2

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

?INOEOOO I?AEIA?IAeIEO A?AeIINEI

IOA?O AEEAI I?OA?

OAeE: 327(6)

I?AEAeA?AEAAI? EIIOE?EOE A AO?EOe? IA I?AAeAIUe

A?Ae NAOA?E A NA?AAeEI? 70-o — IA II*AOEO 90-o ?IE?A

(OEIIEIA?ss ? OEssOE A?AAOETHAAIIss)

23.00.04 — Iie?oe/i? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeieo

nenoai oa aeiaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

EII??AIEI ?aai Aeaieeiae/, eaoaae?a

i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee

?inoeoooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, aeioeaio

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IA?AIAEEOess A?eai??e Ieeieaeiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii ai?iii? iie?oeee Iaoe?iiaeue-

iiai ?inoeoooo no?aoaa?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe , aeioeaio

EE?IAIEI Iaaei Oaaei?iae/,

eaoaae?a ii??aiyeueii? iie?oieia?? oa

?aa?iiiciaanoaa ?inoeoooo i?aeia?iaeieo

a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana

Oaa/aiea, aeioeaio

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo

a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “21“ o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14.00 aiae.
ia can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.17 a ?inoeooo?
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea
ca aae?anith: 252119, i.Ee?a, aoe.Iaeueieeiaa. 36/1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: i.Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea 58, e.10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 21 “ ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eaiaiaoeueeee I.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeaaaeoeyoa noie?ooy ni?aaeei aeeaiaeaeiee aieea ia an? noa?e
ethaenueeiai aeeooy. Aiii noaei ia??iaeii aaeeeeo ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e —
aeaio ?oei?aieo, e?iaii?ieeoieo na?oiaeo ai?i; iaioaaiiy oaoecio;
aeaiie?aoe/ieo ? aecaieueieo ?aaiethoe?e oa ai?i; e?aoo eieii?aeueieo
?iia??e; “oieiaeii? a?eie” ? aiiee ica?i?iue; e?aoo na?oiai?
nioe?ae?noe/ii? nenoaie ? ?iciaaeo ?? iieioo — ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco;
i?e?iaeieo iauanoue oa o?aaaae?e, ni?e/eiaieo ae?yeuei?noth ethaeeie ?
o.i. ?acii c oei aeaaaeoeyoa noie?ooy noaei oaeiae ia??iaeii iaea?eueoeo
aeinyaiaiue a aaeoc? iaoee ? oaoi?ee, a aeiiii?/iiio ? nioe?aeueiiio
?icaeoeo, a ienoaoeoa? ? eoeueoo??.

I?ioean aeeaieeo ci?i o na?o? e?ioey 80-o — ia?oi? iieiaeie 90-o ?ie?a
?aaeueii a?aeaeaa? no?eeo oaiaeaioe?th ia?aaoaeiae i?aeia?iaeieo
ca”yce?a, a?aee?eaa? aeey iieiaeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa cia/i?
iiaeeeaino? ?icaeaaoeny a oiiaao ie?o ? aaciaee. I?ioeai?noai i?ae N?N?
? NOA, ui iaei i?noea a e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny, c ?iciaaeii
?aaeyinueeiai Nithco ii/aei a?aeoiaeeoe a ieioea. Ia ci?io eiio
i?eoiaeeoue ceaaiaea ? ni?a?ia?oieoeoai a iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo noa?ao ?
neooaoe?yo.

Ia oeueiio oii? ua ?aeue”?oi?oa iinoa? iio?aaa ii?iae?caoe?? ianoaiiaee
a e?eciaeo oi/eao caiii? eoe?, iiaeieaiiy noia?a/iinoae ? ?icaeoeo
ieiaeioai?ieo i?aeaea?aeaaieo ca”yce?a ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?
i?ae?aa?iiaeueiiai ??aiy. Aiaieua iai?oaeaiino?, ui aeieeee a ia?o?e
iieiaei? 90-o ?ie?a ia I?ai?/iiio Eaaeac? ? a Caeaaeacc?, a
I?eaei?no?ia”?, ia Aaeeaiao, iiiiaieee ia?ae?e eiioe?eo?a, ui
aaaaeaeenue iaeaea “o?aaeeoe?eieie”. sse ? “eeane/i?” ?aa?iiaeuei?
eiioe?eoe, aiie iaaoee iiaeo oi?i, aeaaee ia ia?aaei?e ieai
oa?eoi??aeueii-aoi?/i? i?iaeaie.

I?iaeaia oa?eoi??aeueii? oe?einoiino? ? aoii-iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei
oneeaaeith? i?aeaea?aeaai? ca”ycee oe?eiai ?yaeo ?ioeo e?a?i na?oo.
Iniaeeai o?eaiaeia neooaoe?y neeaeany a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e
c i?eoaiaiiith ?e iaoe?iiaeueiith, iiaiith ? ?ae?a?eiith no?ieao?noth.
Naia ooo o an?e nai?e oe?ei? i?iyaeeenue iane?aeee eieii?aeueiiai ?
iinoeieii?aeueiiai ao?o/aiiy ?iaeono??aeueieo e?a?i, onoiooe yea ia
iioaeaieei aei nueiaiaeaiiy. NOA, Aaeeeia?eoai?y, O?aioe?y ? ?yae ?ioeo
aea?aeaa i?iaeiaaeothoue ?icaeyaeaoe Ao?eeo ye noa?o nai?o “aeeoo?aeo
?ioa?an?a”. Aiie ia o?eueee ia i?eieieee, aea e ?icoe?eee naith
i?enooi?noue a ?aa?ii?, caae?yaoe an? aniaeoe iie?oeee — a?ae
?aeaieia?/iiai aieeao aei ai?iiiai ao?o/aiiy o aioo??oiueiaea?aeaai? ?
i?aeaea?aeaai? a?aeiineie ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i, ye? ia caaaeaee ? noaeeie
? ae?oaei?ie, ine?eueee o?eaaea eieii?aeueia i?aae?iiy ?a?iiaenueeeo
aea?aeaa ia Ao?eeainueeiio eiioeiaio? caeeoeei o niaaeie iieiaeei
iaoe?iiaeueiei aea?aeaaai Ao?eee aaee/acio e?euee?noue aei e?ath
caieooaieo i?iaeai, cie?aia i?eei?aeiiieo. I?aeoe/ii a aeiaei?e c
e?a?i eiioeiaioo aea?aeaaii-oa?eoi??aeueiee iiae?e ia ca?aa?oueny c
aoi?/ieie iaaeaie ?icnaeaiiy ia?iae?a. A aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao iiae?aia
noaiiaeuai?ecaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy i?aeaea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei,
i?aeo?eio? aeaooiiaaacia/io neooaoe?th, i?iaieo? aino?? eiioe?eoe a
?aa?ii?.

Aa?o/e aei oaaae e?ao a?iiey?ii? aoaeiae nenoaie i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
oa aaiiie?oe/i? ci?ie, ui a?aeaoeeny o na?o? iai?ee?ioe? OO noie?ooy, a
oaeiae ?o iane?aeee o aeaeyae? i?aeaea?aeaaieo, i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo oa
?ioeo eiioe?eo?a, ae?ae iaiao?aeiei iinoa? anaa?/iee aiae?c ? aeaoaeueia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ca?ieieo eiioe?eo?a, a oaeiae oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue
ia ?o aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoie a oe?eiio ? cie?aia ca?ieieo eiioe?eo?a o
Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e, yea aaea i?ioyaii e?eueeio
aeanyoee?oue iini?eue yaey? niaith o?ii?/io ciio oaeeo eiioe?eo?a oa
iie?oe/ii? ianoaa?eueiino?. Oey oa?eoi??y iaeaaeeoue aei noa?e
no?aoaa?/ieo ?ioa?an?a iaea?eueo ?icaeiooeo aea?aeaa na?oo, a oiio
iiae?? ooo iaaoaathoue ia o?eueee ?aa?iiaeueiiai, aea e aeiaaeueiiai
?aciiaino.

Eeoaie i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ia? cia/iith i??ith o nai?e
na?oeaaei? aeaiaioe i?ioe??/ a nenoai? a?aeiinei I?ai?/-I?aaeaiue, ye?
i?iaeiaaeothoue iia??ooaaoeny inoaii?i /anii a aeiiii?/iiio ieai?, ui ?
ni?e/eiy? aeieeiaiiy eiioe?eo?a ??cieo aeae?a o “o?aoueiio na?o?”. A oea
cia/eoue, ui iiaoaeiaa ye?nii iiai? nenoaie noni?eueieo oa i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei o ianooiiiio oeny/ie?oo? iaiiaeeeaa aac a?aaoethaaiiy
iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo e?ec ia iaea?aei?oiio eiioeiaio?
ieaiaoe. Naia oiio iaeiei c i?eioeeiiaeo caaaeaiue no/anii? iaoee ?
anaa?/iee aiae?c oaeoi??a, ye? iiaeooue noaoe ia caaaae? iioe?aiith
eiioe?eo?a aai caeaoi? ni?eyoe ?o iaeo?ae?caoe?? /e aeaaneaeaoe??.

