EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

OAeE 331.556.4[1-925.53]

?ssAe NAEAO IAEEAAe

I?AEIA?IAeIA I?A?AOe?ss ?IAI*I? NEEE A NENOAI? OAEOI??A AEIIII?*IIAI
?ICAEOEO A?AANUeEEO E?A?I IA?NUeEI? CAOIEE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.05.01.- Na?oiaa ainiiaea?noai ? i?aeia?iaei?

aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ?inoeoooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oie?eia Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ?inoeoooo
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe- aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ao?aeianueeee ?ai? Aaeaioeiiae/,

Oi?aa?neoao “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y”,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai???

— eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

?aae/aiei Aiaoie?e Aaneeueiae/,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai??? aeiiii?/iiai

oaeoeueoaooI?ia?aeia onoaiiaa- ?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ?
i?aeia?iaeieo

a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 2 a?oaeiy 1999 ?ieo i 14.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.02 c caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe a ?inoeooo?
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea
ca aae?anith: 254119, i. Ee?a, aoe.Iaeueieeiaa, 36/1, cae can?aeaiue
a/aii? ?aaee.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252017, i.Ee?a,
aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58 e.10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 1 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiae.aeii.iaoe, aeioeaio Iaco?aiei A.I.1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. No/ani? i?aeia?iaei?
aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iei iineeaiiyi
aca?iicaeaaeiino? ye ie?aieo e?a?i o ?aa?iiao, oae ? ?aa?ii?a i?ae
niaith. Aeiaae?caoe?y na?oiaiai ?icaeoeo aaea aeaaii nyaioea ca iaae?
ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? oa ia?aeeaaiiy eai?oaeo. Ana a?eueoiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ? cia/aiiy iaaoaa? ?oo ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a. Iino?eia
c?inoaiiy ianooaa?a i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe??, aoyaiaiiy o ia? ana iiaeo ?
iiaeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy oa e?a?i ?iaeoue aeooaeueiei aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee, ye iaei??? c oi?i i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ? ?? aieeao ia nioe?aeueii–aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie
na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui o??th /e ?ioith i??ith i?a?aoe?y ioiieea iaeaea
an? e?a?ie na?oo, iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui o oe?eiio noi?ioaaany ?yae
oeaio??a i?a?aoe??, eiaeai c yeeo ia? nai? iniaeeaino?. Iaeiei c oaeeo
oeaio??a ? noa?aa?ii Ia?nueei? caoiee.

Iaeii/anii Ia?nueea caoiea ? iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo aoce?a ia?aieao?iiy
aeiaaeueieo i?ioean?a na?oiai? aeiiii?ee. Oeae ?aa?ii nueiaiaei? iin?a
iiceoe?? aieiaiiai iaeeaiiai noiaeua na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa. O iueiio
cina?aaeaeaii a?eueoa iieiaeie aeiaaaeaieo caian?a iaooe ? iaeaea
/aa?oue na?oiaiai caiano i?e?iaeiiai aaco, i?e/iio aeo?aoe ?oiueiai
aeaeiaooeo ? iaeieae/eie o na?o?. Iaa?oue o aeiaaeeo oi?niaaiiai
aeaeiaooeo iaooe ? aaco a ?ioeo ?aa?iiao: (Iaeneea, I?ai?/ia ii?a oa
?io?) a?aanuee? e?a?ie caaacia/othoue i?eaeecii 1/3 na?oiaiai aeaeiaooeo
? iaeaea 1/2 aenii?oo iaooe o na?o?. Oaeei /eiii, ?aa?ii Ia?nueei?
caoiee aoaea caeeoaoeny i?ia?aeiei iinoa/aeueieeii iaooe ? aaco ia
na?oiaee ?eiie.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeooaeueiei oaeiae o ca’yceo c oei, ui, yeui ?ieue
aeaeiaooeo oa aenii?oo iaooe ? aaco a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo
e?a?i ?aa?iio aeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaia oa aena?oeaia a iaoeiaeo
?iaioao, ioae?eaoe?yo, oi ?ieue ae?oaiai, ia iaio aaaeeeaiai /eiieea,
yeee aecia/ea no??ieee aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie ?aa?iio, a oiio /ene? ? eiai
?iaeono??ae?caoe?th, i?aeoe/ii eeoeeany iica oaaaith a/aieo, aeiiii?no?a
oa iie?oee?a. Oaeei /eiieeii ?icaeoeo e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee noaea
?iicaiia ?iai/a neea, caaaeyee ye?e oe? e?a?ie io?eiaee iiaeeea?noue
nii/aoeo ?noioii ca?eueoeoe aeaeiaooie ? aenii?o iaooe oa aaco, a a
iiaeaeueoiio i?iaanoe i?iieneiao ?aaiethoe?th.

Oaeei /eiii, ia nueiaiaei? ? aeooaeueiei aea/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? nooiino?
i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe??, ?? aieeao ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie
e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee ? aeina?aeo oeeo e?a?i o ?aaoethaaii?
i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Aeooaeuei?noue ? iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaeai?noue
i?iaeaie coiiaeee aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ? no?oeoo?o eiai aeeeaaeo.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui iaeaaaeeea?o? aniaeoe aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o aeine?aeaeaiiyo
no/anieo a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a Oe?a?ie, a?aanueeeo oa ?ioeo e?a?i; ie?ai?
i?iaeaie, cie?aia o?oaeiai? i?a?aoe?? o ?aa?ii?, caeeoeeeny i?aeoe/ii
iica oaaaith aeine?aeiee?a.

Aaaiiee aianie o aea/aiiy i?ioeano ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?? ?iai/i? neee
c?iaeee oae? a/ai?-aeiiii?noe, ye Ee?a?a A. I., Ia/?ii?eia A. I., Iiciye
I., Ii?o/iee A. I., Naiaiia E. A. A ?oi?o ?iaioao ia i?aenoaa?
aeiiii?/ieo iiaeaeae aeine?aeaeothoueny aeiiii?/i? aea?ao? oa ao?aoe
noa’?eo?a i?a?aoe?eieo a?aeiinei, a oaeiae ?noi??y ?icaeoeo i?a?aoe??,
oi?ioaaiiy no/anieo oeaio??a i?a?aoe??, ?? iniiaieo iioie?a.

Aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? iciaeiieany oaeiae ?c oe?ieei eieii ?ia?o a/aieo
eieeoiueiai N?N?, aea /anoeiai aiae?cothoueny i?ioeane i?a?aoe?? o
e?a?iao Ia?nueei? caoiee, a oaeiae ?? i?e/eie ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
iane?aeee. Iiaeia aeae?eeoe ?iaioe oaeeo aaoi??a: Aiae?anyia ?. I.,
Aona?iaa A., ?aaiiaa ?., Ia?ea?yia ?. A., Iaeueeoeyia ?. N., ?iae?eaana
A. I., Naeooeueioietheiaa ?. A., Nonaiyia E. A., Oo?aaeaeaaa A.,
sseiaeaaa A., – o yeeo iaaiith i??ith ?icaeyaea?oueny ?ieue ?iicaiii?
?iai/i? neee ye c nioe?aeueii?, oae ? c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o.

Cia/iee aianie o aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei e?a?i, ui ?icaeaathoueny, cie?aia a?aanueeeo,
c?iaeee oae? a/ai? , ye E?noa?nueeee E.E., Eeeiei A.I., ?iaa/ I.?.,
?aae/aiei A.A., O?e?iaiei A.N., Oaaeinia A.I.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? Eaiainueeiai A.I. aoea c?iaeaia ni?iaa aiae?co
i?aeaea?aeaaii? i?a?aoe?? ia Aeecueeiio Noiae?, iaeiae a?i ?icaeyaea?
i?a?aoe?th ye oi?io ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a e?a?i ?aa?iio.

Ia?oith i?aoeath, i?enay/aiith aea/aiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?e/ei
?ii?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a o e?a?iao Ia?nueei? caoiee, aieeao ?ii?a?aoe??
ia aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie ?aa?iio, a oaeiae aieiaieo iai?yie?a oeueiai
aieeao, ? ?iaioa Eoeyiceia A.A. O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ?? iaiaaeai? 50-80
??. aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy, a iniiaiee aeoeaio c?iaeaii ia oi?ioaaii? o
oeueiio ?aa?ii? eeaniaeo noni?euenoa.

Iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe, ui i?iaeaia aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiii? ?iai/i? neee
iin?aea? iaeia c oeaio?aeueieo i?noeue o iaoeiai-noni?euei?e aeoioe?
a?aanueeeo e?a?i. ?aea? ? eiioeaioe??, i?aeoe/i? iai?aoethaaiiy ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ?ic?iaeai? a?aanueeeie a/aieie, ni?eyee ?icoi?iith oe???
i?iaeaie ? ie?aneeee iaai? oeyoe ?? ae??oaiiy. Cie?aia, oea oae? a/ai?,
ye Aaaeoe Acec Aeue-Aeeao?e, Aeue-Aace Aeue-aaaee aai Iooaiaae,
Aeue-?oiaeoe I., Eaaea A., Io?aae A., Naaae Aae-aeei ?., Oa?aiei A.,
Oa?aeaeaia I. oa ?io?

Aiae?coth/e nooi?iue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? aaaaea?
iaiao?aeiei a?eueo aeieeaaeii coieieoeny ia ?iaioao Aaaae Aeue Oaaeeea
I. ? Aae-aeeia ?.N., Aeue-eaneia Ae.A.I., Aeue-oanaia I.?., Ineno A.I.,
Ineno O.O., Ooaea?a A., ni?yiiaaieo ia aea/aiiy aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?
i?a?aoe?? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a o e?a?iao Ia?nueei? caoiee. Iniaeeao oaaao
aaoi?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eaa?ioee ooiaeaiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy Aeue-Eaoa?a A. O., Ai-Iaaeaea?a A.N., Oa?aeaeaia I. Oe?
?iaioe i?noyoue aaaaoee noaoenoe/iee ? oaeoe/iee iaoa??aee, oi/a ?oi?
aaoi?e ia caaaeaee ia’?eoeaii ioe?iththoue neooaoe?th, ui neeaeany.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeaie “iaoe?iiae?caoe??” i?noeaaeo ?eie?a i?aoe?
e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee aaeeeee ?ioa?an aeeeeeaea ?iaioa Aeue-Aaeoa
I.A.A. ? Aeue Iaooea I.A.A.A., o ye?e aiae?co?oueny no/ania neooaoe?y ia
?eieo i?aoe? Naoae?anueei? A?aa??.

O i?ioean? ?ic?iaee oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee oe?iei
aeei?enoai? ?iaioe cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo ? aia?eeainueeeo aaoi??a,
i?enay/ai? i?aeia?iaei?e i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee, i?noeth ?aa?iio o
na?oiaiio ainiiaea?noa?. Iaeiae aieiaia oaaaa o oeeo ?iaioao
i?eae?ey?oueny cia/aiith ?aa?iio o na?oiaiio ainiiaea?noa?, iniaeeai a
iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iiio naeoi??.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eea iaoeiao i?iaeaio
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe: aiae?c aieeao i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i?
neee ia nioe?aeueii–aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie a?aanueeeo e?a?i Ia?nueei?
caoiee oa iaoiae?a ?aaoethaaiiy i?a?aoe?eieo iioie?a o oeeo e?a?iao.

Ca’ycie aeena?oaoe?? c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie:

Oaiaoeea aeena?oaoe?? iia’ycaia c iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeith ?iaioith
eaoaae?e na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei
?inoeoooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea “Iaoai?ci eiiieaeniiai caaacia/aiiy ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo
aniaeo?a noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?ie”, iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 97134.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoai?ci aieeao aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiii? ?iai/i?
neee ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?noea i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee
a nenoai? /eiiee?a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?i-o/anieoeue ?aaee
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa Ia?nueei? caoiee.

Aieiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiiieaeniee aiae?c
i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee o e?a?iao Ia?nueei? caoiee aeey
aeyaeaiiy ?? aieeao ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie e?a?i ?aa?iio.
?aae?caoe?y aieiaii? iaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?
iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

§ i?iaanoe oai?aoe/iee aiae?c nooiino? i?a?aoe?? ye iaei??? ?c oi?i
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ? anoaiiaeoe ?? aieea ia aeiiii?/iee
?icaeoie;

§ i?inoaaeeoe ? i?iaiae?coaaoe ?ieue ?iicaiieo ?iai/eo a aeiiii?oe?
e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee;

§ aeyaeoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? aoaeoe a?ae i?a?aoe?? a e?a?iao
Ia?nueei? caoiee;

i?iaiae?coaaoe i?a?aoe?eio iie?oeeo o?yae?a e?a?i ?aa?iio, aeyaeaoe
ia?aoeiaee aeey ?aaoethaaiiy i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae a?ae e?ioey
ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie ? aei iaoeo aei?a. Iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii
iiae?yi 90-o ?ie?a aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy, ye? ua ia ciaeoee
aeaoaeueiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy a e?oa?aoo??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a ?iaio? aia?oa ia
i?aenoaa? iiaeo aeaea?ae cae?eniaii eiiieaeniee aiae?c no/aniiai
i?ioeano i?a?aoe?? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, iane?aee?a aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiii?
?iai/i? neee a aeiiii?eao aea?aeaa Ia?nueei? caoiee ia oe? ?o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae iie?oeee o?yae?a oeeo e?a?i
a?aeiinii ?ii?a?aio?a.

O ?iaio? i?aeoe/ii aia?oa a aeiiii?/i?e iaooe?:

— ?icaeyaea?oueny ?iicaiia ?iai/a neea ye iaeei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
/eiiee?a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a?aanueeeo e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee;

— ?ice?eaa?oueny ?ieue ?iicaiieo ?iai/eo o oi?ioaaii? aeeaa?neo?eiaaii?
no?oeoo?e aeiiii?ee e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee;

— ie?aneai? i?e/eie ??ciiiai?oii? no?oeoo?e caeiyoino? ?iicaiii?
?iai/i? neee o i?eaaoiiio ? aea?aeaaiiio naeoi?ao aeiiii?ee e?a?i
Ia?nueei? caoiee;

— i?iaiae?ciaai? noa’?eoeai? ? ia’?eoeai? /eiieee aeo?niaiiy ?iicaiii?
?iai/i? neee ?c aioo??oi?o ?eie?a i?aoe? e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee ia
no/aniiio aoai?;

— ?icaeyioo? e ocaaaeueiai? i?eioeeie oa caniae aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee o e?a?iao Ia?nueei?
caoiee, a oaeiae iane?aeee oaeiai ?aaoethaaiiy;

— aeyaeai? iiaeeea? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee ??ceiai ? ianiaiai nei?i/aiiy
/enaeueiino? ?iicaiii? ?iai/i? neee aeey aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa Ia?nueei? caoiee.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa o ?icaeoie ieoaiue, ye? aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno, iieyaa? o oaeiio:

— iaa?oioiaaii, ui ?iicaiia ?iai/a neea aoea ? caeeoa?oueny ?acii ?c
caianaie iaooe iniiaiei oaeoi?ii aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?i Ia?nueei?
caoiee;

— aeiaaaeaii, ui i?iaaaeaiiy ?iaeono??ae?caoe?? aeiiii?e a?aanueeeo
e?a?i aoei a iaiiaeeeaa aac caeo/aiiy oe?ieiai eiea ?iicaiieo
?ia?oiee?a;

— noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui caeiyo?noue ?iicaiii? ?iai/i? neee ia?aaaaeii o
i?eaaoiiio naeoi?? aeiiii?e e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee iaoiiaeaia
aeene?ei?iaoe?eiei noaoonii ?iicaioe?a a?aeiinii i?noeaai? ?iai/i? neee;

— ?ice?eoi, ui oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiii? ?iai/i? neee ia?
iaaaoeaiee aieea ia nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie i?eeiath/eo e?a?i;

— aeyaeaii, ui aaeeea ieoiia aaaa ?iicaiieo ?iai/eo iiaea caa?iaeoaaoe
aeiiii?/i?e aaciaoe? e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee;

— iieacaii, ui iie?oeea “iaoe?iiae?caoe??” ?eie?a i?aoe? e?a?i Ia?nueei?
caoiee coiiaeaia ye ia’?eoeaieie, oae ? noa’?eoeaieie i?e/eiaie;

— aeiaaaeaii, ui a iniia? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?a?aoe?? o e?a?iao
Ia?nueei? caoiee iiaeii? eaaeaoe ye nooi aeiiii?/i?, oae ?
aaei?i?no?aoeai? aaaeae?.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??.

Aeniiaee oa io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
iiaeaeueoiio aea/aii? ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c i?a?aoe??th ? ?icaeoeii
e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee; i?aeaioiaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey i?aai?caoe?e,
ui caeiathoueny i?iaeaiaie i?a?aoe??, a oaeiae i?e ?ic?iaoe? oa /eoaii?
eo?n?a ? niaoeeo?n?a c? na?oiai? aeiiii?ee, aeiiii?/ii? oai???,
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ?noi??? e?a?i Ac??, Ao?eee oa
Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee, i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei.

