I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Iaaia O?aiea

OAeE 549

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Aeye?a Aaneeue Ieaen?eiae/

IIE?INO?OEOO?IA AOAeIAA AEIA*AAEO EAIIIOeIA

OA ?IEUe O?AEOAEUeII? E?ENOAEICAOeI?

O ?O OI?IOAAIII

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 04.00.20 i?ia?aeia?y, e?enoaeia?ao?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaieia?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Iaaia
O?aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee :

aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaoeianueeee I?ano
Ieey?iae/, Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Iaaia O?aiea,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?ia?aeia??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Iaaeeoei A.?. aeieoi? aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? (?inoeooo
aaio?i??, i?ia?aeia?? oa ?oaeiooai?aiiy IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a)

Cocoe O.A. eaiaeeaeao aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
(Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee, i. Eooeuee)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: E?eai??cueeee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao (eaoaae?a
i?ia?aeia??, iao?ia?ao?? oa ei?enieo eiiaeei)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “6” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 1530 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.051.04 o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith:

290005, i. Euea?a, aoe. A?ooaanueeiai, 4, aoae. 219

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?i. Iaaia O?aiea ca aae?anith: 290005 i.Euea?a, aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “27” na?iiy 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aaie.-i?i. iaoe ?.I.Neeaei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. AEia/ieai’yia oai?iaa (AEEO) iaeia c
iaeiioe?ai?oeo iaaeoa ethaeeie, yea ca /anoioith iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy
a inoaii? ?iee aeia?aaeeea aiaiaeeoeeo ? aeeoea ia ia?oa i?noea. Ca
ieioe? 10 ?ie?a caoai?thaai?noue ia AEEO c?inea i?eaeecii o aeaa ?ace,
cia/ii /ano?oa oey iaaeoaa cono??/a?oueny o iieiaeeo in?a. Ca aeaieie
na?oiai? iaaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, aeia/aa? eiie?aiaioe aeyaeythoueny o 10%
aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy. AEEO cono??/a?oueny o 10% /ieia?e?a oa 20% ae?iie,
noa?oeo 40 ?ie?a. Oae, o NOA ui??/ii i?iaiaeeoueny a?ey 500 oen.
oieaoeenoaeoii?e, a caaaeueia e?euee?noue iin??a eiie?aiaio?a noaiiaeoue
15-20 iei.

C i?ia?aeia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy aeia/aaeo eai?ioe?a
(AEE) “caeiaeiaai?” a iniaeeainoyo ?oiuei? ii?oieia??, no?oeoo?e oa
neeaaeo. Ieoaiiy aaiaceno AEE ?acii c? niaoeeo?eith e?enoae?caoe??
eiiiiiaio?a e?oiaaiii? aeia/?, ca/?iathoue ooiaeaiaioaeuei?
i?ia?aeia?/i? i?iaeaie e?enoaeiaaiaco o ia??aiiaaaeieo oiiaao. Iaeiei ?c
i?eioeeiiai iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie a inoaii? ?iee
noaea oai??y o?aeoae?a (OO), cai?iiiiiaaia aaeuea?enueeei a/aiei Aaioa
Iaiaeaeuea?ioii.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a
?aieao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe cae?enithaaeenue i?e aeeiiaii?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo i?iaeo?a eaoaae?e i?ia?aeia?? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Iaaia O?aiea oa eaai?aoi??? aeia/ieai’yii?
oai?iae Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Aeaieea
Aaeeoeueeiai: “Iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a ca?iaeaeaiiy, ?inoo oa ?ic/eiaiiy
a?ii?ia?aeueieo ooai?aiue, ui aeieeathoue i?e aeia/ieai’yi?e oai?ia?”,
“Aea/aiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iniia i?ioean?a eaiaiaooai?aiiy o ethaeeie” oa
“A?ii?ia?aeia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeia/aaeo eai?ioe?a oa iiaeaethaaiiy
i?ioean?a ?o ?inoo i?e aeia/ieai’yi?e oai?ia?.”

Iaoa: ?ic?iaea oe?e?nii? a?ii?ia?aeia?/ii? iiaeae? iioiaaiaco AEE.

Iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue: 1. A?ii?ia?aeia?/ia,
?aio?aiiaeeo?aeoe?eia oa ?aio?aiioiiia?ao?/ia aea/aiiy ?a/iaeiiiai
neeaaeo oa no?oeoo?ii-oaenoo?ieo iniaeeainoae AEE oa oaa?aei? oace
aeia/?.

2. Aecia/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae oa iniaeeainoae i?aeeai?ioeaaeo
aca?iiae?e o ??cieo ia?anoa?e/ieo anioe?aoe?yo, ca ii?oieia?/ieie oa
iao?ieia?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie AEE.

3. Eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy o?aeoaeueiiai ?inoo: niinoa?aaeaiiy oa
e?euee?niee iien ?inoiaeo aoaeo?a, aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae o aoaeia?
aeaiaei??ieo oa o?eaei??ieo eeanoa??a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. 1. Ia iniia? caaaeueii-i?ia?aeia?/ieo oa iioiaai?/ieo
i?aeoiae?a cai?iiiiiaaia i?eioeeiiai iiaa a?iioaca aaiaceno AEE.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaoai?ci ?inoo noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoieo oieanoa?eiiaeo
aa?aaao?a iiaea aooe iienaiee ca aeiiiiiaith oai??? o?aeoae?a.

2. Iaoiaee ?aio?aiioiiia?ao?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee aeineiiaei
aea/eoe caeiiii??iino? i???ioaoe?e iai?yie?a i?iiai?a c??i/ie ii?iaeiei
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? o oanaoeiaeo eai?ioeyo, ye?, a naith /a?ao,
aeacothoue ia iaea?eueo “a?aceea?” ae?eyiee AEE.

3. Iaoiaeii eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a
aeeooc?eii-iaiaaeaii? aa?aaaoe?? aecia/ai? oa iienai? iniiai? oeie
?inoiaeo aoaeo?a, ui niinoa??aathoueny i?e o?aeoaeuei?e e?enoae?caoe??.
Anoaiiaeai? oiiae i?iyao ?inoiaeo aoaeo?a o a?ii?ia?aeueieo ooai?aiiyo.

4. Iienaii yaeua naii?oeiaoe?? aeia/aaeo eai?ioe?a o ia?anoa?e/ieo
anioe?aoe?yo oanaoeiaeo: AEE. Anoaiiaeaiee aaiethoe?eiee ?yae ci?ie
ii?oino?oeoo?e AEE.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea i?ia?aeia?/iiai
aea/aiiy AEE oa aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? ?oiuei? i?e?ino?oeoo?e e
ii?oieia?? aeicaieeee canoinoaaoe i?eioeeiiai iiaee i?aeo?ae aei
ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aaiaco AEE. Ai?iaaaeaeaia o i?aeoeeo i?ia?aeia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue a?ii?ia?aeueieo ia’?eo?a iaoiaeeea ?aio?aiioiiia?ao?/iiai
aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?o ?iciiae?eo ?aio?aiiiaeeiath/eo i?ia?aeueieo oac oa
i?e?ino?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae AEE. Aia?oa ?aio?aiioiiia?ao?/ieie
iaoiaeaie aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? i???ioaoe?? ii?iaeiei
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? o oanaoeiaeo AEE a?aeiinii ?oiuei? aioo??oiuei?
i?e?ino?oeoo?e oa ii?oieia??. Aeiaaaeaia coiiaeai?noue iiyae ii?iaeiei
ia?aeiiei o?aeoaeueiei iaoai?ciii oi?ioaaiiy oieanoa?eiiaeo aa?aaao?a.
Iienaii iaoai?ci naii?oeiaoe?? aeia/aaeo eai?ioe?a oa anoaiiaeai?
ii?oino?oeoo?i? ia?aaeoiiae eiai i?iyaeaiiy.

Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. A iniiao ?iaioe eyaee
?acoeueoaoe eaai?aoi?ieo a?ii?ia?aeia?/ieo oa ?aio?aiia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue AEE, a?ae?a?aieo o ee?i?oe? eaoaae?e caaaeueii? oa
oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai (caa?aeoaa/ i?io. Iaaeianueeee
I.I.) oa eaai?aoi??? aeia/ieai’yii? oai?iae (caa?aeoaa/ i?io. Aai?oeaae/
ss.A.) 252 AEE a?ae 43 oai?eo ia AEEO oa i?iae iia?aoe?eii? aeia/?.
Iioiaai?/i?, ?aio?aiiaeeo?aeoe?ei? oa ?aio?aiioiiia?ao?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a
aeeooc?eii-iaiaaeaii? aa?aaaoe?? i?iaiaeeeenue o eaai?aoi???
?aio?aiino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co oa iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a o aaieia??
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Ia.O?aiea. *eneiaa
iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a o?aeoaeueiiai ?inoo cae?enithaaeenue ia IE IBM
(Pent?um 150 Mhz, RAM 16 Mb).

Ioae?eaoe?? oa iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??
iioae?eiaaii 14 ?ia?o. Aaciina?aaeiuei caeiaoaa/ai aea/aii iao?ieia?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee AEE, ?oith i?e?ino?oeoo?o, ii?oieia?th, ?a/iaeiiee
neeaae, aeine?aeaeaii iniaeeaino? e?enoae?caoe?? eiiiiiaio?a aeia/? [1,
4, 7, 8]; ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?aio?aiioiiia?ao?/iiai aea/aiiy AEE,
ciyoi iiiaae 700 ?aio?aiioiiia?ai [2, 3, 5, 9]; anoaiiaeaii
caeiiii??iino? naiii?aai?caoe?? ?a/iaeie AEE o i?ioeanao ?oiueiai ?inoo,
ci?ie ii?oieia?? oa ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? [1, 10, 11, 13]; ?ic?iaeaii
i?ea?iaeueio a?iioaco oi?ioaaiiy aeia/aaeo eai?ioe?a [1, 6, 12, 14].

I?e aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeena?oaio oaeiae aeei?enoiaoaaa
?ioi?iaoe?th io?eiaio c anana?oiuei? eiii’thoa?ii? ia?aae? INTERNET, ?c
aeia?aeeiaeo oa aiae?oe/ieo iaoa??ae?a ooiaeaoe?? «Dr H.Falk Pharma»
(I?ia//eia), c oiiaeiaeo iaoa??ae?a eaai?aoi??? aeia/ieai’yii? oai?iae
EAeIO.

