I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

E?eai??cueeee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

OAeE 549.514.5(477)

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Eooeaaie Ia?eia Eaii?ae?aia

I?IA?AEIA?ss EAIAIANAIIOeA?OII? NE?IAEIE

A?OIE EAA?OeO C EI?E AEA?O?THAAIIss OEUeO?AAACEO?A OE?A?INUeEIAI UEOA
(NA?AAeI? IIAOAEAEss)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 04.00.20 — i?ia?aeia?y, e?enoaeia?ao?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa

aaieia?/ieo iaoe

E?eaee ??a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?ia?aeia?? ? iao?ia?ao??

Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee I.I. Aa?aiia

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

A.A. ?iaeooiee — aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, aee?aeoi?
Aea?aeaaiiai aaiieia?/iiai oeaio?o i?e I?i?noa?noa? o?iain?a Oe?a?ie, i.
Ee?a

I.I. ?eueaeoeueeee — eaiaeeaeao aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eii ?inoeoooo aaieia?? i?e Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao?,

i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — ?inoeooo i?ia?aeueieo ?ano?n?a

Aea?aeeiiaaieia?? Oe?a?ie (i. Neioa?iiieue)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 12 n?/iy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E i?e E?eai??cueeiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:

324027, i. E?eaee ??a-27 Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeano?, aoe. 22-ai
ia?oc’?caeo, 11, EOO, eaoaae?a i?ia?aeia??, e?iiaoa 306

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
E?eai??cueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 11 a?oaeiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio
I.I. O?oi?i

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith i?ia?aeueieo ooai?aiue
eaa?oeo c ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?aaaceo?a Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue.

Inoaii?i /anii a onueiio na?o? ?inoa ?ioa?an aei iaoo?aeueiiai
aeaei?aoeaiiai ? eiooiaiiai eai?iiy. Aeaeathoueny niaoe?aeuei? iaoeia? ?
iaoeiai-iiioey?i? aeo?iaee, noai?aia naeoe?y aei?iaioe?iiiai eai?iiy o
iaaeao I?aeia?iaeii? i?ia?aeia?/iie anioe?aoe??. Oey oaiaeaioe?y
niinoa??aa?oueny ? a Oe?a?i?. A iao?e e?a?i? a?aee?eoi aeae?eueea
aaiieia?/ieo oeaio??a, o aaaaoueio aeueo o/aiaeo caeeaaeao aaieia?/iiai
i?io?eth noai?aia iiaa niaoe?aeuei?noue — ?iaeaia?-aaiieia.

Ia?aae aaieia?/iith aaeoccth noiyoue caaaeaiiy ooi/iaiiy ?ano?n?a
eaiaianaiioea?oii? ne?iaeie, neeaaeaiiy eaaeano??a ?? ?iaeiaeu,
noai?aiiy ?? eieaeoe?e ? eaoaeia?a. Ia ii/aoeo 1990-o ?ie?a ia
?iaeiaeuao nee?eaoiiai i?eaey a Na?aaeiueiio Iiaoaeae? aeyaeaii
aeaei?aoeaia eai?iiy a?oie eaa?oeo. Aeaei?aoeai? eaiai? oe??? a?oie ?
o?aaeeoe?eiith, iiioey?iith ne?iaeiith aeey thaae??ieo ae?ia?a oa
ii?iaie. A Oe?a?i? iiae?ai? i?ia?aeuei? ooai?aiiy a?aeii? o E?eio, ia
Aieei?, aea aiie iia’ycai? c aoeeai?/ieie ii?iaeaie. O Na?aaeiueiio
Iiaoaeae? naiioea?oe ciaoiaeyoueny a ?ioeo aaieia?/ieo oiiaao — o ei??
aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?ainiiaieo ii??ae.

Iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue

Iaoa ?iaioe — anaa?/ia aea/aiiy naiioea?o?a, iia’ycaieo c ei?ith
aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?aaaceo?a Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey. Caaaeaiiy, ui aoee
iinoaaeai? a ?iaio?: aea/eoe oi?io i?ia?aeueieo o?e, c yeeie iia’ycaia
eaiaianaiioea?oia ne?iaeia oa oa?aeoa? ?ici?uaiiy naiioea?o?a o
aaieia?/iiio i?inoi??; aeine?aeeoe i?ia?aeueiee oa o?i?/iee neeaae
naiioea?o?a oa iia’ycaieo ?c ieie i?ia?aeueieo ooai?aiue; aea/eoe
aioo??oith aoaeiao i?ia?aeueieo o?e oa aa?aaao?a naiioea?o?a oa
i?inoi?iai-/ania? aca?iia?aeiineie ieia?ae?a; aecia/eoe
no?oeoo?ii-oaenoo?i? iniaeeaino? naiioea?o?a oa i?iaanoe ?o
eeaneo?eaoe?th ca i?ia?aeia?/iei ? aaiieia?/iei e?eoa??yie; aeaoe
caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaei?aoeaieo yeinoae eaiaianaiioea?oii?
ne?iaeie oa iiaeeeainoae ?? aeei?enoaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe:

1) aia?oa iienai? i?ia?aeia?/i?, ii?oieia?/i? oa aaiieia?/i? iniaeeaino?
aaao?a, iia’ycaieo c ei?ith aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?aaaceo?a Iiaoaeaey;

2) aia?oa aeey ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?ainiiaieo ii??ae i?iaaaeaiee
iioiaai?/iee aiae?c aeeeueieo i?ia?aeueieo o?e e?aiiacaio; aeae?eaii
ii?oiaaiaoe/i? oeie aeee oa onoaiiaeaia i?eiaeaaei?noue ??ciiaeae?a
eaiaianaiioea?oii? ne?iaeie aei ??cieo oei?a aeeeueieo ooai?aiue;

3) aeyaeaii oaeo cai?uaiiy o ei?? aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?aaaceo?a aeeeueieo
aeae?eaiue oaeueeo, iaiae?oo oa iiio?ii?oo e?aiiacaiii c ooai?aiiyi
naiioea?o?a;

4) a Na?aaeiueiio Iiaoaeae? aia?oa aeyaeaiee oei?eoi-ai?uoth/ee
oaeoeaaeii (ieacia), aecia/ai? eiai i?ia?aeia?/i? iniaeeaino? oa niin?a
ooai?aiiy;

5) ?ic?iaeaii aaiieia?/io eeaneo?eaoe?th eaiaianaiioea?oii? ne?iaeie
oeueo?aaaceo?a Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

??ciiaeaee aeaei?aoeaiiai eai?iiy a?oie eaa?oeo, ui aeyaeai? a
Na?aaeiueiio Iiaoaeae?, i?eaeaoi? aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ii?iaie,
aaeaioa?aeieo ? ooaeiaei?o ae?ia?a. Anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino?
?iciiae?eo eaiaianaiioea?oii? ne?iaeie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ??
iiiooiiai aeaeiaoaaiiy i?ae /an ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu nee?eaoiiai i?eaey a
Na?aaeiueiio Iiaoaeae? ? iiooeo aiaeia?/ii? i?ia?aeueii? ne?iaeie a
?ioeo ?aeiiao.

Iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ui caoeuathoueny.

1. A?ia?aaii? oiiae ooai?aiiy aaao?a Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey aecia/eee ?o
nooo?a? ii?oieia?/i?, oaenoo?i? oa i?ia?aeia?/i? a?aei?ie a?ae
aiaeia?/ieo i?ia?aeueieo aa?aaao?a, ye? o?aaeeoe?eii cono??/athoueny
na?aae aooceaieo a??nueeeo ii??ae.

2. Iniiai? ?ene ci?ie o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oiia o ei?? aea?o?thaaiiy
oeueo?aaaceo?a a?aeia?aaeai? a anioe?aoe?? ieia?ae?a c
oei?eoiai?uoth/iai oaeoeaaeiio (ieacie) Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey.

3. ?niothoue a?aei?ie o niinia? ooai?aiiy aeine?aeaeaieo naiioea?o?a.
Aaaoe ooai?eeenue oeyoii nae?aoe?eiiai caiiaiaiiy ii?iaeiei, yoii-aaaoe
— caaaeyee caiiaiaiith o??uei oa iiaeaeueoiio ie?aiai?iith
iaaeieio??ueiieo ii?enoeo ii??ae, yoie — oeyoii cai?uaiiy oaeoeaaeiiii
ooai?aieo ?ai?oa aa?aaao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ioae?eaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo:
“I?iaeaie aaieia?/ii? iaoee oa ina?oe a Oe?a?i?” o Euea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?.O?aiea (1995 ?), “OO? noi??//y —
i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae inai?iiy ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei” a
Iaoe?iiaeuei?e a??ie/?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (i. Aei?i?i-iao?ianuee, 1998
?.); ia iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? o Aea?aeaaiiio aaiieia?/iiio oeaio?? i?e
I?i?noa?noa? o?iain?a Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a), ?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?e
aaieia?? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? o 5 ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao ? iaei?e,
ui ciaoiaeeoueny o ae?oeo.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a.

Iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? neoaoaaee iieueia? niinoa?aaeaiiy aaoi?a ?
eai’yiee iaoa??ae, c?a?aiee iath i?ioyaii 1992 — 1996 ?ie?a. Aaoi?ii
aea/aeenue c?acee ooai?aiue eaa?oeo (aeecueei 400), oe?oe (150),
iie??iaai? ieanoeiee (15), i?iaiaeeeenue aei??e iieaciee?a caeiieaiiy
i?ia?ae?a a ?ia?n?eieo ??aeeiao (40), a?aeae?aeenue i?iae aeey o?i?/ieo,
?aioaai?anueeeo ? niaeo?aeueieo aiae?c?a. Aoa i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c
iioae?eiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??, aecia/ai? iai?yiee
aeine?aeaeaiue ? c?iaeai? aeniiaee ca ?o ?acoeueoaoaie.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? iiaeyeo eieaaai ? ni?a?ia?oieeai, ye? iaaeaaaee
aeiiiiiao o i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue. Aaoi? ei?enooaaeanue
eiinoeueoaoe?yie aeieoi?a aaie.-i?i. iaoe, i?io. I.Ae. Aeiaeaoei, eaiae.
aaie.- i?i. iaoe, aeioe. E.I. Eiceianueeiai, E.?. Eooeaaiea, A.O.
Iia??aiiai, N.? Iiiia/aiea, no. i?ai. A.?. Aaiioeueeiai. A aeiai??
eai’yiiai iaoa??aea aeiiiiiaee A.A. Eaieia, ?.A. Eaieia, ?.I. Iieineia,
o i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaio?a: ?.A. Eaaa/aiei, I.?. Ca?aiaa, o
aeaioiaeaii? oioia?ao?e — A.?. Aaiioeueeee.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe???.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 5 aeaa, aeniiae?a,
aeeeaaeaia ia 149 noi??ieao, c yeeo ?ethno?aoe?? caeiathoue 37, oaaeeoe?
— 14, nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (ui i?noeoue 130
iaeiaioaaiue) — 10 noi??iie.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

1. NOAI I?IAEAIE

?aeii Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey ?icoaoiaaiee o i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e /anoei?
Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa. Ooo ?iciianthaeaeai? ?io?oc?? oeueo?aaaceo?a. ?o
ai?uothoue iaoaii?o?ciaai? inaaeiai-aooceai? ii?iaee
aei?no?ianueei-aoanueei? (AR1) ? aoanueei? (AR3) na??e. ?io?oc??
a?ia?aaceo?a iathoue aa?oiiueia?oaenueeee a?e ? iiae?eythoueny ia aeaa
eiiieaene: eai?oai?anueeee oa aea?aitho?inueeee. Ianeae oeueo?aaaceo?a
caeyaathoue ca?aeii c ai?uoth/eie ii?iaeaie ? neeaaeathoueny a iniiaiiio
c na?iaioei?o?a, ia?aeii? i?ia?aee caeeoeeenue eeoa a ?o oeaio?aeueieo
/anoeiao. A ?aeii? ?icaeioo? a?ai?oi?aee aa?aee/aanueeiai eiiieaeno
(PR1), i?aaenoaaeai? i?aiaoeoaie, iaaiaoi?aeieie oa aie?oi?aeieie
a?ai?oaie, /a?iie?oaie. Ia eiioaeo? c a?ai?oaie a oeueo?aaaceoao
niinoa??aaeenue ciie a?ioeoecaoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?aaaceo?a ?aeiio i?iaiaeeee:
TH.N. E?a?ae?a, I.Ae. Aeiaeaoei, I.ss. Ae??a?i, A.I. ?iiaiaiei oa ?io?.
Ei?a aea?o?thaaiiy ia? ciiaeueio aoaeiao, a ?? i?io?e? niinoa??aathoueny
ciie: aeac?ioaa?iaaieo oeueo?aaaceo?a; aeeoaiaaieo ? ea?aiiaoeciaaieo
oeueo?aaaceo?a; iiio?ii?o?a ? iiio?ii?o-a?ae?ioei?eoiaeo ii??ae; io? ?
io?enoeo aeei.

Aeey ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?aaaceo?a iienoaaiiai oa ?ioeo ?aeii?a
oa?aeoa?ieie ? ie?aiai?e? ii?iaee. E?aiaicai ooai?th? oiie? iiaeeeee oa
ciie nooe?eueiiai ie?aiai?iiy. O ei?? aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?ainiiaieo
ii??ae a?aeii? ?iaeiaeua o?ecii?aco (Iieueua, NOA, Aano?ae?y,
Eacaonoai), ia yeeo oeae eiooiaiee eai?iue a?oie eaa?oeo cono??/a?oueny
o aeaeyae? i?iaeeee?a, aeiaai a anioe?aoe?? c iiaeii, oaeoeaaeiiii ?
aa?i???eoii. A Oe?a?i? eiai ?iaeiaeua iiee ui ia aeyaeai?.

A Na?aaeiueiio Iiaoaeae? ieia?aaei?ie aeine?aeieeaie niinoa??aaeenue
ianeai? ie?aiai?e? ii?iaee ei?e/iaaiai, ao?iai ? caeaiiai eieuei?o oa
i?iaeeeee, ui neeaaeai? eaa?oeai, oaeoeaaeiiii (TH.N. E?a?ae?a, 1965).
A.A. Einia/ia (1993) iienaa iiae?ai? ooai?aiiy i?ae iacaaie: “?iaiaeee”,
“yoii- oa iiaeiiiae?ai? ii?iaee”.

Oaeei /eiii, naiioea?oe a?oie eaa?oeo, ui iathoue i?eoiaaiie?enoae?/io
no?oeoo?o (o?ecii?ac, oaeoeaaeii, yoiiiiae?ai? ii?iaee) iiaeooue
ooai?thaaoenue a a?ia?aaiieo oiiaao. A?aeii? ?oo? i?ia?aeuei? ooai?aiiy
e?aiiacaio, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny ye eaiaianaiioea?oia ne?iaeia. Aeaye?
c ieo, i?ei??ii — aaao, ?aoaeueii aea/aeenue. Aeae?eaii aeae?eueea
aaiaoe/ieo oei?a aaao?a: o iniiaieo-na?aaei?o aoeeai?/ieo ii?iaeao; o
eeneeo aoeeai?/ieo ii?iaeao; a inaaeiaeo ii?iaeao (I.I. Aiaeia?eia,
?.ss. Ee?aeaiei oa ?io?). Oiiae ooai?aiiy naiioea?o?a aecia/athoue oi?io
?o aeae?eaiue, aioo??oith aoaeiao oa i?ia?aeueiee neeaae.

2. IAOIAeEEA AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA
EAIAIANAIIOeA?OII? NE?IAEIE

Aea/aiiy naiioea?o?a i?iaiaeeeinue o o?e aoaie. Ia ia?oiio c ieo a
ea?’??ao ii aeaeiaooeo iiio?ii?o?a aeeiioaaeanue iieueiaa i?ia?aeia?/ia
aeieoiaioaoe?y, a?aeae?aeenue c?acee ooai?aiue i?ia?ae?a e?aiiacaio. Ia
ae?oaiio aoai? c?acee aea/aeenue eaai?aoi?ieie iaoiaeaie c iaoith
aecia/aiiy oaciaiai neeaaeo oa o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae; cae?enithaaeenue
ii?oieiai-aiaoii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ia?aeueieo ?iaeea?ae?a, aa?aaao?a
oa i?ia?aeueieo o?e c iaoith aeyaeaiiy ?o e?enoae?caoe?eii? ?noi???;
i?iaiaeeeinue i?ia?aeia?/ia ea?ooaaiiy i?ia?aeueieo o?e, ?o
noaae?aeueiee aiae?c c aeae?eaiiyi iine?aeiaie? aoai?a ?icaeoeo. Ia
caeeth/iiio aoai? aiae?coaaeenue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, aoea
cae?eniaia eeaneo?eaoe?y eaiaiana-iioea?oii? ne?iaeie.

A?ia?aaii? ooai?aiiy e?aiiacaio niinoa??aaeenue a ??cieo ciiao ei?e
aea?o?thaaiiy ? iaee ??ciiiaiai?oio oi?io: aeeee, e??ee, aeiaia,
nooe?euei? aeae?eaiiy. Ca i?ia?aeueiei neeaaeii ? aioo??oiueith
aoaeiaith aiie a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith. Aeaeaei ia an? c ieo
iathoue aeanoeaino? eaiaianaiioea?oii? ne?iaeie. Aeae?eai? oae?
??ciiaeaee naiioea?o?a: aaaoe, yoii-aaaoe, yoie ? ieacia.

