaae ?aae?cothoueny iaeaaei? eiio i?aaa ? acyo? ia
naaa i?aeia?iaei? ciaia’ycaiiy.

Iieiaeaiiy A?aeaiuenueei? Eiiaaioe?? i?i i?aai i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a
uiaei iaiayceiaino? aeiaiai?o “aeey eiaeiiai o/anieea ii a?aeiioaiith
aei an??? eiai oa?eoi???” (no. 29) ae?enia aeey oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaa.
Oea caaaeueia i?aaeei /?oei aecia/aia o i?aeia?iaeiiio iaeo? i?i
aeiiii?/i?, nioe?aeuei? ? eoeueoo?i? i?aaa (no.28), ? a i?aeia?iaeiiio
iaeo? i?i oeea?euei? ? iie?oe/i? i?aaa 1966 ?. (no.50) — iinoaiiaa iaio
iaeo?a “?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ia on? /anoeie oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaa aac
aoaeue-yeeo iaiaaeaiue aai aeeo/aiue”.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy i?i eiinoeoooe?ei?
iiaiiaaaeaiiy ia oeeaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a o oaaea?aoeai?e
e?a?i?.

I?aai ia oeeaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a a?aeiineoueny aei /enea
iniiaieo i?aa, ui iaeaaeaoue eiaei?e aea?aeaa? a neeo ?? noaa?ai?oaoo. A
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo a?aeiineiao ?aae?caoe?y aeiaia??ii?
i?aaicaeaoiino? aea?aeaa i?e a?aenooiino? a?aeiia?aeieo i?aai?a iiaeeeaa
eeoa caaaeyee ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a, ui ?? i?aaenoaaeythoue ?
niaoe?aeueii oiiaiiaaaeaieo in?a. I?aaenoaaieoeoai aea?aeaa oeyoii
ae?yeueiino? eiiiaoaioieo i?aai?a aenooia? ye ia’?eoeaii iaiao?aeiee
niin?a ?aae?caoe?? ?o noaa?aiiiai i?aaa ia oeeaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo
oaiae.

A th?eaee/i?e iaooe? ?nio? ?yae oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e a?aeiinii oi?i ?
cania?a i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? i?aaenoaaieoeoaa e?a?i
i?e oeeaaeaii? oaiae. Aeena?oaio aiae?co? oai?aoe/io eiioeaioe?th
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa e?a?i, caa?oath/enue aei ?ia?o A.Oa?ae?inna,
Ae.Aioe?eioo?, A.Eaeuecaia, A.A.Aooeaae/a, A.I.Oaeaea?aa oa ?i.

O aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?aoeyo iiaeia iiaa/eoe, ui ?niothoue o?e aieiai?
eiioeaioe?? ia aeacaio oaio:

1) Oi/ea ci?o i?ea?/iee?a eiinoeoooe?eii? oai???. Aeoiaey/e ?c
i?eioeeio, ui an? ieoaiiy i?aaenoaaieoeoaa aea?aeaa o aeiaia??ieo
a?aeiineiao ?aaoeththoueny aioo??oi?i i?aaii, aiie aaaaeathoue, ui a
i?aeia?iaeiiio i?aa? neeaeany cae/aeia ii?ia, yea i?e aecia/ai? eiea ?
eiiiaoaioe?? i?aai?a, i?aaii??ieo i?aaenoaaeyoe e?a?ie i?e oeeaaeaii?
oaiae, a?aeneea? ?o aei aioo??oiueiai, a ia?oo /a?ao, eiinoeoooe?eiiai
i?aaa.

2) I?ea?/ieee ?ioi? ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? oai???, aeiaiaey/e e
aaniethoecoth/e ??cieoeth i?ae eiiiaoaioe??th ooai?thaaoe aieth
aea?aeaae ? eiiiaoaioe??th ?? aeyaeyoe, aaaaeathoue, ui i?aeia?iaeia
i?aai iiaea aaciina?aaeiuei anoaiiaethaaoe inoaiith, aecia/ath/e oiiae,
i?e yeeo ca i?aaiaie aea?aeaae aeciathoueny a?aeiia?aei? iiaiiaaaeaiiy.
Nenoaia oaeeo iiaiiaaaeaiue, ia ?o aeoieo, ooai?th? oeth aeiaia??io
eiiiaoaioe?th aeaieo i?aai?a ii i?aeia?iaeiiio i?aao.