Iiaeia a?aecia/eoe oae? aniaeoe aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe:

· iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee — c oi/ee ci?o aiae?co aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
?aa?iio;

· iaa/aeueiee – o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy eo?n?a c ?yaeo aeiiii?/ieo ?
?noi?e/ieo iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?i;

· i?aeoe/iee – o i?aeoeoe? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a Oe?a?ie e a?aanueeeo
e?a?i o noa?? ai?ioueae c iaeaaaeueiith i?a?aoe??th, a oaeiae i?e
?ic?iaoe? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie o noa?? ?aaoethaaiiy i?a?aoe??.

O ?iaio? aaoi? ea?oaaany caaaeueiiaeciaieie iaoiaeaie iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy, i?eioeeiaie nenoaiiiai aiae?co, aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a, iiaeaeyie
? iieiaeaiiyie III, IIO, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? eii?n?? aeey e?a?i
Cao?aeii? Ac??, ?aaee ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa Ia?nueei?
caoiee. I?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaeie aeey aeaii? ?iaioe aoee e ?aea?,
aeneiaeai? i?ia?aeieie a/aieie Oe?a?ie, a?aanueeeo e?a?i, Cao?aeii?
?a?iie ? NOA o aaeoc? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieth? oe?iea eiei
aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a, aaaaoi c yeeo aia?oa aaiaeyoueny a iaoeiaee
ia?a. Aeaea?aeueio aaco oiiaii iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia aeae?eueea a?oi:

1) oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee, o
yeeo ?ice?eaa?oueny nooi?noue i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee, ??
oi?ie oa aeaee. Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia i?aenoaa? aeiiii?/ieo iiaeaeae
aeine?aeaeothoue aeiiii?/i? iane?aeee i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i?
neee aeey na?oiai? aeiiii?ee a oe?eiio, aeey e?a?i ai?a?aoe?? oa
?ii?a?aoe??, aeey naieo i?a?aio?a. Aei oe??? a?oie aeaea?ae oaeiae ne?ae
a?aeianoe ?iaioe c ?noi??? ?icaeoeo i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a;

2) iaeyaee oa aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo
oeaio??a a?aanueeeo e?a?i, o ?iaio? yeeo aa?ooue o/anoue i?aaenoaaieee
on?o e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee ?, ianaiia?aae, Aae?oonueeee oeaio?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aanueei? ?aeiino?;

3) noaoenoe/i? ca??ieee III, ?aaee ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa
Ia?nueei? caoiee (?NAAeIC), Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? eii?n?? aeey e?a?i
Cao?aeii? Ac?? (NAECA);

4) ?a?iiaenuee?, aia?eeainuee? oa a?aanuee? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa ai?iaaoe?y oai?aoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aieiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, ui i?noyoue iaoeiao iiaecio,
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoiaeieia?/ieo nai?ia?ao, ui a?aeaoaaeenue ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei oa iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ?inoeoooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Iniiai? ?aea? ?iaioe
aeeeaaeai? o 4 iaoeiaeo noaooyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,8 ae.a., ui
ioae?eoaaeeny o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? aeaeaiiyo oa a?aeiia?aeathoue
ia?ae?eo iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiue Oe?a?ie, caoaa?aeaeaieo AAE Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa
caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, oaaeeoeue, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e ?
aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 150 noi??iie, oa 3aeiaeaoee ia
27^noi??ieao. I?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii 203 e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?aea, 3 aeiaeaoee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aecia/aii iaoo ?
caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, ?? iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ie?aneaii
o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?icaeyiooi aeaea?aeueio aaco ?iaioe,
iaaaaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo noaio iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie, noi?ioeueiaaii
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? canaaee aiae?co i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe??
?iai/i? neee a na?oiaiio ainiiaea?noa?” cae?eniaii oai?aoe/iee aiae?c
i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee, aea?oueny ?? aecia/aiiy,
?icaeyiooi iiceoeai? oa iaaaoeai? aoaeoe i?a?aoe??, noi?ioeueiaai?
iniiai? no/ani? oaiaeaioe?? i?aeia?iaeii? o?oaeiai? i?a?aoe??.

I?aeia?iaeia i?a?aoe?y a?a? iii?oio ?ieue o aeeoo? ethaenoaa i?ioyaii
on??? eiai ?noi???, aei ia? iiaeia a?aeianoe Aaeeea ia?anaeaiiy
ia?iae?a, ?aaioi?a?aeth, eieii?caoe?th ?a?iiaeoeyie Aia?eee ? Aano?ae??,
eiee i?a?aoe?y ia/enethaaeany i?eueeiiaie. Ca?ac ui??/ii aea?aeaai?
ei?aeiie ia?aoeiathoue i?eaeecii 2-3 iei. ?iai/eo. Ca iaaeaie
aaouee?aueie i?iaeeaathoue ? i?aoeththoue a?eueoa 25 iei. i?a?aio?a,
oiaoi i?eaeecii 1/100 caaaeueii? /enaeueiino? o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a na?oo.
A?ioia? caniae, ui ia?aneeathoueny ?ii?a?aioaie ia aaouee?aueio,
neeaaeathoue ca ??cieie ioe?ieaie 25 — 30 ie?ae. aeie. NOA ia ??e aai
1/50 aa?oino? na?oiaiai aenii?oo oiaa??a.

Ca?aeii c ioe?ieaie a/aieo, o na?o? iae?/o?oueny a?eueoa 125 iei.
/ieia?e , ui i?iaeeaathoue ca iaaeaie e?a?i naiai iioiaeaeaiiy aai
a?iiaaeyinoaa, i?e/iio iieiaeia c ieo ? a?iiaaeyiaie e?a?i, ui
?icaeaathoueny.

Oaeei /eiii, i?aeia?iaeia i?a?aoe?y ?iai/i? neee – oea i?ioean
ia?anoaaiiy, coiiaeaiee ?icaeoeii i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ? ae?iaie/eo
a?aeiinei, ae??th aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a ? iia’ycaiee c aeoiaeii
?iaeea?ae?a ?c iaei??? aaia?ao?/ii? (oa?eoi??aeueii?) ni?eueiioe oa
aeeth/aiiyi a ?ioo o yeino? ae?iaieea oa/aai niiaeeaa/a iaoa??aeueieo
aeaa ? ieaoieo iineoa ia aeinoaoiuei o?eaaeee oa?i?i c iaoith
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy naiai aeeooy ia iniia? a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?iai/i? neee.

I?a?aoe?y aeeth/a? a naaa aeaa aca?iiiia’ycai? i?ioeane: ?ii?a?aoe?th
(immigration) oa ai?a?aoe?th (emigration). ?nio? oaeiae iiiyooy
?aai?a?aoe?y (re-emigration). A ?noi?e/iiio ieai? iiaeia aeae?eeoe
aeaa oeyoe ?icaeoeo i?a?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a: aenoaineaiee oa ?ioaineaiee.
Iae?iciianthaeaeaieie ? iino?eia ? oei/aniaa oi?ie i?a?aoe??.

?niothoue, i?eiaeii?, /ioe?e iniaeeaino? no/anii? i?aeia?iaeii?
i?a?aoe??, ui nooo?ai i?aeaeuothoue ?? aaao a nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei: oea aeniea oa?eoi??aeueia eiioeaio?aoe?y
i?a?aoe?eieo iioie?a, cina?aaeaeaiiy i?a?aio?a o iaaieo aaeocyo
aeiiii?ee i?eeiath/eo e?a?i, iie?oe/iee aniaeo i?ioenoiyiiy ?icaeiaieo
e?a?i ? e?a?i, ui ?icaeaathoueny, a oaeiae niaoeeo?ea naii? ?iai/i? neee
ye ia’?eoo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae aea?aeaaaie. Oey niaoeeo?ea
iieyaa? o oiio, ui ?iai/o neeo, ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo iniiaieo ia’?eo?a
i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ia iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe o?eueee ye
oiaa?, ine?eueee aiia naia ? ?aeeiei aeaea?aeii aeiaeaoeiai? aa?oino?.

Aieiaia i?e/eia i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? ?ia?oie/i? neee iieyaa? o
nooiino? no/aniiai ?eieiaiai caniao ae?iaieoeoaa, a naia: eiee
aaciina?aaei?e ae?iaiee a?aeae?eaiee a?ae cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa.
Ooieoe?th niieo/aiiy ?iai/i? neee ?c caniaaie ae?iaieoeoaa aeeiio?
eai?oae. Naia ianooaae, oaiie ? no?oeoo?a iaeiie/oaaiiy eai?oaeo
aecia/athoue ??aaiue ? iai?yiee ia?ai?uaiiy ?iai/i? neee.

