2

I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? I.I. AIAIIIEUeOess

OAeE 611.161+611.423 ]:612.362:57.017.642:57.086.3

EOCUeIAIEI TH??e TH??eiae/

I?E?IOeE?EOEssOI?IA ?ONEI *A?AIIIAe?AIIAI A?Ae?INOEA ETHAeEIE A
I?AIAOAEUeIIIO IA??IAe? IIOIAAIACO

14.03.01 — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a–1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? *a?eania A?eoi?
Aaa?e?eiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, Aaa?eo Ieaenaiae?
Naiaiiae/, ea??aiee eaai?aoi??? iaoiii?oieia?? Oe?a?inueeiai IAe?
ea?ae?ieia?? ?i. aeaae. I.Ae. No?aaeanei;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, Neii?io Ieeiea ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith ee?i?/ii? ? iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y
IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aiaoii?? ethaeeie.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “___”____________1999 ?. i 13.30
aiae. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.003.04.
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
I.I. Aiaiiieueoey (252057, Oe?a?ia, i. Ee?a-57, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 34,
ii?oieia?/iee ei?ion, aoae. ?3).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey (252057, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Ciieia?/ia, 1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “___” _________1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A.A.*a?eania

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Noaeeiia ?onei /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo
(aiaiaeeena) ethaeeie aoei i?aaeiaoii aeinoaoiuei aaeeei? e?eueeino?
aeine?aeaeaiue (A.A. Iai?a, 1935, I.A. Nooei 1954, ?.A. Eaaoiaiei 1964,
I.?. Ae?aee?anueeee 1967, A.?. ?eue?i 1970, 1976 oa ?io?). ?ioa?an aei
aiaoii?? noaeeiiiai ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea aecia/aany a ia?oo
/a?ao eiai aaciina?aaei?i a?aeiioaiiyi aei iaoiaaiaco aiaiaeeoeeoo, eiai
oneeaaeiaiiyi ? aei ianooiiiai o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

?io? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo ? aoaeiae noaeeiiiai ?onea oeueiai i?aaio naia a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie, iia’ycai? c ?ioiiith
ooieoe??th /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea, i?eaa?oathoue oaaao ii?oieia?a,
o?c?ieia?a ? ee?i?oeeno?a o?eueee inoaii? aeanyoe??//y. Oea iaoiiaeaii
oei, ui iaeiie/othoueny oaeoe i?i aaeeea cia/aiiy nenoaie ?ioiiaaiaco a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? ?icaeoeo ethaeeie ? oaa?ei (I.A. Aieioei 1983,
A.A. *a?eania 1989, A. Durandy 1992 et al.). Oae, cie?aia, anoaiiaeaii,
ui iaa?oue ii?iaeuei? ia?io?eiaai? ca?iaeee ethaeeie iiaeooue
i?iaeoeoaaoe aioeo?ea i?ioe aioeaai?a iaoa?? (G. Chardonners, M.
Geannet, 1980). sse c’yniaaii, ca?iaeie ethaeeie ni?iiiaeiee
i?iaeoeoaaoe ?ioiinoi?aneai? a?eee, ye? i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac ieaoeaioo a
e?iaio?e iaoa?? (A. Beer, G. Sio 1982). A ca’yceo c oeei, naia
i?aiaoaeueiee ia??iae a iioiaaiac? ethaeeie cai?iiiiiaaii ?icaeyaeaoe
(C.N. Oeenoiaa 1987; I.?. Nai?i 1987) ye e?eoe/io /e ia?aeiiio oaco, a
eio??e ?icaeaa?oueny iaoai?ci ?ici?ciaaaiiy nai?o ? /oaei??aeieo
aioeaai?a, iiaeia aeine?aeeoe aeieth noiaao?iaeo ee?oei, iiyao ?
oee?eoeyoe?th ??ciiiai?oieo e?ioioeeo?a. Ii?oieia?/ia ioe?iea ?ioiii?
nenoaie ca?iaee?a ? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ia? oaeiae aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey
aa??o?eaoe?? ia?aeiieo ? iaaooeo ?ioiiaeao?oeeoieo neiae?ii?a, ye? /anoi
?a?no?othoueny a oeae ia??iae (O.A. ?aaiianueea, A.N. Aoniai 1981; C.N.
Oeenoiaa 1987). E?ioaoe/i? (e?ioi?aei?) aoceeee /a?aiiiae?aiiai
a?ae?inoeo ? nooo?ai iaiao?aeiei eiiiiiaioii ?ioiii? nenoaie (TH.?.
Aoaianue?a ? ni?aaao. 1987, E.A. *a?ieoaiei, O.A. Naiaiiaa, A.E. Ne?oeia
1994); /a?aiiiae?aiee a?ae?inoie iio??aai aeey oi?ioaaiiy A- cii i?aai?a
?ioiii? nenoaie a iioiaaiac? (I. Iaiiioa et al; 1974), a oaeiae aeey
i?iaeoeoe?? ?a/iaeie, yea /anoeiai cai?uo? ae?th oeiiceio.

Iaaaaeai? aeai? i?eaa?oathoue oaaao ia o?eueee ii?oieia?a, aea ?
o?c?ieia?a aei no?oeoo?e /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo ethaeeie a ia??iae
noaiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? ?ioiii? nenoaie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?
iioiaaiaco. Aea, ye ni?aaaaeeeai iaaieioothoue I.?. Nai?i A.A. Ao?iaai
(1996), ia nueiaiaei? aea/aiiy no?oeoo?e /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo
cia/ii a?aenoa? a?ae aea/aiiy eiai ooieoe?e ye ?ioiiiai i?aaia. ? oe?eee
?yae iaae??oaieo i?iaeai a?noio?c?ieia?? /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo,
yeee iia’ycaiee c a?aenooi?noth aeine?aeaeaiue ii?oieia?? ? ooieoe??
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea oeueiai i?aaia a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?
iioiaaiaco. I?ae oei, aea/aiiy no?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a aia?iaaiaco
e?iaiiinieo ? e?ioiiinieo noaeei i?e?ioee?eoey?iiai ?onea
/a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco
ia aoei aei oeueiai /ano i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
a ?one? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. aeaae. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey
“Aea/aiiy i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea neeciai? iaieiiee i?aai?a o?aaii?,
aeeoaeueii?, na/inoaoaai? nenoai ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae?
iioiaaiaco” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0195 I0 11141).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy
no?oeoo?ieo iaoai?ci?a aia?iaaiaco e?iaiiinieo ? e?ioiiinieo noaeei
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo ethaeeie a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco.

A ?iaio? iinoaaeai? ianooii? eiie?aoi? caaea/?:

1. Aea/eoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo ee?oeiieo oa
iaee?oeiieo eiiiiiaio?a no?iee eiaeii? eaiee aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai
(a?oa??iea, i?aeai?ey?ia a?oa??iea, eai?ey?, iinoeai?ey?ia aaioea,
cae?aeueia aaioea) ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo ia i?ioyc?
i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie.

2. Aeyaeoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? iaoai?cie oa niiniae oi?ioaaiiy aoi?eiieo
e?iaiiinieo eai?ey??a /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ieiae?a ethaeeie c
iaoith aeyaeaiiy eiie?aoieo i?aaiiniaoeeo?/ieo ?en aoi?eiiiai
aia?iaaiaco.

3. Aea/eoe oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo noaeei
e?ioii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea (e?ioaoe/i? eai?ey?e ? e?ioaoe/i?
iinoeai?ey?e) /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ia i?ioyc? i?aiaoaeueiiai
ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A ?iaio? aia?oa ia
oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiio ??ai? iienaii ii?oieia?th e?iaiiinieo ? e?ioiiinieo
noaeei i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ethaeeie a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaca.