?iaioa aeeiiaia i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aeieoi?a aaieiai-i?ia?aeia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?a I.I.Iaoeianueeiai oa aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?a
ss.A.Aai?oeaae/a. I?e aeeiiaii? ie?aieo ?icae?e?a ?iaioe aaoi?
ei?enooaaany ii?aaeaie oa eiinoeueoaoe?yie, iaaiai?thaaa oa a?a
aeeneon?? c aaaaoueia ni?a?ia?oieeaie EAeO oa EAeIO. Oea i?ioani?e
I.I.Iaaeianueeee oa C.A.Aa?oioeinueeee, aeioeaioe ?.O.Aaeoiaiei,
I.I.Iaaeoiue, E.C.Neaeoi, TH.?.Oaaei?eoei, A.I.ssi/oe, , a oaeiae
A.N.Aa?a?inueea, ?.I.A?iaec?inueea, I.ss.Aeoie/, O.I.Aaeaeei,
A.I.Aeai?yinueeee, I.A.Aeye?a, N.N.Iaea?iaa, N.C.Iae?i?/, TH.I.Iaeueiee,
I.I.?acoia?aa, Ae.E.?iiai/ae, O.?.Oaiioei, A.A.Ooi. On?i ?i aaoi?
aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ia II
I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? “I?ia?aeia?y ? aeeooy: a?ii?ia?aeuei?
aca?iiae??” (Neeoeaea?, 1996), Oaeuee neiiic?oi? ? 92 “Iia? iai?yiee o
aaiaoieia??” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1996), XVII eiia?an? I?aeia?iaeiiai
nithco e?enoaeia?ao?a, (N?aoe, NOA, 1996), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“Caeiiiia?iinoe yaiethoeee caiiie ei?u” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1996),
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Niaeo?ineiiey, ?aioaaiia?aoey e
e?enoaeeioeiey ieia?aeia” (Eacaiue, 1997),
a?ei?onueei-iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiio Oaeuee-neiiic?oi? “Iia? iai?yiee o
e?eoaaii? oai?ia ia/?iee oa eeoie” (Euea?a, 1997), I?aeia?iaeiiio
Oaeuee-neiiic?oi? “Iia? aniaeoe o aaiaoieia?? oa aano?iaioa?ieia??”
(Oa?e?n?, 1998), I?aeia?iaei?e ia?aae? “E?enoaeia?ao?y-98” (Neeoeaea?,
1998), IX c’?cae? I?ia?aeia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa ?in?enueei? AI
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1999), a oaeiae ia ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
aaieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ia.
O?aiea oa Iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ?i. O. Oaa/aiea.

Iieiaeaiiy, ui caoeuathoueny:

1. Ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo aeia/ieai’yii? oai?iae aeii?ioth/ei niiniaii
oi?ioaaiiy AEE ? o?aeoaeueiee iaoai?ci ?inoo, yeee iaoiiaeth? oi?ioaaiiy
iaoanoaa?eueieo noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoieo aa?aaao?a oieanoa?eio. ?oi?
i?e?ino?oeoo?i? oa ii?oieia?/i? iniaeeaino? aecia/athoueny nooiaiai
i?iyao a?aeiia?aeieo ?inoiaeo aoaeo?a, ui iathoue i?noea i?e oi?ioaaii?
eeanoa??a o iiaeae? aeeooc?eii-iaiaaeaii? aa?aaaoe??.

2. Iayai?noue e?eueeio oeaio??a o?aeoaeueii? aa?aaaoe?? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
?ioaineaieo i?aeeai?ioeaaeo aca?iiae?e, i?i?i?caoe?? aia?aaoe/ieo
iai?oaeaiue o noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoieo aa?aaaoao, c?inoaiiy ni?aoe?? ?
aaeaac?? eiiiiiaio?a aeia/? oa ?o ?ice?enoae?caoe??, oi?ioaaiiy
ia?anoa?e/ieo anioe?aoe?e oanaoeiaeo AEE c aeii?ioth/ei
inaaaeioao?aaae?e/iei aaa?oonii.

3. C?inoaiiy ?ici???a eai?ioe?a oa aaiethoe?y ?a/iaeiiiai neeaaeo aeia/?
coiiaeththoue i?ioeane ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? ia?aeiieo i?e?ino?oeoo?:
oi?ioaaiiy e?oiiie?enoae?/ieo, noa?i?aeie?oiaeo aa?aaao?a oieanoa?eio ii
ia?aeiiiio noa?ie?oo c ooai?aiiyi ?aae?aeueii-i?iiaienoeo aa?aaao?a oa
oi?ioaaiiy ii?iaeiei (eai?ioe?a ?c “c??i/eaie”) ?c /?oeith i???ioaoe??th
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei oanaoeiaeo iiaa?oiiue.

4. ssaeua e?enoae?caoe?eii? naiii?aai?caoe?? ?a/iaeie, ui iathoue i?noea
i?e oi?ioaaii? AEE, /anoeiai i?eoaiaii? aaaaoueii aaieia?/iei i?ioeanai:
?inoo aeaiae?eo?a, ?ice?enoae?caoe?? aoeeai?/iiai neea, oi?ioaaiith
a?aioey?ieo aa?aaao?a. Iaeiae oi/ieo aiaeia?a i?ioean?a
e?enoae?caoe?eii? naiii?aai?caoe??, ui iienai? aeey AEE, o i?e?iaeieo
aaieia?/ieo i?ioeanao ia aeyaeaii.

Ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 372 iaca. O i?e i?noeoueny 10 oaaeeoeue
oa 59 ?enoie?a. Oaenoiaa /anoeia aeeeaaeaia ia 104 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE ci?no ?iaioe

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Noai i?iaeaie: iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo”
aena?oeai? i?iaeaie a?ii?ia?aeia??, aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae aeeaith oa
iaaeeaith i?e?iaeith, no/ani? oyaeaiiy i?i o?c?ieia?th oa iaoieia?th
aeia/aaeae?eaiiy a i?aai?ci? ethaeeie oa iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy aeia/aaeo
eai?ioe?a. A inoaii? ?iee i?ia?aeia?y aeinyaea cia/ieo oni?o?a o
aea/aii? ie?aieo i?ia?ae?a a?iaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy, noi?ioaaaoe aeaniee
iaa?? iaoiae?a i?ciaiiy i?ioean?a ?o aaiaco, a iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo
ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiue noaee i?ia?aeuei? ooai?aiiy a i?aai?ci?
ethaeeie. A ?acoeueoao? aaaaoueia aeine?aeieeaie aoei cai?iiiiiaaii
aeae?eyoe a?ii?ia?aeia?th ye iiaee naiino?eiee iai?yiie ciaiue ia noeeo
i?ia?aeia??, a?ieia?? oa iaaeeoeeie. Cia/iee aianie o ?icaeoie
a?ii?ia?aeia?? aianee O.Aaea?, N.Aoeueia?n, A.A?aai, O.A.Cocoe,
O.Eaiaaea, A.A.Ei?aai, Ae.Iae-Eiiiae, I.Iaae?eianueeee, A.E.Iie?aiei,
?.Oienaa/, I.I.THoe?i oa aaaaoi ?ioeo o/aieo.

I?ae aieeaii ii?ooaiue i?ioean?a iai?io ?a/iaei o aaiaoi-a?e?a?i?e
nenoai? ethaeeie iiaeooue aeieeaoe oieaie?oe aai aeia/aa? eai?ioe?
niaoeeo?/i? iaoiaaii? a?ii?ia?aeuei? ooai?aiiy. AEia/aa? eai?ioe?
iaoai?/ii iiae?aciththoue i’ye? oeaieie aeia/aaiai i?oo?a, ? i?e/eiith
caiaeueieo i?ioean?a, aeeeeeathoue a?aeiia?aei? aieueia? neiioiie /e
aeia/ieai’yio oai?iao oieae?o?ac. ?ic??ciythoue aeaa iaeiioe?ai?o? oeie
oieae?o?aco: oieanoa?eiiaee (eiee oi?iothoueny AEE, aeii?ioth/ei
eiiiiiaioii yeeo ? oieanoa?ei) oa i?aiaioiee (o AEE ia?aaaaea?
a?e??oa?iao eaeueoe?th).

I?e eaiaiaooai?aii? o aeia/iiio i?oo?? noai?ththoueny iaeni?eyoeea?o?
oiiae (ii??aiyii c aeia/aaeae?eueieie oeyoaie /e ia/?ieith) aeey
eieaeueiiai ia?ane/aiiy aeia/? oieanoa?eiii, oi?ioaaiiy oeaio??a
e?enoae?caoe?? oa eiiaaeoe?eii? oee?eoeyoe?? aeia/?. Iiaeeea?noue
ioeeaaoe?? e?enoae?o?a oieanoa?eio aeieea? oiae?, eiee aeiey oieanoa?eio
a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? e?i?ae?a o ia?ane/ai?e aeia/? neeaaea? iiiaae
10% (oiaoi i?e iaaeeeoeiaiio iaaeoiaeaeaii? o aeia/aaeae?eueio nenoaio
oieanoa?eio /e aeao?oeeo? eiai nietha?e?caoi??a). Ca?iaeaeaiith oeaio??a
e?enoae?caoe?? AEE ni?ey? oaeiae aaeaiiae?aia eiinenoaioe?y aeia/?, yea
coiiaeth? aeeo/aiiy oieanoa?eio ?c iane/aii? aeia/? oa ?? eieaeueia
ia?ane/aiiy iaaeiei ?inoo/iai AEE. A iaeaeaio aeiaaeeao aeey aeieeiaiiy
e?enoae?a iaiao?aeii iiaeieaoe aia?aaoe/iee aa?’??, i?e?iaea yeiai
iia’ycaia c ooai?aiiyi a?aieoe? iiae?eo i?ae oaa?aeith oa ??aeeith
oacaie.