Aaaoe anoaiiaeai? a aeeeao ? e??eao. Aeiaaeeia aeee — 1-5 i, oiaueia —
1-5 ni, oiaueia e??ie — 2-6 ni. Caaa?aeaiiy aaao?a — a?ea, ynii-n??a,
ynii-ao?a, oaenoo?a — oiieinioaanoa, ae??aii-ieyienoa. ssoie iathoue
oi?io aeee ? nooe?eueieo aeae?eaiue, caaa?aeaiiy — oaiii-/a?aiia,
io?enoi-aeiaoa. Aeiaaeeia aeee — aei 40 i, oiaueia — aei 5 ni, ?ici??e
ianeaieo aeae?eaiue — aei 10 i a ae?aiao??. Oaenoo?a yoi — ianeaia,
?iiae? c i?iaeeeeaie eaa?oeo ? oaeoeaaeiio, aeeeuei? yoie iathoue
i?iaeeeeiai-ieyienoo oaenoo?o. ?niothoue aeeee, ui neeaaeai? /anoeiai
aaaoii, a /anoeiai — ?iaeaaith, /a?aiiith aai aeiaoithi yoiith. Oae?
aa?aaaoe a?aeianai? aei yoii-aaaoo. Ieacia aeyaeaia a aeiaiao ae?aiao?ii
aei 15-20 ni, ia? oaiii-caeaiee eie??, iaae?acii-ieyienoo oaenoo?o.

3. I?IA?AEIA?ss EAIAIANAIIOeA?OII? NE?IAEIE

Aaaoe Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey iia’ycai? c ei?ith aea?o?thaaiiy
na?iaioei?o?a. A aeac?ioaa?iaaiiio oa aeeoaiaaiiio na?iaioei?o?
niinoa??aaeenue aeeee aaaoo c a?eei caaa?aeaiiyi; o iiio?ii?oao
?icoaoiaai? aeeee ?c ynii-n??ei oa n??ei caaa?aeaiiyi; aeua ca ?ic??cii,
a io?enoeo iiio?ii?oao, i?enooi? aeeee yoii-aaaoo. AEeee aaao?a
iiiaeeiie?, iathoue ??cio i???oaoe?th a i?inoi??: ai?eciioaeueio, i?ae
iaoeeii c ??cieie eooaie. I?ia?aeueiee neeaae ? aioo??oiy aoaeiaa aeee
??ciiiai?oi?. Aieiaiei i?ia?aeii e?aiiacaio a ieo ? eaa?oe, ai?no yeiai
aeinyaa? 40 — 70%, oa eiai aieieieno? ??ciiaeaee (oaeoeaaeii,
eaa?oeei), ae?oai?yaei? i?ia?aee: iiae, o?eaeei?o. A aoaeia? e??ie
oaeiae aieiaio ?ieue a?ae?a?a? eaa?oe; oaeoeaaeii ? eaa?oeei
ciaoiaeyoueny a?aeiinii iueiai o iaio?e e?eueeino?.

Eaa?oe ooai?th? ca?ieno?, ae?ocia? oa ia?aeaeueii-oe/eoaao? aa?aaaoe
ia?oiai oeio (ca?aeii c eeaneo?eaoe??th oaeeo aa?aaao?a Ae.I. A?eai?’?aa
? A.A. AEaa?ia). ?ici?? ca?ai, ui noai?ththoue ciie aaaoo, — 0,01-0,2
ii. A ae?ociaeo ii?iaeieieao niinoa??aathoueny e?enoaee aei 1 ii, a
e??eao eaa?oe a?eueo e?oiiica?ienoee. Iiaa?oiy ?iaeea?ae?a a ae?ociaeo ?
oanooaaoeo aa?aaaoao ci?ith?oueny a?ae ?iaeoeoe?eii? aei ?ae?iii?oii?.
A aeayeeo aeeeao cono??/aeenue ei?iaeiaai? iiaa?oi? e?enoae?a.
Niinoa??aaeenue ?icuaieai? e?enoaee, ui iinooiiai ia?aoiaeeee a
oaeoeaaeii aai eaa?oeei.

Oaeoeaaeii ia? aeaa ii?oieia?/i? oeie ?iaeea?ae?a:aieieienoee ?
ca?ienoee (eoneoaaoee). Oi?ie aeae?eaiiy ia?oiai: ciie oiaueiith 0,1-0,5
ii, ui neeaaeathoueny iaiiaieie noa?ie?oaie; noa?ie?oe ae?aiao?ii aei
0,05 ii, ui cono??/athoueny ie?aii aai o cacia/aieo ciiao; noa?ie?oe
?ici??ii 0,005-0,015 ii, e?a? yeeo ia?ae?eaathoueny i?ae niaith;
ae?eyiee cii, ui neeaaeai? aeiaaiaieieienoeie, noaia?aeaeueieie
?iaeea?aeaie; ia?aeaeuei? ? io/eiiiae?ai? c?inoee, ui ooai?eeenue
caaaeyee ?icuaieaiiai ?inoo ie?aieo a?aiae e?enoae?a eaa?oeo;
inaaaeinoaeaeoeoe, a iiia?a/iiio ?ic??c? yeeo niinoa??aa?oueny
noa?ie?oiaa c?iuaiiy aieieii. Ca?ienoee oaeoeaaeii ooai?th?: aa?aaaoe, a
yeeo iaae? ie?aieo ?iaeea?ae?a ia??ai? ? ia?ae?eaathoueny i?ae niaith, a
?ici?? ?iaeea?ae?a — 0,007-0,015 ii; ciie ? ae?eyiee, ui iathoue a?eue
iecueea aeaicaeiieaiiy, i?ae o aeuacaaaeaieo aa?aaao?a, a ?iaeea?aee —
?ici?? aei 0,005 ii. ?iiae? oae? aa?aaaoe iathoue aeeth/aiiy
aaoeoeciaaiiai iiio?ii?oa, aaoeoa. Oe? aeeth/aiiy ?icoaoiaothoueny
acaeiaae ie?aii? ciie aaaoo ? eiioo?e iiaa?oi? aeae?eaiue oaeoeaaeiia
caeaaeaoue a?ae ?o oi?ie. Iieacieee caeiieaiiy aieieienoiai oaeoeaaeiio:
ne a?ae 1,5350,001 aei1,5430,001, no a?ae 1,5340,001 aei1,5350,001;
ca?ienoiai oaeoeaaeiio: 1,5440,001n1,5350,001.

Eaa?oeei ooai?th?: c?inoee aieieii, ui iathoue aeaeyae naaiaio?a
?ici??ii aei 0,055 ii ? ?icoaoiaothoueny i?ae ciiaie aieieienoiai
oaeoeaaeiio; i?oaeeiiiae?ai? c?inoee, ui ia?inoathoue ia ciiao eaa?oeo,
a oaeiae neeaaeathoue e?oii? noa?ie?oe (ae?aiao?ii aei 3 ii);
ia?aeaeueii-aieieieno? aa?aaaoe (ooai?ththonue i?e ?icuaieaiiio ?ino?
eaa?oeo). Iieacieee caeiieaiiy eaa?oeeio: ne=1,5430,001, no=1,5340,002.

-o?eaeei?o anoaiiaeaiee o aeaio aeeeao, aea a?i ooai?th? ie?ai?, aeiaie?
oe?ie? (aei 3 ii) ciie n??oaaoi-aeiaoiai eieuei?o. A oe?oao
niinoa??aa?oueny iecueeee ?aeue?o, ae?acia ai?cio?ii?y, n??a
?ioa?oa?aioe?eia caaa?aeaiiy, ieyienoa caanaiiy. Iieacieee caeiieaiiy:
ng=1,4740,001, np=1,4710,001. Aeeo?aeoia?aie aeine?aeaeaieo c?ace?a
iathoue /?oeee neeueiee ?aoeaen, ui a?aeiia?aea? i?aeieiueii?e a?aenoai?
0,43 ii (ui ? aieiaiith ae?aaiinoe/iith e?i??th -o?eaeei?oo), a oaeiae
?io? oa?aeoa?i? aeey i?ia?aea ?aoeaene. O aaaoao aoeeai?/ieo ii??ae
iecueeioaiia?aoo?iee o?eaeei?o ia cono??/aany.

Iiae niinoa??aaany a aeayeeo aeeeao aaao?a a inueia?e /anoei?, aea a?i
ooai?th? enaiiii?oi? aeae?eaiiy i?ae e?enoaeaie eaa?oeo.