?icaeyaeath/e i?a?aoe?ei? i?ioeane o /an?, iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeae?eueea
aoai?a ?icaeoeo i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? a iiao aiioo. Eiaeiee c ieo iaa
nai? iniaeeaino? o ia?anaeainueeiio ?on? oa ni?yioaaii? iioie?a.
No/aniee aoai i?a?aoe?? ii/aany i?ney ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie ? o?eaa?
aei oeueiai /ano. Iniaeeaino? oeueiai aoaio iieyaathoue o oaeaeeiio
c?inoaii? aioo??eiioeiaioaeueii? i?a?aoe?? a ?a?ii?, Ao?eoe?, Ac??,
iineeaii? aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiai? i?a?aoe??, ??
iaoiiaeaiino? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith ?aaiethoe??th, iiiiiie?caoe??th
i?aeia?iaeieo ?eie?a i?aoe? ? eai?oaeo, ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe??th
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iei? i?a?aoe?y noaea caeaa?eueoiai oei/aniaith: i?a?aioe, ye i?aaeei,
i?ney cae?i/aiiy iaaiiai oa?i?io aa?oathoueny aeiaeiio. Oaeei /eiii,
i?a?aoe?y iineoue ?ioaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?. Ianiaiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oaea
i?a?aoe?y iaaoea o 60-? ?iee aeaaaeoeyoiai noi??//y. Niaoeeo?/iith
?enith i?a?aoe?? inoaii?o ?ie?a ? oaeiae iaeaaaeueia i?a?aoe?y.

C ?icaeoeii a?aeiinei eoi?ae?-i?iaeaaeo ?iai/i? neee ana /ano?oa
aeei?enoiaothoueny iiiyooy “i?aeia?iaeiee ?eiie ?iai/i? neee” oa ??
“?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueia aa?o?noue”. Aa?o?noue oiaa?o ?iai/a neea
aecia/a?oueny aa?o?noth oeo aeeoo?aeo cania?a, ui iaiao?aei? aeey
i?aeo?eiaiiy aeeooy ?ia?oieea ? i?aeo?eiaiiy eiai i?aoeacaeaoiino?. Ooo,
o ia?oo /a?ao, iathoueny ia oaac? iioi/i? aeo?aoe ?iai/iai ia naaa ?
?iaeeio c o?aooaaiiyi ??aiy iio?aa, ui ?niothoue o e?a?i?. Iaeiae ianya
? no?oeoo?a oaeeo iio?aa o ??cieo e?a?iao ??ci?. Oea ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
o?oaeiiu?a o aecia/aii? ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueii? aa?oino? ?iai/i? neee.
Ii-ia?oa, ca?ia?oia ieaoa, iaea?aeoaaia ?ii?a?aioii ca ei?aeiiii,
aeanoue eiio iiaeeea?noue caaeiaieueiyoe oae? iio?aae, ui ia aoee eiio
iaiao?aei? ia aaouee?auei?. ?acii c oei ca?ia?oia ieaoa ?iicaiieo
?iai/eo ? o??caiith, aiie ia iaea?aeothoue nioe?aeuei? i?eueae.

Ii-ae?oaa, i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai ?ic?aooaaoe aa?o?noue oiaa??a ? iineoa,
ui niiaeeaathoueny ?ii?a?aioaie o aeniei?icaeiaieo e?a?iao. Oea
iia’ycaia c oei, ui oe?ie ia oiaa?e, ye i?aaeei, a?aeoeeythoueny a?ae
?oiuei? aa?oino?.

Ii-o?ao?, oa /anoeia, yeo ?iicaii? ?iai/? ia?aneeathoue aeiaeiio,
aeeth/a?oueny o aa?o?noue ?oiuei? ?iai/i? neee. Aea aa?o?noue, io?eiaia
a iaei?e e?a?i? ? ia?ai?aaeaia o a?ioia?e oi?i? a ?ioo, aiane?aeie
??cieoe? a ??aiyo aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo iaaoaa? ?ioiai cia/aiiy.

Iaea?eueo aeoeaia oai?aoe/ia ?ic?iaea i?iaeai i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe??
ii/aeany c e?ioey 60-o ?ie?a o ?aieao iiaeaeae aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy.
?oiy iniiaia ?aeay iieyaa? o oiio, ui i?aeia?iaeia ia?ai?uaiiy ?iai/i?
neee, ye iaeiiai c /eiiee?a ae?iaieoeoaa, aieeaa? ia oaiie aeiiii?/iiai
c?inoaiiy.

No/ania i?a?aoe?y ?iai/i? neee ia? nooi aeiiii?/iee oa?aeoa?, i?e/iio
iniiai? i?a?aoe?ei? iioiee ? iaeiini?yiiaaieie c iaio ?icaeiaieo e?a?i o
a?eueo ?icaeiai?. A?eueoo /anoeio i?a?aio?a neeaaeathoue ?iai/? c
iecueeith eaae?o?eaoe??th.

Aiae?c aoaeo?a i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee iiaeia cae?enieoe ca aeiiiiiaith
aeaie?a?iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iiaeae?. I?eionoeii, ui o na?o? ?niothoue aea?
e?a?ie: iaeia c ieo aaaaoa, ?ioa a?aeia, a i?aeia?iaeia i?a?aoe?y
?iai/i? neee i?ae ieie caai?iiaia caeiiii. Ia ?en. 1 cia?aaeai? ?eiee
i?aoe? oeeo e?a?i, aea iieacaii, ui ??aaiue iieaoe i?aoe? o e?a?i? A
?noioii aeuee, i?ae o e?a?i? A. Ni?aaae?, ia?an?/aiiy e?eaeo iiieoo ?
i?iiiceoe?? ia ?eieo i?aoe? e?a?ie A aeanoue na?aaeith noaaeo ca?ieaoe
Wa, a o e?a?i? A, a?aeiia?aeii, Wa, oae ui Wa > Wa. Oaeei /eiii, e?aiee
Aa ? Aa iieaaeooue ??cieoeth a ??ai? iieaoe i?aoe? o oeeo e?a?iao.

I?eionoeii, ui iaeaea? e?a?ie ciyee iaiaaeaiiy ia a?eueia ia?anoaaiiy
?iai/i? neee. Ine?eueee na?aaeiy ?aaeueia ca?ieaoa o aeaio e?a?iao
??cia, ?ia?oieee e?a?ie A aoaeooue ia?anoaaoenue ia ?eiie i?aoe? e?a?ie
A, aea ??aaiue iieaoe iii?oii aeua. Oea i?ecaaaea aei oiai, ui a e?a?i?
A c?inoaiiy i?iiiceoe?? i?aoe? ca ?aooiie ?ii?a?aio?a ia?ai?noeoue
??aiiaaao c e?aiee Aa o e?aieo Aa’, ui i?ecaaaea aei cieaeaiiy ??aiy
iieaoe o oe?e e?a?i?. O e?a?i? A a?ae’?cae ai?a?aio?a nei?ioeoue
i?iiiceoe?th i?aoe?, ui i?aeaeueoue noaaeo ca?ieaoe c Wa aei Wa?.
Iaeiae, ye iieaco? ?en. 1, ??cieoey a ??aiyo iieaoe i?aoe? i?ae
e?a?iaie, oi/ ? o iaioeo ?ici??ao caa?aaeaoueny o ca’yceo c ?nioaaiiyi
aeo?ao i?a?aoe??.

A?eueia ia?anoaaiiy ?iai/i? neee i?ae e?a?iaie A oa A i?ecaaaea aei
aea?ao?a ? ao?ao ie?aieo eaoaai??e aeiiii?/ieo aaaio?a, ci?i? ??aiy
aeia?iaooo aeaio e?a?i ? na?oiaiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa o oe?eiio. Aiae?c
neooaoe??, cia?aaeaii? ia ?en. 1, aeaiiino?o? aeaye? yai?, aea,
iiaeeeai, iai/?eoaai? caaaeueiiaeiiii?/i? iane?aeee naiaiaee ia?anoaaiiy
aeey «iino?eiiai» ianaeaiiy o oe?eiio.