3) Iiaa oai?aoe/ia eiioeaioe?y i/aaeaeii? /e cai?iiiiiaaii? aeiaia??ii?
eiioeaioe??. Ca?aeii ?e, ca i?aeia?iaeiei i?aaii, aeiaiai?e a?ae ?iai?
aea?aeaae iiaeooue oeeaaeaoe o? i?aaie, ye? aieiae?thoue oaeoe/iith
eiiiaoaioe??th, ui caaacia/o? ?o aeeiiaiiy.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe an? oe? ieoaiiy o nai?e i?aoe?, aaoi? i?eeoia aei
aeniiaeo, ui iaoai?ci i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? i?aaenoaaieoeoaa aea?aeaa
i?e oeeaaeaii? oaiae neeaaea?oueny ?c aeaio aca?iiiia’ycaieo i?aaiaeo
nenoai:

1.) aea?aeaaii-i?aaiai?, yea ?aaoeth? a?aeiineie i?ae aea?aeaaith ?
i?aaiaie, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue ?? i?e oeeaaeaii? oaiae, caaaeyee
anoaiiaeaiith eiea ?oiueiai aaaeaiiy ? aeiaia??ii? eiiiaoaioe??;

2) i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiai?, ?aaoethth/i? a?aeiineie i?ae aea?aeaaaie, ui
oeeaaeathoue oaiaeo c i?eaiaeo aeciaiiy ca iaaieie i?aaiaie i?aaa ia
i?aaenoaaieoeoai i?e oeeaaeaii? oaiae, caaaeyee anoaiiaeaiith oiia, i?e
yeeo oaiaea aaaaea?oueny oeeaaeaiith aea?aeaaaie, a?ae ?iai? i?aai?a, ui
?o i?aaenoaaeythoue.

Aeaaa ae?oaa — “Oaaea?aoeaiee ono??e ? iaoai?ci aioo??oiuei-aea?aeaaii?
?iieaiaioaoe?? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a”. A iueiio aiae?cothoueny
ieoaiiy, ui oi?eathoueny iaoai?cio ?iieaiaioaoe?? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo
ii?i. Iaoai?ci ?iieaiaioaoe?? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo ii?i aeeth/a? a naaa
iaaio noeoii?noue i?aaiaeo ?inoeoooe?eieo cania?a, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny
noa’?eoaie i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ia i?aeia?iaeiiio ? iaoe?iiaeueiiio
??aiyo, c iaoith ?aae?caoe?? ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa. Oaaea?aoeai?
aea?aeaae, iath/e nai???aeio aea?aeaaio i?aai?caoe?th, nenoaio
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, no?oeoo?o i?aaa ? nenoaio caeiiiaeaanoaa,
iaoiiaeththoue niaoeeo?eo aca?iia?aeiinei i?aeia?iaeiiai ? aioo??oiueiai
aea?aeaaiiai i?aaa c oi/ee ci?o ae?? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ia oa?eoi???
aea?aeaae, aeeiiaiiy aeiaia??ieo iaia’yce?a nithciith aea?aeaaith oa ??
noa’?eoaie. I?aeia?iaeia i?aai iieeaaea? iaia’ycee ia oaaea?aoeaio
aea?aeaao ye nithciee i?aai, a ia ia /eai?a /e i?aaie, ye? neeaaeathoue
oaaea?aoeaio aea?aeaao.

A?aeiii, ui noaeiaa aeaaea ia? cia/io ?ieue o aeciaii? ? caaacia/aii?
aeei?enoaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo ii?i. Ooo aaoi? ?icaeyaea? ?ieue noaeiaeo
i?aai?a o ??oaii? eiioe?eo?a eiinoeoooe?? ? i?aeia?iaeii? oaiaee a
i?ioean? eiai aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai aeeiiaiiy. I?aeoeea e?a?i o
ae??oaii? aeaii? i?iaeaie iieaco?, ui iaeaea on? aiie ?iciaaeathoueny ia
o?e iniiai? a?oie a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o iiceoe?? o aeaiiio i?ioean?:

1. Aea?aeaae, a yeeo iaoe?iiaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai noi?oue ia iiceoe??,
ui i?aeia?iaei? oaiaee ae?thoue ana?aaeei? e?a?ie ia ??ai? c
aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiei i?aaii (NOA, Oaaeoea??y, ?in?y, Aano??y oiui)

2.Aea?aeaae, a yeeo iaoe?iiaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai ?, aieiaiei /eiii,
noaeiaa i?aeoeea noai?i ?icae?ey? i?aeia?iaeia ? aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaia
i?aai (I?aa??y, ?iae?y oiui)

3. Aea?aeaae, a yeeo Eiinoeoooe?y i?iaieioo? i?eioeei, ca?aeii c yeei
caaaeueiii?eeiyo? ii?ie i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa iin?aeathoue i?noea aeua
i?aaa e?a?ie (O?I oa ?i.)

Aeina?ae e?a?i, ui iaieineee i?aeia?iaeia i?aai /anoeiith i?aaa e?a?ie,
na?ae/eoue, ui a i?aaia?e i?aeoeoe? aioo??oi?o noae?a caaaeaee aeieea?
i?iaeaia oae caaieo naiiaeeiioth/eo ? ia naiiaeeiioth/eo ii?i. Ia?o? —
iiaeooue aaciina?aaeiuei ?aaoethaaoe a?aeiineie c o/anoth noa’?eo?a
iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?aaa, ?io? — aeiaaathoue aeey nai?? ?iieaiaioaoe??
aeaeaiiy eiie?aoecoth/eo ii?i aioo??oiueiai i?aaa. Oea iia’ycaii
ianaiia?aae c oei, ui aaaaoi ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa iai?aaeaii ia
?aaeaiaioaoe?th o?eueee i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei (iai?eeeaae, aeiaiai?e
i?i ei?aeiie, nithce, ii?ie noaooo?a i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e oiui)

Oi/a iiae?ai? ii?ie iiaeooue /anoeiai ca/?iaoe i?aaa ? ?ioa?ane
?iaeea?ae?a oa th?eaee/ieo in?a, aeiaaaoe ae?e aai oo?eioaaiiy a?ae ieo
c aieo i?aai?a aea?aeaae, aiie ia iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? aeey
a?aaoethaaiiy a?aeiinei c o/anoth noa’?eo?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?aaa.
O?aieythoueny oaeiae neooaoe??, eiee i?aeia?iaei? ii?ie, ui a i?eioeei?
iai?aaeai? ia ?aae?caoe?th a ae?yo noa’?eo?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?aaa
(iai?eeeaae, a iaeano? i?aaa ? naiaiae iniaenoino?), ia iiaeooue ae?yoe
iai?yio a neeo naiai iaaeoi caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.

Eiinoeoooe?? ae?oai? a?oie aea?aeaa /?oei ?iciaaeiaothoue nai?
iaoe?iiaeueia ? i?aeia?iaeia i?aai. A oeeo e?a?iao iieiaeaiiy
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o ia iiaeooue ipso ?facto ae?yoe a na?aaeei?
e?a?ie. Aeey aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai aeeiiaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a
caaaeaee iaiao?aeii aeaeaaaoe o? /e ?io? ii?ie aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai
i?aaa. Ioaea, aeiaiai?e, oeeaaeai? oeeie e?a?iaie ? ae?thoue ia
i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?, ia ? i?aaii e?a?ie aeioe, aeiee aiie yaii ia
aoaeooue ?iei?ii?iaai? a iaoe?iiaeueia i?aai. Oaeee noai ?nio? a
Aano?ae??, Eaiaae? oiui.

Eiinoeoooe?? a?oie aea?aeaa i?iaieioothoue, ui caaaeueiiaeciai? ii?ie
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa noiyoue aeua i?aaa aea?aeaae. No.25 Iniiaiiai
caeiia O?I ia?aaeaa/a?, ui “ caaaeuei? ii?ie i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith i?aaa oaaea?aoe??. Aiie iathoue ia?aaaao ia?aae
caeiiii ? aaniina?aaeiuei iaaeathoue i?aaa ? iaia’ycee iaoeaioeyi
oaaea?aeueii? oa?eoi???”.