I?iaaaeaiee e?eoe/iee aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue, ui iaeiei ?c
i?eioeeiiai iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei ?aeiino?oeoe?? oiia oa iaoai?ci?a
oi?ioaaiiy i?ia?aeueieo ? a?ii?ia?aeueieo aa?aaao?a iiaea aooe oai??y
o?aeoae?a (OO), cai?iiiiiaaia A.Iaiaeaeuea?ioii. O ia?aeii?e
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? o?aeoae oea “…no?oeoo?a, ui neeaaea?oueny c /anoei,
ye? aei iaaii? i??e iiae?ai? aei oe?eiai”. Oea ? a?aeiia
“naiiiiae?ai?noue” o?aeoaeueieo oi?i, aeanoea?noue, ui coiiaeth?
iane?aeoaaiiy iaaieo aeaiaio?a aoaeiae a i?ioean? aaiethoe?? nenoaie. Ia
iniia? oaeiai i?aeoiaeo iiaeia iienaoe: a) i?ioeane oi?ioaaiiy
aeaiae?eo?a; a) naiii?aai?caoe?? iiaa?oi?; a) iioe?aiiy o??uei o ??cieo
oeiao na?aaeiaeu. O?aeoaeuei? oi?ie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaoe?eeie
?ici??iinoyie i?ae 1 oa 2 o aeaiaei??iiio oa i?ae 2 ? 3 o o?eaei??iiio
i?inoi?ao. Iaei??th c ia?aaaa o?aeoaeueiiai aiae?co ? a?aeiinii i?inoioa
/eneiaeo iia?aoe?e oa iiaeeea?noue i?yiiai (a?coaeueiiai) iiaeaethaaiiy
neeaaeieo ca nai?th i?e?iaeith oaiiiai?a, i?ioean?a oa yaeu. O
e?enoaeiaaiaoe/iiio ieai? c iiceoe?e oai??? o?aeoae?a aia?oa
o?aeoaeueiee i?aeo?ae cai?iiiioaaee R.M.Brady & R.C.Ball, (1984) i?e
iien? ?inoo o?ueioi??ieo aeaiae?eo?a aeaeo?ie?oe/ii? i?ae?, a
A.TH.Aaaeiaaeaiei, ?.I.Eoae/ea oa I.A.Eo?ee (1992) iienaee oi?ioaaiiy
a?iaaiieo aeaiae?eo?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “A?ii?ia?aeia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeia/aaeo eai?ioe?a
oa oaa?aei? oace e?oiaaiii? aeia/?” iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Ca iaeneiaeueiei (Lmax), na?aaei?i (Lm?d) oa
i?i?iaeueiei (Lm?n) ?ici??aie ia a?noia?aiao ?iciiae?eo aeine?aeaeoaai?
eai?ioe? ooai?ththoue iaeneioie i?e Lmax 7 ii, Lm?d 6.5 ii oa Lm?n 6
ii. Aeyaey?oueny /?oea oaiaeaioe?y aei “aneiao?ecaoe??” a?noia?ai
?iciiae?eo c? c?inoaiiyi ?ici???a eai?ioe?a – c?inoaiiy ai?cio?ii??
?ici???a i?eaeecii o 24-27% ia?aeiii ?ciiao?e/ieo eiie?aiaio?a.
Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie eiie?aiaioaie o oai?eo ia AEEO ? ae??ai? eai?ioe? c
iaeneiaeueiei ?ici??ii 8-6 ii, na?aaei?i 7-6 ii oa i?i?iaeueiei 6-5
ii; ianith ~150-200 ia, ia’?iii ~100-150 ii3 oa ieoiiith aaaith 1.06
a/ni3.

Ae?aaiinoeea ?a/iaeiiiai neeaaeo AEE i?iaiaeeeenue iaoiaeii ii?ioeiai?
?aio?ai?anueei? aeeo?aeoiiao??? (aeeo?aeoiiao? Ae?II-3.0, Cu E
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, /2-neaioaaiiy, oaeaee?noue aeaoaeoi?a 1°/oa oa 4°/oa
(caeaaeii a?ae caaaeaiue, ui ae??ooaaeenue). Ca ?a/iaeiiei neeaaeii
na?aae aeine?aeaeoaaieo 43 ia?anoa?e/ieo anioe?aoe?e AEE o 35 aeiaaeeao
(81.6%) iniiaieie neeaaeieeaie eai?ioe?a aoee iiiia?ae?ao oa aia?ae?eo
oieanoa?eio (oieanoa?eiiaee oieae?o?ac), oiae? ye eeoa o 8 aeiaaeeao
(18.4%) aeii?ioaaei inaaeaeaiiy a?e??oa?iaoo eaeueoe?th (i?aiaioiee
oieae?o?ac). Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?aio?aiiaeeo?aeoe?eiiai aea/aiiy
?a/iaeiiiai neeaaeo iiaeia aeae?eeoe 7 a?ii?ia?aeueieo anioe?aoe?e o
AEE: aia?ae?eo oieanoa?eiiao, iiiia?ae?ao oieanoa?eiiao, aia?ae?eae
oieanoa?eio-iiiia?ae?ao oieanoa?eiiao, oaoa?eo-a?e??oa?iao
eaeueoe?th-iiiia?ae?ao oieanoa?eiiao, a?aaii?o-a?e??oa?iao
eaeueoe?th-iiiia?ae?ao oieanoa?eiiao, eaeueoeeo-a?e??oa?iao
eaeueoe?th-aia?ae?eo oieanoa?eiiao, a?oeie?o-a?e??oa?iao
eaeueoe?th-aia?ae?eo oieanoa?eiiao, a?e??oa?iao eaeueoe??ao.

Ii?oieia?y eai?ioe?a (?en.1), ?oi?e ia?en, aaa?oon, neoeueioo?iaai?noue
? oi?iooaao?noue iiaa?oi? a i?ioean? eaiaiaooai?aiiy ci?iththoueny oa
aaiethoe?iiothoue. Ciai?oi?e ia?en eiie?aiaioo aecia/athoue aeaa
oaeoi?e: aioo??oiy aoaeiaa eai?ioey oa oa?aeoa? aca?iia?aeiioaiue i?ae
eai?ioeai ? na?aaeiaeuai, a yeiio a?i noi?ioaaany /e ia?aaoaa?
(aeia/iee i?oo?, aeia/aaeae?eueia i?ioiea, e?euee?noue oa ?ici??e
eai?ioe?a-non?ae?a).

aaaa?en. 1. Ii?oieia?/i? ??ciiaeaee oieanoa?eiiaeo AEE.

a o?eaei??iee aeaiae?eo; a eai?iaoeue ia?aaoey?ii? (iai?aaeeueii?)
oi?ie;

a ie?oaeee AEE; a iaaeueiee AEEaa?en. 2. Iaeeii/iee (nie?oa?iee)
aeia/aaee eai?iaoeue (a) oa aaaaoi/enaeueia anioe?aoe?y oanaoeiaeo
(ia?aiaieo) AEE (a).aa?en. 3. Ii?oieia?y aeaiae?eoieo eeanoa??a, ui
noi?ioaaeenue i?e e?enoae?caoe?? e?oiaaiii? aeia/? (a); oa ii?oieia?y
o?aeoaeueiiai eeanoa?o, noi?iiaaiiai i?e eiii’thoa?iiio iiaeaethaaii?
aeeooc?eii-iaiaaeaii? aa?aaaoe?? (a).

Na?aae aeine?aeaeoaaieo AEE aeae?ey?oueny /ioe?e iniiaieo ii?oieia?/ieo
??ciiaeaee: AEE c ia?aaoey?iith (iai?aaeeueiith) ii?oieia??th
(iioe?ai?noue 15 %), ie?oae? (17.5 %), iaaeuei? (24.2 %) oa ia?aiai?
AEE (43.3 %). O aaaaoi/enaeueieo anioe?aoe?yo AEE aeii?iothoue ia?aiai?
(oanaoeia?) eiie?aiaioe (?en.2). Ca iiae?ai?noth aei eeane/ieo
e?enoaeia?ao?/ieo iie?aae??a, eiie?aiaioe oeueiai oeio ae?aaiinooaaeenue
ye oao?aaae?e, eoae, ieoaaae?e /e ?io? iiia?aiieee oa ?oi? eiia?iaoe?? c
aeiaeaaaiiyi i?ao?eno inaaaei-. Oea aeicaieeei iienaoe o oanaoeiaeo AEE
e?enoaeia?ao?/i? in? neiao??? 2-ai, 3-ai, 4-ai, oa 6-ai ii?yaee?a oa
eaac?e?enoae?/i? in? 5-ai, 7-ai ? aeueo ii?yaee?a.

Ca iayai?noth a?aeiia?aeieo aeaiaio?a neiao??? oanaoeia? iie?aae?e
iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia inaaaeie?enoaeia?ao?/i?, inaaaeieaac?e?enoae?/i? oa
eiia?iaoe?ei?. Ia nueiaiaei? caaaeueiii?eeiyoiai oa?i?iieia?/iiai
aia?aoo aeey iieno iie?aae??a c aeaiaioaie eaac?e?enoae?/ii? oa
ae?iaiai? neiao??? ua ia ?ic?iaeaii. I?ioa ?o iiaeia iienaoe oa?i?iaie
eeane/ii? e?enoaeia?ao?? c canoinoaaiiyi iecueeineiao?e/ieo i?inoeo
oi?i: inaaaeiiiiiaae?e, inaaaeiae?aae?e, inaaaeii?iaei?aee. Na?aae
aenieineiao?e/ieo inaaaeie?enoaeia?ao?/ieo iie?aae??a aeii?iothoue
inaaaeioao?aaae?e (23.61%), iaio iioe?ai? inaaaeieoae (4.63%) oa
inaaaeiieoaaae?e (6.02%). Aeineoue /anoi cono??/athoueny
inaaaei?iiaiaae?e (6.02%), inaaaeioao?aaiiaeuei? oa inaaaeio?eaiiaeuei?
i??ai?aee (5.56% oa 4.17%).