Aeina?ae e?eaaaeo i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo oa i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a ia
oa?ai? Ao?eee i?ioyaii aeaio inoaii?o aeanyoe??/, a oaeiae no/ani?
iiae?? a Aeaiie?aoe/i?e ?anioae?oe? Eiiai ciooothoue aeaeaoieo
iaoeiaoe?a oa aiae?oee?a a eio?a caa?iooeny aei i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy
iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? ia oa?eoi??yo, ui eaaeaoue ia i?aaeaiue a?ae
Naoa?e.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eea iaoeiao i?iaeaio
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe: c’ynoaaoe aeoiee ? ?icaeoie ?aa?iiaeueieo
eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e ye /eiieea
i?aeaea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei a icia/aiiio ?aa?ii? a na?aaeei? 70-o — ia
ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a o eiioaeno? i?eei?aeiiieo, aoi?/ieo, ?ae?a?eieo oa
?ioeo i?iaeai.

Ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie coiiaeei aea?? iniiaii? eiioeaioe??
aeine?aeaeaiiy: canoinoaaiiy neeiaeo iaoiae?a c iaoith a?aaoethaaiiy
iayaieo noia?a/iinoae o i?aeaea?aeaaieo a?aeiineiao e?a?i Ao?eee ia
i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e iaieio/a aaaea aei caaino?aiiy ianoaiiaee ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ? aeiaaeueiiio ??aiyo oa iineeaiiy i?aeaea?aeaaii?
eiio?iioaoe??, coiiaeth? aioo??oith aea?aeaaio ianoaa?euei?noue,
i?iaieo? aeieeiaiiy e?eciaeo neooaoe?e o noni?euenoa?.

Ia’?eoii oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aeaea?aeaai? a?aeiineie e?a?i
Ao?eee ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e a eiioaeno? eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e, ui
iathoue i?noea a icia/aiiio ?aa?ii?. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeth/a? oaeiae aiae?c iiiyooy “eiioe?eoo” a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii?, ui
iioe?th?oueny ia o?eueee ia i?aeaea?aeaai? noia?a/ee, aea e ia aanue
eiiieaen i?iaeai a?aeiinei a Ao?eoe?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaia i?aeoaeoi?ieo ca’yce?a oa
aca?iicaeaaeiinoae eiioe?eoieo i?iaeai ? neooaoe?e: ciai?oi? ? aioo??oi?
/eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia aeieeiaiiy oa aneaeaoe?th eiioe?eo?a; aeoiee,
oeyoe ? ni?iae oi?ioaaiiy aieeaiai? iie?oeee uiaei a?aaoethaaiiy
eiioe?eo?a.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe — ia iniia? no/anii? oai??? i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioe?eo?a aeine?aeeoe i?aeaea?aeaai? eiioe?eoe a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue
a?ae Naoa?e a icia/aieo o?iiieia?/ieo iaaeao c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao
??ciiiai?oieo oaeoi??a, aeine?aeeoe i?ioean iiooeo oeyo?a a?aaoethaaiiy
eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e a ?aa?ii?, a oaeiae c?iaeoe ni?iao ioe?ieoe
aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy i?aeia?iaeieie, ?aa?iiaeueieie ?
noa?aa?iiaeueieie i?aai?caoe?yie /e ie?aieie ao?eeainueeeie e?a?iaie
iaoiae?a ? iaoai?ci?a c iaoith iiaeieaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo eiioe?eo?a.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aecia/ai? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “eiioe?eoo” ye oaiiiaia
nioe?aeueiiai ? i?aeia?iaeiiai aeeooy a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??;

— aecia/eoe no?oeoo?o, aeaee ? oeiieia?th eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ia
i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e;

— aeyaeoe aioo??oi? ? ciai?oi? /eiieee aeieeiaiiy i?aeaea?aeaaieo
eiioe?eo?a a icia/aiiio noa?aa?ii? ? ioe?ieoe ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy;

— aeine?aeeoe iane?aeee eieii?aeueiiai iaioaaiiy ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa
a Ao?eoe? ? eiai aieea ia aeieeiaiiy i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a ia
eiioeiaio?;

— aeine?aeeoe aaiethoe?th eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue
a?ae Naoa?e i?ney caaa?oaiiy “oieiaeii? a?eie”;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe ?ieue IA? o a?aaoethaaii? i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a, a
oaeiae aoaeoeai?noue ?? ae?yeueiino? o oeueiio iai?yieo;

— aeyaeoe iniiai? oeyoe a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eo?a, ye? noeioethaaee a
?icaeoie ?aa?iiaeueiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa;

— aeyaeoe iniiai? ia?aoeiaee, ye? noiyoue ia oeyoo ie?iiai ae??oaiiy
i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ? cae?enieoe ni?iao aecia/eoe
ia?niaeoeae ?o onoiaiiy;

— cae?enieoe aiae?c ? aeaoe ioe?ieo ni?a?ia?oieoeoao III ? IA? a
i?ioean? a?aaoethaaiiy ? iaaeiiouaiiy aeieeiaiiy eiioe?eo?a, a oaeiae o
i?aeo?eioe? ie?o ? noaa?eueiino? a noa?aa?ii?;

— iieacaoe cia/aiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e oa ?ioeo
?inoeooo?a aeey a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eo?a ? iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a noa?aa?ii?.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae c na?aaeeie 70-o
aei ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a. Aaiaca i?iaeai, ye? ? i?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy, noinothoueny ia??iaeo aeaeieii?caoe?? Ao?eee, eiee
eiioe?eoe, ui aeieeathoue, iinyoue ?ioee oa?aeoa? ? ia iathoue i?/iai
ni?eueiiai c eieii?ae?ciii. I?ioyaii inoaii?o 20 ?ie?a oa?aeoa?
eiioe?eo?a ci?ith?oueny ? oea noa? iii?oiei o aa?oi?e o?iiieia?/i?e
?aioe?. I?ney caaa?oaiiy “oieiaeii? a?eie” Ao?eeainueeee eiioeiaio
oei/aniai aeoiaeeoue c iiey ci?o aaeeeeo aea?aeaa, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ci?ie oa?aeoa?o eiioe?eo?a ? aieeaa? ia ?o caiia?aaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee iniiai? canaaee
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co, ia’?eoeai?noue oa ?noi?eci, ye? aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue ?icaeyaeaoe aeeiai?eo eiioe?eo?a ia oe? noeoiiino? iiae?e,
?o ?icaeoeo oa e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o oe?ie?e iinoaiiaoe? i?iaeai
aeieeiaiiy ? a?aaoethaaiiy i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a a ao?eeainueeeo
e?a?iao ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e ye eiiieaeno ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo ?c
aioo??oi?ie oa ciai?oi?ie oaeoi?aie, aca?iiae?th yeeo iio??aii
a?aaoethaaoe. Oea ia?oa eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeaia i?ae eooii
ci?o ?icaeoeo i?aeaea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei a icia/aiiio noa?aa?ii? a
inoaii?e /aa?o? OO-ai noie?ooy. A iueiio:

— aena?oeai? eiioeaiooaeuei? canaaee i?iaeaie aeieeiaiiy oa aaiethoe??
i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a oa iniaeeaino? ?o i?iyao a Ao?eoe? ia
i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e;

— aeyaeai? aioo??oi? ? ciai?oi? /eiieee aeieeiaiiy i?aeaea?aeaaieo
eiioe?eo?a a icia/aiiio noa?aa?ii?;

— aiae?cothoueny i?aeoiaee ?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e ? ?ioeo ?inoeooo?a
aei i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e ?
ioe?ith?oueny aoaeoeai?noue ?o ae?yeueiino? a oeueiio iai?yieo;

— aiae?co?oueny ? ioe?ith?oueny ni?a?ia?oieoeoai IA? ? III o i?ioean?
a?aaoethaaiiy ? iaaeiiouaiiy aeieeiaiiy eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e, a oaeiae
o i?aeo?eioe? ie?o ? noaa?eueiino? a noa?aa?ii?;

— c?iaeai? aeaye? i?iaiice uiaei iiaeeeaino? iaaeiiouaiiy aeieeiaiiy
i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a a noa?aa?ii? o eiioaeno? ?aoi?ioaaiiy
ao?eeainueeeo ?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e oa ?ioeo ?inoeooo?a.