Aeaaa o?aoy — “I?iaeaia i?aeia?iaeii? i?aainoa’?eoiino? /eai?a
oaaea?aoe??”, i?enay/aia ?icaeyaeo ieoaiiy i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaiai
noaoono /eai?a oaaea?aoe??, eiinoeoooe?eiiio ?aaoethaaiith ?o
i?aeia?iaeii? ae?yeueiino? oa iieiaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o, ui
oeeaaeaiee a ii?ooaiiy ii?i i?aaa oaaea?aoe??.

Aeena?oaio cina?aaeea naith oaaao ia aiae?c? ianooiieo ni??ieo ieoaiue:
i?i i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaee noaoon iie?oeei-oa?eoi??aeueieo ooai?aiue, ye?
? neeaaeiaeie /anoeiaie oaaea?aoeaii? aea?aeaae, i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiaia??ieo ca’yce?a /eai?a oaaea?aoe?? ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ii ieo, a
oaeiae — th?eaee/i?e nee? oeeo aeiaiai??a.

Oai?aoe/i? iniiae i?aeia?iaeii? i?aainoa’?eoiino? /eai?a oaaea?aoe??
ia?ic?eaii iia’ycai? ?c eiioeaioe??th i?aaiai? i?e?iaee oaaea?aoeaii?
aea?aeaae. Aea?aeaaia i?e?iaea /eai?a oaaea?aoe?? aoea cae??ieaia a
eiinoeoooe?eiiio i?aa? ?yaeo e?a?i. Iniiaiee caeii O?I o?eno?
“aea?aeaai? eiiiaoaioe??” ? “aea?aeaai? caaea/?” caiaeue (no. 30).
I?iaoeueeei caieyi i?eoaiaii? ao?eaooe aea?aeaaiino? — aeani?
Eiinoeoooe??, aeani? aeaaei? no?oeoo?e — ia?eaiaio, o?yae, noae.
Eiinoeoooe?? a?eueoino? c ieo (Aaaa??? — no.7, Aannaia — no.103,
I?ai?/iiai ?aeia — Aanooae?? — no. 66 oa ?i.) o?enothoue ?oi? i?aai ia
oeeaaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo oaiae. Aiaeia?/iee ono??e iathoue aano??enuee?
caie?, aano?ae?enuee? ooaoe oa ?yae ?ioeo noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe??. A
iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? cae??ieeanue oa?i?iieia?y, yea eiinoaoo?
aea?aeaai?noue /eai?a oaaea?aoe?e (“aea?aeaaa — /eai oaaea?aoe??”).

*anoeiaee oa?aeoa? i?aainoa’?eoiino? /eai?a oaaea?aoe?? iieyaa?,
ianaiia?aae, a oiio, ui aiia ?ioa, i?ae o iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa,
aeeth/ath/e ? aeanio oaaea?aoe?th. A iaaeao nai?? eiiiaoaioe?? noa’?eo
oaaea?aoe?? oaeiae i?aaii??iee, ye ? oaaea?aoe?y — o nai?e. Aeiaiai?e
noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe?? c ?iicaiieie e?a?iaie iathoue oaeo ae th?eaee/io
neeo, ye ? oaiaee i?ae iacaeaaeieie aea?aeaaaie, ia ye?
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny A?aeaiuenueea Eiiaaioe?y i?i i?aai i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiaiai??a 1969 ?. Aea, oea a?aeiineoueny aei oaei? eaoaai???
aeiaiai??a, ye oaiaea i?ae noa’?eoaie ??cieo oaaea?aoe?e.

Eiee iiaa eaea i?i i?aeia?iaeio ae?yeuei?noue noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe??, oi
eiinoeoooe?? cae/aeii eiioeaio?othoue oaaao ia i?aa? oeeaaeaoe aeiaiai?e
c ?iicaiieie aea?aeaaaie. I?aeo?ae i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa aei aeaiiai
ieoaiiy cia/ii oe?oee. Aiii ia caai?iiy? i? noai?aiith caei?aeiiieo
i?aaenoaaieoeoa, i? o/ano? a ae?? i?aeia?iaeii? i?aai?caoe??. ?acii c
oei, oi?ie i?aeia?iaeii? aeoeaiino? /eai?a oaaea?aoe?? ia iiaeooue aooe
oaeeie ae oi?aa?naeueieie, ye a iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaaao.