Iaea?eueo iioe?aiith ii?oieia?/iith a?aei?iith e?enoae?a iiiia?ae?aoo
oieanoa?eio ? eiia?iaoe?y o?ueio i?iaei?ae?a. Aeniea ?aoeeoey?ia
u?euei?noue i?iaei?ae?a ii??aiyii c ?ioeie iiaeeeaeie i?inoeie oi?iaie
coiiaeth? oi?ioaaiiy aie/anoiai, oaaee/anoiai, ieanoei/anoiai ia?eno.
I?ioa a inoaii? ?iee aeyaeeiny, ui oaeiai ?iaeo e?enoaee, iniaeeai
aaeeeeo ?ici???a, cono??/athoueny a iaiaaeai?e e?eueeino? eai?ioe?a
ii?yaeeo 5-10%. Na?aae e?enoae?o?a iiiia?ae?aoo oieanoa?eio iaea?eueo
?iciianthaeaeai? aeieia?, aea?eieeia? (iae/ano?oa iie?neioaoe/i?),
ieoeiiiae?ai?, ?icuaieai?, aeaiae?eoi? oa noa?ie?enoae?/i? a?aei?ie. O
e?euee?niiio a?aeiioaii? na?aae oi?i ciaoiaeaeaiiy oieanoa?eio o AEE
ia?aaaaeathoue iie?oia? oa ie?a/ano? aa?aaaoe aii?oii? oace, ?icuaieai?
e?enoaee oa aea?eieee e?enoae?a, noa?ie?oia? oa aeaiae?eoi? aa?aaaoe.

Oi/a o?eaei??i? aeaiae?eoe oieanoa?eio aeineoue ??aeei cono??/athoueny o
oai?eo, i?iiia?iaieo c i?eaiaeo aeia/ieai’yii? oai?iae, aiie
a?ae?a?athoue aecia/aeueio ?ieue o i?ioeanao eaiaiaooai?aiiy.
Oieanoa?eiia? aeaiae?eoe aeieeathoue a oiiaao eaoaioiiai ia?ene/aiiy,
eiee ia? i?noea ianiaa ca?iaeaeaiiy e?enoae?a oieanoa?eio: o iaaiee
iiiaio oaeaee?noue ?o ?inoo iiaea c??aiyoeny c? oaeaee?noth aeeooc??
?a/iaeie. Oiae? a?aiiee ??no e?enoae?a iiaea i?ecoieieoenue ? aeaoe
iiaeeea?noue noi?ioaaoenue ?oi?i ie?aiei ?aa?ai ? aa?oeiai. Inoaii?
i?e a?aeiiaeai? noaoono-eai (a?aiiiai ?inoo) «aeeeaeathoue» aieia?
a?eee a?ae aie/anoiai e?enoaeo. Oaeee iaoai?ci aeeooc?eii-iaiaaeaiiai
?inoo ie iacaaee o?aeoaeueiei, aai o?aeoaeueiith e?enoae?caoe??th.

Iae/?oe?oa aiia i?iyaey?oueny i?e io?eiaii? a?ii?ia?aeueieo aa?aaao?a
oaa?aei? oace c e?oiaaiii? aeia/?. E?enoae?caoe?y a?aeaoaa?oueny ca
iino?eii? aieiaino?, a oiiaao o?c?ieia?/ii? oaiia?aoo?e (37°N), i?ioyaii
5-6 aiaeei (?en. 3). I?e oeueiio oi?iothoueny aeaiae?eoi? eeanoa?e c
iacooaaiei iiaoi?aiiyi oa?aeoa?ieo ii?oieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae. Ianooaaia
?iaa??aioi?noue (naiiiiae?ai?noue) aeaiae?eoieo eeanoa??a na?ae/eoue i?i
?oith o?aeoaeueio i?e?iaeo. Oi?ioaaiiy aeaiae?eoo ca aeai?eoiii
o?aeoaeueii? e?enoae?caoe?? coiiaeaia noa?e/ieie e e?iaoe/ieie
o?oaeiiuaie, a oaeiae iaiaeii??aei?noth oaciaiai neeaaeo aeia/?.
Aeieeiaiiy e?eueeio iai?yi?a ?inoo a?eie o?aeoaeo aeicaiey?
i?i?i?coaaoe aia?aaoe/i? aeo?aoe ia ooai?aiiy aoi?eiieo no?oeoo?. Oe?
aoi?eii? no?oeoo?e oi?iothoueny aiane?aeie aa?aaaoe?? i?iaei?aeaeueieo
e?enoae?a iiiia?ae?aoo oieanoa?eio.

Ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo AEEO iae/ano?oa ca?iaeaeothoueny ieanoei/ano?
e?enoae?oe iiiia?ae?aoo oieanoa?eio c aeieiaith aoaeiaith.
Ia?ice?enoae?ciaai? ??aeeiiie?enoae?/i? iane caoaa?ae?aaee o aeaeyae?
iie?oiaeo ? ?eoiie?oiaeo aa?aaao?a. Aeaoaeoi?noue e?enoae?a ?
aaoa?ioacia?noue na?aaeiaeua e?enoaeiaaiaco ni?eythoue ?icuaieaiith
e?enoae?a, ca?iaeaeaiith aeaiae?eo?a oa ?oi?e o?ainoi?iaoe?? o
noa?ie?oe. Ia?aeii? aa?aaaoe e?enoae?o?a iiiia?ae?aoo oieanoa?eio
iathoue iaeiaio? cia/aiiy o?aeoaeueii? ?ici??iino? oieanoa?eiia?
aeaiae?eoe (o?aeoaee). I?e ca?eueoaii? ?o ?ici???a c?inoaea
eiiiaeoi?noue ia?aeiiiai eeanoa?o: oi?ioaaeenue noa?i?aeie?oe (eai?ioe?
1-ai oeio) oa noa?ie?oi-aeaiae?eoe (eai?ioe? 3-ai oeio “oiaeiaeoey”).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?aio?ai?anueea oiiia?ao?y aeia/aaeo eai?ioe?a”
iienaii ?ic?iaeaio iaoiaeeeo oa ?acoeueoaoe aeanieo
?aio?aiioiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue AEE. I?iaeoe?ei? oiiia?aie
ci?iaeenue a ?aaeeiao: U=2-10 eA, I = 5-10 ieA, aeniiceoe?y a?ae 1
oa. aei 3 aiaeei (caeaaeii a?ae a?aenoai? “aeaea?aei aei?ii?ithaaiiy
ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiue” oa a?ae a?aenoai? a?ae ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiue aei
oioiie?aee. Eiioaeoi? oiiia?aie ci?iaeenue a ?aaeeiao: U =
10-30 eA, I = 10-15 iA, aeniiceoe?y 15-30 naeoiae (caeaaeii a?ae
oiaueie aeine?aeaeoaaiiai c?acea).

Aeyaeaia iayai?noue o noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoieo oieanoa?eiiaeo aa?aaaoao
eiioieaeueieo oaenoo?: cao?iaiiy oa iaeeaaeaiiy aeaiae?eoiiiae?aieo
ea?oei ?icn?thaaiiy iaei??? ia ae?oao oa a?eueo-iaio neeaaeiee
?iciiae?e na?oeeo ? oaiieo iie?a ia oiiia?aiao. A i?ioean? iaa??aaiiy
c??c?a noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoieo aa?aaao?a aeyaeeinue, ui eiioieaeuei?
oaenoo?e ? iaea?eueo iaoanoaa?eueieie: aiie ia?oeie o?ainoi?iothoueny ca
oiia oa?i?/ii? ia?ae?enoae?caoe??.

O AEE ??cieo ii?oino?oeoo?ieo oei?a aeae?ey?oueny o?noue oei?a
?iciiae?eo ?aio?aiiiaeeiath/eo a?ii?ia?aeueieo oac o i?aai?/i?e
oieanoa?eiia?e iao?eoe?: ??aiii??iiae?aieaiee i?eoaiaiiee
noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoiei eai?ioeyi, oa?oaaoee oa?aeoa?iee aeey
eiioeaio?e/ii-oea?eoi/anoeo AEE, ?eoi?/ii-ciiaeueiee o oanaoeiaeo AEE,
/anoeiai o eiioeaio?e/ii-oea?eoi/anoeo, aeaei?aoe?eiee aeanoeaee
oanaoeiaei AEE c ii?iaeieiaie ia?ae?enoae?caoe??, i?iaeeeeiai-ae?aieaiee
ia?ao?aei? ??ciiaeaee noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoiee oanaoeiaee,
eieaeueii-ae?aieaiee on? oeie eai?ioe?a.

Iienaiee o ?aio?aiieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oae caaiee aoaeo “eai?ioe?a ?c
c??i/eaie”, aai aoaeo Ia?naaean-Aaioea, aeei?enoiaothoue ia?aaaaeii aeey
aaceiio?anoii? ae?aaiinoeee ie?aieo aeiaaee?a oieanoa?eiiaiai
oieae?o?aco.

a

a?en.4. I’yoei?iiaiaaa ii?iaeieia ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? o oanaoeiaiio AEE
ia ?aio?ai?anuee?e oiiia?ai? (a) oa i?e eiii’thoa?i?e ia?iaoe?
cia?aaeaiiy. (a).

Iath/e aaaeeeaa ae?aaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy, oaeiai ?iaeo “c??i/ee” aeyaeeeny
aaaeeeaei a?aoiaioii o ?ic?iaoe? a?ii?ia?aeia?/ii? iiaeae?
eaiaiaooai?aiiy. Ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaie iaoiaeeeith iaoiaeii eiioaeoii?
?aio?ai?anueei? oiiia?ao?? aea/aii 182 oanaoeiaeo eai?ioe?.

Ia io?eiaieo ?aio?ai?anueeeo oiiia?aiao o 18-oe eai?ioeyo aeyaeai?
ii?iaeieie o aeaeyae? aeai-, o?e-, /ioe?e-, i’yoe- oa oanoei?iiaiaaeo
c??i/ie (?en.4). Ia ?aio?ai?anueeeo oiiia?aiao 32-o eai?ioe?a aeyaeai?
aneiao?e/i? ii?iaeieie o aeaeyae? oi/ie, oaeeynoeo e?i?e, ceacaa?a,
???iae?o?a, a?aoie oa ?i.