Aeena?oaio noi?ioethaaa eiei iiaeo iieiaeaiue, ye? aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno:

— ni?eueiith aeey i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae
Naoa?e ? i?eei?aeiiii-oa?eoi??aeueia i?iaeaia, i?eoaiaiia
i?aeaea?aeaaiei a?aeiineiai i?e ooai?aii? iiaeo aea?aeaa. Aieiaio ?ieue
a ?? aeieeiaii? a?ae?a?aee ?a?iiaenuee? eieii?aeuei? aea?aeaae, ui
o?eaaeee /an iaioaaee ia Ao?eeainueeiio eiioeiaio?. Aeia?eueii aecia/ai?
a eieii?aeuei? /ane ei?aeiie cia/ii oneeaaeieee i?aeaea?aeaai?
a?aeiineie iieiaeeo ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i;

— ie??i i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a, ni?e/eiaieo iaae??oai?noth
oa?eoi??aeueieo i?iaeai, iia?oiy ?noi??y Ao?eee cia? aace?/
aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a ia aoi?/i?e ? ?ae?a?ei?e iniia?,
ei?ai? yeeo oaeiae eaeooue o aeeaeio ?noi???. Iai?oaeai?noue o
a?aeiineiao i?ae aoi?/ieie a?oiaie a aaaaoueio ao?eeainueeeo e?a?iao
ia??aeei ni?e/eiy? i?aeaea?aeaai? eiioe?eoe. Aoi?/i? noia?a/iino? a
Ao?eoe? oneeaaeiththoueny ?ae?a?eiei oaeoi?ii, ine?eueee ?ae?a?y
caeeoa?oueny aeoeaiith neeith, yea aieeaa? ia noni?eueia ? iie?oe/ia
aeeooy ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i;

— i?ioyaii icia/aiiai o?iiieia?/ieie iaaeaie ia??iaeo na?eiciei oaeoi?ii
aeanoaa?e?caoe?? neooaoe?? a e?a?iao Ao?eee ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e
aoee aiiea ica?i?iue ? i?e?oa?ecaoe?y noa?aa?iio, iia”ycai? c iie?oeeith
aaeeeeo aea?aeaa. Aia?eeaii-?aaeyinueea i?ioeai?noai ia Ao?eeainueeiio
eiioeiaio? ni?eyei ?icaeoeia? aaaaoueio ao?eeainueeeo eiioe?eo?a ?
ia?a?inoaiith ?o a aaaaoi??/i? a?eie. Aiiea ica?i?iue ye oaea noa?
aeaea?aeii i?iaaaeaiiy neeiai? iie?oeee, ia?aoai?thth/enue c iane?aeeo
iie?oe/ii? iai?oaeaiino? a ?? i?e/eio;

— i?aeia?iaei? ? ?aa?iiaeuei? i?aai?caoe?? a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue
ye a iaaeiiouaii? aeieeiaiiy i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ia
i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e, oae ? o a?aaoethaaii? onyeeo noia?a/iinoae i?ae
?o o/anieeaie. ?ica’ycaiiiy aaaaoueio i?aeao?eeainueeeo eiioe?eo?a
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa III ? IA? c
iaoith caaacia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? ? i?aeia?iaeii? aaciaee. Oeyoe
i?aeaeuaiiy aaoi?eoaoo oeeo i?aai?caoe?e ne?ae ooeaoe ia a ?aa?c??, a a
iaooeeueiiio aeio?eiaii? ?o noaooo?a ? o aeeiiaii?, a?aeiia?aeii, ?o
??oaiue. ?acii c oei III ? IA? ia caaaeaee aeyaeyeenue caeaoieie
i?eeiaoe aoaeoeai? ??oaiiy c ieoaiue a?aaoethaaiiy i?aeao?eeainueeeo
eiioe?eo?a;

— iaai? coneeey o ?icaeieoaaii? i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a ? o
anoaiiaeaii? ie?o a Ao?eoe? cae?eniththoueny ao?eeainueeeie
noa?aa?iiaeueieie i?aai?caoe?yie ca aeiiiiiaith oaeeo noaiaea?oieo
iaoai?ci?a ye nai?oe, nae?aoa??aoe, a?enueeia? eii?oaoe oiui. I?ioa o
no/anieo oiiaao ao?eeainuee? aea?aeaae ia aieiae?thoue aeinoaoiuei
aoaeoeaii ae?th/eie aeanieie iaoai?ciaie iaaeiiouaiiy ? ae??oaiiy
i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a. Aei oiai ae aiie ia aieiae?thoue aeinoaoi?ie
i?aai?caoe?eieie, oaoi?/ieie ? o?iainiaeie iiaeeeainoyie aeey oeueiai;

— cia/iee aieea ia aeieeiaiiy e aaiethoe?th i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a a
Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e cae?enithaaa ciai?oi?e /eiiee. C
i?eieiaiiyi “oieiaeii? a?eie” ? cieeiaiiyi aeiaaeueiiai i?aenenoaiiiai
i?ioenoiyiiy ii/aee noai?thaaoenue ?aaeuei? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
ii?iae?caoe?? i?aeaea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei ? caaaeueii? neooaoe?? ia
Ao?eeainueeiio eiioeiaio?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o eiiieaeniiio aiae?c?
i?aeaea?aeaaieo a?aeiinei a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e.
?acoeueoaoe ? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
I??i?noa?noaii caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Oaicai??, Iinieuenoaii Oaicai??,
noa?aa?iiaeueieie ao?eeainueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie oa ?inoeoooaie, a oaeiae
IA? ? III aeey aecia/aiiy ?yaeo aaaeeeaeo aniaeo?a aieeao aioo??oi?o ?
ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a ia ?icaeoie aea?aeaa ?aa?iio. Aeniiaee oa ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iniiai? eiai iieiaeaiiy oa oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? o ?iaio? I?i?noa?noaa caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Oe?a?ie oa
?ioeo aea?aeaa, ??cieo iie?oe/ieo onoaiia Oe?a?ie aeey ?ic?iaee canaae
aeeieiiaoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? Oe?a?ie a aeaiiio ?aa?ii?. Iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?? iiaee a aooe ei?enieie aeey oe?a?inueeeo oa ca?oa?aeieo
iaoeiaoe?a i?e iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe? aeaii? oa noi?aeieo i?iaeai, o
i?aeaioiaoe? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi??? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
/e i?aeia?iaeii? eiioe?eoieia??, a oaeiae o aeeeaaeaii? niaoe?aeueieo
eo?n?a eaeoe?e.

?noi?e/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?aeiiei iaoa??aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaee aeieoiaioe IA?, III, ao?eeainueeeo noa?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e ?
?inoeooo?a, aenooie aea?aeaaieo ? iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a e?a?i Ao?eee,
ie?ai? iaoa??aee c i?iaeai oa?eoi??aeueieo ? i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a
a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e, iioae?eiaai? a ?aaeyinuee?e,
oe?a?inuee?e ? ca?oa?aei?e ia??iaee/i?e i?an?. Oe? iaoa??aee aeicaieeee
aaoi?o iiaeaoe ia’?eoeaio ea?oeio i?aeao?eeainueeeo eiioe?eo?a,
?icnoaaeoe i??i?eoaoi? aeoeaioe a iiooeao oeyo?a ?o a?aaoethaaiiy,
aeaoe aeanio ioe?ieo ae?yeueiino? i?aeia?iaeieo, ?aa?iiaeueieo ?
noa?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i ? a?aeiia?aeieo
ao?eeainueeeo ?inoeooo?a o oeueiio iai?yieo.