Aeei?enoaii eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aeey aea/aiiy ia?aeiiiai ? aoi?eiiiai
aia?iaaiaco a /a?aiiiae?aiiio a?ae?inoeo, yeee iieyaa? a canoinoaaii?
??cieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy – ?i’?eoe?eieo, a?noieia?/ieo,
aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiai ? ii?oiiao?e/iiai, ui aeaa oe?e?nio oyao i?i
ci?io aia?ia?o?oaeoii?ee /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ? ci?ie no?oeoo?ii?
i?aai?caoe?? eaiie i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea i?aaia a?ae ee?oeiiiai aei
noaee?oeiiiai ??aiy ia aoaiao i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui ?icaeoie
i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ciaoiaeeoueny a o?niiio ei?aeyoeaiiio ca’yceo
c oi?ioaaiiyi /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea. Oea cie?aia ciaoiaeeoue nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ?icaeoeo a i?aeneecia?e iniia? iinoeai?ey?ieo aaioe c
aenieei aiaeioae??i ? eeoai/e?a e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey??a, ye? ? oeyoaie ia
o?eueee eiaen?aeueiiai, aea e o?ainio?aeueiiai o?ainii?oo e?ioioeeo?a.
Oea inoaii? ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy e?ioaoe/ieo aoceee?a
(iniiaii? ?ioiii? no?oeoo?e aiaiaeeena) ca ?aooiie o?ainio?aeueii?
i?a?aoe?? e?ioioeeo?a ? ?ao?eoey?ieo ee?oei /a?ac aenieee aiaeioae?e
iinoeai?ey?ieo aaioe.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaii?
?iaioe nenoaiaoecothoue ? iiaeeaeththoue aeai? i?i ia?aeiiee ? aoi?eiiee
aia?iaaiac a ooieoe?iiaeueii ??cieo i?aaiao ethaeeie. ?iaioith ?ice?eo?
iniiai? aoaie oi?ioaaiiy i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai
a?ae?inoea ethaeeie ? aeaia no?oeoo?ia iaa?oiooaaiiy noaiiaeaiith
?ioiii? ooieoe?? i?aaia a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? ?icaeoeo ethaeeie.
Aeine?aeaeaii noaiiaeaiiy a?noioiiia?ao?/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae ??cieie
eaieaie i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ? no?oeoo?ieie eiiiiiaioaie
/a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea.

Noi?ioeueiaai? aeniiaee ni?eythoue anoaiiaeaiith caaaeueii-a?ieia?/ieo
i?eioeei?a ? caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo oa no?oeoo?ii? i?aai?caoe??
i?aai?a ?ioiii? nenoaie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aianie aaoi?a a io?eiaii? iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o aeai?? iai?yieo, ianyao ? iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iinoaiiaoe? iaoe oa oi?ioaaii? caaaeaiue, o i?iaaaeaii? ii?oieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a aiae?c? oa ocaaaeueiaii? ?o ?acoeueoao?a,
iaa?oiooaaii? aeniiae?a ?iaioe, a oaeiae a i?aeaioiaoe? iaoeiaeo aeaieo
aei ioae?eaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia: II Iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an? aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a,
aia??ieia?a ? oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?a Oe?a?ie (Eoaainuee, 1998); iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? ”Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ooieoe?iiaeueii? aiaoii?? noaeeiii?
nenoaie” (Euea?a, 1995); iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? ”Ooiaeaiaioaeueiua e
eeeie/aneea aniaeou nia?aiaiiie ?aaaeeeoaoeee” (Iieoaaa, 1995); iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? ”Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oiaaiaco” (*a?i?aoe?, 1996);
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oieia??” (Oa?iii?eue,
1996).

Ioae?eaoe??.

Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 9 ?ia?o, ?c ieo o oaoiaeo
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, caoaa?aeaeaieo AAE Oe?a?ie – 4, ca??ieeao i?aoeue
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e – 5.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? – 173 noi??iee, ?c
ieo, iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, iaienaiiai /a?ac 2 ?ioa?aaee – 108. Ia? anooi
? 4 ?icae?ee: iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? iiae?eai? ia 2 ?icae?ee ? 4
i?ae?icae?ee, iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeniiae?a, ui
neeaaeathoueny c 13 ioieo?a. Aeena?oaoe?y ?ethno?iaaia 78 ?enoieaie, 3
noaiaie ? 1 oaaeeoeath. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ai?uo? 174
aeaea?aea a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca?aeii caaea/ai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa aea/aiee /a?aiiiae?aiee a?ae?inoie
150 aia??ii?a oa ieiae?a ethaeeie o a?oe? a?ae 6-7oeaei?a aei 9 i?nyoe?a
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo.

Iaoa??ae aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aoa io?eiaiee c aeooa?nueeeo oa
a?iaeieia?/ieo a?aeae?eaiue ee?i?/ieo e?ea?aiue i. Ee?aa i?ney
niiioaiieo aai?o?a, ia?aae/anieo iieia?a, ye? aeieeee aiane?aeie
ineo?/ii? aai iaoai?/ii? o?aaie, a oaeiae i?ney ooo/iiai ia?a?eaaiiy
aaa?oiino?. Aia??iiaeueiee oa ie?aeiee iaoa??ae aoa io?eiaiee a?ae
i?aeoe/ii caei?iaeo ae?iie, o yeeo ia?aa?a aaa?oiino? aoa ii?iaeueiei.

Aioo??oiueioo?iaiee ia??iae ?icaeoeo ethaeeie ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoith
noaiith (A.A. Eii??a, 1959; E.E. Oaeei, 1976; Patten, 1959)
iiae?ey?oueny ia aeaa ia??iaee: aia??iiaeueiee (aei e?ioey ae?oaiai
i?nyoey i?aiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo) ? ieiaeiee.

A?e aia??iio aecia/aany ca ?acoeueoaoaie a?iaeieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy oa
ca aeiaaeeiith nooii? o ii ca?aeii oaaeeoeue, cai?iiiiiaaieo A.TH.
Aa?aiiaei (1976).

A?e ieiae?a aecia/aee oeyoii aei??thaaiiy o?i’yii-eoi?eeiaiai oa
o?i’yii-i’yoeiaiai ?ici???a ca oaaeeoeyie E.?. Oae?ia (1976).

Ia na?oeiiioe/iiio ??ai? ?icaeoie /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ethaeeie ia
i?ioyc? 6-7-14 oeaei?a aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ia??iaeo aoa aea/aiee ia
oioaeueieo na??eieo c??cao caaa?aeaieo aaiaoienee?iaiceiii. Iaoa??aee
o?enoaaee o ?ic/ei? E?ee?, i?iaiaeeee /a?ac aaoa?ath nie?o?a aeno?aeii?
eiioeaio?aoe??, /a?ac noi?o nie?o-oei?ioi?i, oei?ioi?i,
oei?ioi?i-ia?ao?i, ia?ao?i ? caeeaaee o ia?ao?i, ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoith
iaoiaeeeith (?. E?ee?, 1969).

Aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ieiae?a ethaeeie
aea/aee ca aeiiiiiaith eiiieaeno ?i’?eoe?eieo iaoiae?a.

Aeey aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae noaiiaeaiiy oi?ie aiaeioae?ioeeo?a ?
eiioo??a aiaeioae?aeueieo iaae on?o eaiie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiae ?ii?aaiaoe??, oeyoii ?i’?eoe?? 0,1-0,3% ?ic/eio
i?o?aoo n??aea /a?ac aeno?aeio ai?oo ca L. Ranvier (1876) a
iiaeeo?eaoe?? I.A. Nooei ? E.A. *a?ieoaiei (1957).

Aia?ia?o?oaeoii?eo aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai
a?ae?inoeo aea/aee ca aeiiiiiaith ?i’?eoe?? noaeei 30-35% aiaeiith
noniaic??th /i?ii? ooo?, a oaeiae 0,1-0,3% ?ic/eiii i?o?aoo n??aea /a?ac
aeno?aeio ai?oo.

I?ney ?i’?eoe?? /a?aiiiae?aiee a?ae?inoie, a oaeiae eiai ie?ai? oa?e
o?enoaaee a ?ic/ei? E?ee?, i?iaiaeeee /a?ac aaoa?ath nie?o?a aeno?aeii?
eiioeaio?aoe??, i?ina?oeyee a eneeie? ? caeeth/aee a aaeuecai. Io?eiai?
i?aia?aoe aea/aee ? oioia?aooaaee ca aeiiiiiaith a?iieoey?ii? eoie IA?-2
? na?oeiiioe/iiai i?e?ineiia IA?-6.