Aiae?coth/e io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeia i?eeoe aei aeniiaeo, ui a on?o
aeiaaeeao ii?iaeieie iathoue /?oeo i???ioaoe?th a?aeiinii
ii?oieia?/iiai ia?eno eai?ioey ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei oanaoeiaeo
iiaa?oiiue, aea c ??ciith /?oe?noth eiio?anoo cia?aaeaiiy. Canoinoaaiiy
aeuaiienaii? iaoiaeeee aeicaiey? iaea?eueo ia’?eoeaii ioe?ieoe
caeiiii??iino? iioiaaiaco AEE, ye? aeoaea aaaeei, a iiaeaeoaee e
iaiiaeeeai ae?aaiinooaaoe ?ioeie iaoiaeaie. Ia iniia? niinoa?aaeaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iiaeia iaeiicia/ii noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
noi?iiaai? ia ?aii?o noaae?yo oieanoa?eiiaiai oieae?o?aco ia??aiiaaaei?
aa?aaaoe noa?ie?oi-aeaiae?eo?a i?e iaeiaioiio ciai?oiueiio aieea?
o?ainoi?iothoueny o no?ee?o? oi?ie ?c ?aaeeeaeueiith ia?aaoaeiaith
i?e?ino?oeoo?e. Ia ?aio?aiia?aiao oey o?ainoi?iaoe?y o?eno?oueny o
aeaeyae? c??i/ie, i?iiai? yeeo i???ioiaai? ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei
oanaoeiaeo iiaa?oiiue. Iae?iii?iaeieie o AEE oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
??ciiiai?oi?noth oi?i oa oi/eiai? neiao???. Aeii?ioth/ei aeaiaioii
neiao??? ? iiai?ioi? in? neiao??? 4-ai ii?yaeeo (40%). Aeineoue
iioe?ai? ? in? 2-ai ii?yaeeo (/e ?iaa?n?ei? in? 4-ai ii?yaeeo), oiae? ye
iiai?ioi? in? 3-, 4-, 5- oa 6-ai ii?yaee?a cono??/athoueny cia/ii
??aeoa.

Ia??aiiaaaei?noue oa iai?oaeai?noue noa?ie?oi-aeaiae?eoieo aa?aaao?a
ni?eyea i?ioeanai naiii?aai?caoe?? ii?oieia?? oa i?e?ino?oeoo?e AEE,
iiya? naioa???a o ieo. O e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei
naii?oeioaaiiy AEE. O aeia/iiio i?oo?? c’yaey?oueny anioe?aoe?y oeaie?a,
ye? a oiiaao e?oiaaiii? aeia/? ?aaaia?ooue na?e ??no oa iaaoaathoue
caeaa?eueoiai inaaaeioao?aaae?e/iiai aaa?oono ?c caaino?aieie aa?oeiaie
oa ?aa?aie.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a
o?aeoaeueieiai (aeaiae?eoiiai) ?inoo oieanoa?eiiaeo aa?aaao?a” iienai?
aeai?eoie i?ia?ai oa ?acoeueoaoe eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy o iiaeae?
aeiaaeeiaeo aeoeaiue (AA) oa aeeooc?eii-iaiaaeaii? aa?aaaoe?? (AeIA)
(?en. 3-a).

Niinoa??aath/e ca i?ioeanii ? aiae?coth/e ?acoeueoaoe eiii’thoa?iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy, /?oei aa/eii ?yae ?inoiaeo aoaeo?a, ye? ia caaaeaee
iiaeia aeyaeoe e iienaoe i?e cae/aeieo iioiaai?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiiyo.
Iaoii?noue eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a ?inoo ia o?eueee aea?
ciiao oea c?iaeoe, aea e i?ine?aeeoaaoe ca aeeiai?eith ci?i o /an?.
Na?aae oaeiai ?iaeo ?inoiaeo aoaeo?a i?e iiaeaethaaii? o aeaiaei??iiio
i?inoi?? iaee?aua i?iyaeai? aoaeoe “cao?iaiiy”, eiaeanoeaioe??,
ia?nenoaioe?? oa noa?ie?oecaoe?? ia?aeiiiai aeaiae?eoo.

Aoaeo “cao?iaiiy” aeieea? i?ae /an aeieoaaiiy ?ic?inoaiiy
iioaioe?eiiai iai?yieo ?inoo ?ioaineai?oa ?inoo/ith a?eeith o?aeoaeo,
a oaeiae i?e oaeaeeiio inaaeaeaii? ia ?inoo/o iiaa?oith /anoeiie, yeui
aiie “ia anoeaathoue” aea?aoe iaea?eueo aea?aei? iiceoe?? oa
aeiaaeeiai aa?aaothoueny. Naaiaio eeanoa?a c? neeaaei?oith aoaeiaith
cacae/ae i?eai?/o? ??no iaio ?icaaeoaeaiiai naaiaioo. E?aua
i?iyaey?oueny o iiaeae? AeIA.

Aoaeo “eiaeanoeaioe??” aca?iiae??, ceeiaiiy oa c?inoaiiy a?eie
o?aeoaeo (aeaiae?eoo) i?ae niaith. Aiane?aeie oeueiai oi?io?oueny
i?e?ino?oeoo?a c /eneaiieie ii?iaeieiaie aai eaeoiaie. O ?aaeueiiio
na?aaeiaeu? e?enoaeiaaiaco oeueiio aoaeoo ni?ey? aia?aaoe/ia
iai?oaeai?noue i?eiiaa?oiaaiai ?inoo/iai oa?o a oiiaao iaiaaeaiino?
i?ioean?a aeeooc?? oaiea a?ae ?inoo/i? iiaa?oi? ia iaae? iiae?eo oac.
I?ae /an iiaeaethaaiiy e?aua i?iyaey?oueny o iiaeae? AA.

Aoaeo “ia?nenoaioe??” aieea iiia?aaeiueiai yaeua ia ianooiia a
i?ioean? ?inoo o?aeoaeueiiai eeanoa?a o caieiai?e nenoai?. *?oei
i?iyaey?oueny o ci?i? iiooaeiino?, oiiieia?/ii? oa o?aeoaeueii?
?ici??iino? iiaeaeueiiai aa?aaaoo caeaaeii a?ae eiai ?ici???a.

Aoaeo “noa?ie?oecaoe?? ia?aeiiiai aeaiae?eoo” ia iaaiiio aoai? ?inoo
aeaiae?eoiiai eeanoa?o i?e “aeniaaeaii? e?enoae?caoe?eiiai aeai?eea”, c
iaoith i?i?i?caoe?? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? ia?aeiiee aeaiae?eo iaiaaa?oueny
iaaooe neiao??? noa?e. Oiio a?eee, ye? aeeoee ca iaae? noa?e,
ia?anoathoue ?inoe, a a?eee, ui ia aei?inee, i?iaeiaaeothoue na?e ??no
aei iiaa?oi? noa?e.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i
aeii?ioaaiiy ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? ?inoo aeaiae?eo?a ? noa?ie?o?a
iaoai?cio o?aeoaeueii? e?enoae?caoe??. O oeae ia??iae iao?eoey, a ye?e
oi?io?oueny aa?aaao, iaiaaa?oueny caoiieoe ye iiaeia a?eueoee i?ino??, o
iaaeao yeiai ? aoae?aaeueiee iaoa??ae. Eiii’thoa?iee neioac o?aeoaeueieo
aa?aaao?a ? aeaiae?eoii? i?e?ino?oeoo?e AEE aeicaieea aea/eoe aeeiai?/io
iiaaae?ieo oa noi?ioaaoe noaoenoe/i? oyaeaiiy i?i oiiae i?iya?a ??cieo
?inoiaeo aoaeo?a.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “A?iioaca o?aeoaeueiiai iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy AEE oa
a?ii?ia?aeia?/ia iiaeaeue oieanoa?eiiaiai e?enoaeiaaiaco ?
naiii?aai?caoe?? ?a/iaeie i?e AEEO” cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeeiiai iiao
a?iioaco aaiaceno AEE oa i’yoenoaae?eio iiaeaeue ?oiueiai oi?ioaaiiy,
yea aeicaiey? iiynieoe iniaeeaino? i?e?ino?oeoo?e oa ii?oieia?? AEE:

?. Ii/aoeiaa noaae?y noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoiiai (o?aeoaeueiiai) ?inoo
oieanoa?eiiaeo aa?aaao?a. Iiae?ey?oueny ia ianooii? i?aenoaae??:

1) ca?iaeaeaiiy e?enoae?o?a iiiia?ae?aoo oieanoa?eio;

2) inaaeaeaiiy e?enoae?o?a ia aeii aeia/iiai i?oo?a;

3) ??no o?eaei??iiai aeaiae?eoiiai eeanoa?a oa eiai nieeaaiiy;

4) oi?ioaaiiy ia?aeiiiai noa?ie?oo oa noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoiee ??no
eai?ioey.

Ca?iaeaeaiiy e?enoae?oo oieanoa?eio a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie ?oeiaoe??
i?oeaey?ieo eiiieaen?a, eiee ia? i?noea ia?ane/aiiy aeia/? (aeiey
oieanoa?eio ia?aaeuo? 10% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? e?i?ae?a). ?ici??e
e?enoae?oo iaiaaeai?, c iaeiiai aieo, iiooaei?noth e?enoae?caoe?eiiai
aeai?eea, a yeiio a?i ca?iaeeany, a c ?ioiai – iaiiaeeea?noth o?eaaeiai
/e iino?eiiai i?aeaeeaeaiiy. Inaaeaeaiiy ia aeii i?oo?a iiaeo
ca?iaeaeaiue e?enoae?o?a coiiaeth? aeoioeyoe?th a iaiaaeaiiio ia’?i?
cia/ii? e?eueeino? a?aiieo aeieiaeo ? neaeaoieo e?enoae?a, i?ecaiaeeoue
aei oi?ioaaiiy ia?aeiieo aia?aaoe/ii-iai?oaeaieo aeaiae?eoieo aa?aaao?a
oeyoii o?aeoaeueii? e?enoae?caoe??.

O?aeoaeueia e?enoae?caoe?y o?eaa? aeioe, aeiee ??aaiue ia?ane/aiiy
caaeia?eueiy? oiia? iaii?ooiino? oa oe?e?niino? e?enoae?caoe?eiiai
aeai?eea iaaeiei ?inoo/iai eai?ioey. Oiaoi, aeey oiai, uia a?aeaoaaeiny
aeeaeaiiy o?aeoaeo, ??aaiue ia?ane/aiiy aeia/? oieanoa?eiii iiaeiai
i?iii?oe?eii c?inoaoe aei ?ici???a eai?ioey. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai,
ui ia?aeiee noa?ie?o ?aii /e i?cii aeinyaa? e?eoe/iiai ?ici??o.
Aiaeii/an ?nioth/? oiiae, ia aeinoaoi? aeey ?inoo e?oiiiai noa?ie?oo, ?
ni?eyoeeaei aeey ?inoo aa?aaaoe?e i?e?inoa?ie?enoae?a, ye? aiaeia?/ii
aei a?aiieo e?enoae?o?a aa?aaothoueny o aeaeyae? o?eaei??ieo
noa?ie?oi-aeaiae?eo?a ?c aeiaaeeiaith i???ioaoe??th a?eie. I?e
e?eueea?aciaiio iiaoi?aii? aeuacaaaeaieo i?ioean?a oa ca?iaeaeaii? iiaeo
aaia?aoe?e i?e?inoa?ie?o?a ciaioothoueny ?oi? ?ici??e.