Noai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ? iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e. Aeey ae??oaiiy
icia/aieo a aeine?aeaeaii? caaaeaiue aaoi? iaiaaaany caeo/eoe oe?iea ?
??ciiiai?oia ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii eiei aeaea?ae, cia/ia /anoeia yeeo
aia?oa aaiaeeoueny a iaoeiaee ia?a. Ia?oi?yaeia i?noea na?aae oeeo
aeaea?ae iin?aeathoue aeieoiaioe IA?, ao?eeainueeeo noa?aa?iiaeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e ? ?ioeo ?inoeooo?a, iaeaaaeeea?o? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?
aenooie ao?eeainueeeo aea?aeaaieo ? iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a c ieoaiue
aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

Na?aae ?ioeo aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ne?ae a?aei?oeoe aeieoiaioe
III, cie?aia ?? niaoe?ae?ciaaieo i?aai?a, a oaeiae ?yae iaoa??ae?a,
iioae?eiaaieo o ??ciiiai?oieo aeieoiaioaeueieo aeaeaiiyo eieeoiueiai
N?N? ? NOA. Oaaaa aei ?aaeyinueeeo ? aia?eeainueeeo aeieoiaioaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a aeeeeeaia aieeaii aeaio iaaeaea?aeaa ia iiae?? a ?aa?ii?.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey cae?eniaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee oai?e
i?ia?aeieo iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i, cie?aia Aeae.I”??a?a,
A.Ionaaai?, I.Iaanaiaeaei, N.A.Nae?ia e ?ioeo. A oeeo ?iaioao
nueiaiaei?oi? i?iaeaie Ao?eeainueeiai eiioeiaioo o?nii iia”ycai? c eiai
eieii?aeueiei ieioeei. Aeaye? c aeacaieo aeua ao?eeainueeeo
iie?oe/ieo ? aea?aeaaieo ae?y/?a aaaaeathoue ca iaiao?aeia caeo/eoe
?a?iiaenuee? aea?aeaae aei ae??oaiiy /enaeueieo i?iaeai ao?eeainueeeo
e?a?i, a oiio /ene? ? i?aeao?eeainueeeo eiioe?eo?a, ine?eueee aiie
ianooue i?yio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca noaiiaeua, ui neeaeinue ia
eiioeiaio?. C iaoi? oi/ee ci?o, ?a?iiaenuee? aea?aeaae, ui aieiae?thoue
aenieeie oaoiieia?yie, ia?aaeiaith iaoeith ? oaoi?eith, nai?th
aeiiiiiaith iiaee a ni?eyoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ? eoeueoo?iiio
?icaeoeia? ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i. Aea iie?oe/i? i?iaeaie eiioeiaioo, a
oiio /ene? ? i?iaeaio i?aeao?eeainueeeo eiioe?eo?a, iathoue ae??ooaaoe
o?eueee iaoe?iiaeuei? iie?oe/i? neee. Ia iaoa ia?aeiiaiiy, aiie
caeaoi? ia oea. ?i aeioe?eueii aoei a aecia/aoeny c iiiyooyi aea?aeaae,
?ic?iaeoe oaeo no?oeoo?o oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaaie, eio?a ioiiethaaea a
anth aea?aeaaio oa?eoi??th, a ia o?eueee noiee/i? i?noa, ui /ano?oa
anueiai ia? i?noea. A oe?eiio ae oe? ?iaioe aeicaieeee aaoi?o aeeaiei
i?iieeiooe a i?iaeaie, i?iaiae?coaaoe ?o c iiaeyaeo naieo ao?eeaioe?a, a
oaeiae noi?ioaaoe aeanio aeoieo oa aeaoe ioe?ieo i?iaeai?, ui
aeine?aeaeo?oueny.

C ia?aii? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy icia/aii? oaie iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e aaoi?
iniaeeao oaaao caa?ioa ia i?aoe? ao?eeainueeeo oao?aoe?a, cie?aia oeo,
ui o??th /e ?ioith i??ith oi?eaeenue i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a ia
eiioeiaio?. Oea ?iaioe A.A.Aae?, A.E.Eoann?, N.Iae?iaee oa ?ioeo.
Iniaeea?noth ?ia?o oeeo aaoi??a ? oa, ui aiie aeio?eiothoueny oai???, ui
Ao?eea iaeaaeeoue ao?eeaioeyi ? ?i a ia?oo /a?ao iaeaaeeoue ae??ooaaoe
nai? i?iaeaie. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii iaeaaiaeeoe ? iie?aueoe
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai i?aeao?eeainueeeo ?inoeooo?a c ieoaiue a?aaoethaaiiy
eiioe?eo?a, ae?iaeoe ?aeeiee i?aeo?ae aei oe??? i?iaeaie, iaeaaiaeeoe
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c IA? ? III. ?iaioe icia/aieo ? ?ioeo ao?eeainueeeo
aaoi??a noaee cia/iei aeaea?aeii oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo i?e i?iaaaeaii?
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ao?eeainueeiai aaoi?a Eaaia A.Eoann?
“Aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae I?aai?caoe??th Ia”?aeiaieo Iaoe?e ?
I?aai?caoe??th ao?eeainueei? ?aeiino?” ? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia
ae?yeuei?noue ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i. Aeey aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaie i?iaeaie
iaea?eueo oe?iiei ? ?icae?e, i?enay/aiee aena?oeaiith ?ie? III ? IA? o
a?aaoethaaii? oa?eoi??aeueii-i?eei?aeiiieo ? ?ioeo ao?eeainueeeo
eiioe?eo?a.

I?iaeai? eiioe?eoiino? a Ao?eoe? ? ae?yeueiino? IA? c ieoaiue ??
e?ea?aeaoe?? cia/ii? oaaae i?eae?eyee oae? ao?eeainuee? aaoi?e ye
A.Aeae.Iaeae?, ?a?aa?i Aaiaa??, ss.Ae.Aeioo? ? aeaye? ?io?. Aiie
aeneiaeththoue ??ci? iiaeyaee uiaei ae?yeueiino? IA? a oeueiio iai?yieo.
A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui cae?i/aiiy “oieiaeii? a?eie” ? i?aenenoaiiiai
i?ioenoiyiiy noaei aeo?aeiei iiiaioii i?inoaaiiy aei iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
noaa?eueiiai ? ia?aaeaa/oaaiiai ie?o ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ? aeiaaeueiiio
??aiyo, aeioe?eueiei aoa ae aeioe?eueiei, ia iao iiaeyae, ia?aaeyae
iaoai?ci?a, ui canoiniaothoueny IA? aeey a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eoieo
neooaoe?e ia eiioeiaio?, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ye oi?iaeueieo, oae ? ia
oi?iaeueieo iaoiae?a. Aeineoue ia”?eoeaii, aac aoaeue-yeiai
?aeaieia?/iiai caaa?aeaiiy i?ae?eoee aei aena?oeaiiy i?iaeai
ae?yeueiino? IA? o ??cieo iai?yieao oae? ao?eeainuee? aaoi?e, ye
Aeae.Oa?an, I.Oanaooi ? ?yae ?ioeo. ?iaioe ao?eeainueeeo aaoi??a iaee
aaeeea cia/aiiy ? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ? ?aoi?ioaaiiy
ao?eeainueeeo ?inoeooo?a a?aaoethaaiiy i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a.

O i?ioean? ?iaioe iaae aeena?oaoe??th aaoi? nie?aany ia aeine?aeaeaiiy c
i?iaeai ?noi??? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, aeiaae?noeee, ?icca?i?iiy ?
i?aeia?iaeii? aaciaee, a?enueeiai-aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
?iaeono??aeueieo e?a?i ? e?a?i “o?aoueiai na?oo” oaeeo ?in?enueeeo
(?aaeyinueeeo) aaoi??a, ye A.I.A?aaoia, ?.?.Aaioiai, Ai.A.A?iieei,
A.O.Aeaaeaeia, I.I.Eieioei, A.I.E?aiaithe, ?.I.I?eiaeia, A.O.Oaoiaca?ia
? ?ioeo. O oeeo ?iaioao ciaeoee nai? aena?oeaiiy ieoaiiy aieeao iie?oeee
aiiee ica?i?iue ? i?e?oa?ecio ia e?a?ie, ui ?icaeaathoueny ?
iaiao?aei?noue ia?aeeth/aiiy aea?eueiaieo o iane?aeie ?icca?i?iiy
eioo?a ia aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie iieiaeeo e?a?i.

Iaaeaaiiyi ?aaeyinueei? ao?eeai?noeee ? noiaeiciaanoaa ? iaoe?iee ieano
e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeai ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee e?a?i Ao?eee, a yeeo
?icaeyaeathoueny ?? iniiai? iai?yiee, i?eioeeie ? caaaeaiiy. Na?aae ieo
ne?ae aeie?aieoe, ia?aae ona, ?iaioe aeua caaaeaiiai Ai.A.A?iieei,
?.I.Eoee?ii?, I.I.Icaaeianueeiai, N.I.Ne?i/aiea, ?.I.Oa?aa??ia,
I.I.Oaaaeiaa, E.Ae.ssaei/eiaa. A aeine?aeaeaiiyo icia/aieo aaoi??a
iiaea?oueny aiae?c ??ciiiai?oieo oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia ?icaeoie
i?aeao?eeainueeeo a?aeiinei, iieacai? ?ieue ? i?noea iieiaeeo aea?aeaa o
caaaeuei?e nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. *?eueia i?noea a
?aaeyinuee?e ao?eeai?noeoe? ? noiaeiciaanoa? iin?aeathoue i?aoe?
oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo, cie?aia N.A.Ao?yea, A.E.Ao?e, I.I.Aea?aa/iaa,
I.O.Ee?iaiea, A.I.Iaoeaeea, I.Ae.Ianoea ? ?ioeo. I?ioa, iii?e aaeeeo
e?euee?noue ?ia?o c ??ciiiai?oieo i?iaeai ?icaeoeo ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i,
?oiuei? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee oa i?aeao?eeainueeeo a?aeiinei a oe?eiio, a
?aaeyinuee?e e?oa?aoo?? ia ciaeoeiny niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c
ieoaiue i?aeao?eeainueeeo eiioe?eo?a, oi/a ie?ai? aniaeoe oe??? i?iaeaie
? aena?oeththoueny a ?yae? iiiia?ao?e ? noaoae ?aaeyinueeeo aaoi??a.