C iaoith a?eueo oi/iiai aecia/aiiy eaiie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
ia i?aia?aoao ?ii?aaiiaaieo ii ?aia’? aoa canoiniaaiee ieoey?-i?e?iiao?
IIA-1-15 ia i?e?ineii? IA?-6 (aei??thaaee aeiaaeeio ? oe?eio
aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei a 15 iieyo ci?o o eiaeiiai ia’?eoa).

Aia?ia?o?oaeoii?eo e?ioii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai
a?ae?inoeo aea/aee ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioa?no?oe?aeueii? ?i’?eoe?? ?ic/ei?a
ie?eieo oa?a (iana Noaoai?na, iana Aa?ioa) ii caaaeueiii?eeiyo?e
iaoiaeeoe? (E.A. *a?ieoaiei, I.A. Nooei, 1973).

Aeey aea/aiiy oeueo?ano?oeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo oa aoaeiae oa??a
no?iee /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea oa eiai aioo??oiueii?aaiieo
i?e?inoaeei aoa aeei?enoaiee iaoiae o?aini?n?eii? aeaeo?iiii?
i?e?ineii??. Iaoa??ae aeey oeueo?ano?oeoo?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa
io?eiaiee ia i?ci?oa 2 aiaeei i?ney nia?o? ieiaea ? aaciina?aaeiuei
i?ney ooo/iiai ia?a?eaaiiy aaa?oiino?. Ca?aeii aeaieo TH.I. Eiioo?ia ?
ni?aaao. (1977) oeueo?ano?oeoo?i? iciaee iinoii?oaeueiiai aooie?co
c’yaeythoueny iai?ee?ioe? ae?oai? aiaeeie i?ney nia?o? i?aai?cio.
Oiaoi/ee /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo ?ici??ii 0,5-1 ii3 o?enoaaee
?iia?n?eiei caniaii o 2,5% ?ic/ei? aethoa?-aeueaeaa?aeo, yeee aoa
i?eaioiaeaiee ia 0,1 I oinoaoiiio aooa?? (pH=7,4) ia i?ioyc? 1,5–2
aiaeei ca oiia e?iiaoii? oaiia?aoo?e. Iio?i iinoo?enoaaee o 1% ?ic/ei?
/ioe?ueio ieeno ini?y ia i?ioyc? 1 aiaeeie. I?ney o?enaoe?? aeiee
i?iieaaee a 3-4 ii?oe?yo 0,1 I oinoaoiiai aooa?o (pH=7,4) ii 10-15
oaeeei a eiaei?e ii?oe??. I?aia?aoe i?iaiaeeee /a?ac aaoa?ath nie?o?a
aeno?aeii? eiioeaio?aoe?? (50%, 70%, 96%, 100%) ii 15 oaeeei a eiaei?e
ii?oe??. I?ney oeueiai i?aia?aoe i?iaiaeeee /a?ac noi?o nie?o-aoeaoii,
aoeaoii. C aoeaoiio i?aia?aoe iine?aeiaii i?iaiaeeee /a?ac noi?o aiiio ?
aoeaoiio o ni?aa?aeiioaii? 1:3; 1:1; 3:1. A eiaei?e noi?o? aiiio ?
aoeaoiio i?aia?aoe o?eiaee ii 2 aiaeeie. Iie?ia?ecaoe?th aeie?a
i?iaiaeeee iinooiiai a oa?iinoaoao i?e oaiia?aoo?? 36°N, 45°N, 45°N. I?e
eiaei?e oaiia?aoo?? aeiee aeo?eioaaee ia i?ioyc? aeiae. Oeueo?aoiie?
c??ce, io?eiai? c aeie?a, aiooaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith neeyieo iiae?a ia
oeueo?aoiiao LKB-8800 ? OIOI- 4.

Oeueo?aoiie? c??ce n??aeynoiai eieuei?o eiio?anooaaee o?ai?eaoeaoaoii ca
M.L. Watson (1958) ? oeeo?aoii naeioeth ca E.S. Reynolds (1963).
I?aia?aoe aea/aee ? oioia?aooaaee ia aeaeo?iiieo i?e?ineiiao OAIA-100AE
? OAIA-100A?.

Aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiai?: ia aac? eaoaae?e
ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? oa ia aac? Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai eaai?aoi?iiai
oeaio?o Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey.

?ACOEUeOAOE AEANIEO AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Iniaeeaino? aia?iaaiaco a /a?aiiiae?aiiio a?ae?inoeo aia??ii?a ? ieiae?a
ethaeeie, ia iao iiaeyae, aecia/a?oueny oei, ui /a?aiiiae?aiee
a?ae?inoie o ethaeeie ooai?th?oueny aei 7-8 oeaeiy ?icaeoeo ye
aeeaa?oeeoe ne?ii? eeoee. Aei oeueiai /ano a ne?i?e eeooe? ? noi?iiaaia
ia?aeiia i?ioieai?ey?ia ?onei. Oaeei /eiii, /a?aiiiae?aiee a?ae?inoie
aia??ii?a, ia? i?ioieai?ey?ia ?onei, ? ia?aeiiee aia?iaaiac a iueiio, ye
anoaiiaeaii aeaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, ia eaea. A?eueo oiai, iaie
a?aei?/aii, ui an? e?iaiiini? i?e?inoaeeie /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo
iathoue aacaeueio iaia?aio ? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?icaeiooeie
aiaeioae?ioeeoaie iaia?a?aiiai niiaoe/iiai oeio. I?aaiiniaoeeo?/ia aaii-
? e?ioii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo ethaeeie a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ?icaeaa?oueny ca ?aooiie aoi?eiiiai
aia?iaaiaco. Aoi?eiiee aia?iaaiac aeeth/a?: 1) ?icaeoie a?oa??ie c
i’yciaith iaieiieith; 2) ?icaeoie iinoeai?ey?ieo ? cae?aeueieo aaioe, a
oiio /ene? ? niaoeeo?/ieo iinoeai?ey?ieo aaioe c aenieei aiaeioae??i; 3)
oi?ioaaiiy “a?oiueie ?inoo”, c yeeo ?icaeaathoueny aoi?eii? e?ioaoe/i?
eai?ey?e.

Iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iei i?iyaii aoi?eiiiai aia?iaaiaco a /a?aiiiae?aiiio
a?ae?inoeo ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ie aaaaea?ii:

1) a?oiueeoaaiiy; 2) aianoiiicoaaiiy; 3) ?aiiaeoethaaiiy eai?ey?ii?
iaoe? ? oi?ioaaiiy eai?ey?ii? n?oee.

Noaiiaeaiiy aaii- ? e?ioii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea a?ae?inoeo
ia?ic?eaii iia’ycaia c ?icaeoeii no?oeoo? no?iee i?aaio.

A ?icaeoeo /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio
ia??iae? iioiaaiaco, ia iniia? io?eiaieo iaie aeaieo, iiaeia aeae?eeoe
o?e ia??iaee. Ia?oee aeeth/a? a naaa ?aii? noaae?? ?icaeoeo (8-16
oeaei?a) ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ii/aoeii ia?aaoaeiae oeaiei i?aaio c
aia??iiaeueiiai a c??eee noai. Ae?oaee aeeth/a? a naaa a?eueo i?ci?
noaae?? ?icaeoeo (17-20 oeaei?a) ? a?ae??ciy?oueny ?ioaineaiei ?icaeoeii
neeciai? iaieiiee (ca?eueoaiiyi /enea eaeeoiiiae?aieo ee?oei,
i?e?iai?neiie ai?oae?ioeeo?a, ?icaeoeii e?eio). O?ao?e ia??iae (20-36
oeaei?a) a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ia?oeo aeaio ?icaeoeii e?ioi?aeii?
oeaieie, noi?iiaaii? o aeaeyae? e?ioaoe/ieo aoceee?a, ye? iathoue
aeaeyae aeeoocii ?ici?uaieo ee?oei.

I?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy
e?ioaoe/ieo aoceee?a /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ieiae?a ca /anii
ei?aeth? c iiyaith ? ?icaeoeii iinoeai?ey?ieo aaioe c aenieei
aiaeioae??i. ?o (c o?aooaaiiyi aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e) iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye
i?aaiiniaoeeo?/i? noaeeii? naaiaioe, ye? ?ici?ciathoueny niaoeeo?/ieie
aaeaaceaieie iieaeoeaie ? oii?iaiaaieie ?aoeaioi?aie ia e?ioioeeoao.