Ca?aeii c ?nioth/ith i?aeoeeith /eaie oaaea?aoe?? ia iiaeooue
?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia iai?i aeeieiiaoe/ieie i?aaenoaaieoeoaaie, oiaoi ?oi?
i?aaenoaaieoeoaa iiaeii? ae?yoe iica aeeieiiaoe/ii? noa?e.
Ianooaae ciai?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eoa oaaea?aoe?? coiiaeththoue
iaiao?aei?noue ?? i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia o?eueee a na?aaeei? e?a?ie,
a e ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?. Eii?n?y i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa III aianea a
i?iaeo A?aeaiuenueei? Eiiaaioe?? iieiaeaiiy i?i i?aai i?aeia?iaeieo
oaiae 1969 ?ieo: “Aea?aeaae — /eaie oaaea?aeueii? ?aaee iiaeooue
aieiae?oe i?aaicaeaoi?noth oeeaaeaoe oaiaee, yeui oaea i?aaicaeaoi?noue
aecia?oueny Eiinoeoooe??th ? ia aeoiaeeoue ca ?? iaae?”. Aiane?aeie
oiai, ui aeaye? e?a?ie aoee i?ioe, aeaia iieiaeaiiy ia aa?eoei a
caeeth/iee oaeno Eiiaaioe??, aea naia eiai ?ic?iaea na?ae/eoue i?i
aeooaeuei?noue ?aaoethaaiiy ciai?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a
oaaea?aoe?? ii?iaie i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

A caeeth/iiio ia?aa?ao? aaoi? i?eae?ey? iniaeeao oaaao ieoaiith /eiiino?
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeiaiai?o, oeeaaeaiiai c ii?ooaiiyi ii?i aioo??oiueiai
i?aaa, iniaeeai eiinoeoooe?eiiai. A ia?oo /a?ao, oio?einy a iaaaaeaoe,
ui i?aai ia oeeaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a a?aeiineoueny aei /enea
iniiaieo i?aa, ui iaeaaeaoue eiaei?e aea?aeaa? a neeo ?oiueiai
noaa?ai?oaoo. A i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo a?aeiineiao ?aae?caoe?y
aeiaia??ii? i?aaicaeaoiino? aea?aeaa iiaeeeaa eeoa caaaeyee ae?yeueiino?
eiiiiiaioieo i?aai?a ? oiiaiiaaaeaieo ieie in?a, ui i?aaenoaaeythoue
aea?aeaao. I?aaie, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue aea?aeaao, ? eeoa neeaaeiaeie
aeaiaioaie eiai aioo??oiuei? no?oeoo?e, ia iathoue i?aeia?iaeii?
i?aainoa?eoiino? o aoaeue-ye?e oi?i?. Noa’?eoii aeiaiai??a, ye?
oeeaaeathoueny, aenooia? aea?aeaaa a oe?eiio, a i?aaie, ui ??
i?aaenoaaeythoue ? eeoa iin?yie i?aaiaeo yeinoae aea?aeaae ye ?aeeiiai
noa’?eoa i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie /eiiino? aeiaiai??a, oeeaaeaieo c
ii?ooaiiyie ii?i aioo??oiueiai i?aaa, aoei a iaiiaiei aac ?icaeyaeo
ieoaiiy i?i oa, iane?eueee iiaii no.46 A?aeaiuenueei? Eiiaaioe??
a?aeia?aaea? iio?aae ?icaeoeo no/anii? aeiaia??ii? i?aeoeee. Iaeiei ?c
aieiaieo iiiaio?a ??oaiiy, ui i?noeoueny a no.46, ?, i/aaeaeii aeciaiiy
aaoi?aie A?aeaiuenueei? Eiiaaioe?? naii? iiaeeeaino? caia?a/oaaoe
/eii?noue aeiaiai??a, oeeaaeaieo a ii?ooaiiy ii?i aioo??oiueiai i?aaa.

Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue ?nio? aeaa i?ioeeaaeieo i?aeaiaee aei ieoaiiy
i?i /eii?noue aeiaiai?o, oeeaaeaiiai a ii?ooaiiy ii?i aioo??oiueiai
i?aaa, cie?aia eiinoeoooe?eii? ? ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?noe/ii?.