A oe?eiio aeniei ioe?ithth/e iaaeaaiiy ?aaeyinueeeo ao?eeai?no?a,
aea/aiiy ?ia?o yeeo cia/ii caaaaoeei ciaiiy aeena?oaioa, aeiiiiaaath/e
caaeeaeoenue o aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?aaaei?o i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy aiaieu
eiioe?eo?a ? a?aoiaoth/e ?oi? oa?aeoa?enoeee, aecia/eoe oeyoe
a?aaoethaaiiy oeeo eiioe?eo?a, ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui i?enooi? a
ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? ?ia?o aeacaieo aaoi??a oai?aoe/i? iiaoaeiae i?e
anueiio ?oiueiio ??ciiiai?oo? a iniiaiiio a?oioothoueny ia iaei?aeoiiio
i?eiouaii? aiaeiaaiiino? i?iaeai i?aeao?eeainueeeo a?aeiinei,
iaieio/ino? eiioe?eo?a a ao?eeainueeeo e?a?iao, a oaeiae i?ae ieie ia
?ae?a?ei?e ? iaoe?iiaeueii-aoi?/i?e iniia?. Caaaeueiith iniaeea?noth
oeeo ?ia?o ? i?eieaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae ? ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa e?a?i ?aa?iio. A oe?eiio ia”?eoeaii ioe?ithth/e no/anio
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io ? iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a Ao?eoe?, a?eueo?noue
aaoi??a iia”ycothoue i?iaeaie ?aa?iio c eiai eieii?aeueiei ieioeei.

A i?ioean? aea/aiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie aeena?oaio ii?aoethaaa ?iaioe
aia?eeainueeeo ? ?a?iiaenueeeo aaoi??a, cie?aia A.Ca?oiaia, Eaoaa?a,
I.Eoiaea. Iacaaaeath/e ia aeaye? ia?ae?o/aiiy oaeo?a, aiie i?aaeeueii
aaaaeathoue ?aaeyinueei-aia?eeainuee? a?aeiineie 70-o — 80-o ?ie?a
iaeiei c oaeoi??a, ui aieeaaee ia aioo??oith ? ciai?oith iie?oeeo
iieiaeeo ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i, ia aeieeiaiiy e aaiethoe?th
i?aeao?eeainueeeo eiioe?eo?a. I?iaeai? ciai?oiueiai ao?o/aiiy a
i?aeao?eeainuee? eiioe?eoe aaeeeo oaaao i?eae?eeee oae?
cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee? ? aia?eeainuee? oao?aoe?, ye E.Iaioa?-A??e, A.Eio,
Ae.?iooeeae, eio?? aenoaathoue ??ci? oai??? eiioe?eo?a, c yeeie a
oe?eiio iiaeia iiaiaeeoenue. Iiaa iie?oe/ia nenoaia ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i
/anoi ? ia?aaeoiiaith aaaaoueio eiioe?eo?a ye ana?aaeei? oeeo aea?aeaa,
oae ? i?ae ieie. sseui a ia??iae “oieiaeii? a?eie” iaao?eeainuee?
aea?aeaae ao?o/aeenue a ao?eeainuee? eiioe?eoe, oi c ?? i?eieiaiiyi
?ioa?an iica?aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa aei oe??? i?iaeaie cia/ii ciaioeany.
O aeiaaeeo ?oiueiai ao?o/aiiy a eiioe?eoe, oea a?aeaoaa?oueny ia c
iaoith io?eiaiiy aeaiaee, a c iaoith ?oiueiai a?aaoethaaiiy.

Aaaaoiieaiia?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeea oe?iea caeo/aiiy iaoeiai?
e?oa?aoo?e ia o?eueee c ?noi??? oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ao?eeainueeeo
aea?aeaa, aea e iie?oieia??, nioe?ieia?? oa aeayeeo ?ioeo iaoe.
Aiae?coth/e aeaee ? oeiieia?th eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe?, aaoi? iie?aany
ia?aaeon?i ia i?aoe? oe?a?inueeiai oao?aoey a aaeoc? eiioe?eoieia??
Ia?aiaeeoe? A.I., ?aaeyinueeeo oa cao?aeieo iie?oieia?a, cie?aia
Ia/eii?aiei E.A., Aei?ii?ii? I.A., Niieyia A.E., E?aniiaa A.?., Ni?na
N., Aioeae?iaa E., Eica?a E., *aeca N., Aaeooiaa ?., ?aeoa E.,
I.Ei?ieiaa, Aea?aiaei?oa ?. ? o.ae.

Aieeaiaei aeaea?aeii, aeei?enoaiei aeey iaienaiiy aeena?oaoe??, aoea
ia??iaee/ia i?ana. Aeaoaeueii ii?aoeueiaai? ye io?oe?ei? o?yaeia?
aeaeaiiy, oae ? iacaeaaeia i?ana. Cia/iee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae i?noeoueny
o iaioa?ao, na?ae/aiiyo o/aniee?a eiioe?eo?a.

Ia?iaeyth/e oaeee aaeeeee ianya ?ioi?iaoe??, aaoi? a?aa aei oaaae iaaio
niaoeeo?eo ?? oi?ioaaiiy ? iiaeaiiy, a oiio ?aoaeueii ia?aa??ya ?? ia
aeinoia??i?noue ? oi/i?noue, canoinoaaa ??ci? iaoiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
aiae?co.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo, iaoeiaeo i?acaioaoe?yo, nai?ia?ao, ui i?iaiaeeeeny a
?inoeooo?, iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? a o?ueio iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith ? caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, naie i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a
? nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e. O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
iniiaieo caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy a eiaeiiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny
an? ieoaiiy, iia”ycai? c oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Caaaeueiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? — 160 noi??iie, a oiio /ene? nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae — 20 noi??iie.

??. Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe.

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiaa ? iie?oe/ia cia/aiiy
oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/athoueny iaoa, caaaeaiiy, ia”?eo oa i?aaeiao
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ?? o?iiieia?/i? iaae?, ?ice?eaa?oueny nooi?iue
ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie a oe?a?inuee?e ? ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao??,
iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “I?e/eie eiioe?eoiino? a Ao?eoe? a
iinoeieii?aeueiee ia??iae” ?icaeyaeathoueny i?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy
eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iiiyoue, yeeie
iia?o? aaoi?, a oaeiae cae?enith?oueny aiae?c aieeao nioe?aeueiiai
eiioe?eoo ye iie?oe/iiai yaeua a aeeoo? noni?euenoaa. A ia?oiio
i?ae?icae?e? — “Iiiyooy eiioe?eoo. No?oeoo?a ? oeiieia?y eiioe?eo?a a
Ao?eoe?” — i?iaiaeeoueny iaeyae no/aniiai noaio eiioe?eoieia?? ye iaoee.
Aiae?cothoueny iniiai? oai?aoe/i? eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee ??cieo
oe?e. Aao?ii aea?oueny ioe?iea eiioeaioe?e “iiceoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
eiioe?eoo” E.Eica?a (NOA), “eiioe?eoii? iiaeae? noni?euenoaa” ?.
Aea?aiaei?oa (I?ia//eia) oa “caaaeueii? oai??? eiioe?eoo” E. Aioeae?iaa
(NOA).