I?ina?o iinoeai?ey?ii? aaioee c aenieei aiaeioae??i a /a?aiiiae?aiiio
a?ae?inoeo ieiae?a ethaeeie ia? neeaaeio aaiiao?e/io eiio?ao?aoe?th ca
?aooiie iiaeeaeaiue ? aeieiaiue aiaeioae?th. C oaeeie iniaeeainoyie
aoaeiae iia’ycaii ca?eueoaiiy iiaa?oi? aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei,
aenooiath/eo a i?ina?o noaeei, ? ?ai?aai?caoe?y e?iaioieo ?c eai?ia?iiai
a oo?aoey?iee. Oeae o?ce/iee oaeoi? ni?ey? ianeai?e aca?iiae??
e?ioioeeo?a c aiaeioae??i. A??ia?aeii, iaeiia?euei?oee e?iaioie ia?
i?noea a iinoeai?ey?ieo aaioeao /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo – naia ooo
ciaoiaeeoueny ciia aca?iiae?? e?ioioeeo?a c aiaeioae??i. Aaiiao??y
i?ina?oo aaioe ? iia?eueiee e?iaio?e aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aeey
ia?a?iaoe?? ? iine?aeoth/i? i?a?aoe?? e?ioioeeo?a.

I?a?oth/? e?ioioeeoe aecia/athoueny a i?inoi?? i?ae ee?oeiaie aenieiai
aiaeioae?th ? a oeeoiieaci?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i a??ia?aei?noue ye
/a?acee?oeiii?, oae ? i?aeee?oeiii? iiaeeeainoae i?a?aoe??. A oeae /an
ieaciieaia e?ioioeeoa ia an?o aoaiao i?a?aoe?? (oii?iao) caeeoa?oueny
a?aeiaaeiaaiith a?ae ieaciieaie aiaeioae?aeueii? ee?oeie, ui ooai?th?
iiaa?oith, yea a?aeae?ey? e?ia a?ae e?ioi?aeii? oeaieie. Aenioa
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a iinoeai?ey?ieo aaioe /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea
ii??aiyia c ?ici??aie i?a?oth/eo e?ioioeeo?a, ui aeicaiey? caa?aaoe
aa?’??io ooieoe?th noaeeiii? no?iee ? caiaeeoue aei i?i?ioio ao?aoo
??aeeie ?c e?ia? a e?ioi?aeio oeaieio i?e aeno?aaacaoe?? e?ioioeeo?a.
Oaeei /eiii, iacae/aeia aenioa aiaeioae?ioeeo?a iinoeai?ey?ieo aaioe, ia
iao iiaeyae, yaey?oueny a?aeia?aaeaiiyi ?o niaoeeo?/ii? aaeaioaoe?? aei
o?ainio?aeueii? i?a?aoe?? e?ioioeeo?a.

I?inoaaeo?oueny i?yia caeaaei?noue i?ae nooiaiai ?icaeoeo aenieiai
aiaeioae?th ? ?ioaineai?noth i?a?aoe?? e?ioioeeo?a a /a?aiiiae?aiiio
a?ae?inoeo ieiae?a ethaeeie.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e ? aeanieo aeaieo na?ae/aoue, ui i?aeee?oeii?
aca?iiae?? a nenoai? “e?ioioeeo – aiaeioae?ioeeo” iaiao?aei? aeey
cae?eniaiiy ?aoee?eoeyoe?? e?ioioeeo?a ? cae?eniaiiy ooieoe?e ?ioi?oaoo
a /a?aiiiae?aiiio a?ae?inoeo ieiae?a, caeaaeaoue a?ae ?icaeoeo ?
noaiiaeaiiy niaoe?ae?ciaaii? oi?ie noaeeiiiai aiaeioae?th – aenieiai
aiaeioae?th, iinoeai?ey?ieo aaioe.

A oeeoiieaci? aeaaeeii’yciaeo ee?oei a?oa??ie /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea
ieiae?a ia?oi? iieiaeie aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo iaie a?aei?/aii
cia/iee ?icaeoie nae?aoi?iiai aia?aoo, i?aaii?aee yeiai
?iciiae?eythoueny ii an?e oeeoiieaci?. Ii i??? oeeoiaeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy
(o ieiae?a ae?oai? iieiaeie aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo) a oeeoiieaci?
aeaaeeii’yciaeo ee?oei ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue i?e?io?a??e, aiie
?ici?uothoueny acaeiaae aeiaai? in? ee?oeie. A ca’yceo c ?inoii
/enaeueiino? i?e?io?eaiaio?a ? ca?eueoaiiy nooiaith ?o aii?yaeeiaaiino?,
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?a?iciiae?e i?aaii?ae?a, ye? ?ici?uai? a ciiao
oeeoiieacie, a?eueieo a?ae i?e?io?a??e.

Aeoiaey/e c aeuaneacaiiai iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe ?aii? aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy
aeaaeeii’yciaeo ee?oei a no?ioe? a?oa??ie ieiae?a. I?e/iio a ia?o?e
iieiaei? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo aei neeaaeo no?iee a?oa??ie
aoiaeyoue aeaaeeii’ycia? ee?oeie nae?aoi?iiai oeio, a a ae?oa?e iieiaei?
– eiio?aeoeeueiiai. Iiae?aia aeeiai?ea ci?ie oei?a aeaaeeii’yciaeo
ee?oei iaoiiaeaia aeinoaoiuei eiie?aoieie caaea/aie: nae?aoi?ia ooieoe?y
– iaiao?aeia aeey ?icaeoeo aacaeueii? iaia?aie aeaaeeii’yciaeo ee?oei
aioo??oiuei? aeanoe/ii? iaia?aie ? ?ioeo no?oeoo? iicaee?oeiiiai
iao?eena; eiio?aeoeeueia ooieoe?y – iaiao?aeia aeey ?aaoeyoe?? e?iaioieo
a aeinoaoiuei neeaaeiiio aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiio ?one? i?aaia, ui
?icaeaa?oueny.

A oiae? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui noaiiaeaiiy
aii?yaeeiaaiino? e?iaioieo a /a?aiiiae?aiiio a?ae?inoeo ieiae?a ethaeeie
aeinyaa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iaeii??aeieo ? ??cii??aeieo noaeei, /a?ac
aoaeiao eai?ey?ieo n?oie, a oaeiae caaaeyee aia?aoo i?enoinoaaiiy aeey
?aaoeyoe?? ?ooo ? ?iciiae?eo e?ia? (a?oa??aeuei? ? i?aeai?ey?i?
no?ieoa?e).

Eai?ey?i? n?oee oa?aeoa?i? aeey an?o iaieiiie /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea
ieiae?a (na?icii?, i’yciai? ? neeciai?) ? neeaaeathoueny c eai?ey?ieo
iaoaeue. Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui aeaiaioa?iith iaeeieoeath ?inoo
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ieiae?a
yaey?oueny eai?ey?ia iaoey. Ia?aeiia eai?ey?ia iaoey ia? iaaaeee?
?ici??e ? ooai?th?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ceeooy aeaio non?aei?o “a?oiueie
?inoo”, ye? ?inoooue ?c iaei??? iaoa?einueei? noaeeie. A ia?aeii?e
eai?ey?i?e iaoe? iiaeia aeae?eeoe: 1) i?ieneiaeueia eie?ii; 2)
aeenoaeueia eie?ii; 3) aa?o?aeo iaoe?, ia ye?e iiaeia aeae?eeoe
“a?oiueeo ?inoo”.