Ia?aaeon?i, ioe?ieii oe? iane?aeee aeey e?a?ie A. O oe?eiio, e?a?ia A,
aacoiiaii, aea?a? o noaiaea?oieo aeiiii?/ieo oa?i?iao: aea?ao
i?aei?e?ioe?a (? an?o niiaeeaa/?a, ui eoiothoue ?oith i?iaeoeoe?th) yaii
ia?aaaaea? ao?aoe ?iai/eo: iaeanoue (a+b) ia iiaea aooe iaioith, i?ae
iaeanoue a. E?a?ia ai?a?aoe?? (A) i?ney a?ae’?caeo i?a?aio?a iaaii
ao?a/a?: ao?aoe i?aei?e?ioe?a (c+d) ia iiaeooue aooe iaioeie, i?ae
aea?ao ?iai/eo n.

?iai/?, ui caeeoaeeny a e?a?i? A, aea?athoue caaaeyee oiio, ui cieaeaiiy
eiieo?aioe?? ca ?iai/? i?noey i?aeaeuo? ?oi? ca?ieaoe, aea?ao ?iai/eo
neeaaea aea?aaeaio ieiu? n. ?oi? iaeia/? ao?a/athoue /anoeio i?eaooe?a,
ine?eueee i?eiooai? ieaoeoe ?ia?oieeo a?eueo aenieo ca?ieaoo. Ao?aoe
i?aei?e?ioe?a e?a?ie A neeaaeooue iaeanoue (c+d). I?aei?e?ioe? o e?a?i?
A, cae/aeii, aea?athoue a?ae aeiaeaoeiai? i?iiiceoe?? i?aoe?. Cieaeaiiy
ca?ieaoe i?eiineoue ?i iaeanoue (a+b) o aeiaeaoeiaeo i?eaooeao. ?iai/?,
ye? aaea ia?aaoaaee o e?a?i? A, ao?a/athoue iaeanoue a, ai cieaeothoueny
?oi? ca?ieaoe. *enoee aea?ao i?a?aio?a neeaaea? (d+a). Oaeei /eiii,
noai?th?oueny a?aaeaiiy, ui i?eeiath/? e?a?ie ? nai? i?a?aioe aea?athoue
o oeueiio i?ioean?, oiae? ye e?a?ie ai?a?aoe?? ao?a/athoue. Na?o o
oe?eiio aea?a?, ine?eueee naiaiaea i?a?aoe?? aeicaiey? ethaeyi
ia?ai?uaoeny o e?a?ie, aea aiie iiaeooue aianoe a?eueoee /enoee aeeaae o
na?oiaa ae?iaieoeoai.

I?i? a?eueoa iieiaeie iioie?a i?a?aoe?? o na?o? i?eiaaea? ia e?a?ie, ui
?icaeaathoueny. ?acii c oei o 80-? ?iee, eiee aeiiii?/ia e?eca i?ecaaea
aei aioei?a?aoe?eieo iano?i?a, aaaaoi i?a?aio?a iiaa?ioeeny ia
aaouee?aueio. Inoaii?i /anii niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy iiieoo ia
oei/aniao ?iai/o neeo o e?a?iao Ac??, ye? ia?aaeeaathoue aeiiii?/iee
?icea?o. Iiaithaaiiy ianiaiai ia?anaeaiiy ia?iae?a o ?acoeueoao?
?iciaaeo N?N? ia aei?aaaeaeeny ai? a iaaeao ?aa?iio, ai? a e?a?iao
Caoiaeo.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aeaiaee a?ae i?a?aoe??, aeeneon?? iaaeiei no?aoaa??
e?a?i, ui ?icaeaathoueny, a iaeano? aenii?oo ?iai/i? neee i?ecaaee aei
anoaiiaeaiiy iaiaaeaiue ia eaaaeueio ai?a?aoe?th. Oea iia’ycaia c oei,
ui io?eiai? aeaiaee iinyoue ei?ioeino?ieiaee oa?aeoa? anoia?a/
aeiaaino?ieiaei ia?aaaaai, ye? iiaeia io?eiaoe o ?acoeueoao?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. ?niothoue iiaithaaiiy, ui ae?cae ?iai/i? neee
i?ecaaaea aei ?? ianoa/? ia i?noeaaiio ?eieo i?aoe?, ui iioyaia ca
niaith iaaeanoe/i?noue ae?iaie/iai oeeeeo.

Iaeiae ca iayaiino? aeeaa?neo?eiaaii? aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e,
aeinoaoiuei? i?iiiceoe?? ?iai/i? neee, o?iainiai? nenoaie, caeaoii?
aeoioethaaoe a?ioia? ?ano?ne c ??cieo aeaea?ae e ?iaanooaaoe ?o a
aeiiii?/io ae?yeuei?noue, ui ciiaei a caaacia/eoe c?inoath/ee iiieo ia
?acoeueoaoe ?iaanoeoe?e, a?ioia? ia?aeace iiaee a noaoe
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/iei /eiieeii ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee, ye ? aoaeue-yeee
?ioee /eiiee ?icaeoeo. Ca a?aenooiino? aoaeue-yeiai c oeeo oiia a?ioia?
ia?aeace ?ii?a?aio?a ia ? /eiieeii ?icaeoeo.

E?a?ia A E?a?ia A

W
W

NS

EA

WA
NS’
NS’

a b

NS

WA’

EA’
EB’

WB’ e

Nd
WB n d

EB

Nd

N
N

?en. 1. ?eiee i?aoe? aeaio e?a?i aei ? i?ney i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? iane?aeee i?aeia?iaeii?
i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee aeey ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa a?aanueeeo e?a?i
Ia?nueei? caoiee” aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa
eoeueoo?i? iane?aeee oe?ieiai aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiii? ?iai/i? neee,
aecia/aia i?noea i?a?aio?a o nenoai? oaeoi??a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
?aa?iio oa ?o aieea ia ?icaeoie ?eieo i?aoe?.

Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee
caeaaeeoue a?ae noaio iaooiaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino?, eii’thieoo?e ia
na?oiaiio ?eieo iaooe. E??i oiai, iniaeeaith ?enith ?aa?iio ? aaeeea
caeaaei?noue aeiiii?e e?a?i a?ae ?iicaiieo ?iai/eo, /anoea yeeo o
ae?iaieoeoa? neeaaea? a?eueoa 50% a?ae on??? ?iai/i? neee, ui iia’ycaia
c iaaeinoaoiueith e?euee?noth i?noeaai? eaae?o?eiaaii? ?iai/i? neee oa c
iecueeith aa?o?noth ?iicaiii? ?iai/i? neee. Oiaoi, ?iicaiia ?iai/a neea,
ii/eiath/e c iiai?iieo ?ie?a, aoea ? caeeoa?oueny, ?acii ?c caianaie
iaooe, iniiaiei oaeoi?ii aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee,
yeee a?ae?a?a? cia/io ?ieue a aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo e?a?i. Iieacaii, ui
a 40-60-? ?iee ca ?aooiie oe?ieiai caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iai/eo aaeaeiny
nooo?ai ca?eueoeoe ianyae aeaeiaooeo oa aenii?oo iaooe ? aaco ? ca
?aooiie oeueiai ca?eueoeoe i?eaooee a?aanueeeo e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee,
ye? ni?yiiaoaaeenue ia ?icaeoie ?iaeaia?ii-i?iieneiai? oa nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e e?a?i. Ii/eiath/e ?c 70-o ?ie?a caaaeyee caeo/aiith, a
ia?oo /a?ao, aenieaae?o?eiaaieo ?iicaiieo ?iai/eo e?a?iai ?aa?iio
aaeaeiny i?iaanoe ?iaeono??ae?caoe?th oa aeeaa?neoeeaoe?th nai?o
aeiiii?e, ui c iaeiiai aieo aeicaieeei ciaioeoe caeaaei?noue e?a?i a?ae
eieeaaiue eii’thieoo?e ia na?oiaiio ?eieo iaooe, a c ?ioiai — iie?aueoe
aeeoo?aee ??aaiue nai?o iaoeaioe?a.

Noiae?noue iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e e?a?i ?aa?iio noaea ia’?eoeaiith
ia?aaeoiiaith ?ioaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a, aieiaiith iaoith yeeo ?
noai?aiiy aeiiii?/iiai nithco, ui caaacia/eoue i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeeooy
ianaeaiiy e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee ? a?eueo iiaia caaacia/aiiy iio?aa
e?a?i aeanieie ?ano?naie.