Aeae? ?icaeyaea?oueny no?oeoo?a i?aeaea?aeaaiiai eiioe?eoo,
aecia/athoueny eiai iniiai? oace oa noaae??. Iie?oe/iee eiioe?eo
i?aeaea?oueny aaoi?ii nenoaiiiio aiae?co, aea oaaaa caa?oa?oueny ia
iciaee nenoaie a oe?eiio, a ia oa?aeoa?enoeee ?? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a /e
i?aenenoai. Ia oeeo canaaeao aecia/athoueny noa’?eo oa ia’?eo
iie?oe/iiai eiioe?eoo. Ia?aoo?, aaoi? ia?aoiaeeoue aei aecia/aiiy
iniiaieo i?e/ei i?aeia?iaeii? iai?oaeaiino? a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae
Naoa?e, ye? a?i iiae?ey? ia /ioe?e iniiai? eaoaai???, a naia: a?enueeia?
(aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaia aa?an?y, aiaen?y, ?ioa?aaioe?y /e a?enueeia?
ae??, iai?eeeaae, i?aeo?eiea ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie iianoaioe?a /e
naia?aoenonueeeo ?oo?a), iie?oe/i?(i?aeia?iaei?) (?aeaieia?/i? /e
iie?oe/i? eaiiai??, oa?eoi??aeuei? i?aoaic??, ?ae?a?eiee aeniain?ii?ci
i?ioe ?ioeo aea?aeaa, ?aa?iiaeueia noia?ieoeoai, oa?i?eci, canoinoaaiiy
ianeeey /e aeene?ei?iaoe?y noiniaii oi?a?ae? /e aeiiii?ee ?ioeo
aea?aeaa), iie?oe/i? (aioo??oi?) (ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo, aioo??oi?
i?aeoniaeoe?, ia?aianaeai?noue, aeiiii?/ia /e ?ae?a?eia ia??ai?noue,
nioe?aeueia aeene?ei?iaoe?y, iaueiia /e aoi?/ia ianeeey, iia’ycaia c
aeiiii?/ieie, nioe?aeueieie, ?ae?a?eieie, eoeueoo?ieie /e aoi?/ieie
i?iaeaiaie), aoiai?oa?i? (ii?ooaiiy i?aa ethaeeie, a?aei?noue, iecueeee
nooi?iue ioi?iie caei?ia’y oiui).

Aeae? aaoi?ii iiaea?oueny oeiieia?y eiioe?eo?a, aecia/athoueny iniiai?
?ene nioe?aeueiiai, aeiiii?/iiai, aea?aeaaii-?inoeoooe?eiiai oa
eoeueoo?iiai eiioe?eo?a, a oaeiae ??cieoey i?ae ieie.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? — “Ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy i?aeaea?aeaaieo
eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e a iinoeieii?aeueiee
ia??iae” — aaoi?ii i?iaiaeeoueny aiae?c iinoeieii?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo
ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i c iaeyaeo ia iie?oeeo aieiaieo e?a?i-iao?iiie?e
uiaei ieo. Aiae?cothoueny niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo
no?aoaa?e Aaeeei? A?eoai??, O?aioe??, Aaeuea?? oa Ii?ooaae?? o ?aa?ii?,
aea?oueny iiyniaiiy aeieeiaiith neiae?iio o?ii?/ii? ianoaa?eueiino?, a
iniia? yei? eaaeaoue aeiiii?/i?, ?noi?e/i?, noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? oa
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i? /eiieee.

O?ao?e i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aiee i?iaeaiai aieeao ciai?oiueiai oaeoi?a
ia aeieeiaiiy ? aaiethoe?th i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe?.
Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui oeae ?aa?ii ? eaaei a?aceeaei cciai? ye aeiiii?/ii,
oae ? ?ioi?iaoe?eii, aaoi? i?iaiaeeoue ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
ao?eeainueei? eiioe?eoiaaiiino? ca a?iiey?ii? nenoaie oa i?ney ??
?iciaaeo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “I?iaeaia a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ia
i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e a ae?yeueiino? i?aeia?iaeieo oa ao?eeainueeeo
?aa?iiaeueieo ? noa?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e ? ?inoeooo?a o 80-? — ia
ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a” — ?icaeyaeathoueny iiaeeea? oeyoe a?aaoethaaiiy
iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe?. Aaoi? aa?a aei oaaae ?ioa?ane o/aniee?a
eiioe?eoo oa i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e, ye? caoe?eaaeai? o ?ica’ycaii?
ca?ieieo nooe/ie ? iieeeeai? iaeaaiaeaeoaaoe iie?oe/ia oa aeiiii?/ia
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai. O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny eiie?aoi? ae??
I?aai?caoe?? ao?eeainueei? ?aeiino?, ni?yiiaai? ia ?ic?iaeaiiy
iaoai?ci?a caiia?aaiiy oa ?ica’ycaiiy i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a ia
eiioeiaio?, i?aee?aneth?oueny cia/aiiy i?aaiaiiy oe??? ?aa?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? aei aeiiii?/ii? ?ioaa?aoe?? oa iie?oe/iiai ae?aeiao ye
aieiaii? ia?aaeoiiae anoaiiaeaiiy ie?o ? noaa?eueiino? a ?aa?ii?,
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?? iiaeeeaino? ae?e a oeueiio iai?yieo. Aaoi?
aea/a? aaiethoe?th IA? ia oe? ei??iieo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ci?i ia
I?aaei? Ao?eee, ?icaeyaeathoueny oaeiae ? aioo??oi? i?ioe??//y, ?ieue
ie?aieo e?a?i a i?aai?caoe?? oa aieea ?o e?aea??a ia i?eeiyooy aaaeeeaeo
ie?ioai?/eo ??oaiue. Aiaeii/an iiaea?oueny oe?eee niaeo? eiioe?eoieo
i?iaeai, ui i?iaeiaaeothoue aeieeaoe o aeainoi?iii?o a?aeiineiao i?ae
ao?eeainueeeie e?a?iaie ? aeoaea /anoi ia iathoue i?e?iaeii? /e
ia’?eoeaii? iniiae. sse i?eeeaae iaaiaeeoueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i oa, ui
ni??ieie ? ei?aeiie i?ae Eanioi oa IA?, Iaeaa? ? Oaicai??th, Iae? oa
Ao?e?ia-Oani, Iai?a??th oa IA?, Caia??th ? Iaeaa?, a oaeiae Caia??th oa
Ae?E (Ca??). A i?ae?icae?e? aeaco?oueny ia oa, ui oi/a Oa?o?y IA? ?
cae??ieea iiaaao aei oa?eoi??aeueii? oe?einiino? eiaeii? aea?aeaae oa
iaii?ooiino? ei?aeii?a, naia?aoeci nueiaiaei? ? aeoaea aeoeaiei ?
ae??aei. A yeino? i?eeeaaeo iaaiaeeoueny aeac?ioaa?aoe?y Ao?ii?? oa
iiyaa iiai? aea?aeaae — A?eo?a?.

Aeae? iiaea?oueny aiae?c aaciina?aaei?o caoiae?a, ui cae?enieea IA? c
iaoith ae??oaiiy eiioe?eoieo i?iaeai ? aeaaneaeaoe?? ca?ieieo nooe/ie.
Ooo aeneiaeththoueny ?yae e?eoe/ieo caoaaaeaiue ? aeaco?oueny ia oa, ui
caaaeaia i?aai?caoe?y oae ? ia aei?aoethaaea /?oeiai iaoai?cio i?eeiyooy
??oaiue o oaeiai ?iaeo e?eoe/ieo neooaoe?yo. Iaeyne?aa?oei i?iyaii
iecueeiai iioaioe?aeo IA? noaea ?? iani?iiiaei?noue i?aai?coaaoe
Aa?oiaia ao?eeainueea eiiaiaeoaaiiy, iacaaaeath/e ia i?aeienaiiy ua a
1964 ?ioe? oe?ieiianooaaiiai aeiaiai?o, a yeiio cacia/aii iaiao?aei?noue
noai?aiiy oaeiai i?aaio. E??i Aa?oiaiiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy, IA? ia aenoa/a?
oaeiae aeeieiiaoe/ieo iaaee?a ? oaoi?/ieo oa o?iainiaeo iiaeeeainoae,
ye? a iiaee aeyaeoeny iaiao?aeieie ? ei?enieie i?e cae?eniaii?
ie?ioai?/eo iia?aoe?e. Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia oe? iaaeie?ee,
I?aai?caoe?y ao?eeainueei? ?aeiino? caeeoa?oueny ?aeeiith ?aa?iiaeueiith
i?aai?caoe??th, yea c?a?aea aeieoie ??ci? eoeueoo?i?, ?aeaieia?/i? ?
?ania? a?oie, ui ?niothoue ia eiioeiaio?. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa,
aeinyaiaiiy ?aeiino? Ao?eeainueeiai eiioeiaioo a ?aieao iaei??? aieiaii?
i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?ae iaiao?aeiei, a ?? ci?oeiaiiy ? ?icaeoie
no?aoaa?/iei caaaeaiiyi ao?eeainueeeo aea?aeaa.