Ca oaenoo?ieie iniaeeainoyie aeae?eaii ?yae ??ciiaeae?a aaaoo:

— a?ca?oi/aoee, aeey yeiai i?eoaiaiia ciiaeuei?noue, ui iai?oa? no?iee
aeeee; oiiea nioaano?noue coiiaeaia /a?aoaaiiyi i?ioa?e?a eaa?oeo c
a?aa?i/anoith no?oeoo?ith, aieieienoiai oaeoeaaeiio oa eaa?oeeio, ??aeoa
— eoneiiiae?aiiai oaeoeaaeiio ? iiaeo;

— iiia?aaeaiee — neeaaea?oueny ?c ca?ienoiai eaa?oeo, ie?ai? e?enoaee ?
c?inoee yeiai ae?eo? aieieienoei oaeoeaaeiiii (eiea?aeiaa no?oeoo?a),
ye? ooai?ththoue inaaaeiieie/aoee iaethiie;

— i/eiaee — aa?aaao, iiaoaeiaaiee ?c a?eeo noa?ie?o?a eaa?oeeio
(ae?aiao?ii aei 2 ii), ioi/aieo ae??aiinoa?ie?oiaei oaeoeaaeiiii
na?oei-ao?iai eieuei?o, ui coiiaeth? ae??aiiieyienoo oaenoo?o;

— ii?en — neeaaea?oueny ?c noaia?aeaeueieo cii eaa?oeo c? noiai/anoith
no?oeoo?ith, iiaeo, o?eaeei?oo oa iaaaeeei? e?eueeino? oaeoeaaeiio.

Oa?aeoa?iei aeaiaioii aoaeiae i?ia?aeueieo aa?aaao?a a oi?i? e??ie ?
inaaaeinoaeaeoeoe. A?ae oeiiaeo iao?/ieo noaeaeoeo?a aiie
a?ae??ciythoueny iiia?a/ieie ia?aoeieaie, ui iathoue oaeo ae aoaeiao, ye
? noaeaeoeo (/a?aoaaiiy cii aieieienoiai oaeoeaaeiio ? eaa?oeeio).
Acaeiaae iniiae e??ee niinoa??aa?oueny eaa?oe, ia yeiio ?icoaoiaaiee oa?
oaeoeaaeiio, ui ooai?eany caaaeyee ?icuaieaiiai ?inoo eiai e?enoae?a. Ia
ie?aieo ae?eyieao iienaiee oa? ci?ith? iieiaeaiiy ia ia?iaiaeeeoey?ia
a?aeiinii iiaa?oi? ia?inoaiiy e??ee, ooai?thth/e noaeaeoeo. Noaeaeoeoe
/anoi cono??/athoueny ? a aeeeao, aea iathoue oai iaioo aeiaaeeio.
?iiae? noaeaeoeoe ?icoaoiaai? i?ae eooii aei no?iee aeeee. Ia iiaa?oi?
aeayeeo e??ie oa o ie?aieo aeeeao niinoa??aaany yoiiiiae?aiee aa?aaao
aeiaoiai eieuei?o, a yeiio aeenia?ni? aeii?oee aaoeoo ?icoaoiaai?
ia??aiii??ii (oa?aie) aiane?aeie ?icoa?oaaiiy eiei?aeo. Noaeaeoeoe oa
iienaiee aa?aaao aaaaeathoueny iaie a?aa?oaoe?eieie ooai?aiiyie.

Ca i?ia?aeueiei neeaaeii aeine?aeaeai? aaaoe noiae? ia ia?ae?ao. O
aeayeeo aeeeao a?ca?oi/anoiai aaaoo, aea i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?e
aieieienoee oaeoeaaeii, oaenoo?a iaaaaeo? oeae naiioea?o. Oi?ia
aeae?eaiiy, i?ia?aeueiee neeaae oa iniaeeaino? oaenoo?e aaao?a
Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey a?ae??ciythoue ?o a?ae aaao?a, iia’ycaieo c
aoeeai?/ieie ii?iaeaie (oaaeeoey 1). Ca i?ia?aeia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie oa
/anoith i?enooi?noth a?aa?oaoe?eieo ooai?aiue aea/ai? naiioea?oe noiae?
ia aaaoe, ui cono??/athoueny a inaaeiaeo ii?iaeao.

Oaaeeoey 1

Oei i?ia?ae?caoe??Ai?uoth/? ii?iaeeOi?ia aeae?eaiiyIniiai? oaenoo?e, ?o
aeaiaioeI?ia?aeuei? aeaee e?aiiacaio oa no?oeoo?a aa?aaaooAaaoeAoeeai?oe
(aacaeueoe, aiaeaceoe, ??ie?oe)Ieaaeaeeie, ai?caea iai?aaeeueii? oi?ie,
e?ice, ??aeei — i?iaeeeee1. Ciiaeueii-eii-oeaio?e/ia
(iai?oath/a)Oaeoeaaeii aieieienoee, eaa?oe, eaa?oeei, oaeoeaaeii
eoneoaaoee2. Ia?aeaeueii-oa?oaaoa (ii?eniaa)Oaeoeaaeii eoneoaaoee,
eaa?oe, iiae, oaeoeaaeii aieieienoeeInaaeia? ii?iaeeInaaaeiii?oice ii
i?aai?/iei caeeoeai, eiie?aoe?yiCiiaeueii-eiioeaio?e/iaEaa?oeei, eaa?oe,
oaeoeaaeiiCe?iee ii?iaeiei aeeoaoaaiiy1. Ciiaeueii-eiioeaio?e/ia
2.Iao?/i? ooai?aiiyAaaoe (Na?aaei? Iiaoaeaey)Iiio?ii?oe-ciaaiee,
aueioeoeciaaiee na?iaioei?oAEeee, e??ee1. Oiieinioaanoa (iai?oath/a)

2. Inaaaeiieie/aoa

3. Ia?aeaeueii-oa?oaaoa

4. Iao?/i? oi?ieEaa?oe, oaeoeaaeii (aieieienoee ? eoneoaaoee), eaa?oeei,
iiae, o?eaeei?oIa?ae?aoA?ai?oE?iciaeaei? aeeeeNioaanoaEaa?oe
i?e?ica?ienoee

ssoia a aaiieia?/iiio a?aeiioaii? — u?eueia e?aiaienoa ii?iaea, ui
aeia?a iie??o?oueny ? neeaaea?oueny c i?e?ie??noae?/iiai aa?aaaoo
eaa?oeo, /anoi c aeii?oeith (?iiae? c ia?aaaaeaiiyi) oaeoeaaeiio, a
oaeiae ieneae?a cae?ca ? aethi?i?th.

ssoie a ei?? aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?aaaceo?a Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey
ooai?ththoue aeeee (oiaueiith aei 50 ii) ? ianeae (aeecueei 6o10 i).
AEeee cono??/aeenue a io?enoeo iiio?ii?oao, ianeae ?icoaoiaai? na?aae
iiio?ii?o?a acaeiaae cii e?i?eiiai aea?o?thaaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ia?aeueiiai neeaaeo yoi aoei oneeaaeiaii oei, ui ?o
i?ia?aee ooai?ththoue aeenia?nio nenoaio. A oe?oao yoie iai?ici??.
Ae??ai? ii?iaeieie ? i?iaeeeee aeiiaiai? iine?aeiaii
e?enoiaae?o-o?eaeei?oiaei iiaeii ? aieieienoei oaeoeaaeiiii;
niinoa??aaeenue oiie? i?iaeeeee eaa?oeo c iie?naaeiith no?oeoo?ith, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i eiai ??no o o??uei?, ui a?aee?eaa?oueny. A aioe?oao
oaiii-/a?aiii? yoie niinoa??aa?oueny iniiaia iana c iieacieeii a?aeaeooy
aeecueei 20 ? eiei?aei? aeae?eaiiy aaiaoeoo c a?eueo aenieei iieacieeii
a?aeaeooy a oaeoeaaeii? (eaa?oe?) acaeiaae i?iaeeee?a eaa?oeo ?
oaeoeaaeiio, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ia?ae?enoae?caoe?th aaiaoeoo.

A aeeeuei?e yoi? niinoa??aaeenue ?ae?eoia? ae?eyiee iiio?ii?oo, aaoeoo,
oaeueeo. ?aioaii?anueea aeine?aeaeaiiy ianeaii? ao?i-aeiaoi? yoie
iieacaei, ui iaea?eueo ?ioaineai? ?aoeaene a?aeiia?aeathoue aaoeoo;
oaeiae i?enooi? eaa?oe, e?enoiaae?o-o?eoei?oiaee iiae ? aeii?oea
aeeienoiai i?ia?aeo. Ca o?i?/iei neeaaeii ianeai? yoie c ??ciei
caaa?aeaiiyi iaei a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith. Ai?no SiO2 aei??aith?
44,5-50,6 %, Fe2O3 — 32,0-42,3 %, Al2O3 — 0,72-1,98 %, MgO — 1,08-1,7%.
AEeeueia yoia i?noeoue cia/ii a?eueoa e?aiiacaio (90%).