II. Noaae?y ci?ie o?aeoaeueiiai iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy AEE. Oi?ioaaiiy
“oiaeiaeoe?” cae?i/o?oueny ca oiiae “aeao?oeeoo” a aeia/?
“aoae?aaeueiiai iaoa??aeo” iai?oeaey?iiai, ??aeeiiie?enoae?/iiai
oieanoa?eio. ?ioith i?e/eiith i?eieiaiiy o?aeoaeueiiai ?inoo ? aeoeaia
ni?aoe?y /e aaeaac?y a?e??oa?iaoo eaeueoe?th, i?ioa?i?a, iai?aai?/ieo
i?ia?aeueieo oac. Ca iayaiino? cia/ii? e?eueeino? eiiiiiaio?a o cii?
?inoo noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoiiai aa?aaaoo iiaeeeaa “i?ia?aeia?/ia aeieaaea”
oa ooai?aiiy ?eoi?/ii-ciiaeueieo i?e?ino?oeoo?. *?oe?noue ?
aeo?eiai?noue i?ioa?e?a caeaaeeoue a?ae ii?enoino? ia?aeiii?
noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoii? iao?eoe? oa ia??iaee/iino? iiaoi?aiiy oeeo
i?ioean?a.

Iaeiae iae/ano?oa ?nioth/a oae caaia eaoaioia ia?ane/aiiy iaaeinoaoi?
aeey i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?inoo iaaeoi aaeeeiai eai?ioey. O e?enoae?caoe?eiiio
aeai?eeo iaaeiei AEE c’yaeythoueny /eneaii? “a?eia” aiane?aeie
“aeao?oeeoo” a aeia/? iai?oeaey?iiai oieanoa?eio. O AEI aeieeathoue
ia?aaeoiiae aeey ca?iaeaeaiiy iiaiai eai?ioey.

III. Noaae?y ca?iaeaeaiy iiaiai eai?ioey (oeaio?a o?aeoaeueii?
aa?aaaoe??). Ia aeinyaath/e oi?ioaaiiy nooe?eueiiai e?enoae?caoe?eiiai
aeai?eea iaaeiei eai?ioey, ??aeeiiie?enoae?/ia oaca iae?iia??i?oa
a?aeoa?iao?oueny a?ae eiai iiaa?oi?. Aeieea? iiaee oeaio? aa?aaaoe??,
yeee caiaeii noa? eai?ioeai.

sseui oae? oiiae ianoathoue, oi oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai oeaio?o aa?aaaoe??
(iiaiai AEE) cae?enith?oueny ca aaea i?ieaeaiei aeai?eoiii. I?e
eiioeaio?aoe?yo e?i?ae?a o aeia/? aeua e?eoe/ii? eiioeaio?aoe??
i?oeaeiooai?aiiy iiaeaeueoee oaciaee ia?ao?ae

oieanoa?eio c ??aeeiiie?enoae?/iiai o e?enoae?/iee a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii
aa?aaaoe?? ie?enoae?ciaaieo ?iaeea?ae?a o ?icaaeoaeaiee eeanoa?
(aeaiae?eo), yeee ? ?cieueiaaiei a?ae oaea ?nioth/iai eai?ioey. A
iiaeaeueoiio a?aeaoaa?oueny noa?ie?oecaoe?y aeaiae?eoo oa
noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoiee (o?aeoaeueiee) ??no aei iaaiiai e?eoe/iiai
?ici??o. Oea iiaea iiaoi?thaaoeny aeanyoee ?ac?a ? iaea?eueo eia?/ii
iiynith? i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy aaaaoi/enaeueiieo ia?anoa?e/ieo anioe?aoe?e
AEE.

IV. Noaae?y i?aeeai?ioeaaeo (i?aeo?aeoaeueieo) aca?iiae?e –
naiii?aai?caoe?? ii?oieia?? AEE. Iayai?noue o aeeiai?/i?e nenoai? aeaio
/e a?eueoa AEE (?cio?iiieo o?aeoaeueieo eeanoa??a) i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aeieeiaiiy aca?iiae?e i?ae ieie (ni?aoaea??a, oa?oy, aa?ac??) ia oii?
i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?oiueiai ?inoo. Oaea oi?eaeueia iaeii/ania ii?aeiaiiy
oaeoi??a oi?ioaaiiy oa naiii?aai?caoe?? a caieiai?e nenoai? i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ooai?aiiy aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo?, yeei aeanoeaa oae caaia
?aeo?neaia (aeeiai?/ia) neiao??y. Inoaiiy ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ?
ianooaaii-?iaa??aioiith, oiaoi iiaoi?th?oueny, o?aineth?oueny ia an?
/anoeie i?inoi?o. Aaaaoioeeaaei?noue aeeiai?/ieo ?aaeei?a aeyaey?oueny
i?e i?aeeai?ioeaaeo aca?iiae?yo oa coiiaeth? i?ioeane naeaeoeaiiai e
ai?cio?iiiiai ?inoo, oi?ioaaiiy oanaoeiaeo (inaaaeiia?aiaieo) AEE.
Aca?iiae?y aeaio o?aeoae?a acaeiaae aaia?aeueiiai iai?yieo i?eeeaaeaiiy
neee (oa?oy, aa?ac??) coiiaeth? ao?aoo eiaeiei ?c ieo neiao??? eoe?: a
?acoeueoao? o cii? eiioaeoo ca?iaeaeo?oueny ieiueia (a?aiue).
Aneiao?e/i?noue iaeiia?aiieo eeanoa??a coiiaeth? ia??aiiaaaei?noue ?oi?o
no?oeoo? a iaaeao ae?eyiie, i?ioeeaaeieo aei ia?oi? a?ai?.

O oaeiio aeiaaeeo ieiueia oe??? a?ai? i?e ianooii?e i?aeeai?ioeaa?e
aca?iiae?? ? nai???aeiith “iaeiaaeueiath”, ia yeo iie?a?oueny AEE.
Iaea?eueo ?iia??ieie i?noeyie ianooiieo aca?iiae?e ? ieiueie,
??aiia?aeaeaeai? a?ae ia?aeiii? a?ai? oa iaeia a?ae iaeii?. Oaea
naiii?aai?caoe?y ii?oieia?? oanaoeiaeo AEE a?aeaoaa?oueny caaaeyee
“?ioi?iaoe??”, ui ia?aaea?oueny ia ??ai? e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e
e?enoae?o?a oa i?aee?enoae?oieo a?aieoeue. Ioaea, e?euee?noue
eai?ioe?a-non?ae?a oa ?ioaineai?noue i?aeeai?ioeaaeo aca?iiae?e ?
aaaeeeaeie /eiieeaie o aecia/aii? ii?oieia?? oanaoeiaeo AEE (?en. 5). Ia
aeeeth/athoueny e ?io? iae?enoaeia?ao?/i? oeie neiao??? c inyie 5-ai oa
7-ai ii?yaee?a. Oaeee oaiiiai iae?enoaeia?ao?/ii? neiao??? iiaeia
iiynieoe ia iniia? oai??? eaac?e?enoae?/ii? eieaeueii? neiao???. I?e
oeueiio, ca a?aenooiino? a?aeaeaeaiiai ii?yaeeo, ?aii?o?oueny
ooiaeaiaioaeueiee i?eioeei iaeu?euei?oi? oiaeiaee eoeueie.

Nai???aei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ii?oieia?/ieo ??ciiaeae?a AEE
niinoa??aathoueny na?aae oanaoeiaeo eai?ioe?a iaea?eueo iioe?aieo
oieanoa?eiiaeo oieaie?o?a. Ca aeaieie a?ii?ia?aeia?/iiai aea/aiiy, o
ia?anoa?e/ieo anioe?aoe?yo oanaoeiaeo AEE aeyaeai? iie?aae?e ye ?c
e?enoaeia?ao?/iith (inaaaeioao?aaae?e 40%, inaaaeieoae 15%,
inaaaeiieoaaae?e 10% oa ?i.), oae ? eaac?e?enoae?/iith
(inaaaei?einaaae?e 5%, iaioaaiiaeuei?, aaioaaiiaeuei?, ieoaaiiaeuei?
inaaaeii??ai?aee 10% oa ?i.) neiao???th. Aeineoue iioe?ai? oaeiae ?
eiia?iaoe?ei? iiiaia?aiieee, neiao??th yeeo i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai
aeaoa?i?ioaaoe (20%).

?en. 5. A?iioaoe/ia noaia o?aeoaeueiiai iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy AEE oa
a?ii?ia?aeia?/ii? iiaeae? oieanoa?eiiaiai e?enoaeiaaiaco e
naiii?aai?caoe?? ?a/iaeie i?e AEEO.Na?aae anioe?aoe?e oanaoeiaeo AEE (ui
i?noyoue iaeiioeiia? oa ??ciioeiia? ii?oieia?/i? ??ciiaeaee), ca aeaieie
eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy, ee?i?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue oa e?oa?aoo?e,
iaea?eueo iioe?aieie ?:

1) anioe?aoe?? inaaaeioao?aaae?e/ieo oanaoeiaeo AEE ;

2) anioe?aoe?? inaaaeieoa?/ieo oanaoeiaeo AEE ;

3) neeaaei? anioe?aoe?? inaaaeiieoaaae?e/ieo, inaaaeioao?aaae?e/ieo,
inaaaeieoa?/ieo ? eiia?iaoe?eieo oanaoeiaeo AEE (?en.5).