I?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue IA? c a?aaoethaaiiy i?aeao?eeainueeeo
eiioe?eo?a aiae?co?oueny o ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ia i?eeeaaeao
eieaeueieo eiioe?eo?a a *aae?, Niiae?, Noaeai?, Ao?ii??, Oaaiae? oa
?ioeo e?a?iao. Aecia/athoueny iiceoe?? ia o?eueee /eai?a I?aai?caoe??,
aea e aieea ia IA? aeayeeo iaea?eueoeo ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i oa NOA.

*?eueia i?noea a aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaiaeeoueny aea/aiith oi?ioaaiiy ?
canoinoaaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? iaoai?cio aca?iiae?? III ? ao?eeainueeeo
?aa?iiaeueieo ? noa?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e oa ?inoeooo?a o ni?aa?
a?aaoethaaiiy iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e.
Ia?oei aeina?aeii aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? III a iiae?yo a Ao?eoe? aoei
iaae?neaiiy iaaecae/aeieo iii?anueeeo nee aei ?aeioo o 1956 ?ioe?. A
1993 ?ioe? a Eiiai III aia?oa aaeaeany aei canoinoaaiiy a?enueeiai? neee
a oiae? cae?eniaiiy iia?aoe?? ii a?aeiiaeaiith ie?o. Noa? i/aaeaeiei, ui
o/anoue ca?ieieo oi?ioaaiue III o a?aeiiaeaii? ae?? ii?i i?aeia?iaeiiai
i?aaa oa caaacia/aii? aeio?eiaiiy iniiaieo i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie noa?
i?eeiyoiith. Iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? III oa IA? aaea i?eiineoue ia?o?
?acoeueoaoe, cie?aia i/aaeaeia ii?iae?caoe?y neooaoe?? a Ao?ii??.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei noi?ioeueiaaieo o anooi? iaoe oa caaaeaiue
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee c?iaeai? oae? aeniiaee:

I?iaeaia a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e ?
iaeiei c aieiaieo ieoaiue no/anieo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, yea
aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaaoeia ia oa?aeoa?enoeee oa noaa?euei?noue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo oa aeiaaeueieo nenoai.

?aa?ii, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, ia?aaoaa? o noai? o?ii?/ii? iie?oe/ii?,
aeiiii?/ii? ? nioe?aeueii? ianoaa?eueiino?, a oiio yaey? niaith
iino?eio caa?ico eiioeiaioaeuei?e oa i?aeia?iaei?e aaciaoe?.

Eieii?aeueiee ?iciiae?e Ao?eee, aiane?aeie yeiai ooai?eeeny ooo/i?
ei?aeiie, ui ?icae?eythoue ?aeei? aoi?/i? a?oie a ??cieo aea?aeaaao,
iineoaoaaee i?e/eiith aeieeiaiiy ai?iaeia/? ? i?aeaoi?/ii? iaoa?ieiino?
ana?aaeei? a?aeiia?aeieo aea?aeaa.

Aaaeeeaith i?e/eiith ao?eeainueeeo eiioe?eo?a ? eaoano?io?/iee noai
aeiiii?ee aaaaoueio aea?aeaa ia eiioeiaio?, yeee i?iaeiaaeo?
iia??ooaaoeny i?ney cae?i/aiiy “oieiaeii? a?eie”, eiee aeiiiiiaa c aieo
cao?aeieo oa eieeoi?o nioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i i?aeoe/ii i?eieieeany.

Nioe?aeueiee eiioe?eo a Ao?eoe? — oea ia o?eueee ai?ioueaa ca ?iciiae?e
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a, ui ciaioothoueny, aea e ai?ioueaa ca aeaaeo.
Eiioe?eoe i?ae nioe?aeueieie a?oiaie, ui iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo
nioe?aeueieo ??ai?a, aeieeathoue ia oii? ianoi?niino? ?ioa?an?a oa
oe?eae, aca?iii? iaaeia??e oa iaaiiai ?iaeo eeaniaiai i?ioenoiyiiy.

?nioaaee ? ?io? aeaea?aea eiioe?eoo, oae? ye, iai?eeeaae, iecueea
aioo??oiueiaea?aeaaia eiinie?aeaoe?y, ?ic?ooa, oa?eoi??aeueia
iaaecia/ai?noue, no?oeoo?ia noia?ieoeoai, ye? ?icii/aeeny ua a 60-o
?ieao, aea ua ii nueiaiaei? caeeoathoueny aeooaeueieie.

sseui oa?eoi??aeueia ianoaa?euei?noue a Ao?eoe? i?ioyaii ia?oeo
aeanyoe??/ iacaeaaeiino? aeyaeyeany a iniiaiiio o oi?i? i?eei?aeiiieo
eiioe?eo?a ? ?ic??ciaiino?, oi a 90-o aiia iaaoaa? iia? oi?ie — oi?ie
naia?aoecio.

Ciai?oi?e aieea ia ia?aa?a i?aeia?iaeieo eiioe?eo?a /anoi i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ?o caaino?aiiy, oaeei /eiii iianoaiiy, ye? iiaee a caaa?oeoeny ca
ei?ioeee no?ie, ?icoyaothoueny a /an? ia ?iee.

Iai?ee?ioe? 80-o ?ie?a ia?aianaiiy aeiaaeueiiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioenoiyiiy
c? noa?e Cao?ae-No?ae o noa?o a?aeiinei i?ae i?iieneiai ?icaeiooith
I?ai?//th oa a?aenoaeei I?aaeiai ci?iththoue no?oeoo?o
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ieo ca’yce?a oa i??i?eoao?a ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i.A oeeo
oiiaao c?inoa? aieea ?ioeo oaeoi??a, a naia a?aeaoaa?oueny iineeaiiy
?ie? ? cia/aiiy a?aanueeeo e?a?i.

IA? ye aieiaia ?aa?iiaeueia i?aai?caoe?y Ao?eeainueeiai eiioeiaioo
noaaeoue ia?aae niaith iaoo caiia?aaiiy iiya? eiioe?eo?a, a oaeiae
ie?iiai a?aaoethaaiiy aoaeue-yeeo noia?a/ie i?ae ?o o/anieeaie oeyoii
canoiniaoaaiiy ye oi?iaeueieo, oae ? iaoi?iaeueieo iaoiae?a. I?ioa aiia
ia ia? aeinoaoiueiai aaoi?eoaoo aeey i?iaaaeaiiy oni?oieo ie?ioai?/eo
iia?aoe?e, aieiae?? aeineoue iaiaaeaieie ?ano?naie. Iaeiae nueiaiaei?
IA? caeeoa?oueny ?aeeiith eiinie?aeoth/ith iie?oe/iith neeith ia *i?iiio
eiioeiaio?, yea ia’?aeio? ??ci? eoeueoo?i?, ?ania? ? ?ae?a?ei? a?oie.

Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi IA? ia oeyoo caaacia/aiiy iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino?
ia eiioeiaiao? ? ni?eyiiy ?icoe?aiith oi?a?aaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ca”yce?a
a ?aa?ii? /a?ac ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a aioo??oiueiao?eeainueei? oi?a?ae?,
a?aeiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie eiioeiaioaeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e,
ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ia ?aa?iiaeuei?e ? i?aeia?iaei?e iie?oe/i?e a?ai? c
iaoith aeinyaiaiiy i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?/ii? oa iie?oe/ii?
noaa?e?caoe??.

Aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi ao?eeainueeeo o?yae?a ? iie?auaiiy i?aeia?iaeii?
eiioi?eaoe?? a ?aa?ii?, caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e oa
iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ae??aiai iie?oe/iiai ae?aeiao ia noa?aa?iiaeueiiio,
?aa?iiaeueiiio oa aeiaaeueiiio ??aiyo.

Caaaeaiiyi III ? iaiao?aei?noue i?eae?eeoe a?eueoa oaaae ao?eeainueeei
i?iaeaiai ? iaaeaoe aeiiiiiao o oi?ioaaii? noaa?eueieo aeaiie?aoe/ieo
?inoeooo?a a a?eueoino? ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i. Oiae? iaoai?cie aca?iiae??
III ? IA? o ni?aa? a?aaoethaaiiy iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a aoaeooue a?eueo
ae??aeie ? iaoeiooue cai?ioi?e ca’ycie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1.Iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua eiioeeeou a Ao?eea thaeiaa Naoa?u a na?aaeeia
70-o — ia/aea 90-o aiaeia (oeiieiaey e iooe o?aaoee?iaaiey). //
Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. — ?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. — E., 1997.
— Aei.3, /.2. — N.20-26.