Ieacia a i?ia?aeia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? — iacaa oaiii-caeaiiai oaeoeaaeiio.
Eiai caaa?aeaiiy iiynithaaee a?inoeaie ??cieo nee?eao?a: oei?eoo,
aio?aieo, naeaaeii?oo. I?i aaiacen oeueiai i?ia?aeueiiai aa?aaaoo aeoaea
iaei aeaieo.

A Na?aaeiueiio Iiaoaeae? ieacia cono??/a?oueny a ei?? aea?o?thaaiiy
Aea?aitho?inueeiai ianeao a cii? eiioaeoo oeueo?aaaceo?a c
iaaiaoi?aeieie a?ai?oaie. I?ia?aeuei? ooai?aiiy iathoue oi?io aeiaai
ae?aiao?ii aei 15-20 ni. A oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? aiie oaiii-caeai?, a
ia?eoa??/i?e — na?oei-caeai?. Ia iiaa?oi? aeiaai niinoa??aaeenue eonee
na?oei-caeaiiai a?ae?ioei?eoo o aeaeyae? i?eiacie.

A?aeiii, ui caeaia caaa?aeaiiy o?ecii?aco aeeeeeaia i?enooi?noth
niieo/aiue i?eaeth, ai?no yeiai aei??aith? 0,09% a ae?aeeo ? 0,88% o
oaiii-caeaieo c?aceao, a ai?no iaai?th, cae?ca, aethi?i?th ia ia?aaeuo?
nioeo /anoie i?ioeaioa (Nainiiia ss.I., 1977). Iaie o ieaci? anoaiiaeaii
0,07-0,15% Ni, ui a?aeiia?aea? i?i?iaeueiiio ai?noo oeueiai aeaiaioo a
o?ecii?ac?, a ai?no MgO, Al2O3, FeO, Fe2O3 — aeiaie? cia/iee
(a?aeiia?aeii 2,3-2,9%, 1,71-1,78%, 0,5-1,8%, 0,55-1,83%), ui aeaco? ia
i?enooi?noue nee?eaoiiai i?ia?aeo. A ii??aiyii? ?c e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie
aeey cae/aeiiai oaeoeaaeiio, ieacia i?noeoue a?eueoo e?euee?noue
aeii?oie, aea iaioa, i?ae ?o i?noeoue yoia.

A oe?oao o ieaci? niinoa??aa?oueny ia??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e caaa?aeaiiy:
?icieo? caeai? ieyie a ioi/aii? aacaa?aiiai aa?aaaoo oaeoeaaeiio. A
caaa?aeaieo ae?eyieao ciaoiaeyoueny neoi/aiiy oiieeo eonie oei?eoo.

Oei?eo ooai?th? ie?ai? eoneiiiae?ai? e?enoaee ? ?o /a?aiiiae?ai?
c?inoee, ye? cai?uathoueny acaeiaae o??uei niaeiino? e?aiiacaiii. ?iiae?
ia iiaa?oi? aeiaai cono??/aeenue inaaaeiii?oice oaeoeaaeiio ii oaeei
c?inoeai. A ieaci? oei?eo ia? iecueea aeaicaeiieaiiy, neaaeee
ieaio?i?ci, na?oei-caeaiee eie??. A na?aaeei? aeayeeo aeiaai oa ?o
c?inoe?a aoee ciaeaeai? neoi/aiiy neieiai iaie?aiai?eiai oei?eoo, yeee
iaa oaiii-caeaia caaa?aeaiiy, a a?ey eiioaeoo c ieaciith ia?aoiaeea o
na?oei-caeaio a?aei?io. A oe?o? oaiii-caeaiee i?ia?ae aeyaeya /?oeee
ieaio?i?ci aei na?oei-aeiaoiai, i?yia iiaanaiiy, iiceoeaia
aeaeiaaeaiiy. Iieacieee caeiieaiiy: ng=nm=1,5940,001, ng-np=0,014. A
o??ueiao niaeiino? niinoa??aaeenue ae??ai? ca?ia noaio, ui aeaco? ia
ooai?aiiy oei?eoo ca ?aooiio a?ioeoo. ?aioaaie?anueeee aiae?c
oaiii-caeaiiai oei?eoo aeyaea e??i neeueieo ?aoeaen?a oeueiai i?ia?aeo
neaae? ?aoeaene, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue a?ioeoo. Ia ?aioaaiia?ai?
na?oei-caeaiiai oei?eoo i?enooi? ?aoeaene oei?eoo ?
e?enoiaae?o-o?eoei?oiaiai iiaeo.

O?i?/iee aiae?c oei?eoo na?ae/eoue i?i eiai cia/ia ie?aiai?iiy. Ca
aeaieie aiae?c?a aoee ?ic?aoiaai? oi?ioee oaiii-caeaiiai ?
na?oei-caeaiiai i?ia?ae?a. Anoaiiaeaii, oei?eo iaeaaeeoue aei
iaaiac?aeueii-cae?cenoi? i?aea?oie. Ae?aoiaaia e?euee?noue aoii?a
aethi?i?th, yeee caeia? a no?oeoo?? i?ia?aeo iiceoe?? e?aii?th,
aei??aith? o oaiii-caeaiiio oei?eo? 0,42, a a na?oei-caeaiiio — 0,24.
Oea cia/ii iaioa, i?ae aoaa? cae/aeii o oei?eoao ? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
i?ia?aee aeeoaiaai?. Aeeoa?aioe?eiee oa?i?/iee aiae?c iieacaa
i?enooi?noue o na?oei-caeaiiio oei?eo? iieaeoey?ii? aiaee. Ia oe?e
i?aenoaa? c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui oaiii-caeaiee oei?eo ciaoiaeeoueny ia
ii/aoeia?e noaae?? aea?o?thaaiiy, a na?oei-caeaiee — ia a?eueo cia/i?e ?
ia?aoai?eany ia a?ae?ioei?eo.

Oaeoeaaeii ooai?th? aa?aaaoe ca?ienoeo ?iaeea?ae?a. Ia ae?eyieao, aea
i?enooi? neoi/aiiy eonie oei?eoo, ?ici?? ca?ai aei??aith? 2-5 iei. Oe?
ae?eyiee ioi/ai? aa?aaaoii c aeaui a?eueoeie ?ici??aie ?iaeea?ae?a
(10-20 iei). ?iiae? caaaeyee i?enooiino? ae??aieo ii?iaeiei o
oaeoeaaeii? iiaeia niinoa??aaoe eiai eieiii?oi? aeae?eaiiy. Ca?ia a
aa?aaao? ooai?ththoue o?nia c?iuaiiy, ?o e?a? ia?ae?eaathoueny i?ae
niaith, a iaaeao ca?ia niinoa??aa?oueny oaeeynoa caanaiiy. Iieaciee
caeiieaiiy (aecia/aiee aeey aa?aaaoo) aei??aith? 1,5340,002.

A ii?iaeieiao ? o??ueiao ieacie ?icoaoiaaiee aieieienoee oaeoeaaeii,
iieacieee caeiieaiiy yeiai aeaui iaio?: ne=1,5290,001, no=1,5210,002.
Oaeoeaaeii ?icaeyaea?oueny (?.?. Iethni?ia oa ?io? aeine?aeieee) ye ?yae
ooai?aiue e?aiiacaio, iaiaaeaiee c iaeiiai aieo -eaa?oeai, a c ?ioiai —
e?aiiacaiii ?c cia/ii iaaii?yaeeiaaiith no?oeoo?ith. Ii?oieia?/i? ?
iioe/i? aeanoeaino? aeine?aeaeaiiai iaie “ca?ienoiai” oaeoeaaeiio
aeathoue i?aenoaao aaaaeaoe, ui a oeueiio ?yae? a?i noi?oue aei eaa?oeo
aeeae/a, i?ae eiai aieieienoa a?aei?ia.

Eaa?oeei, eaa?oe ? aaoeo i?enooi? a iaaaeee?e e?eueeino?.

Iiae ? aieiaiei i?ia?aeii e?aiiacaio a ia?eoa??eieo /anoeiao aeiaai
ieacie. ?cio?iiiee iiae niinoa??aa?oueny a ae?eyieao, aea neoi/ai? eonee
oei?eoo. Iaaeiei oeeo ae?eyiie ?icoaoiaai? eieiii?oi? aeae?eaiiy
e?enoiaae?o-o?eaeei?oiaiai iiaeo c /a?aoaaiiyi ?cio?iiieo oa
neaaiai?cio?iiieo cii c aieieienoith aoaeiaith (ethnaoeo). Ia
aeeo?aeoia?ai? niinoa??aathoueny ?aoeaene, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
e?enoiaae?oo oa o?eaeei?oo (0,430; 0,410; 0,250 ii).