Ciai?oiy aeoaa aa?o?aee eai?ey?ii? iaoe? aeeiio? ooieoe?th inai?iiy
iiaeo oa?eoi??e. A i?ioean? ?inoo ia?aeiia eai?ey?ia iaoey
ca?eueoo?oueny a ?ici??ao ? ia?aoai?th?oueny o aoi?eiio eai?ey?io
iaoeth. A ?acoeueoao? ceeooy “a?oiueie ?inoo” aa?o?aie eai?ey?ieo
iaoaeue ooai?th?oueny ?aeeia iaoeenoa eai?ey?ia n?oea. Oaeei /eiii a
i?ioean? ?inoo aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea
ooai?th?oueny ia e?iaiiiniee eai?ey?, a nai???aeiee iiaeoeue eai?ey?ii?
n?oee – eai?ey?ia iaoey. Aeioe?euei?noue oaeiai oeio aia?iaaiaco
caeeth/a?oueny a oi?eaeueiiio noi?nieoeoa? ?inoo eai?ey?ieo iaoaeue c
iaia?a?aiith oee?eoeyoe??th e?ia? a ieo.

Aeey e?iaiiinieo i?e?inoaeei /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea, ye? aeathoue
“a?oiueee ?inoo”, oa?aeoa?ii ooai?aiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? a?ae?inoe?a o
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a. Ia??ai?noue iiaa?oi? aiaeioae?aeueieo ee?oei
yaey?oueny ye ?acoeueoaoii ceeooy aaceeoe, oae ? aiaaiaeaeieo ?oo?a
aiaeioae?ioeeoa a oe?eiio. I?noeai ooai?aiiy “a?oiueie ?inoo” iiaeooue
aooe ae?inoe ia aacaeuei?e iiaa?oi? aiaeioae?ioeeoa a i?noeyo
eieaeueiiai ?icieaaeaiiy ? o?aaiaioaoe?? aacaeueii? iaia?aie.

sse anoaiiaeaii a ?acoeueoao? aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, nii/aoeo ae?inoe
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a i?iieeathoue /a?ac aacaeueio iaia?aio iaoa?einueei?
noaeeie (cae/aeii aaioee aai iinoeai?ey?a), iio?i yae?i aiaeioae?ioeeo?a
ia?ai?uo?oueny a a?ae?inoee. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy
“aiaeioae?aeueii? oii?e”. Aaaaoi?aciai iiaoi?thth/enue, ooai?aiiy
aieiaeo ? e?ioeaaeo ia?inoe?a “aiaeioae?aeueii? oii?e” i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ooai?aiiy ?icaaeoaeaeaieo no?oeoo?. Oaeei /eiii oi?io?oueny aa?oeia
eai?ey?ii? a?oiueee, yea yaey? niaith neoi/aiiy i?e?iae?ino?a ?
inaaaeiiiae?e, ia iie?eoeo aacaeueiith iaia?aiith. ??no eai?ey?ii?
a?oiueee aecia/a?oueny noaiii ioi/oth/iai ?ioa?noeoe?eiiai iao?eena, a
yeiio, ca ?aooiie ?ic??aeaeaiiy aieieienoeo no?oeoo? ooai?th?oueny
eaiae, iaiaaeaiee a?ae?inoeaie o?a?iaeano?a. A ca’yceo c oeei, ?oo
eai?ey?ieo a?oiueie, ui ?inoooue, a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae ii nai???aeieo
?aeeao, a ?ioa?noeoe??, ?ieue yeeo aeeiiothoue eieaaaiia? aieieia ?
a?ae?inoee o?a?iaeano?a.

Aiaeioae?ioeeoe “a?oiueee ?inoo” i?a?othoue oeyoii eiacaiiy noi?aeieo
ee?oei, i?e/iio, aiaeioae?ioeeoe caa??aathoue iiey?i?noue, ui cie?aia,
i?iyaey?oueny iayai?noth ae?aaeaiiai i?e?ii?iioeeoica. Aeineoue
nooo?aith a ooai?aii? “a?oiueie ?inoo” yaey?oueny ?ieue ?ioeo
iaiiey?eciaaieo ee?oei – ia?aaacaeueieo o?a?iaeano?a ? ia?eoeeo?a. Aiie
o?nii i?eeyaathoue aei “a?oiueee ?inoo”, aea a ieo a?aenooiy ?icaeiooa
nenoaia i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo aac?eoe. Ioi/oth/? aa?o?aeo “a?oiueee ?inoo”
o?a?iaeanoe ooai?ththoue iaae iath nai???aeio “ia?anieueeo”, yea
oe??ieth? i?aeio “a?oiueeo ?inoo”. Aeania, caaaeyee iienai?e
“ia?anieueoe?” “a?oiueea”, ui ?inoa, aeiea? ii?? ioi/oth/eo oeaiei.

Iaoa?einueea noaeeia, yea aea? ii/aoie “a?oiueeai ?inoo”, ia? aeaeyae
aaaaoieaiaeueii?, ca ?aooiie ooai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo i?ina?o?a.
Aeiaeaoeia? i?ina?oe iaoa?einueei? noaeeie yaeythoueny ae?eii i?ina?oo
“a?oiueie ?inoo” ? oi?iothoueny ca ?aooiie: 1) c’?aeiaiiy ethi?iaeueieo
a?ae?inoe?a; 2) ceeooy aaeoieae; 3) ci?uaiiy iaeiiai aiaeioae?ioeeoo ii
a?aeiioaiith aei ?ioiai.

A?ae?inoee ia ethi?iaeuei?e iiaa?oi? eiaeiiai ie?aiiai aiaeioae?ioeeoa
“iaoa?einueei?” e?iaiiinii? i?e?inoaeeie, ceeaath/enue iaeei c iaeiei,
a?aeiaaeiaothoue iaaeueii? oi?ie aaeoie?. Aac?eoee a oeeoiieaci?
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a oeeo i?e?inoaeei ia’?aeiothoueny iaeei c iaeiei,
ooai?ththoue ??cii? aeiaaeeie ? ?icaaeoaeaeaiiy anioe?aoe??
(i?e?iaaceeoey?i? eiiieaene), a inoaii?, ceeaath/enue, oaeiae oi?iothoue
aaeee? aaeoie?. A oe?eiio, iienaia ea?oeia, a?aeiia?aeii eiioeaioe?? i?i
iaia?aiii-ieanoe/io ooieoe?th aiaeioae?th (R. Wagner et al. 1983) iiaea
aooe ?icoe?iaia ye ooai?aiiy iiooaeiiai caiano ieaciieaie
aiaeioae?ioeeoa, iaiao?aeiiai aeey ethi?i?caoe?? ? ?ooo aia?aae
“a?oiueee ?inoo” ca ?aooiie aeiaeaaaiiy iaia?aiiiai iaoa??aeo.

Io?eiai? a oiae? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui
ooai?aiiy “a?oiueee ?inoo”, c yei? ?icaeaa?oueny aoi?eiiee e?iaiiiniee
eai?ey?, – oea neeaaeiee ii?oiaaiaoe/iee i?ioean, yeee yaey?oueny
?acoeueoaoii eiiia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? aiaeioae?ioeeo?a, ia?eoeeo?a ?
ia?aaacaeueieo o?a?iaeano?a.

Ooai?aiiy “a?oiueee ?inoo”, c yei? ?icaeaa?oueny aoi?eiiee e?ioaoe/iee
eai?ey? /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ieiae?a, oaeiae yaey?oueny
?acoeueoaoii eiiia?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino? aiaeioae?ioeeo?a ?
ia?aaacaeueieo o?a?iaeano?a. Ui a?aeiinii aoai?a ?? oi?ioaaiiy, oi
nooo?aa a?aei?ii?noue ?o a?ae oaeeo “a?oiueee ?inoo” aoi?eiiiai
e?iaiiiniiai eai?ey?a aecia/a?oueny a?aenooi?noth: 1) aacaeueii?
iaia?aie o iaoa?einueei? e?ioaoe/ii? i?e?inoaeeie; 2) ia?eoeeo?a; 3)
aa?o?aee “a?oiueee ?inoo” c oa?aeoa?iith “ia?anieueeith”, ooai?aiith
o?a?iaeanoaie (ia?eoeeoaie?).

“A?oiueea ?inoo” aoi?eiiiai e?ioaoe/iiai eai?ey?a oi?io?oueny ? ?inoa a
nai???aeiiio ?ioa?noeoe?aeueiiio eaiae?, ooai?aiiio ca ?aooiie
?ic??aeaeaiiy aii?oii? iniiaii? ?a/iaeie niieo/ii? oeaieie ? iaiaaeaiith
io/eaie eieaaaiiaeo aieieii.