V. Noaae?y ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? naiii?aai?caoe?? aioo??oiuei?
i?e?ino?oeoo?e AEE. Caeeth/iei aoaiii i?i?i?caoe?? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??
oieanoa?eiiaeo aa?aaao?a ? ia?ae?enoae?caoe?y noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoieo
aa?aaao?a iiiia?ae?aoo oieanoa?eio. Iaoiaeii ?aio?ai?anueei? oiiia?ao??
aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? i???ioaoe?? a?aeiinii ii?oieia?/iiai ia?eno
eai?ioey ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei oanaoeiaeo iiaa?oiiue. Oe? iiaa?oi?
(a?ai? iie?aae??a) ? iaeneaaoeie i?noeyie AEE.

Aeniiaee

1. Aieiaiei ?i?oe?thth/ei oaeoi?ii eaiaiaooai?aiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy
ia?aeiieo o?eaei??ieo oieanoa?eiiaeo aeaiae?eo?a, ye? ooai?eeeny
aiane?aeie a?io?i?/iiai aeenaaeaino i?ae oieanoa?eiii oa eiai
nietha?e?caoi?aie o aeia/? (aeia/ieie eeneioaie oa oinoie?i?aeaie).

2. Ia?aeii? aeaiae?eoi?, noa?ie?oia? oa noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoi?
a?ii?ia?aeuei? aa?aaaoe oieanoa?eio noi?ioaaeeny ca iaoai?ciii
(aeai?eoiii) o?aeoaeueiiai ?inoo. O?aeoaeueiee iaoai?ci ? iniiaiei i?e
oi?ioaaii? AEE ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino?
oieanoa?eiiaeo eiie?aiaio?a.

3. Aeinyaiaiiy eai?ioeai e?eoe/iiai ?ici??o a oiiaao eaoaioiiai
ia?ane/aiiy ni?ey? ca?iaeaeaiith iiaiai oeaio?o aa?aaaoe?? aeia/aaiai
eai?ioey, ? ? oiiieia?/iith i?e/eiith oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoi/enaeueieo
anioe?aoe?e AEE. I?e iaeiaioiio ciai?oiueiio aieea? aeaiae?eoe oa
noa?ie?oi-aeaiae?eoe oieanoa?eio o?ainoi?iothoueny o a?eueo no?ee?
oi?ie: a i?ioean? i?aeeai?ioeaaeo (i?aeo?aeoaeueieo) aca?iiae?e o
aaaaoi/enaeueieo anioe?aoe?yo naiii?aai?ciao?oueny ii?oieia?y oa
oi?iothoueny anioe?aoe?? oanaoeiaeo AEE.

4. Ia?ae?enoae?caoe?y noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoii? i?e?ino?oeoo?e oanaoeiaeo
AEE i?ecaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy ii?iaeiei, ye? ia ?aio?aiioiiia?aiao
iathoue aeaeyae c??i/ie ?c noaia?iaiaeeeoey?iith i???ioaoe??th i?iiai?a.
Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? i???ioaoe?? iai?yi?a i?iiai?a c??i/ie iiaeia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoiaeee
e?eoaaiiy oieanoa?eiiaiai oieae?o?aco.

5. E?enoae?caoe?eia naiii?aai?caoe?? ?a/iaeie i?e oi?ioaaii? AEE ia ia?
oi/ieo aiaeia?a o i?e?iaeieo aaieia?/ieo i?ioeanao. Iaeiae a?aeiia?aei?
ia?aeae? i?ae ie?aieie aeaiaioaie iiaeia i?iaanoe i?e ?ino? aeaiae?eo?a,
oi?ioaaii? a?aioey?ieo aa?aaao?a, ?ice?enoae?caoe?? aoeeai?/iiai neea.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??:

1. Aai?oeaae/ ss.A., Aeye?a A.I., Iaoeianueeee I.?. Aiiiiia?aeiai/ia
iiaeaeue i?aeeai?ioeaaeo (i?aeo?aeoaeueieo) aca?iiae?e o
aaaaoi/enaeueieo anioe?aoe?yo aeia/aaeo eai?ioe?a // A?niee Euea?a.
oi-oo. Na??y aaie. 1999. Aei. 13. N.106-115.

2. Aeye?a A.I. Aeeiai?ea ci?i eiioieaeueieo oaenoo? o
noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoieo oieanoa?eiiaeo aa?aaaoao aeia/aaeo eai?ioe?a (ca
aeaieie ?aio?aiioiiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue) // A?niee Euea?a. oi-oo.
Na??y aaie. 1999. Aei. 13. N.116-120.

3. Aeye?a A.I. ?aioaaiioiiia?ao?/ia aea/aiiy i???ioaoe?e ii?iaeiei o
i?e?ino?oeoo?i?e aoaeia? oanaoeiaeo aeia/aaeo eai?ioe?a // A?niee
Euea?a. oi-oo. Na??y aaie. 1999. Aei. 13. N.121-125.

4. Pavlovsky M.P., Han?tkevych Ya.V., Dyak?v V.O. et al. On the
mechan?sm of the genes?s of cholesterol gallstones (Accord?ng to
metallograph?c and X-ray topograph?c research) // M?neralogy and l?fe:
B?om?neral interact?ons: Abstr. of the II Internat?onal Sem?nar.
Syktyvkar, 1996. P.41-42.

5. Dyak?v V.O., Matkovsky O.I. Us?ng the “M?r-2” X-ray m?croscope ?n the
research of b?om?neral samples (e.g.Gallstones) // M?neralogy and l?fe:
B?om?neral interact?ons: Abstr. of the II Internat?onal Sem?nar.
Syktyvkar, 1996. P.94-96.

6. Aeyeea A.A., Aaieoeaae/ ss.A. O?aeoaeueiue iaoaieci ?inoa aeae/iuo
eaiiae // Iiaua iai?aaeaiey a aaiaoieiaee: Oac. aeiee.
Oaeuee-neiiic.?92. O.2. N.-Ia., 1996. N.138.

7. Han?tkevych Ya., Dyak?v V., Mal?n?ch S., Turchak R. Fractal
crystall?zat?on of b?le components and ?ts role ?n the format?on of
gallstones // XVII Congress and Gener. Assem. of the IUCr. Acta
Crystallograph?ca. Sect?on A: Foundat?ons of Crystallography. Vol. A52,
Supplement Pp. C-1-C-688. 1 September 1996. P.509.

8. Aeyeea A.A., Iaoeianeee I.E. Iioiaaie/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe eciaiaiey
o?aeoaeueiie ?acia?iinoe oieanoa?eiiauo aeaiae?eoia a aeae/iuo eaiiyo
// Caeiiiia?iinoe yaiethoeee caiiie ei?u: Oac. aeiee. iaaeaeoia?.
eiio. O.2. N.-Ia., 1996. N.247.

9. Aeyeea A.A., Iaoeianeee I.E. ?aioaaiia?aoe/aneea iaoiaeu i?e eco/aiee
oa?aeoa?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey ?aioaaiiiaeiuathueo ieia?aeueiuo oac e
iee?ino?oeoo?u i?aaie/aneie iao?eoeu a aeae/iuo eaiiyo. //
Niaeo?ineiiey, ?aioaaiia?aoey e e?enoaeeioeiey ieia?aeia: Iao.
iaaeaeoia?. eiio. Eacaiue, 1997. C.163-165.

10. Pavlovsky M.P., Han?tkevych Ya.V., Dyak?v V.O., Matkovsky O.I., Shum
V.V. The s?gn?f?cance of evolut?on m?crostructure of gallstones for
searches new trends of cholel?th?as?s treatment. //
Abstr.Beloruss?an-Pol?sh-Ukra?n?an Falk Sympos. “New trends ?n D?agnos?s
and Treatment of L?ver and Colon?c D?seases”. Lv?v, 1997. P.161.

11. Dyak?v V., Barv?nska A., Romanchak D. Self-organ?zat?on of the
cholesterol aggregates ?n facet?c gallstones // Falk Sympos?um “New
Aspects ?n Hepatology and Gastroenterology”: Poster Abstracts.
Tb?l?s?/T?fl?s (Georg?a), 1998. – P.72.

12. Aeyeea A.A., Iaoeianeee I.E. Aeiieia?aeiae/aneay iiaeaeue
oieanoa?eiiaiai e?enoaeeiaaiacena e o?aeoaeueiay i?e?iaea
naiii?aaiecaoeee aauanoaa a aeae/iuo eaiiyo. // “E?enoaeeia?aoey-98”:
Iao. ei 2-io O?aeueneiio e?enoaeeia?aoe/. niaau. Nueouaea?, 1998. –
N.89-90.

13. Ooi A.A., Iaoeianeee I.E., Aeyeea A.A. Eiiiuethoa?iia iiaeaee?iaaiea
i?ioeannia aeaiae?eoiiai (o?aeoaeueiiai) ?inoa aeiieia?aeueiuo aa?aaaoia
ia iniiaa iiaeaeae “neo/aeiiai aeiaeaey” e aeeooceiiii-ia?aie/aiiie
aa?aaaoeee // “E?enoaeeia?aoey-98”: Iao. ei 2-io O?aeueneiio
e?enoaeeia?aoe/. niaau. Nueouaea?, 1998. – N.115.

14. Aeyeea A.A., Iaoeianeee I.E. Iaoaieci oi?ie?iaaiey e ii?oieiaey
oanaoi/iuo aeae/iuo eaiiae // Oac. aeiee. IX nuacaea Iei. ia-aa i?e ?AI.
N.-Ia., 1999. N.117.

Aeye?a Aaneeue Ieaen?eiae/. Iie?ino?oeoo?ia aoaeiaa aeia/aaeo eaiiioeia
oa ?ieue o?aeoaeueii? e?enoae?caoe?? o ?o oi?ioaaii?. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 04.00.20 i?ia?aeia?y, e?enoaeia?ao?y.
Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I. O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

A ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy a?ieia?/ii? i?ia?aeia??
aeia/aaeo eai?ioe?a: ?oiueiai ?a/iaeiiiai neeaaeo, ii?oieia??,
i?e?ino?oeoo?e, ca?iaeaeaiiy, ?inoo oa aaiethoe??. Ia iniia? oai???
o?aeoae?a oa aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy,
a?ii?ia?aeia?/ieo, ?aio?aiiaeeo?aeoiiao?e/ieo oa ?aio?aiioiiia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaii i’yoenoaae?eio iiaeaeue ?o oi?ioaaiiy: ?.
Noaae?y noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoiiai (o?aeoaeueiiai) ?inoo oieanoa?eiiaeo
aa?aaao?a. II. Noaae?y ci?ie o?aeoaeueiiai iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy. III.
Noaae?y ca?iaeaeaiiy iiaiai eai?ioey (oeaio?o o?aeoaeueii? aa?aaaoe??).
IV. Noaae?y i?aeeai?ioeaaeo (i?aeo?aeoaeueieo) aca?iiae?e. V. Noaae?y
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? aeia/aaeo eai?ioe?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo
iaoiaeee e?eoaaiiy aeia/ieai’yii? oai?iae.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?ii?ia?aeia?y, aeia/aaee eai?iaoeue,
noa?ie?o-aeaiae?eoia i?e?ino?oeoo?a, o?aeoaeueia e?enoae?caoe?y,
i?aeeai?ioeaa? (i?aeo?aeoaeuei?) aca?iiae??.