Iienai? i?ia?aeia?/i? iniaeeaino? ieacie, oi?ia ?? aeae?eaiue, a eio?eo
a?aenooiy oeaio?aeueia ii?iaeieia, ocaiaeaeothoueny c oyaeaiiyi i?i
ooai?aiiy i?ia?aeueieo o?e a?ae oeaio?o aei ?o ia?eoa???. Oeaio?aeuei?
/anoeie aeiaai ooai?eeenue o oie /an, eiee oei?eo ciaoiaeeany ia
ii/aoeia?e noaae?? aea?o?thaaiiy ? iaa ?ioaineaia caaa?aeaiiy. I?ae /an
?inoo aeiaai a?aeaoaaeenue ci?ie o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oiia o ei??
aea?o?thaaiiy. Oei?eo caciaa iiaeaeueoeo ci?i (ia?aoai?eany ia
a?ae?ioei?eo), c iueiai aoee aeeoaiaai? aeaiaioe-o?iiioi?e, ui i?ecaaei
aei ciaaa?aeaiiy i?ia?aeo. Ie?aiai?iy a?ae?ioei?eoo caiia?aei eiai
iiaeaeueoei ia?aoai?aiiyi.

4. AEEEE A EI?? AEA?O?THAAIIss OEUeO?AAACEO?A NA?AAeIUeIAI
IIAOAEUess ssE OI?IA AEAe?EAIIss NAIIOeA?O?A

A ei?? aea?o?thaaiiy oeueoaaaceo?a Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey iioe?ai?
??ciiiai?oi? ca neeaaeii oa oi?iith aeeeuei? ooai?aiiy. Aaaoe,
yoii-aaaoe oa yoia ? iaeieie c ??ciiaeae?a ?o i?ia?aeueiiai caiiaiaiiy.
O aea/aii? naiioea?o?a iaeiei ?c caaaeaiue aoei c’ynoaaiiy ?o aaiaceno,
ui iaiiaeeeai aac aeine?aeaeaiiy anueiai eiiieaeno aeeeueii?
i?ia?ae?caoe?? ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy.

AEeee ia??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eai? ca ieiuath ? ?ic??cii ei?e
aea?o?thaaiiy. Ca neeaaeii aeae?eai? oae? aeaee aeee: iiaoaeiaai?
o?eueee i?ia?aeaie a?oie e?aiiacaio; ia?aaaaeii e?aiaieno? i?e
i?aeii?yaeeiaai?e ?ie? i?ia?ae?a ?ioiai neeaaeo (o oiio /ene? — c
aeeth/aiiyie ai?uoth/i? ii?iaee); iiaoaeiaai? ia?aaaaeii iaeiei c
i?ia?ae?a oaeeo a?oi: oaeuee, a?oneo, a?ae?ieneaee cae?ca oa ia?aaioeth,
eaeueoeeo, iiio?ii?o i?e i?aeii?yaeeiaai?e ?ie? i?ia?ae?a e?aiiacaio.
Neeaae aeeth/aiue ii?iaee caeaaeeoue a?ae a?iniiao?e/iiai ??aiy
?icoaooaaiiy aeee. A ieaei?e /anoei? ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy oea na?iaioei?o,
aeua: iiio?ii?oeciaaiee na?iaioei?o, iiio?ii?o, aueioeoeciaaiee
iiio?ii?o, aueioeoiaee aa?aaao c aeii?oeith a?ae?ieneae?a ia?aaioeth.
*anoi cono??/athoueny a?inoee ca?ai o?ii?oo.

Oaeuee iiia?aaei?ie aeine?aeieeaie cono??/aany o Na?aaeiueiio Iiaoaeae?
o?eueee ye aeii?oea o na?iaioei?o?. Iaie a?i anoaiiaeaiee ye aieiaia
neeaaeiaa /anoeia i?iaeeee?a oiaueiith aei 10-15 ii, a eio?eo oaeiae
i?enooi?e eaa?oe oa ?iiae? iiio?ii?o, aueioeo, a?ae?ieneaee ia?aaioeth.
Oaeuee ooai?th? aeaa aeaee aa?aaao?a: caieeno?, iooe?, ui neeaaeathoueny
eoneaie ?ici??ii 0,012-0,018 ii oa inaaaeiaieieieno?, a yeeo i?ae
a?iieoey?iei i?e?ineiiii niinoa??aathoueny ?iaeea?aee aeiaaeeiith aei
ia?oeo ii ? oiaueiith 0,13-1,10 ii. Oe? inaaaei?iaeea?aee iiaoaeiaai? c
oiieeo, caeiiii??ii i???ioiaaieo eoni/ie. Inaaaeiaieieienoa oi?ia
aeae?eaiiy oaeueeo iiynith?oueny ooai?aiiyi iei inaaaeiii?oic ii
iiia?aaei?i i?ia?aeai (iai?eeeaae, o?ecioeeo). Aeeo?aeoia?aie iaio
ii?oieia?/ieo ??ciiaeae?a i?aeoe/ii ?aeaioe/i?, aiie i?noyoue on?
?aoeaene, ui oa?aeoa?i? aeey oaeueeo (0,934; 0,312 ii oa ?i.) oa an?
neeuei? ?aoeaene -eaa?oeo. Iieacieee caeiieaiiy oaeueeo: ng/=1,5980,002,
np/=1,5550,002.

A?ae?ieneaee ia?aaioeth aeoaea /anoi cono??/athoueny o aeeeao aa?oiuei?
/anoeie i?io?eth ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy. Aiie ooai?ththoue e??ee ? ie?aee ia
no?ieao o??uei, i?ae ca?iaie eaa?oeo, aeaiae?eoe a oaeoeaaeii?.

Aaoeo ? a?ae?iaaoeo ooai?ththoue: aeenia?ni? /anoee a oaeoeaaeiiiaeo
aa?aaaoao; iooe?, caieeno? aeae?eaiiy o aeeth/aiiyo iiio?ii?oo; ie?aee
i?ae oa?aie eaa?oeo ? oaeoeaaeiio; e??ee oa ieanoeiee, iiaoaeiaai?
aie/anoeie e?enoaeaie.

A?oneo oa iaiae?o cono??/aeenue o iie?i?ia?aeueieo aeeeao, aea aiie
ooai?ththoue ia?aeaeueii-oe/eoaao? aa?aaaoe acaeiaae no?iie.

Iiio?ii?o ooai?th? aeeth/aiiy a eaa?oe-oaeoeaaeiiiaeo aeeeao oa ?iiae? —
naiino?ei? aeeee.

Ii?oieia?/iee aiae?c aeee iieacaa, ui oi?ia aeee aecia/a?oueny, c
iaeiiai aieo — niiniaii caiiaiaiiy ii?iaeiei i?ia?aeueiith ?a/iaeiith, c
?ioiai — iioiaeaeaiiyi oeeo ii?iaeiei. Aeey eeaneo?eaoe?? aeee iniiaiei
oaeniiii neoaoaaa ii?oiaaiaoe/iee oei, yeee ae?aaea? ?aei?noue
ii?oieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae, no?oeoo?ii-oi?ioth/iai oaeoi?o oa iaoai?cio
ooai?aiiy i?ia?aeueiiai o?ea.

Aeae?eai? /ioe?e ii?oiaaiaoe/i? oeie aeee. Ia?oee oei — ea?eani? aeeee,
ui ooai?eeenue a ?acoeueoao? aeiiaiaiiy ii?iaeiei nenoai ia?ao?auaieo
o??uei aea?o?thaaiiy. Oe? aeeee ? oa?aeoa?ieie aeey ieaei?o cii ei?e
aea?o?thaaiiy. A na?iaioei?o? aiie neeaaeathoueny c eaeueoeeoo, aeua ca
?ic??cii o ieo oaeiae i?enooi? eaa?oe ? oaeoeaaeii, niinoa??aaeenue
aeiaaeee cai?uaiiy ieie eaeueoeeoo. O iiio?ii?oeciaaiiio na?iaioei?o?
aiie iiaoaeiaai? o?eueee i?ia?aeaie e?aiiacaio.

Ae?oaee oei — i?ino? ieeoiiiae?ai? oa ?icaaeoaeai? aeeee aeiiaiaiiy.
Aiie cono??/athoueny a na?aaei?o ai?eciioao ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy. Iiaa?oiy
aeee ia? ai?aenoi-yi/anoee ?aeue?o. Iioiaeaeaiiy o??uei aaaaea?oueny
iaie iaoaeoii?/iei, ?o ?ice?eooy iia’ycaia c? ciyooyi iaaaioaaeaiiy a
oiiaao aeecueei? aeaiii? iiaa?oi?. AEeee iiaoaeiaai? ia?aaaaeii
niieo/aiiyie e?aiiacaio, ye? ooai?ththoue e?onoeo?eaoe?ei? no?oeoo?e.