I?aaenoaaieee eiinoeoooe?eii? oai??? aaaaeathoue, ui aoaeue-yea
ii?ooaiiy aee?aeoea aioo??oiueiai i?aaa i?e oeeaaeaii? aeiaiai?o ?iaeoue
eiai iaae?eniei aai caia?a/iei. Oaeo oi/eo ci?o a?aenoithaaee aaoi?eoaoe
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa O?O noi??//y: ?.Aethi/e, A.O?eiaeue,
N.I.Eioey?aanueeee, a a OO noi??//? — O.Ae.Aeoa?, A.Eaeuecai,
E.Iiiaiaaei, A.?onni ? aaaaoi ?ioeo. I?eioeeie eiinoeoooe?eii? oai???
a?aee ca iniiao aeaa ia?oeo niaoe?aeueieo aeiiia?aea/a Eii?n??
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa — Aeae.A?aea?e? ? A. Eaooa?iaoo.

Caoeuath/e ni?aaaaeeea?noue nai?? iiceoe??, eiinoeoooe?iiae?noe, ye
i?aaeei iineeathoueny ia i?eaaoii-i?aaiao oi?io ?einueeiai i?aaa qui cum
alio contrahit, vel est, vel esse debet non ignarus conditions eius.

I?e oeueiio a?eueo?noue c ieo ?iaeyoue nai? aeniiaee, nie?ath/enue ia
?aea? iii?cio, oiaoi ?icaeyaeath/e i?aai ye ?aeeio i?aaiao nenoaio.
A?aeiia?aeii, aeiaia??, oeeaaeaiee a ii?ooaiiy
aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo iaiaaeaiue ipso facto noa? iaae?eniei aai
caia?a/iei ia o?eueee o aioo??oiueiio, aea e o i?aeia?iaeiiio i?aa?.
Oaeee i?aeo?ae, ca ?oiueith aeoieith, iaea?eueoa a?aeiia?aea? i?eioeeio
iiaaae noaa?aiiiai i?aaa aea?aeaa naiino?eii anoaiiaethaaoe ii?yaeie
naiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa a aeiaia??ieo a?aeiioaiiyo ? neoaeeoue ?e
aa?aio??th aeey iaeaaeiiai eiio?ieth c aieo i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo i?aai?a
aeaaee ca aeiaia??iith ae?yeuei?noth i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee.

I?eoeeueieee ae ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? oai??? aaaaeathoue, ui aeiaia??,
oeeaaeaiee i?aaiii aea?aeaae, yeee ia? ca i?aeia?iaeiei i?aaii
ia?aaeaa/oaaio aeiaia??io eiioeaioe?th, aoaea ae?eniee a aoaeue-yeiio
aeiaaeeo, iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai /e aoee ii?ooai? iieiaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai
i?aaa i?e eiai oeeaaeaii? /e i?. Iine?aeiaieeaie oe??? oai??? aoee
Ae.Aioeeeioo?, O.O.Ia?oain, A.Ieoaeeianueeee, AE.Nnaeue oiui. ?c
no/anieo aaoi??a ne?ae aeae?eeoe A.Aeeena, E.Oieeioaae, ?.Aeaoa?a ?
A.Aaea, ye? a?aenoiththoue ?? ?c iacia/ieie canoa?aaeaiiyie.
A.A.Aooeaae/ i?aee?aneth?, ui eiinoeoooe?iiae?noe a?aeiinyoueny aei
i?eoeeueiee?a i?eiaoo aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai i?aaa, a
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?noe — aei i?eoeeueiee?a i?eiaoo i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa.

A?eueo?noue i?eoeeueiee?a ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? oai??? noiyoue ia
iiceoe?yo aeoae?cio. Ia?aa?eueooth/e iacaeaaei?noue i?aeia?iaeiiai ?
aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai i?aaa, aiie aeey oiai, uia aooe iine?aeiaieie,
iiaeii? caia?a/oaaoe iiaeeea?noue aoaeue-yei? aca?iiae?? oeeo aeaio
i?aaiaeo nenoai i?e ae??oaii? ieoaiue /eiiino? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a.
A?aei?aaiei ioieoii ?oi?o i??eoaaiue, ye i?aaeei, neoaeeoue i?eioeei
iaao?o/aiiy o aioo??oi? ni?aae, o a?aeiia?aeiino? c yeeie aea?aeaae ia
ai?aa? oeoia/eoe iieiaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai i?aaa iaeia iaeiiai, oiaoi.
aeiineoe ia ?icaeyae ieoaiiy /e ae?thoue i?aaie, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue ?o
i?e oeeaaeaii? aeiaiai??a, a iaaeao eiiiaoaioe?? /e i?.