O 1996 ?. noeoiiee AAI e?a?i ?aaee ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa
Ia?nueei? caoiee c??n ia 5.9% ? neeaa 225,754 ie?ae. aeiee., a a 1997 ?.
o ca’yceo c iaae?iiyi oe?i ia iaooo ia na?oiaiio ?eieo oaiie c?inoaiiy
AAI oeeo e?a?i cieceeeny aei 3%. O 1998 ?. AAI aeinya 235.331 ie?ae.
aeiee. NOA i?e oaii? c?inoaiiy a 1.2%. Eeth/iaei naeoi?ii aeiiii?ee oeeo
e?a?i ? iaooiaee naeoi?, yeee, caeeoath/enue iaea?eueo aeniei
?ioaa?iaaiei naeoi?ii na?oiaiai ainiiaea?noaa, oaeaeei ?aaao? ia
aoaeue-ye? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a iueiio. Oae, ciaioaiiy oe?i ia
na?oiaiio ?eieo iaooe aaoiiaoe/ii i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy i?eaooe?a
a?ae i?iaeaaeo iaooe, ui o naith /a?ao oyaia ca niaith ciaioaiiy AAI
oeeo e?a?i. E?a?ie ?NAAeIC o 1996-1997 ??.. aaeaei nei?enooaaeenue
eii’thieoo?ith, ui neeaeany ia na?oiaiio ?eieo iaooe, ? caa?aaee
a?aeiinia i?aeaeuaiiy nai?o iaooiaeo i?eaooe?a, ui ni?eyei ciaioaiith ?o
athaeaeaoieo aeao?oeeo?a. Oae, o?eueee o 1996 ?. oe? e?a?ie ciiaee
ciaioeoe aeao?oeeo aea?aeaaieo athaeaeao?a, /iai ia aaeaaaeiny ?i
c?iaeoe a iiia?aaei? 5 ?ie?a, c 18 ie?ae. aeiee. noeoiiiai athaeaeaoiiai
aeao?oeeoo o 1994 ?. aei 11.2 ie?ae. aeiee. o 1996 ?ioe?.

Ui noino?oueny ?iai/i? neee, oi, ia a?aei?io a?ae ni?ieiaeo ?ie?a, eiee
o?yaee e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee aoee caoe?eaaeai? o caeo/aii? ?iicaiii?
?iai/i? neee, inoaii?i /anii o ?aa?ii? ?aae?co?oueny iie?oeea aeo?niaiiy
?ii?a?aio?a oeyoii cai?ie ?o i?noeaaeie ?iai/eie. Aea /anoea ?iicaioe?a
ia ?eieo i?aoe? ? iaaeae? caeeoa?oueny aenieith.

Oea iia’ycaia c oei, ui iie?oeea «eoaaeoecaoe??», «aao?aeiecaoe??»,
«naoaeecaoe??» ? oaea ?ioa iaooiaoo?oueny ia ?yae ia’?eoeaieo ia?aoeiae,
iiaeieaiiy yeeo iaiiaeeeaa neeaie iaei??? e?aie ? aeiaaa? o?eaaeiai
/ano. Ia?oa a?oia ia?aoeiae iia’ycaia c iaa?aeiia?aei?noth i?ae
nenoaiith ina?oe, i?ioan?eiith i?aeaioiaeith i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy oa
iio?aaaie aeiiii?ee e?a?i ?aa?iio. Ae?oaa a?oia ia?aoeiae a?oioo?oueny
ia iaaaaeaii? i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy i?aoethaaoe o i?eaaoiiio naeoi??, aea
iioeaaoe?? o?ioe ieae/?, i?ae o aea?aeaaiiio naeoi??, ? i?aaiaii?
i?eaaoieo i?aei?e?ioe?a aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?iicaiio ?iai/o neeo, ine?eueee
aeo?aoe ia ia? ieae/?.

Iiaeeeaeie oeyoaie aeo?niaiiy ?iicaiieo ?iai/eo c ?eieo i?aoe? e?a?i
?aa?iio ? i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy nenoai? ooai?aiiy iio?aa aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo, a iniiaiiio, i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a, i?aeaeuaiiy iioeaaoe?? i?aoe?
o i?eaaoiiio naeoi??, noeioethaaiiy aioo??oiueiai niiaeeaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoii cae?eniaiiy iie?oeee aeo?niaiiy ?ii?a?aio?a iiaeiia noaoe
cieaeaiiy caeaaeiino? a?ae ?iicaioe?a aeey aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
?aa?iio, ca?eueoaiiy caeiyoino? i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe o i?eaaoiiio naeoi?? ? c?inoaiiy aeia?iaooo i?noeaaiai
ianaeaiiy, ca?eueoaiiy aioo??oi?o ?iaanoeoe?e.

Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui i?aeia?iaeia i?a?aoe?y ?iai/i? neee ia?, a
iniiaiiio, iaaaoeaiee aieea ia nioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie e?a?i Ia?nueei?
caoiee, ia a?aei?io a?ae iiceoeaieo aeiiii?/ieo aoaeo?a. Oea coiiaeaia
oei, ui i?noeaaa ianaeaiiy /a?ac naith iaei/enaeuei?noue iani?iiiaeia
anei?ethaaoe i?a?aio?a, iaa’ycaaoe ?i nai? eoeueoo?i? oa ?noi?e/i?
oe?iiino?, aiane?aeie /iai oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy, iniaeeai a
i?noeyo eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiiy ?iicaiieo i?a?aio?a, iaaoaathoue
eoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe?? ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a, ye? iinooiiai ci?iththoue ?
oe?iiino? i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy. Iiaeeaeaiiy oaei? neooaoe?? a
iiaeaeueoiio iiaea i?ecaanoe aei cieuaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino?
a?aanueeiai ianaeaiiy. Iaaaoeaii aieeaa? i?aeia?iaeia i?a?aoe?y ? ia
eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie e?a?i ?aa?iio. Oae, oaea io?eio? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
oae caaia “eaaea a?aanueea” iiaa, ui nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
eeane/ii? a?aanueei? iiae.

Oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy ?ii?a?aio?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee, ine?eueee ?ii?a?aioe
iiaeooue ia?ae?coaaoe oeeee ae?iaieoeoaa oeyoii ianiaiai a?ae’?caeo,
i?aeo?eioaaoe iiiceoe?th a e?a?i? ia?aaoaaiiy (oea iieacaia ia i?eeeaae?
Eoaaeoo, eiee aiane?aeie a?eie oa ianiaiai a?aeoieo i?a?aio?a,
ia?aaaaeii c e?a?i, ye? i?aeo?eioaaee ??ae, aoei c??aaii oeeee
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo), noaoe aei?aaaeaiiyi aeey ciai?oiueiai ao?o/aiiy.
Oiaoi aeiaaaeaii, ui aaeeea /anoea ?iicaiieo ?iai/eo ii??aiyii c
i?noeaaei ianaeaiiyi iiaea aooe ?aaeueiith caa?icith aeey iie?oe/ii?,
a?enueeiai? oa aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee e?a?i.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “I?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?ii?a?aoe?? a
e?a?iao ?aa?iio” aeine?aeaeothoueny oa aiae?cothoueny iaoiaee
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? o e?a?iao Ia?nueei? caoiee,
?icaeyaeathoueny aeinyaiaiiy oa i?iaeaie o oe?e aaeoc?, aecia/athoueny
iiaeeea? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee iai?iaeoiaiiai ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae o
i?a?aoe?ei? i?ioeane. Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeoiea, ui no/ania o?yaeiaa
iie?oeea iaoe?iiae?caoe?? ?eie?a i?aoe? e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee coiiaeaia
ye ia’?eoeaieie, oae ? noa’?eoeaieie i?e/eiaie, a oaeiae eiiieaenii
aeine?aeaeai? iaoiaee aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?a?aoe?? o e?a?iao
Ia?nueei? caoiee, a iniia? yeeo eaaeaoue ye nooi aeiiii?/i?, oae e
aaei?i?no?aoeai? aaaeae? aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee
?icaeoie e?a?i ?aa?iio.

Iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe, ui i?eeiath/? e?a?ie ca aeiiiiiaith
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?a?aoe?? iaiaaathoueny ae??ooaaoe i?eiaeii?
/ioe?e caaea/?. Ii-ia?oa, caaacia/eoe ?eiie i?aoe? ?iicaiiith ?iai/i?
neeith a ianyaao, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue iio?aaai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo oa ?eieo. Ii-ae?oaa, aa?aiooaaoe aeinoaoiuei
aenie? ia?aiao?e ?iicaiii? ?iai/i? neee. Ii-o?ao?, caaacia/eoe
i?ioan?eiee neeaae i?a?aio?a, ia?aaeon?i aeey aaeocae, o yeeo
a?ae/oaa?oueny ianoa/a ?iai/i? neee. Ii-/aoaa?oa, anoaiiaeoe
iioeiaeueiee oa?i?i ia?aaoaaiiy ?iicaiieo i?aoe?aiee?a c o?aooaaiiyi
oeeee?/ieo eieeaaiue aeiiii?ee.

Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iaoiae?a ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiai? ?ii?a?aoe?? ?
oeeaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo oaiae, ye? iiaeooue aooe aeiaaeueieie
i?aeia?iaeieie oaiaeaie [a iniiaiiio ?aaeaiaioothoue i?aaa i?a?aio?a];
aeainoi?iii?ie aeiaiai?aie [anoaiiaeththoue ?ici??e i?a?aoe?? ? ??
i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie] ? aioo??oi? ?aaoethaaiiy, eiie?aoecothoue oe?
oaiaee ? aeiaiai?e a?aeiia?aeii aei oiia aeaii? e?a?ie ? ?aaeaiaioothoue
ia?aaoaaiiy i?a?aio?a.

Iiaeia a?aecia/eoe, ui noaaeaiiy aei i?a?aoe?? o e?a?iao Ia?nueei?
caoiee iei? ci?ieeiny. sseui i?ney ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie iie?oeea
o?yae?a aoea ni?yiiaaia ia caeo/aiiy ?iicaioe?a a aeiiii?eo e?a?i
Caoiee, oi ca?ac aaeeaathoueny caoiaee uiaei iaiaaeaiiy iioieo
?ii?a?aio?a ? iinooiiaiai aeo?niaiiy ?o c ?aa?iio oa naiicaaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e i?noeaaeie i?aoe?aieeaie. Iaiao?aeii
a?aecia/eoe, ui o?yaee a?aanueeeo e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee ?ic?iaeee
caaaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeai i?a?aoe??, yea a eiaei?e ?c e?a?i ia?
eeoa iacia/i? a?aei?iiino? a?ae ?ioeo. Iaiaaeaiiy iioieo ?ii?a?aio?a
i?iaiaeeoueny ye ia caeiiiaeaa/iio ??ai?, oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy
iaiaaeaiue, eaio, ?aaeaiaio?a ? oae aeae?, i?eeiyooyi a?aeiia?aeieo
caeii?a ? i?aecaeiiieo aeo?a, oae ?c aeei?enoaiiyi aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a
– caioi/aiiy i?aei?e?inoa, ui iaeiathoue i?noeaao ?iai/o neeo: iaaeaiiy
i?eueaiaeo e?aaeeo?a, o?yaeiaeo eiio?aeo?a oiui.

?acii c oei o ?icae?e? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui caeiyo?noue ?iicaiii? ?iai/i?
neee ia no/aniiio aoai? ia?aaaaeii o i?eaaoiiio naeoi?? aeiiii?e e?a?i
Ia?nueei? caoiee iaoiiaeaia aeene?ei?iaoe?eiei noaoonii ?iicaioe?a
a?aeiinii i?noeaai? ?iai/i? neee o ca’yceo ?c aei?noeei ?aaoethaaiiyi
oiia ia?aaoaaiiy o e?a?i?, ?o caeaaeiino? a?ae naiai ?iaioiaeaaoey oiui.
Oaeiae oiiae oo?eiaiiy ?iicaioe?a oa ??aaiue iieaoe ?o i?aoe? cia/ii
ieae/?, i?ae i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy, ui ?iaeoue aea?aeiei aeey i?noeaaeo
i?aei?e?ioe?a iaeiaoe naia ?iicaiio ?iai/o neeo.

I?ioa, iei? o e?a?iao Ia?nueei? caoiee i?iaiaeeoueny aeoeaia iie?oeea
aeo?niaiiy ?iicaiii? ?iai/i? neee. Iaeiae o oeueiio i?ioean? ?niothoue
aeaye? ia?aoeiaee, ye i?aaeei, aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Iniiaiith c ieo ?
iaaaaeaiiy i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o ?iceo/aoeny c ?iicaiieie ?iai/eie, aeo?aoe
ia oo?eiaiiy yeeo (ca?ia?oia ieaoa, oiiae i?aoe?, oiiae aeeooy ? oae
aeae?) cia/ii ieae/?, i?ae aeaeaoee ia i?noeaao ?iai/o neeo, a
a?aeiia?aeii i?eaooie aeua. Iaeiae, ca i?iaiicaie o?yae?a, /anoea
?iicaioe?a aoaea iinooiiai nei?i/oaaoeny.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoeiai? iaoe oa caaaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee c?iaeai? oae? aeniiaee:

I?aeia?iaeia i?a?aoe?y ?iai/i? neee aecia/a?oueny ye i?ioean ??
ia?ai?uaiiy, coiiaeaiee ?icaeoeii i?iaeoeoeaieo nee ? ae?iaie/eo
a?aeiinei, ae??th aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a, ? iia’ycaiee c aeoiaeii
?iaeea?ae?a c iaei??? aaia?ao?/ii? (oa?eoi??aeueii?) ni?eueiioe ?
aeeth/aiiyi a ?ioo a yeino? ae?iaieea oa /aai niiaeeaa/a iaoa??aeueieo
aeaa ? ieaoieo iineoa ia aeinoaoiuei o?eaaeee oa?i?i c iaoith
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy naiai aeeooy ia iniia? a?eueo aea?aeiiai aeei?enoaiiy
?iai/i? neee.

O ?iaio? iieacaia ?iicaiia ?iai/a neea ye oaeoi? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee, ine?eueee caaaeyee ?e aoea caaacia/aia
iiaeeea?noue cia/ii ca?eueoeoe aeaeiaooie ? aenii?o iaooe, yeee o 1996
?ioe? neeaa 13849 oen. aa?aeae ia aeiao, a caaaeyee oeueiio io?eiaoe
o?iainia? ?ano?ne aeey ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai ?iaeono??ae?caoe?? aeiiii?ee
e?a?i ?aa?iio, yea aoea cae?eniaia ca o/anoth aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo
?iicaiieo eaae??a. ?aae?caoe?y i?ia?ai ?iaeono??ae?caoe?? ?
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? aeiiii?ee aeicaieeea cieceoe caeaaei?noue oeeo e?a?i
a?ae eii’thieoo?e ia na?oiaeo oiaa?ieo ?eieao, o ia?oo /a?ao, ia ?eieao
iaooe, oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy ? oaea ?ioa.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aii, ui oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy i?a?aio?a
ia? iaaaoeaiee aieea ia nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie ?aa?iio, ia
a?aei?io a?ae aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. Oea iia’ycaia, ianaiia?aae, c oei,
ui o e?a?iao ?aa?iio ooai?eeeny ioeueoeiaoe?iiaeuei? noni?euenoaa,
i?e/iio eiioaeoe i?ae ie?aieie eiai /anoeiaie iaiaaeai? aeiyoeiai
io?oe?eiith noa?ith ni?eeoaaiiy. Oaeiae, a?aoiaoth/e, ui i?noeaaa
ianaeaiiy neeaaea? iaio?noue, o ?aa?ii? iaaoaathoue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
eoeueoo?i? cae/a? ? oe?iiino? ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a, a iniiaiiio,
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Ac??, oa niinoa??aa?oueny iaaaoeaiee aieea ia
?icaeoie a?aanueei? iiae.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeine?aeaeai? iie?oeea ? caniae aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy i?a?aoe?? o e?a?iao Ia?nueei? caoiee, ni?yiiaai? ia
cieaeaiiy caeaaeiino? a?ae ?iicaiieo ?iai/eo, i?aeaeuaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?/ii? ? eoeueoo?ii? aaciaee ?aa?iio a?ae aieeao ?iicaioe?a.

O ?iaio? oaeiae cai?iiiiiaaii ?yae ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei caa?aaeaiiy
oaii?a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee,
ciaioaiiy ?ecee?a, iia’ycaieo ?c oe?ieei canoinoaaiiyi ?iicaiii? ?iai/i?
neee. O?yaeai e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe iie?oeeo
aeo?niaiiy ?iicaioe?a c? nai?o ?eie?a i?aoe?. Aiaeii/an oey iie?oeea
ciaia’ycaia a?aoiaoaaoe on? iiaeeea? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee, ye? iiaeooue
aooe ni?e/eiai? ??ceei ianiaei nei?i/aiiyi /enaeueiino? oa ieoiii?
/anoee ?iicaiieo ?iai/eo o ?aa?ii?, ? ia? aacoaaoeny ia ?aoaeueiiio oa
anaa?/iiio aiae?c? iiaeeeaeo iane?aee?a a?ae canoinoaaiiy iaiaaeaiue ia
aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? ?iicaioe?a, iniaeeai o oeo aaeocyo, aea aiie ia
iiaeooue aooe oaeaeei ? ??aiioe?iii cai?iai? i?noeaaeie ?iai/eie. ?acii
c oei iaiao?aeii i?iaanoe ?aoi?io ina?oiuei? nenoaie, ci???iooaaaoe ??
ia iio?aae iaoe?iiaeueieo aeiiii?e, o ia?oo /a?ao ia iio?aao iaiaooiaeo
naeoi??a aeiiii?ee.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeai? aaoi?ii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

0

1

2

1? Oaeoi?e aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a?aanueeeo e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee ia
no/aniiio aoai?// A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. I?aeia?iaei?
a?aeiineie. Aei. 7. – *. ?. — 1997. N. 52-60.

2? Aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie a?aanueeeo e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee ? i?iaeaie
?ii?a?aoe??: Eaoa? // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. I?aeia?iaei?
a?aeiineie. Aei. 7.– *. ??. — 1997. N. 115-120.

0

1

2

1? Nioe?aeuei? iane?aeee ?ii?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee aeey a?aanueeeo e?a?i
Ia?nueei? caoiee // ?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei. Aei.7. — *. ?- 1998. N.84-100.

2? I?aeia?iaeia ?ii?a?aoe?y ? ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueieo ?eie?a i?aoe? a
a?aanueeeo e?a?iao Ia?nueei? caoiee. // ?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. Aei.7. — *. ??.- 1998. N.155-173.

AIIOAOe?ss

?yae Naeao Iaeeaae “I?aeia?iaeia i?a?aoe?y ?iai/i? neee a nenoai?
oaeoi??a aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a?aanueeeo e?a?i Ia?nueei? caoiee” –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe ii niaoe?aeueiino? 08.05.01. – “Na?oiaa ainiiaea?noai oa
i?aeia?iaei? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie” ?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao aeei?enoaiiy ?iicaiii?
?iai/i? neee ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie a?aanueeeo e?a?i
Ia?nueei? caoiee. O ?iaio? aaoi? ?icaeyaea? oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe
i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? ?iai/i? neee, ?? aeiiii?/i? aoaeoe, a oaeiae
iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe?? a aeiiii?oe? e?a?i, ui
?icaeaathoueny, ia no/aniiio aoai?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: I?aeia?iaeia i?a?aoe?y ?iai/i? neee, ?aaea
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa Ia?nueei? caoiee, oaeoi?e
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, Aeecueeee No?ae, aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy
i?aeia?iaeii? i?a?aoe??.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eyae Naeao Iaeeaae “Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iea?aoeey ?aai/ae neeu a nenoaia
oaeoi?ia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey a?aaneeo no?ai Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa”. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.05.01. – “Ie?iaia oicyenoai e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey” Einoeooo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
ioiioaiee Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aeeyiey eniieueciaaiey
eiino?aiiie ?aai/ae neeu ia nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea a?aaneeo
no?ai Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa. A ?aaioa aaoi? ?anniao?eaaao oai?aoe/aneea
aniaeou iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iea?aoeee ?aai/ae neeu, aa yeiiiie/aneea
yooaeou, a oaeaea iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iea?aoeee a
yeiiiieea ?acaeaathueony no?ai ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iea?aoeey ?aai/ae neeu ii?aaeaeyaony eae i?ioeann aa
ia?aiauaiey, iaoneiaeaiiue ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee, aeaenoaeai yeiiiie/aneeo caeiiia e
naycaiiue n auoiaeii eiaeeaeaeia ec iaeiie aaia?aoe/aneie
(oa??eoi?eaeueiie) iauiinoe e aeeth/aieai a ae?oaoth a ea/anoaa
i?iecaiaeeoaey e/eee iio?aaeoaey iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e ieaoiuo oneoa ia
aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiue n?ie, n oeaeueth iiauoaiey naiaai o?iaiy aeecie
ia iniiaa aieaa auaiaeiiai eniieueciaaiey ?aai/ae neeu.

A ?aaioa iieacaia eiino?aiiay ?aai/ay neea eae oaeoi? yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey no?ai Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa, iineieueeo aeaaiaea?y ae auea
iieo/aia aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaaiii oaaee/eoue aeiau/o e yenii?o iaooe, e
oai naiui iieo/eoue oeiainiaua ?ano?nu aeey ?aaeecaoeee i?ia?aii
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee yeiiiieee no?ai ?aaeiia, eioi?ay i?ienoiaeeea oaeaea
i?e o/anoee aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eiino?aiiuo eaae?ia. ?aaeecaoeey
i?ia?aii eiaeono?eaeecaoeee e aeeaa?neoeeaoeee yeiiiieee iicaieeea
nieceoue caaeneiinoue yoeo no?ai io eiiuthieoo?u ia ie?iauo oiaa?iuo
?uieao, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ia ?uieao iaooe, oaoiieiae/aneiai
iai?oaeiaaiey e o.i.

A oiaea enneaaeiaaiey ii?aaeaeaii, /oi oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea iea?aioia
eiaao iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ia nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iia ?acaeoea ?aaeiia, a
ioee/ea io yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi a no?aiao
?aaeiia ia?aciaaeenue ioeueoeiaoeeiiaeueiua iauanoaa, i?e/ai eiioaeou
iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie aai ninoaaeythueie e?aeia ia?aie/aiu
eneeth/eoaeueii ioeoeeaeueiie noa?ie iauaiey. Oaeaea, o/eouaay oi, /oi
ei?aiiia ianaeaiea ninoaaeyao iaiueoeinoai, a ?aaeiia iieo/atho
?ani?ino?aiaiea eoeueoo?iua iau/ae e oeaiiinoe ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia, a
iniiaiii THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, e ieacuaaaony iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ia
?acaeoea a?aaneiai ycuea.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa eco/aiu iieeoeea e iaoiaeu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
?aaoee?iaaiey iea?aoeee a no?aiao Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa, iai?aaeaiiua ia
oiaiueoaiea caaeneiinoe io eiino?aiiuo ?aai/eo, iiauoaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie
yeiiiie/aneie e eoeueoo?iie aaciianiinoe ?aaeiia io aeeyiey
eiino?aioeaa.

I?iaaaeaiiia enneaaeiaaiea iicaieeei naeaeaoue ?yae auaiaeia e
?aeiiaiaeaoeee. N oeaeueth nio?aiaiey oaiiia yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey,
iiauoaiey o?iaiy yeiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe, oiaiueoaiey ?eneia,
naycaiiuo n oe?ieei i?eiaiaieai eiino?aiiie ?aai/ae neeu,
i?aaeoaeuenoaai no?ai Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa iaiaoiaeeii ?aaeeciauaaoue
iieeoeeo auoaniaiey eiino?aioeaa ni naieo ?uieia o?oaea. Aianoa n oai
yoa iieeoeea aeieaeia o/eouaaoue ana aiciiaeiua iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey,
eioi?ua iiaoo aucaaoue ?aceia ianniaia nie?auaiea eiino?aiiuo ?aai/eo a
?aaeiia. Iieeoeea auoaniaiey eiino?aioeaa aeieaeia aace?iaaoueny ia
ouaoaeueiii aiaeeca aiciiaeiuo iineaaenoaee io aaaaeaiey ia?aie/aiee ia
eniieueciaaiea o?oaea eiino?aioeaa, iniaaiii a oao io?aneyo, aaea iie ia
iiaoo auoue auno?i e ?aaiioeaiii caiaiaiu ianoiuie ?aai/eie. Aianoa n
oai iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe ?aoi?io ia?aciaaoaeueiie nenoaiu, ni?eaioe?iaaa
aa ia iio?aaiinoe e ioaeaeu iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiiee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
ia iio?aaiinoe iaiaooyiuo naeoi?ia yeiiiieee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay iea?aoeey ?aai/ae neeu, Niaao
nio?oaeie/anoaa a?aaneeo ainoaea?noa Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa, oaeoi?u
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey, Aeeaeiee Ainoie, ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iea?aoeee.

ANNOTATION

IYAD Sayah Maklad. International labour force migration in the system of
Economic Development Factors in the Arabian Countries of the Persian
Gulf.

Dissertation is a manuscript.

Dissertation for Ph.D in Economic with major in 08.05.01. World
Economics and International Economic Relations.

Institute of International Relation of Kyiv University named after Taras
Shevchenko, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is dedicated to scientific research of influence of
international labour force migration on social economic development of
Arabian Countries in the Persian Gulf. In his work the author examines
theoretical aspects of international labour force migration, its
economic effects also International labour force migration tendencies in
developing countries at present stage.

Key words: International labour force migration, Gulf Co-operation
Council, factors of economic development, The middle East, state control
of international migration.

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