O?ao?e oei — eiia?iiaai?, neeaaei? oa iiaea?ei? aeeee aeiiaiaiiy
ii?iaeiei o??uei c ianooiiei iaaeieiaeeeueiei aeeoaoaaiiyi oa
ie?aiai?iiyi ai?uoth/i? ii?iaee. Aiie ?icoaoiaai? o cii? aaoeoeciaaiiai
iiio?ii?oo. On? oe? aeeee ia’?aeio? iayai?noue iaaeieiaeeeueiiai
ci?iaiiy ii?iaee. O eiia?iiaaieo aeeeao oeaio?aeueia ciia iiaoaeiaaia
oaeoeaaeii-eaa?oeiaei aa?aaaoii (aaaoii), ui ooai?eany caaaeyee
aeiiaiaiith ii?iaeieie o??ueie, a ciai?oiy ciia ooai?eaeanue i?ci?oa,
aiane?aeie ie?aiai?iiy ii?iaee acaeiaae aeeee. Iniiaith ciie ie?aiai?iiy
? nei?eiee-ieanoeiee oaeoeaaeiiiaiai, iiae-oaeoeaaeiiiaiai neeaaeo,
i???ioiaai? noaia?aeaeueii aei iaae? c oeaio?aeueiith ciiith. Ieanoeiee
c’?aeiai? i?ae niaith oiieeie ia?aoeieaie, ui ooai?th? eii??eoaaoo
oaenoo?o. Caiiaiaiiy i?ia?aeaie e?aiiacaio ae??aieo ii?iaeiei a ii?iae?
i?ecaaei aei ooai?aiiy iaaeiei iniiaii? aeeee yoie. A oe?eiio oae? aeeee
yaeythoue niaith yoii-aaao. Iiaea?ei? aeeee ooai?eeenue caaaeyee
aeiiaiaiiy oaeoeaaeii-eaa?oeiaei aa?aaaoii (aaaoii) ii?iaeiei caeeaeaieo
o??uei. I?ae /an iiaeaeueoiai ie?aiai?iiy ii?iaee i?ae aeeeaie
ooai?eeenue iiia?a/i? ia?aoeiee, ui c’?aeiaee ?o.

*aoaa?oee oei — neeaaei? aeeee cai?uaiiy i?ia?aeaie e?aiiacaio
iiia?aaei?o aeeeueieo aeae?eaiue. Oe? aeeee niinoa??aaeenue o
aaoeoeciaaiiio iiio?ii?o?. Ia?aaaaeathoue aeeee, ui ooai?eeenue caaaeyee
ie?aiai?iith aeeeueieo aeae?eaiue a?oneoo (iaiae?oo), oaeueeo, aueioeoo.
O aeeeao, iiaoaeiaaieo aueioeo-eaa?oeiaei aa?aaaoii (yoiith), oaeuee
caeeoeany o aeaeyae? ie?aieo ?ae?eo?a — ino??ae?a, a?oneo — o
i?ecaeueaaiaeia?e /anoei?. Oaeoeaaeii oeaiaioo? oe/eoaao? ?iaeea?aee
oaeueeo. Niinoa??aaeanue aeeea iiio?ii?oiaiai neeaaeo, o ye?e ii
i?inoyaaith a?aeaoaaany ia?ao?ae aei oaeeoeaaeii-eaa?oeiaiai aa?aaaoo
(aaaoo).

Oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo aeee naiioea?o?a ca i?io?eai ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy oa
ii?oieia?/ieie oeiaie iieacaiee ia iaethieo 1.

4321IIIIIIIV

Iaethiie 1. Noaia ?iciiae?eo aeee naiioea?o?a ca ?ic??cii ei?e
aea?o?thaaiiy oa ii?oiaaiaoe/ieie oeiaie.

— Aaaoe — ssoii-aaaoe — ssoie — Iai?iaeoeoeai? aeeee eaa?oeo

1 — 4 — ciie ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy: 1- aeeoaiaai? na?iaioei?oe, 2 —
iiio?ii?oe, 3 — aaoeoeciaai? iiio?ii?oe, 4 — io?e. I — IV —
ii?oiaaiaoe/i? oeie aeee.

Ia i?aenoaa? aeeeaaeaieo aeua aca?iia?aeiinei i?ia?ae?a o aeeeao,
iaeaaeiino? naiioea?o?a aei aeee iaaieo ii?oiaaiaoe/ieo oei?a, oa
oa?aeoa?o ?iciiae?eo oeeo oei?a o ei?? aea?o?thaaiiy c?iaeaii ianooiiee
aeniiaie: naiioea?oe ooai?eeenue a oiiaao ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy c ?ic/ei?a
e?aiiacaio, ui aeeo/aany i?ae /an a?ae?ie?co ii??ae o aa?oi?e cii? oa
?io?eueo?oaaany a ieaei? ciie. Aaaoe, yoii-aaaoe oa yoie iathoue
??ciee iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy: aaaoe ooai?eeenue oeyoii nae?aoe?eiiai
caiiaiaiiy ii?iaeiei o??uei, yoii-aaaoe — caaaeyee caiiaiaiith o??uei
oa iiaeaeueoiio ie?aiai?iith iaaeieio??ueiieo ii?enoeo ii??ae, yoie —
oeyoii cai?uaiiy oaeoeaaeiiii ooai?aieo ?ai?oa aeeeueieo aa?aaao?a.

5. AeAEI?AOEAI? AEANOEAINO? NAIIOeA?O?A NA?AAeIUeIAI IIAOAEssss

Aaaoe, yoie oa ieacia Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey ca aeaei?aoeaieie oa
iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai, ui i?aae’yaeythoueny
aei naiioea?o?a. Aiie iathoue aenieo oaa?ae?noue, o?i?/ii no?ee?,
caeaoi? iaaoaaoe aeca?eaeueio iie??iaeo. Ia i?aenoaa? oaenoo?ieo a?aei?i
aeae?eaii ?yae aeaei?aoeaieo ??ciiaeae?a aaao?a: a?ca?oi/anoee,
iiia?aaeaiee, i/eiaee, ii?en, ei?aeiaee, iioiaee, iaecaaeiee.

Aei oaeoi??a, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia ye?noue naiioea?o?a,
iaeaaeaoue ianooii?. A ianeaieo yoiao cono??/athoueny ae?eyiee c
iecueeei ai?noii e?aiiacaio, o iaaeao yeeo ye?noue iie??iaee
cieaeo?oueny. I?e iie??oaaii? aeayeeo aaao?a, ui iathoue ae??ai?
ii?iaeieie, ianoa ieneaeo o?iio iio?aiey? o ieo oa iia??oo? ciai?oi?e
aeaeyae ae?iao. Aeey caiia?aaiiy oeueiai ia?aae iie??oaaiiyi
i?iiiio?oueny caoia?oaaiiy ii?iaeiei aiieneaeiith eiiiiceoe??th,
niaoe?aeueiith ianoith ia iniia? i?ia?aeueieo noi?oae, aai iie??oaaoe
aaaoe aeiaciith ianoith. Ii?en oa yoio c aeiaoei caaa?aeaiiyi ia ne?ae
i?aeaeaaaoe aieeao aenieith oaiia?aoo?e.

A?ca?oi/aoee, iiia?aaeaiee, iioiaee, iaecaaeiee aaaoe, ieacia, i?eaeaoi?
aeey aeaioiaeaiiy thaae??ii-aaeaioa?aeieo ae?ia?a, yoia c
i?iaeeeeiai-ieyienoith oaenoo?ith — aeey aeaei?aoeaii-ooaeiaei?o
ae?ia?a, a i/eiaee aaao oa iaeii??aeii caaa?aeaia yoia — aeey ii?iaie.

AENIIAEE

1. C ei?ith aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?aaaceo?a a Na?aaeiueiio Iiaoaeae?
iia’ycai? ??ciiaeaee naiioea?o?a a?oie eaa?oeo: aaaoe, yoii-aaaoe, yoie
oa oei?eoiai?uoth/ee oaeoeaaeii (ieacia), ye? iathoue ?noioi?
ii?oieia?/i? oa i?ia?aeia?/i? a?aei?ie a?ae a?aeiieo ?ai?oa aiaeia?/ieo
ooai?aiue.