2. Oai?ey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai eiioeeeoa e eiioeeeou a Ao?eea. // A?niee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie. — E., 1997. —
Aei.7, /.2. — N.76-79.

3. ?ieue aiaoiaai oaeoi?a a iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo eiioeeeoao a Ao?eea
thaeiaa Naoa?u. // A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. I?aeia?iaei?
a?aeiineie. — E., 1998. — Aei.5. — N.141-149.

Ioa?o Aeeai I?oa?. I?aeaea?aeaai? eiioe?eoe a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae
Naoa?e a na?aaeei? 70-o — ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a (oeiieia?y ? oeyoe
a?aaoethaaiiy) — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a a
Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e. I?iaiae?ciaaii i?e/eie ?o aeieeiaiiy,
aecia/aii oeiieia?th iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a. O aeena?oaoe??
i?ine?aeeiaaii ?acoeueoaoe eieii?aeueiiai ?iciiae?eo Ao?eee ? aeyaeaii
i?eoiaai? i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy ye aioo??oi?o, oae ? i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioe?eo?a, i?iaaaeaiee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ao?eeainueei?
eiioe?eoiaaiiino? a oiiaao ?nioaaiiy a?iiey?iie nenoaie ? i?ney ??
?ieciaaeo. Iieacaia ?ieue i?aeia?iaeieo ? ao?eeainueeeo ?aa?iiaeueieo ?
noa?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e ? ?inoeooo?a o a?aaoethaaii?
i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e.
I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ae?yeueiino? I?aai?caoe?? ao?eeainueei? ?aeiino? oa
oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a ?? aca?iiae?? c III o ni?aa? a?aaoethaaiiy
i?aeaea?aeaaieo eiioe?eo?a a Ao?eoe? ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e,
i?eaiaeyoueny i?eeeaaee ia?oeo iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aca?iiae??
iaoai?cio III ? IA? a ii?iae?caoe?? neooaoe?? a noa?aa?ii?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iie?oe/iee eiioe?eo, Ao?eea ia i?aaeaiue a?ae Naoa?e,
IA?, III, i?aeaea?aeaaiee eiioe?eo, i?aeaoi?/iee eiioe?eo,
aeaeieii?ae?caoe?y, ?aeaieia?y, aeaiie?ao?y, noa?aa?ii.

Ioa?o Yeeai Ieoa?. Iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua eiioeeeou a Ao?eea thaeiaa
Naoa?u na?aaeeiu 70-o — ia/aei 90-o aiaeia (oeiieiaey e iooe
o?aaoee?iaaiey) — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo eiioeeeoia a
Ao?eea thaeiaa Naoa?u. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey
eiioeeeoia, ii?aaeaeaia oeiieiaey iieeoe/aneeo eiioeeeoia. A
aeenne?oaoeee ioneaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou eieiieaeueiiai ?acaeaea Ao?eee e
ii?aaeaeaiu ne?uoua i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey eae aioo?aiieo, oae e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eiioeeeoia, i?iaaaeai n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec ao?eeaineie
eiioeeeoiaaiiinoe a oneiaeyo nouanoaiaaiey aeiiey?iie nenoaiu e iinea aa
?aniaaea. Iieacaia ?ieue iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e ao?eeaineeo ?aaeiiaeueiuo
e noa?aaeiiaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee e einoeoooia a o?aaoee?iaaiee
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo eiioeeeoia a Ao?eea thaeiaa Naoa?u. I?iaaaeai
aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe I?aaiecaoeee ao?eeaineiai aaeeinoaa e oi?ie?iaaiea
iaoaieciia aa acaaiiaeaenoaey n III a aeaea o?aaoee?iaaiey
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo eiioeeeoia a Ao?eea thaeiaa Naoa?u, i?eaiaeyony
i?eia?u ia?auo iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia acaeiiaeaenoaey iaoaiecia
III e IAA a ii?iaeecaoeee neooaoeee a noa?aaeiia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieeoe/aneee eiioeeeo, Ao?eea thaeiaa Naoa?u, IAA, III,
iaaeainoaea?noaaiiue eiioeeo, iaaeyoie/aneee eiioeeeo, aeaeieiiecaoeey,
eaeaieiaey, aeaiie?aoey, noa?aaeii.

OTARU Ellen Peter .Interstate conflicts in sub-Saharan Africa in
mid-70’s till early 90’s. (Their types and ways of resolution). —
Manuscript.

The dissertation for receiving the scientific degree of Ph.d in
political sciences in speciality 23.00.04 — International Relations. —
Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University Institute of International Relations,
1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the research of the interstate
conflicts in Africa south of Sahara — that part of the African
continent, which is practically characterized by constant
international instability. The basic conceptual approaches of the
representatives of various scientific schools towards the definition of
meaning of conflicts in modern science are analysed, it includes as
well the analysis of it’s meaning in a wider consept which covers not
only interstate disputes, but also the whole complex of problems in the
international relations in Africa. It has allowed researcher to give
his own estimation of the analysed concepts as well as to determine
types and structure of the interstate conflicts occuring in sub-Saharan
Africa at the mentioned period.

The author’s explanation of frequent occurance of chronic
instability syndrome in the specified region is given on the basis of
the analysis of the effect of colonial division of the continent and
the rule of the european countries in Africa, the post-colonial
development of the African states where by the primary factors are lying
in historical, economical, political and national-cultural aspects.
Economic situation in Africa south of the Sahara has led that part of
the continent to develop constant conflict situations, in which case the
previous metropolitan states have played their role and this is
underlined in the work. The analysis of the internal conflicts within a
state arrising as a result of the colonial division leading to division
of tribes and regions as well as the poor ruling of the new free states
of the continent due to different reasons is disscused. The author
also sees external factor as the major influence on occurrence and
evolution of the interstate conflicts in Africa as a whole, and in the
south of Sahara subregion in particular. In the dissertation the
comparative analysis of African constant state of conflict in the
conditions of previously existing bipolar system and the world
system after its disintegration is carried out.

The work of good office, their methods and aspects are disscused ind
the dissertation.

The separate countries in African subregion, as well as the presidents
of some countries, are active in this role and more often are being
invited to act as the intermediate and arbiter .

The role of the international organisation, as well as African
regional and subregional organizations and institutions involved in
settlement of the interstate conflicts in Africa south of Sahara is
shown in the thesis. The concrete actions of Organization of the African
Unity being directed towards the development of the prevention
mechanisms, stopping the spread of, and settlement of the interstate
conflicts in subregion are analysed in particular. The importance of
aspiration of this main regional organization towards economic
integration and political dialogue as major precondition of achievement
of the world and stability on the African continent as a whole is
emphasized. At the same time, in the research there is a mention of a
number of the critical remarks in address of OAU, and it is directly
underlined, that by virtue of the certain reasons it has failed to
develop the precise mechanism of working out of the concrete decisions
in solving frequently arising critical situations on the continent.
Naturally, this had it’s effect on settlement of arising conflict
situations in the international relations in the mentioned subregion.

However, despite of the lack of activity of OAU on settlement of
crisis situations in subregion, this organization is so far the only
regional force, which has managed to unite various ideological,
cultural and racial groups existing on continent. Enriched in the long
run by diplomatic knowledge and experience, and having supplied itself
as well with the necessary technical and financial opportunities, OAU,
undoubtedly, can in future resolve more effectively conflict
situations arising constantly in the subregion. Though it is not
existing such a long period OAU has brought the important
contribution to restoration of peace in the relations between some
countries of the subregion. It is elaborated in the dissertation some
examples of African countries in the sub-Sahara region involved in
military actions.

In the research are given some of the main obstacles that are standing
on the way of propositions of different ways of solving the conflicts,
which in turn would stimulate the development of the regional
cooperation.

The important place in the dissertation is allocated to the analysis
of formation of the mechanism of interaction of the main international
organizations with regional and subregional organizations and
institutions in their practical application of solving the conflict
situations in Africa to the south of Sahara. Although the use of UN
military force is practised not so frequently in settling of the
armed disputes between the states of the world, in 1993 it applied for
the first time this method in Africa during operation on restoration
of pease in Congo . In the dissertation the examples of the first
positive results of interaction of the mechanism of UN and OAU in
normalization of a conflict situation in the subregion are given. The
mechanism of interaction of UN and OAU in settlement of crisis
situations in considered subregion will become more effective and will
have a positive results if UN will give more attention to the African
problems and will assist in formation of stable democratic institutes
in the majority of the African countries.

Key words: political conflict, sub-Saharan Africa, OAU, UN, interstate
conflict, ethnic conflict, decolonization, ideology, democracy,
subregion.

Похожие записи