Aeyeea Aaneeee Aeaenaaae/. Iee?ino?oeoo?a aeae/iuo eaiiae e ?ieue
o?aeoaeueiie e?enoaeeecaoeee a eo oi?ie?iaaiee. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 04.00.20 ieia?aeiaey, e?enoaeeia?aoey. Eueaianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. Ea. O?aiei, Eueaia, 1999.

A ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony aeooaeueiua aii?inu aeieiae/aneie ieia?aeiaee
aeae/iuo eaiiae, eo aauanoaaiiiai ninoaaa, ii?oieiaee, iee?ino?oeoo?u,
ca?iaeaeaiey, ?inoa e yaiethoeee. Aeai e?aoeee aiaeec i?iaeai
aeiieia?aeiaee, acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo aeeaie e iaaeeaie i?e?iaeie,
nia?aiaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i oeceieiaee e iaoieiaee aeae/aauaeaeaiey a
i?aaiecia /aeiaaea e iaoaieciao oi?ie?iaaiey aeae/iuo eaiiae.
Aicieeiiaaiea aeae/iuo eaiiae naycaii n ia?ooaieyie i?ioeannia iaiaia
aauanoa a aaiaoi-aeeea?iie nenoaia /aeiaaea. AEae/iua eaiie, iaoaie/anee
?acae?aaeay iyaeea oeaie aeae/iiai iocu?y, yaeythony i?e/eiie
ainiaeeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia, aucuaatho niioaaonoaothuea aieaaua neiioiiu
eee aeae/aeaiaiioth aieaciue.

I?iaaaeaiiue e?eoe/aneee aiaeec eeoa?aoo?u naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi iaeiei
ec i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo iiaeoiaeia e ?aeiino?oeoeee oneiaee e
iaoaieciia oi?ie?iaaiey aeiieia?aeueiuo aa?aaaoia iiaeao auoue oai?ey
o?aeoaeia A.Iaiaeaeuea?ioa. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi o?aoia?iua aeaiae?eou
oieanoa?eia, aicieeay a oneiaeyo eaoaioiiai (ne?uoiai) ia?anuuaiey,
ea?atho ii?aaeaeythuoth ?ieue a i?ioeannao eaiiaia?aciaaiey.
Oi?ie?iaaiea aeaiae?eoa iaoneiaeaii i?ino?ainoaaiiuie e eeiaoe/aneeie
i?e/eiaie, n eioi?uie naycaiu iaeiaiueoea cia/aiey o?aeoaeueiie
?acia?iinoe noi?ie?iaaiiiai aa?aaaoa. Ia?aaiiaaniinoue e iai?yaeaiiinoue
aeaiae?eoiuo aa?aaaoia aeaaii?eyonoaiaaee i?ioeannai eo i?aia?aciaaiey a
aieaa eiiiaeoiua ia?aciaaiey noa?ieaeieeou (eaiie 1-ai oeia) e
noa?ieeoi-aeaiae?eoiua “oaeeiaeoeu” (eaiie 3-ai oeia).

Naiuie ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie eaiiyie yaeythony ia?aiaiiua (eee oanaoi/iua)
eiie?aiaiou 2-ai oeia (43.3 %). Iie ano?a/athony aeaaiui ia?acii a
iiiai/eneaiiuo annioeeaoeeyo. Ii iiaeiaeth e eeanne/aneei
e?enoaeeia?aoe/aneei iieeyae?ai, eiie?aiaiou yoiai oeia
aeeaaiinoe?iaaeenue eae oao?ayae?u, eoau, ieoayae?u e ae?oaea iieeyae?u
e eo eiiaeiaoeee n aeiaaaeaieai i?enoaaee inaaaei-, n?aaee eioi?uo
aeiieie?otho inaaaeioao?ayae?u (23.61%), iaiaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu
inaaaeieoau (4.63%) e inaaaeiieoayae?u (6.02%). Aeiaieueii /anoi
ano?a/athony inaaaei?iiaiyae?u (6.02%), inaaaeioao?aaiiaeueiua e
inaaaeio?eaiiaeueiua ie?aieaeu (5.56% e 4.17%).

?aioaaiioiiia?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey aeae/iuo eaiiae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
i iaee/ee a ii?aaeaeaiiie eo /anoe naioa?eaa iieinoae
ia?ae?enoaeecaoeee a aeaea aeaoo-, o?ao-, /aou?ao-, iyoe- e
oanoeeo/aauo caacaei/ae, a oaeaea a aeaea aneiiao?e/iuo iieinoae oi/ae,
aieienouo eeiee, ceacaaia, ?aoaoie e ae?. Aiaeece?oy iieo/aiiua
?acoeueoaou, iiaeii i?eeoe e auaiaeo, /oi ai anao neo/ayo iieinoe
eiatho iai?aaeaiioth i?eaioaoeeth ii ioiioaieth e ii?oieiae/aneiio
iaeeeo eaiiy ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii oanaoi/iui iiaa?oiinoyi, ii n ?acee/iie
/aoeinoueth eiio?anoa ecia?aaeaiey. Oi?ie?iaaiea iieinoae
ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeee yaeyaony neaaenoaeai naiii?aaiecaoeee eae
ii?oieiaee, oae e iee?ino?oeoo?u aeae/iuo eaiiae. A eiia/iii eoiaa yoi
i?eaiaeeo e naii?ac?ooaieth eiie?aiaioa.

A ?aieao aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou i?iaaaeaiu yenia?eiaiou ii
eiiiuethoa?iiio neioaco o?aeoaeueiuo eeanoa?ia ia iniiaa iiaeaeae
“neo/aeiuo aeoaeaeaiee” e aeeoooceiiii-ia?aie/aiiie aa?aaaoeee. I?e
iaaethaeaieyo ca i?ioeannaie ?inoa e aiaeeca ?acoeueoaoia iiaeaee?iaaiey
/aoei oeene?oaony ?yae ?inoiauo yooaeoia, eioi?ua ia anaaaea iiaeii
auyaeoue e iienaoue i?e iau/iuo iioiaaie/aneeo iaaethaeaieyo. Oiaaea eae
eiiiuethoa?iia iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeannia ?inoa ia oieueei aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue yoi naeaeaoue, ii e i?ineaaeeoue ca aeeiaieeie eciaiaiee
ai a?aiaie. N?aaee oaeiai ?iaea ?inoiauo yooaeoia i?e iiaeaee?iaaiee a
aeaoia?iii e o?aoia?iii i?ino?ainoaa eo/oa anaai i?iyaeaiu yooaeou
“caoaiaiey”, eiaeanoeaioeee, ia?nenoaioeee e noa?ieeoecaoeee ia?ae/iiai
aeaiae?eoa.

Ia iniiaa oai?ee o?aeoaeia e aiaeeca ?acoeueoaoia eiiiuethoa?iiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey, aeiieia?aeiae/aneeo, ?aioaaiiaeeo?aeoiiao?e/aneeo e
?aioaaiioiiia?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee i?aaeeiaeaia iyoenoaaeeeiay
iiaeaeue eo oi?ie?iaaiey: ?. Noaaeey noa?ieeo-aeaiae?eoiiai
(o?aeoaeueiiai) ?inoa oieanoa?eiiauo aa?aaaoia. II. Noaaeey eciaiaiey
o?aeoaeueiiai iaoaiecia oi?ie?iaaiey. III. Noaaeey ca?iaeaeaiey iiaiai
eaiiy (oeaio?a o?aeoaeueiie aa?aaaoeee). IV. Noaaeey iaaeaeoeaiiaauo
(iaaeaeoo?aeoaeueiuo) acaeiiaeaenoaee. V. Noaaeey ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeee
aeae/iuo eaiiae.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey nouanoaothueo e ?ac?aaioee iiauo iaoiaeee ea/aiey
aeae/aeaiaiiie aieacie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeiieia?aeiaey, aeae/iue eaiaiue, noa?ieeo-aeaiae?eoiay
iee?ino?oeoo?a, o?aeoaeueiay e?enoaeeecaoeey, iaaeaeoeaiiaaua
(iaaeaeoo?aeoaeueiua) acaeiiaeaenoaey

Dyakiv Vasyl Olexiyovych. Microstructure of gallstones and role of
fractal crystall?zat?on in their formation. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate’s degree of Geological Sciences by speciality
04.00.20 — mineralogy, crystallography. — Lviv State University honoured
by Ivan Franko, Lviv, 1999.

Important questions of the biological mineralogy of gallstones have been
considered: substances composition, morphology, microstructure, origin,
growth and their evolution. On the basis of the fractal theory and
analysis of computer modeling results, biomineralogical, X-ray
d?ffractometry and topography researches five-stages model of their
formation is offered: ?. Stage spherol?te-dendr?t?c (fractal) growth
cholesterol aggregates. II. Stage restra?n of the fractal growth. III.
Nucleat?on stage of the next center fractal aggregat?on (next stone).
IV. Stage ?nterstone (?nterfractal) ?nteract?on — facet?cat?on. V.
Recrystall?sat?on stage of the cholesterol gallstones m?crostructure.
New basic results of the dissertation can be used for improvement
existing and development of new techniques of treatment of the
cholelithiasis.

Key words: b?om?neralogy, gallstone, spherol?te-dendr?t?c
m?crostructure, fractal crystall?zat?on, ?nterstone (?nterfractal)
?nteract?ons.

Похожие записи