Aiae?c ?icaeoeo i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea
ieiae?a ethaeeie na?ae/eoue, ui aiaeioae?e c’yaey?oueny ?ai?oa a?ae on?o
ee?oeiieo aeaiaio?a no?iee noaeei i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea ?
caaacia/o? ia o?eueee o?ainii?oio ooieoe?th a nenoai? e?ia-oeaieii? oa
e?ioa-oeaieii? eiiiiiaioe i?aaio, a ooai?th? oaeiae iai?aaeyth/? oeyoe
aeey aae?anii? i?a?aoe?? ?ioiieiiiaoaioieo ee?oei (a?eueoith i??ith –
e?ioioeeo?a) a iaoiiaeai? ae?eyiee neeciai? iaieiiee ? i?aeneeciaiai
oa?o /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea. Oae c’yaey?oueny ? ?icaeaa?oueny
e?ioi?aeia oeaieia /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea, yea coiiaeth? aeeiiaiiy
iei ?ioiii? ooieoe??.

AENIIAEE

1. A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui e?iaiiini? ? e?ioiiini?
noaeeie i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ieiae?a
ethaeeie ooai?ththoueny caaaeyee aoi?eiiiio aia?iaaiaco, iniiaieie
iaoai?ciaie yeiai ? a?oiueeoaaiiy (ni?iooeia) ? oi?ioaaiiy (caaaeyee
aeeoa?aioee?iaoe? ee?oei ia?aaacaeueiiai ioi/aiiy) i?ioeeo?a ?
aaeaaioeoe?eieo ee?oei no?iee a?oa??ie ? aaioe, oa ?icaeoie nooeie
e?ioaoe/ieo iinoeai?ey??a. Ca ?aooiie oeueiai ia? i?noea iaaiee
a?aae??io a aaoa?io?ii?? ?icaeoeo i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
/a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco –
i?e?inoaeeie, ui ?icoaoiaai? aeeae/a aei iniiae a?ae?inoea ? a?eueo
aeeoa?aioe?eiaai?, i?ae oae? ia aa?o?aoe?.

2. Aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo ethaeeie 3
i?nyoe?a ?icaeoeo neeaaea?oueny c caieiaiiai i?ioieai?ey?iiai ?onea.
I?ioieai?ey?e /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea iathoue no?ieo, iiaoaeiaaio c
iiiioa?o aiaeioae?ioeeo?a ? o?aaiaio?a aacaeueii? iaia?aie, i?ae yeeie
iiaeia aa/eoe a?ae?inoee aiaeioae?ioeeo?a)

3. Ia 4-5 i?nyoe? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo ia iniia? i?ioieai?ey??a
(ca ?aooiie a?noiaaiaco eiiiiiaio?a noaeeiii? no?iee) ?icaeaathoueny
noaeeie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea neeciai?, i’yciai? ? na?icii?
iaieiiie, ye? ooai?ththoue ?aeeiee eiiieaen – aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia
?onei /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea. Ii/eiath/e c oeueiai ia??iaeo, a
neeaae? aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea a?ae?inoea iiaeia aeae?eeoe:

1) eai?ey?e, a aiaeioae?ioeeoao yeeo ?aea ?ioaineaiee i?ioean
i?e?ii?iioeeoico; 2) aaioee; 3) a?oa??iee.

4. Aei ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo noaeei aaiii?e?ioee?eoey?iiai
?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco
ne?ae a?aeianoe ?aii?e ?icaeoie (ia 4-5 i?nyoe?) n?oee a?oa??iey?ieo
noaeei c i’yciaei oa?ii ? ?icaeiaieie no?ieoa?aie a na?ici?e iaieiioe?
a?ae?inoeo, iiyao a i?aeneeciaiio oa?? o ieiae?a 7-9 i?nyoe?a ?icaeoeo
aaioe c aenieei aiaeioae??i, /a?ac yeee i?a?othoue e?ioioeeoe.

5. E?ioioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei iaieiiie /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ieiae?a
4-9 i?nyoe?a ?icaeoeo neeaaea?oueny c e?ioaoe/ieo eai?ey??a ?
e?ioaoe/ieo iinoeai?ey??a, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae eai?ey??a o?eueee
iayai?noth eeaiai?a.

6. Aoi?eiiee aia?iaaiac a /a?aiiiae?aiiio a?ae?inoeo – oea neeaaeiee
ii?oiaaiaoe/iee i?ioean, yeee yaey?oueny ?acoeueoaoii ?ioaa?aoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? aiaeioae?ioeeo?a, ia?aoeeo?a ? ia?aaacaeueieo
o?a??iaeano?a. A ?acoeueoao? oe??? ae?yeueiino? ooai?th?oueny
nai???aeiee aaaaoiee?oeiiee eiiieaen – “a?oiueea ?inoo”, ia’?aeiaiee
??ciiiai?oieie ii aaiiao?e/i?e oi?i? ? oeueo?ano?oeoo?i?e i?aai?caoe??
ca’yceaie.

7. Oi?ioaaiiy “a?oiueee ?inoo”, c yei? ?icaeaa?oueny aoi?eiiee
e?iaiiiniee eai?ey? /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo, aeeth/a? ianooii? aoaie:
a) ooai?aiiy aacaeueieo ae?ino?a oeeoiieacie aiaeioae?ioeeoa; a)
eieaeueia ?oeioaaiiy ? o?aaiaioaoe?th aacaeueii? iaia?aie a
ia?aae?nioth/?e iaoa?einuee?e i?e?inoaeei?;a) ia?ai?uaiiy
aiaeioae?ioeeo?a /a?ac aeaoaeo a aacaeuei?e iaia?ai? ? oi?ioaaiiy
aiaeioae?aeueii? “oii?e”; a) ooai?aiiy aa?o?aee “a?oiueee ?inoo”; ae)
ooai?aiiy i?ina?oo “a?oiueee ?inoo”; ae) iai?aaeaiee ??no aa?o?aee
“a?oiueee”, yeee ?aea ca ?aooiie ooai?aiiy a iaaeieeoi?e ?ioanoeoe??
nai???aeieo eaiae?a – ae?eyiie ?ic??aeaeaiiy aii?oii? ?a/iaeie, a ye?e
a?aenooi? aieieieno? no?oeoo?e; c) ??no eai?ey?ii? “a?oiueee”, yeee ?aea
ca ?aooiie i?a?aoe?? aiaeioae?ioeeo?a oeyoii eiacath/eo ?oo?a non?aei?o
ee?oei a ?ioa?noeoe?aeueiiio eaiae?, iaiaaeaiiio a?ae?inoeaie
o?a?iaeano?a.

8. Aa?o?aea “a?oiueee ?inoo” aoi?eiiiai e?iaiiiniiai eai?ey?a
/a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo ieiae?a ethaeeie yaey? niaith neoi/aiiy
i?e?iae?ino?a ? inaaaeiiiae?e aiaeioae?ioeeo?a, ia iie?eoeo aacaeueiith
iaia?aiith. Nooo?aei no?oeoo?iei eiiiiiaioii aa?o?aee “a?oiueee ?inoo”
yaey?oueny “ia?anieueea”, ooai?aia i?a?oth/eie nthaee o?a?iaeanoaie.

9. Ia?aae?nioth/a iaoa?einueea e?iaiiinia i?e?inoaeeia a /a?aiiiae?aiiio
a?ae?inoeo ieiae?a ethaeeie, yea aea? ii/aoie “a?oiueoe? ?inoo”, ia
oaiaaioe?aeueieo c??cao ia? aeaeyae aaaaoieaiaeueii?, ca ?aooiie
iayaiino? ae?ea “a?oiueie ?inoo”. A oeeoiieaci? aiaeioae?ioeeo?a oaeeo
aaaaoieaiaeueieo i?e?inoaeei a?aei?/aii ceeooy i?e?ii?iioeeoicieo
aac?eoe. Ca ?aooiie oeueiai, a oaeiae niieo/aiiy aaeethi?iaeueieo
a?ae?inoe?a aiaeioae?ioeeo?a ooai?ththoueny aaeoie?, ye? ceeaath/enue,
aeiiiiaaathoue eaiae?caoe?? “a?oiueie ?inoo” a iai?yieo a?ae ae?ea aei
aa?o?aee.