2. Aia?oa aeine?aeaeai? ??ci? niiniae ooai?aiiy aeeeueieo i?ia?aeueieo
o?e e?aiiacaio a oiiaao ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy. Aeae?eaii /ioe?e
ii?oiaaiaoe/i? oeie aeee, c yeeo aieiaieie aaaoiai?uthth/eie ? i?ino?
ieeoiiiae?ai? aeeee caiiaiaiiy ae?oaiai oeio; yoii-aaaoe oa ie?ai? aeeee
aaaoo a?aeianai? aei o?aoueiai oeio (eiia?iiaai? oa iiaea?ei? aeeee
caiiaiaiiy c ianooiiei iaaeieiaeeeueiei ie?aiai?iiyi), aeeee
/aoaa?oiai oeio (neeaaei? aeeee cai?uaiiy) ai?uothoue yoie oa ?ieiee —
ie?ai? aeaee aaaoo. Iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy i?ia?aeueieo aa?aaao?a o?aoueiai
oa /aoaa?oiai oei?a ? iiaei aeey aaao?a.

3. Caaa?aeaiiy aea/aiiai caeaiiai oaeoeaaeiio — ieacie iia’ycaia c
iaoai?/ieie aeeth/aiiyie oei?eoo. I?ia?aeuei? o?ea ieacie ooai?eeenue a
a?ia?aaiieo oiiaao, i?e eiie?aoe?eiiio ?ino? a neieiio noano?ao?.

4. Anoaiiaeaii, ui naiioea?oe Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey ?icoaoiaai? a ei??
aea?o?thaaiiy caeiiii??ii. AEeee, ui neeaaeai? aaaoii, ?ici?uothoueny a
?? ieaei?e oa na?aaei?e ciiao. AEeee yoii-aaaoo oa yoie ?icoaoiaai? o
aa?oi?e /anoei? i?io?eth aea?o?thaaiiy. Ieacia i?noeoueny a
oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? ciiaeueieo eiie?aoe?eieo ooai?aiue, ui
eieae?ciaai? a cii? eiioaeoo iaoaoeueo?aaaceo?a c iaaiaoi?aeieie
a?ai?oaie.

4. I?ae /an iiooeiai-?ica?aeoaaeueieo ?ia?o ia nee?eaoi? ?oaee i?eaeth
iaiao?aeii i?eae?eyoe oaaao ooai?aiiyi e?aiiacaio, aea/aoe ?o
aeaei?aoeai? aeanoeaino?. I?e aeaeiaooeo iiio?ii?o?a ne?ae ia?aaeaa/eoe
caniae uiaei noiooiiai aeeo/aiiy eaiaianaiioea?oii? ne?iaeie.

5. Aaaoe, yoii-aaaoe oa ieacia Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey i?eaeaoi? aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy thaae??ii-aaeaioa?aeieo ae?ia?a, yoie oa ieacia — aeey
ii?iaie, aeaei?aoeaii-ooaeiaei?o ae?ia?a. I?e ia?iaoe? yoii-aaaoo ?
ii?eno iaiao?aeii caiia?aaoe ?o iaa??aaiith. Ia?aae iie??oaaiiyi aaao?a
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny caoia?oaaiiy ii?iaeiei aiieneaeiith eiiiiceoe??th,
ianoaie ia iniia? i?ia?aeueieo noi?oae.

IA?AE?E IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aa?aiia I.I., Eooeaaie I.E., Eaieia Y.A. Ieia?aeiaey aaaoia
oeueo?ainiiaiuo ii?iae N?aaeiaai Iiaoaeuey // Ieia?aeiae/aneee aeo?iae,
1995.- O.17, N3.-N.74-79.

2. Eooeaaie I.E. Ieia?aeiaey e aaiacen ieaciu ec ei?u auaao?eaaiey
oeueo?aaaceoia N?aaeiaai Iiaoaeuey // Ieia?aeiae/aneee aeo?iae,
1998.-O.20, N3.-N.33-39.

3. Aa?aiia I.I., Eooeaaie I.E., Aa?aiia A.A. Iiaa naiioea?oia eai?iiy c
Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey // Eiooiaia oa aeaei?aoeaia eai?iiy. -1998.-N3
(13), 1998.-N.5-8.

4. Aa?aiia I.I., Eooeaaie I.E. Ii?oiaaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? aaao?a
Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey // Oace eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aaieia?/ii? iaoee
? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?”.- Euea?a:Aeae-ai Euea?anuee. oi-oo, 1995.-
N.105-106.

5. Aa?aiia I.I., Eooeaaie I.E. Eaiianaiioeaaoiia nu?uea a?oiiu
e?aiiacaia ia ianoi?iaeaeaiee ieeaey a N?aaeiai Iiaoaeuea // Na. iao/.
o?. IAAO.- Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAAO, 1998.- N.188-189.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eooeaaie I.E. I?ia?aeia?y eaiaianaiioea?oii? ne?iaeie a?oie eaa?oeo c
ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?aaaceo?a Oe?a?inueeiai ueoa (Na?aaei?
Iiaoaeaey).- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 04.00.20 — i?ia?aeia?y, e?enoaeia?ao?y.
E?eai??cueeee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, E?eaee ??a, 1999 ?.

Aea/ai? oiiae eieae?caoe??, ii?oieia?y, oaenoo?a oa i?ia?aeia?y aaao?a,
yoi oa oei?eoiai?uoth/iai oaeoeaaeiio (ieacie), anoaiiaeaieo a ei??
aea?o?thaaiiy na?iaioei?o?a Na?aaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey. Iaaaaeai? a?aei?oi?
iniaeeaino? aea/aieo aaao?a a?ae aiaeia?/ieo i?ia?aeueieo aa?aaao?a, ui
ooai?ththoueny o aoeeai?/ieo ii?iaeao. Aeine?aeaeaia aeeeueia
i?ia?ae?caoe?y ei?e aea?o?thaaiiy oeueo?aaaceo?a (c yeith iia’ycai?
naiioea?oe), aeae?eai? ii?oiaaiaoe/i? oeie aeee. Aecia/aiee iaoai?ci
ooai?aiiy i?ia?aeueieo aa?aaao?a, ui neeaaeathoue naiioea?oe. ?ic?iaeaia
aaiieia?/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y eaiaianaiioea?oii? ne?iaeie, iaaeai? i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?? ia?iaee oa aeei?enoaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: naiioea?oe, ei?a aea?o?thaaiiy, oeueo?aaaceoe,
ii?oieia?y aa?aaao?a.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eooeaaie I.E. Ieia?aeiaey eaiianaiioeaaoiiai nu?uey a?oiiu eaa?oea ec
ei?u auaao?eaaiey oeueo?aaaceoia Oe?aeineiai ueoa (N?aaeiaa Iiaoaeuea).-
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 04.00.20 — ieia?aeiaey, e?enoaeeia?aoey.
E?eai?iaeneee oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, E?eaie ?ia, 1999 a.

Eco/aiu oneiaey eieaeecaoeee, ii?oieiaey, oaenoo?a e ieia?aeiaey aaaoia,
yoi e oei?eo-niaea?aeauaai oaeoeaaeiia (ieaciu), onoaiiaeaiiuo a ei?a
auaao?eaaiey na?iaioeieoia N?aaeiaai Iiaoaeuey. I?eaaaeaiu
ioee/eoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe eco/aiiuo aaaoia io aiaeiae/iuo ieia?aeueiuo
aa?aaaoia, ia?acothueony a aoeeaie/aneeo ii?iaeao. Enneaaeiaaia
aeeeueiay ieia?aeecaoeey ei?u auaao?eaaiey oeueo?aaaceoia (n eioi?ie
naycaiu naiioeaaou), auaeaeaiu ii?oiaaiaoe/aneea oeiu aeee. Ii?aaeaeai
iaoaieci ia?aciaaiey ieia?aeueiuo aa?aaaoia, ninoaaeythueo naiioeaaou.
?ac?aaioaia aaiiieiae/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey eaiianaiioeaaoiiai nu?uey,
aeaiu i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aai ia?aaioea e eniieueciaaieth.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: naiioeaaou, ei?a auaao?eaaiey, oeueo?aaaceou,
ii?oieiaey aa?aaaoia.

ABSTRAKT

Kutsevol M.L. Mineralogy of silica group gems from the crust of
weathering of the ultrabasites of the Ukrainian shield (Middle Bug
area).- Manuscript.

A thesis for the candidate’s degree in geological sciences on
speciality 04.00.20 — mineralogy, crystallography. Krivoy Rog technical
university, Krivoy Rog, 1999.

There have been studied the mode of occurrence, the morphology, texture
and mineralogy of agates, jaspers, chlorite-containing chalcedony
(plasma) found in serpentinites’ crust of weathering in the Middle Bug
area. Some peculiarities distinguishing the studied agates from the
analogous mineral aggregates formed in volcanic rocks are given. The
vein mineralization of the ultrabasites’ crust of weathering has been
studied , the gems are connected with, the morphogenetic types of veins
are established. The mechanism of formation of the mineral aggregates
composing the gems was defined. Gemmological classification of the
gemstones has been worked out and practical recommendations on their
treatment are given.

Key words: gemstones, crust of weathering, ultrabasites, morphology of
aggregates.

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