Oaea iiceoe?y, ca ?oiueith aeoieith, aa?aioo? noaa?euei?noue ?icaeoeo
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaia??ieo a?aeiinei, oiio ui ia aeicaiey? aea?aeaaai
ooeeyoeny a?ae aeeiiaiiy aeiaia??ieo ciaia’ycaiue, iineeath/enue ia
iiaeeea? ii?ooaiiy naiai aioo??oiueiai i?aaa .

Ae?enii, eiinoeoooe?iiae?noe, aecia/ath/e aaciina?aaeith cia/ei?noue
iieiaeaiue aioo??oiueiai i?aaa aeey /eiiino? aeiaiai??a, oaeoe/ii
aeciathoue, ui ia?o i?ae oeeaaeaoe aeiaia??, aea?aeaae iiaeii?
aiaaieoenue, ui i?aaie, ye? ?o i?aaenoaaeythoue, ae?thoue a iaaeao
aeiaia??ii? eiiiaoaioe??. I?aeoeea ae iieaco?, ui aea?aeaae ia
aeiaaathoue iaeia o iaeiiai aoaeue-yeeo i?yieo aeieac?a
eiinoeoooe?eiino? aeo?a, ui cae?eniththoueny i?aaiaie, oiiaiiaaaeaieie
aioo??oi?i i?aaii i?aaenoaaeyoe aea?aeaao i?e oeeaaeaii? aeiaiai??a.
Aiie oaeiae ia ?icaeyaeathoue ieoaiiy i?i eiinoeoooe?ei?noue
iiaiiaaaeaiue, ye? iaaeathoue aeai? i?aaie, ui aa?eo?eothoue a i?ioean?
oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai?o o?eueee ?o iaeaaeio oi?io.

Iaiaaaiiy iaei??? aea?aeaae ae??oeoe ieoaiiy caeiiiino? ae?? i?aai?a
?ioi? aea?aeaae c oi/ee ci?o eiai ae aioo??oiueiai i?aaa, c iaeiiai
aieo, noia?a/aoue i?eioeeio iaao?o/aiiy a ni?aae, c ?ioiai —
i?ae?eaathoue aeia??o aei io?oe?eieo aeo?a aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a.

Oiio c?icoi?ei, ui aea?aeaae o aeiaia??i?e i?aeoeoe? iiai?noth
iieeaaeathoueny ia caeiii?noue aeo?a, ye? aeeiiothoueny a?ae ?oiueiai
?iai? eiiiaoaioieie i?aaiaie.

Oiaoi, yeui ? a iiaeaeueoiio iaeia ?c noi??i aeiaiai?o ni?iao?
caia?a/oaaoe eiai /eii?noue ?c iineeaiiyi ia ii?ooaiiy iieiaeaiue
aioo??oiueiai i?aaa a i?ioean? oeeaaeaiiy aeiaiai?o, oi oaeiai ?iaeo
aeiiae aeciathoueny ia i?aaii??ieie.

A caeeth/i?e /anoei? aeena?oaoe?? a ocaaaeueiaiiio i?noyoueny noene?
aeniiaee aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?iaeai.

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? caeiaoaa/ai iioae?eiaai? oae? ?iaioe:

1. I?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaee noaoon noa’?eo?a-/eai?a oaaea?aoe??. — A?niee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie, 1997, aei.?7, /ano.1,
N.82-91.

2. Noaeiaee eiio?ieue eiinoeoooe?eiino? aeeiiaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiaiai??a o oaaea?aoeai?e aea?aeaa?. — A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie, 1998, aei.?4, N.136-146.

3. Eiinoeoooe?eii-coiiaeaiee aea?aeaaiee iaoai?ci
?iieaiaioaoe?? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a o oaaea?aoeai?e aea?aeaa?. —
A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie, 1998, aei.?5,
N.64-77.

4 . Eiinoeoooe?eia ?aaoethaaiiy i?aeia?iaeii? ae?yeueiino?
noa’?eo?a oaaea?aoe??.