10. “A?oiueea ?inoo”, c yei? ?icaeaa?oueny aoi?eiiee e?ioaoe/iee eai?ey?
/a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ieiae?a ethaeeie, oi?io?oueny ca ?aooiie
?ic??aeaeaiiy aii?oii? iniiaii? ?a/iaeie ? ooai?aiiy nai???aeiiai
eaiaeo, iaiaaeaiiai eieaaaiiaeie aieieiaie, a yeee i?a?othoue
aiaeioae?ioeeoe.

11. Aeaiaioa?iith iaeeieoeath ?inoo aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
/a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ieiae?a yaey?oueny nai???aeiee iiaeoeue
eai?ey?ii? n?oee – eai?ey?ia iaoey. Ia?aeiia eai?ey?ia iaoey ia?
iaaaeee? ?ici??e ? ooai?th?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ceeooy aeaio non?aei?o
“a?oiueie ?inoo”, ye? ?inoooue c iaei??? iaoa?einueei? noaeeie. Ciai?oiy
aeoaa aa?o?aee eai?ey?ii? iaoe?, c ?ici?uaiith ia i?e “a?oiueeith ?inoo”
aeeiio? ooieoe?th inai?iiy iiaeo ae?eyiie /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea, ui
?icaeaa?oueny.

12. Ia?aoai?aiiy eai?ey?ieo n?oie aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
/a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ieiae?a a?aeaoaa?oueny: a) oeyoii ?inoo
ia?aeiii? eai?ey?ii? iaoe? ? iiaeaeueoiai ?? iiae?eo ia aea? aei/??i?
iaoe?; a) oeyoii c’?aeiaiiy aeaio non?aei?o eai?ey?ieo iaoaeue ca
aeiiiiiaith ceeooy a niieo/iee eai?ey? “a?oiueie ?inoo”.

13. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui
aia?iaaiac a /a?aiiiae?aiiio a?ae?inoeo a?aeaoaa?oueny a neeo oiai, ui
?icaeaa?oueny niaoe?aeueia oeaieia – aiaeioae?e. Iiyaa e?iaiiinieo ?
e?ioiiinieo i?e?inoaeei, ?o ?nioaaiiy – oea iaiaei?iiee iane?aeie
noaiiaeaiiy a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie
aiaeioae?aeueii? aeno?eee i?ioieai?ey??a oianoi? eeoee, ?o
aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy ? i?i?inoaiiy a /a?aiiiae?aiee a?ae?inoie, ui
oi?io?oueny. C ?inoii ? aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiyi noaeei aaii- ?
e?ioii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea ieiae?a
ethaeeie iia’ycaia ii?oieia?/ia noaiiaeaiiy o?ainio?aeueieo oeyo?a
o?ainii?oo ?a/iaei ? ?ioiieiiiaoaioieo ee?oei a i?aai?, oaeei /eiii ia?
i?noea o?niee aca?iica’ycie i?ae noaiiaeaiiyi no?oeoo?e /a?aiiiae?aiiai
a?ae?inoea ? eiai i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea.

IA?AE?E ?IA?O, IIOAE?EIAAIEO

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?iua aniaeou ?acaeoey ia?ae/iuo iee?ininoaeia ia
?aiieo yoaiao i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaca /aeiaaea. //I?iaeaiu,
aeinoeaeaiey e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneeo iaoe e
i?aeoe/aneiai cae?aaiio?aiaiey. O?oaeu E?uineiai iaaeeoeeineiai
einoeoooa ei. N.E. Aai?aeaaneiai, 1996. O.132. /.1. N.92-95 /niaao.
*a?eania A.A., Oaa/aiei A.A., Eaioea? A.A., Iaeaoiaaoe I.E./.

2. No?oeoo?i? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo a?oa??iey?iiai a?aeae?eo
aaiii?e?i-oee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco.
//Oe?a?inueeee iaaee/iee aeueiaiao. 1998. ? 3.– N.164-165 /ni?aaao.
*a?eania A.A., Oaa/aiei I.I., Iaeaoiaaoeue I.E./.

3. Caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo aaioey?iiai a?aeae?eo
aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco
ethaeeie. //A?niee ii?oieia??. 1998, o.4. ?2. N.166-167 /ni?aaao.
Oaa/aiei I.I., *a?eania A.A., Aiae???iei I.I., Iaeaoiaaoeue I.E./.

4. No?oeoo?i? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo aaiii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea a
i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie. //A?niee ii?oieia??. 1998,
o.4. ?2. N.166-167 /ni?aaao. Aiae???iei I.I., Aoyiiaa I.A./.

5. Aeeiai?ea oeueo?ano?oeoo?e i?aeaiaeioae?aeueieo eiioaeo?a iai?iieo
i?e?inoaeei ia i?ioyc? i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo. //Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie ooieoe?iiaeueii? aiaoii?? noaeeiii? nenoaie. Euea?a, 1995.–
N.122-123 /ni?aaao. *a?eania A.A., Oaa/aiei I.I., Eaioea? I.A.,
Iaeaoiaaoeue I.E./.

6. Oeueo?ano?oeoo?iia no?iaiea eaieeey?ia niiaoe/aneiai oeia
ooieoeeiiaeueii ?acee/iuo i?aaiia a i?aiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca.
//Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy ii?oiaaiaco. *a?i?aoe?, 1996 – N.364-365 /niaao.
*a?eania A.A., Oaa/aiei A.A., Iaeaoiaaoe I.E./.

7. No?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? aoaeiae aiaeioae?ioeeo?a a?oa??iey?ieo
i?e?inoaeei a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? ?icaeoeo ethaeeie. //Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy ii?oieia??. Oa?iii?eue. 1996. O.1. N.82-83 /ni?aaao. Aia?ee
?.?., Oaa/aiei I.I., *a?eania A.A., Eaioea? I.A., Iaeaoiaaoeue I.E.,
Aacooaiueei I.A./.

8. ?icaeoie ia?aeiieo i?e?inoaeei a aia??iaaiac? ethaeeie. //Aeooaeuei?
ieoaiiy ii?oieia??. Oa?iii?eue. 1996. O.1. N.83-84 /ni?aaao. Aia?ee
?.?., Oaa/aiei I.I., *a?eania A.A., Eaioea? I.A., Iaeaoiaaoeue I.E.,
Aacooaiueei I.A./.

9. Caeiiii??iino? a?noiaaiaco aiaeioae?ioeeo?a e?iaiiinieo i?e?inoaeei
ia i?ioyc? i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco ethaeeie. //Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
ii?oieia??. Eoaainuee. 1998. N.224 /ni?aaao. *a?eania A.A., Oaa/aiei
I.I., Iaeaoiaaoeue I.E./..

AIIOAOe?ss

Eocueiaiei TH.TH. I?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoea
ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.03.01– ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y. – Iaoe?iiaeueiee
iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii no?oeoo?iei iaoai?ciai aia?iaaiaco e?iaiiinieo
? e?ioiiinieo noaeei i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aiiiae?aiiai
a?ae?inoea ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco. Iaoiaeaie
na?oeiai? oa aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? anoaiiaeaii, ui i?aaiiniaoeeo?/ia
aaii- ? e?ioii?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei /a?aiiiae?aiiai a?ae?inoeo
ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ?icaeaa?oueny ca ?aooiie
aoi?eiiiai aia?iaaiaco. Aoi?eiiee aia?iaaiac aeeth/a?: 1) ?icaeoie
a?oa??ie c i’yciaith iaieiieith; 2) ?icaeoie iinoeai?ey?ieo ?
cae?aeueieo aaioe, a oiio /ene? ? niaoeeo?/ieo iinoeai?ey?ieo aaioe c
aenieei aiaeioae??i; 3) oi?ioaaiiy “a?oiueie ?inoo”, c yeeo
?icaeaathoueny aoi?eii? e?iaiiini? eai?ey?e; 4) oi?ioaaiiy “a?oiueie
?inoo”, c yeeo ?icaeaathoueny aoi?eii? e?ioaoe/i? eai?ey?e.

Iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?iei i?iyaii aoi?eiiiai aia?iaaiaco a /a?aiiiae?aiiio
a?ae?inoeo ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaca yaey?oueny: 1)
a?oiueeoaaiiy; 2) aianoiiicoaaiiy; 3) ?aiiaeaethaaiiy eai?ey?ii? iaoe? ?
oi?ioaaiiy eai?ey?ii? n?oee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?e?ioee?eoeyoi?ia ?onei, /a?aiiiae?aiee a?ae?inoie,
aia?iaaiac.

Eocueiaiei TH.TH. Iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iia ?onei /a?aaia?aciiai io?inoea
/aeiaaea a i?aiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey
ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.01 – ii?iaeueiay aiaoiiey. – Iaoeeiiaeueiue
iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao ei. A.A. Aiaiiieueoea, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia no?oeoo?iui iaoaieciai aiaeiaaiaca e?iaaiiniuo e
eeioiiiniuo ninoaeia iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aaia?aciiai io?inoea
/aeiaaea a i?aiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca. Iaoiaeaie naaoiaie e
yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?aaiiniaoeeoe/aneia ?onei
/a?aaia?aciiai io?inoea /aeiaaea a i?aiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca
?acaeaaaony ca n/ao aoi?e/iiai aiaeiaaiaca.

Aoi?e/iue aiaeiaaiac aeeth/aao: 1) ?acaeoea a?oa?eie n iuoa/iie
iaiei/eie; 2) ?acaeoea iinoeaieeey?iuo e niae?aoaeueiuo aaioe, a oii
/enea e niaoeeoe/aneeo iinoeaieeey?iuo aaioe n aunieei yiaeioaeeai; 3)
oi?ie?iaaiea “ii/ae ?inoa”, n eioi?uo ?acaeaathony aoi?e/iua e?iaaiiniua
eaieeey?u; 4) oi?ie?iaaiea “ii/ae ?inoa”, n eioi?uo ?acaeaathony
aoi?e/iua eeioaoe/aneea eaieeey?u. Iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iui i?iyaeaieai
aoi?e/iiai aiaeiaaiaca yaeyaony: 1) ii/eiaaiea; 2) aianoiiice?iaaiea; 3)
?aiiaeaee?iaaiea eaieeey?iie iaoee e oi?ie?iaaiea eaieeey?iie naoe.
Oi?ie?iaaiea “ii/ee ?inoa”, ec eioi?ie ?acaeaaaony aoi?e/iue e?iaaiiniue
eaieeey? /a?aaia?aciiai io?inoea, aeeth/aao neaaeothuea yoaiu: a)
ia?aciaaiea aacaeueiuo au?inoia oeeoiieaciu yiaeioaeeioeeoia; a)
eieaeueiia ?ac?ooaiea e o?aaiaioaoeey aacaeueiie iaia?aiu a
i?aaenouanoaothuai iaoa?eineii iee?ininoaea; a) ia?aiauaiea
yiaeioaeeioeeoia /a?ac aeaoaeo a aacaeueiie iaia?aia e oi?ie?iaaiea
yiaeioaeeaeueiie “oii?u”; a) ia?aciaaiea aa?oooee “ii/ee ?inoa”; ae)
ia?aciaaiea i?inaaoa “ii/ee ?inoa”; ae) iai?aaeaiiue ?ino aa?oooee
“ii/ee ?inoa”, eioi?ue eaeao ca n/ao ia?aciaaiey a ie?oaeathuai
eioa?noeoeee naiaia?aciuo eaiaeia – o/anoeia ?ac?aaeaiey aii?oiiai
iniiaiiai aauanoaa, a eioi?uo ionoonoaotho aieieienoua no?oeoo?u; a)
?ino eaieeey?iie iaoee, eioi?ue eaeao ca n/ao iea?aoeee yiaeioaeeioeeoia
iooai neieuecyueo aeaeaeaiee niaaeiuo eeaoie a eioa?noeoeeaeueiii
“eaiaea”, ia?aie/aiiii io?inoeaie oea?iaeanoia. Aa?oooea “ii/ee ?inoa”
aoi?e/iiai e?iaaiiniiai eaieeey?a /a?aaia?aciiai io?inoea ieiaeia
/aeiaaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiieaiea iee?iau?inoia e inaaaeiiiaeee
yiaeioaeeioeeoia, ia iie?uouo aacaeueiie iaia?aiie. Nouanoaaiiui
no?oeoo?iui eiiiiiaioii aa?oooee “ii/ee ?inoa” yaeyaony “eoiie” eee
“ciioee”, ia?aciaaiiue iea?e?othueie nthaea oea?iaeanoaie. “Ii/ea
?inoa”, ec eioi?ie ?acaeaaaony aoi?e/iue eeioaoe/aneee eaieeey?
/a?aaia?aciiai io?inoea ieiaeia /aeiaaea, oi?ie?oaony ca n/ao
aaeethieiaeueiiai auiy/eaaiey yiaeioaeeioeeoia eeioaoe/aneeo eaieeey?ia
e iinoeaieeey?ia a oao ianoao, aaea ionoonoaotho ia?aaacaeueiua
oea?iaeanou e eieeaaaiiaua aieieia. Yeaiaioa?iie aaeeieoeae ?inoa
aaiiiee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea /a?aaia?aciiai io?inoea ieiaeia yaeyaony
naiaia?aciue iiaeoeue eaieeey?iie naoe – eaieeey?iay iaoey. Ia?ae/iay
eaieeey?iay iaoey eiaao iaaieueoea ?acia?u e ia?acoaony a ?acoeueoaoa
neeyiey aeaoo ninaaeieo “ii/ae ?inoa”, ?anooueo ec iaeiiai iaoa?eineiai
ninoaea. Ia?oaeiay aeoaa aa?oooee eaieeey?iie iaoee n ?aniieiaeaiiie ia
iae “ii/eie ?inoa” auiieiyao ooieoeeth inaiaiey iiauo o/anoeia
?acaeaathuaainy io?inoea. Aiaeec ?acaeoey iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea
/a?aaia?aciiai io?inoea ieiaeia /aeiaaea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi
yiaeioaeee iiyaeyaony ?aiueoa anao eeaoi/iuo yeaiaioia noaiee ninoaeia
iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iiai ?onea e iaania/eaaao ia oieueei o?ainii?oioth
ooieoeeth a nenoaia e?iaue-oeaiaauo eiiiiiaioia i?aaia, ii ia?acoao
oaeaea iai?aaeythuea iooe aeey aae?aniie iea?aoeee eiioiieiiiaoaioiuo
eeaoie (aeaaiui ia?acii – eeioioeeoia) a ii?aaeaeaiiua o/anoee neecenoie
iaiei/ee e iiaeneecenoiai neiy /a?aaia?aciiai io?inoea. Oae iiyaeyaony e
?acaeaaaony eeioieaeiay oeaiue /a?aaia?aciiai io?inoea, eioi?ay
iaoneaaeeaaao auiieiaiea ei eiioiiie ooieoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iee?ioee?eoeyoi?iia ?onei, /a?aaia?aciue io?inoie,
aiaeiaaiac.

Kuzmenko Y. Microcirculatory Bed of the Human Appendix during Prenatal
Ontogenesis. Manuscript. A dissertation to obtain the scientific degree
of Candidate of Science ( Medicine) in speciality 14.03.01 – Human
Anatomy.– Kyiv National Medical University named after A.A. Bogomolets,
Kyiv, 1999. This dissertation is devoted to structural mechanisms of
angiogenesis of the human appendix blood and lymphatic vessels during
the prenatal ontogenesis. By methods of light and electronic microscopy
was determined that the organospecific haemo-and lymphomicrocircular bed
of human appendix is developing by the second angiogenesis. The
secondary angiogenesis includes: 1) the development of arteriolies with
tunica muscularis; 2) the development of the postcapillaris and
collecting venules including the specific postcapillaris venules with
hight endothelium; 3) the formation of the “buds of growth” from which
secondary blood capillaries are developing; 4) the formation of the
“buds of growth” from which secondary lymphatic capillaries are
developing. The most characteristic manifestation of the secondary
angiogenesis of human appendix during prenatal ontogenesis are: a)
buding; b) anastomosing; c) remodelling of the capillaris ansae and
formation capillaris rete.

Key Words: microcirculatory bed, appendix, angiogenesis.

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