Aea?aeaaa ? i?aai.- ui??/iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieiaeeo th?eno?a. –
19988. Aeione ae?oaee, /anoeia 2, ?icae?e 1, ? 7.

Ae?ea O/aiia Eaiiao. I?aeia?iaei? aeiaiai?e a eiinoeoooe?yo
oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaa. — ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe ?c niaoe?aeueiino? 12.00.11 —
i?aeia?iaeia i?aai. — ?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1998?.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue eiiieaen oai?aoe/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue,
iia’ycaieo ?c i?aeia?iaeieie aeiaiai?aie a eiinoeoooe?yo oaaea?aoeaieo
aea?aeaa ?, cie?aia, aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiei ? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaei
?aaoethaaiiyi aeiaia??ieo ca’yce?a /eai?a oaaea?aoe??. A ?iaio?
i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c eiinoeoooe?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ??cieo
oaaea?aoeaieo aea?aeaa a iaeano? ciai?oi?o ciinei, niaoeeo?ee
aca?iia?aeiinei i?aeia?iaeiiai ? aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaiiai i?aaa c oi/ee
ci?o ae?? i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa ia oa?eoi??? oaaea?aoeaii? aea?aeaae, ?
aeeiiaiiy aeiaia??ieo ciaia’ycaiue oaaea?aoeaiith aea?aeaaith ? ??
noa’?eoaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oeeaaeaiiy ? ?iieaiaioaoe?y i?aeia?iaeieo aeiaiai??a,
iiaiiaaaeaiiy, i?aeia?iaeia i?aainoa’?eoi?noue, noa’?eoe oaaea?aoe??,
?iciaaeoaaiiy eiiiaoaioe??, eiinoeoooe?y.

Aeeea O/aiia Eaiiao. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aeiaiai?u a eiinoeoooeeyo
oaaea?aoeaiuo ainoaea?noa. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea
o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.
00. 11 – iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?aai. — Einoeooo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee
Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo eiiieaen oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo aii?inia,
naycaiiuo n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie aeiaiai?aie a eiinoeoooeeyo oaaea?aoeaiuo
ainoaea?noa, e a /anoiinoe, n aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiui e
iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaui ?aaoee?iaaieai aeiaiai?iuo naycae /eaiia
oaaea?aoeee. A ?aaioa i?iaaaeai n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec eiinoeoooeeiiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?acee/iuo oaaea?aoeaiuo ainoaea?noa a iaeanoe aiaoieo
niioaiee, niaoeeoeee acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai e
aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiiai i?aaa n oi/ee c?aiey aeaenoaey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?aaa ia oa??eoi?ee oaaea?aoeaiiai ainoaea?noaa, e
eniieiaiey aeiaiai?iuo iaycaoaeuenoa oaaea?aeueiui ainoaea?noaii e aai
noauaeoaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: caeeth/aiea e eiieaiaioaoeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aeiaiai?ia, iieiiii/ey, iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aainoaueaeoiinoe, noauaeou
oaaea?aoeee, ?aca?aie/aiea eiiiaoaioeee, eiinoeoooeey.

DIKE Uchenna Kenneth. International treaties in the constitutions of
federal states.- Manuscript.

Thesis submitted for obtaining a degree of Candidate of Legal Sciences
(Ph.D. in Jurisprudence) in the speciality 12. 00. 11 – International
Law. The Institute of International Relations, Taras Shevshenko Kyiv
University . Kyiv, 1998.

The thesis contains generally, a complex of theoretical and
practical questions connected with International treaties in the
constitutions of federal states and in particular, the municipal and
International Law regulations on the place of component states in the
treaty process.

It also includes a comparative analysis on the Constitutional
provisions of federal states in the areas of foreign affairs. A
specific attention is paid to the interrelationship between municipal
and International Laws with regards to the coming into force of treaties
in federal states.The treaty-making powers and performance of treaty
obligations of the federal government and her component states is given
an indept study. Some proposals are made for the recognition of
component states of a federation as special subjects of International
Law in view of their growing role in foreign affairs and the Vienna
convention on the law of treaties 1969 be updated to meet this demand.

Key words: federation, federal government,concluding and implementation
of International treaties,treaty-making powers, international legal
status, component states, constitutions, jurisdiction.

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