AeI?I?IIAO?IANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

ssoeia Ethaia ?aai?aia

OAeE 833 — 3 Ae?icae: 7. 046. 1

I?OIIIAOEEA AI?EE A. Ae?ICAeA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.01.01 — oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a

A a o i ? a o a
? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Caaa?oaethe I?iaeue
?aai?aia

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ia?ei Aaneeue
Iao?iae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e

E??iaia?aaenueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?i.
A.E.Aeiie/aiea

eaiaeeaeao
o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Oii’ye Oaia?a
Aieiaeeie??aia,

Caii??cueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
oe?a?iiciaanoaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: — Oa?e?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee
oi?aa?neoao

?iai? A.I. Ea?ac?ia,

eaoaae?a ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “16” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?., i 10 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.08.051.12 ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?eieia?/ieo iaoe i?e Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? / 320025, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. Aaaa??ia, 72, ei?i.1,
aoae. 804 /.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 320050, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
aoe. Eicaeiaa, 8.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 16 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.I.
Aeooei

3

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O eiioaeno? e?oa?aoo?ieo ? caaaeueiieoeueoo?ieo
i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a iao? aei? a Oe?a?i?, aeooaeueiei ?
anaa?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie inai?iiy oe?a?inueeith i?icith 60-90
??. aeooiaii-ooaeiaeiueiai na?oo i?oo ( yce/ieoeueeiai, aioe/iiai).
Aaeaea eiai i?eeiaoe ae?acii i?inoaaeothoueny o oai?/ino? I.Noaeueiaoa,
I.?eue/aiea, A.Caieyea, A.Ae?icaea, Aae.Oaa/oea, A.Oa?/oea oa ?ioeo
ienueiaiiee?a, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei iieie?iiy o?noaeanyoiee?a. A?aeiii,
ui inoaii? ii/aee c a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aecenoaioe?aeueii? eiioeaioe??
ethaeeie, i???ioiaaii? ia ooaa?aeaeaiiy ?? naiiaooiino? ,
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-ethaenueeiai “y”. Oea o naith /a?ao i?iaeeeooaaei ?o
a?aeo?ae a?ae iiiiacieo ii?o?ao?a “ia?aaeiaee?a” ? noai?aiiy ieie
ooaeiaei?o ia?ac?a “i?inoi? ethaeeie”, a aaaaoueio oai?ao — naeyieia
(A.Neiiiaiei, A?.Othothiiee, ?.Aooeaei, A.Ae?icae), ui iinoaaaee ye
ia?iaei? iaoe?iiaeuei? oeie. O noa?? io?oe?eii? eoeueoo?e oeo iaioth/eo
aeiia nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?aae?cio aiie ni?eeiaeeny ye aeeaaee, “/oaeeee”
(A.Ooeoei), oi/a ca ?oi?i aeeaaoeoaii e?eeeny ?noeii? aoiai?noe/i?
?aeaaee. O iiooeao iiaeo oi?i ienueiaiieee caa?ioeeny aei aeei?enoaiiy
oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iioea?a, nthaeao?a, ia?ac?a i?oieia??, oieueeei?o,
A?ae??. O ooaeiaei?e i?aeoeoe? oaeeo i?ica?e?a ye Aae.Oaa/oe, A.Oa?/oe,
A.Ae?icae aiie noaee ia?aaaaeath/eie, coiiaeaoe nai???aei?noue oai?/i?
iaia?e. Aea oea yaeua ia nueiaiaei? ua ia noaei i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy
e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a, /ei ? i?iaeeeoiaaii aea?? o aeai?e aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? ia’?eoo (i?ica A.Ae?icaea — iia?no?, ?iiaie) oa aniaeoo eiai
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/iai aiae?co a ?aeo?n? aaiaoe/ieo oa oeiieia?/ieo ca’yce?a
c i?oii.

I?aaeiaoii aeaii? aeena?oaoe?? ? oai?e A.Ae?icaea: iia?noue “E??e”,
?iiaie “Aiaeoeaea” (“Naiioi?e aiae”), “Ceee aeoo. ?c aeeo??i”, “Eenoy
caie?”. Oaeee aea?? coiiaeaiee oaiith ?iaioe ? caaaeaiiyi ?icaeyiooe
i?oiiiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? i?ice ienueiaiieea. Aaeaea a iacaaieo oai?ao
iaeae?aci?oa aeyaeaii ci?no i?oieia?/ieo ?aoeaioe?e, aeei?enoaieo
ienueiaiieeii, ?oiy noeeueiaa nai???aei?noue.

I?ica A.Ae?icaea, cie?aia oa, ui ia aeeaaeaeany a ?aiee eaiii?ciaaiiai
oai?/iai iaoiaeo — nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?aae?cio (“E??e”, “Aiaeoeaea”,“Eenoy
caie?”, ye ? iaeei c inoaii?o ca /anii iioae?eoaaiiy ?iiai “Ceee aeoo.
?c aeeo??i”), ia aoea i?aaeiaoii anaa?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoeiaoe?a,
oi/a aei /anoeiaiai ?icaeyaeo ?? caa?oaeeny I.AEoeeinueeee, A.Neaie?iue,
I.Iaeaea/aiei, N.Aiae?on?a, TH.Iooeaoee, I.Iaaeeoei, A.Aie/oe,
I.Neaaioieoeueeee. Caeaa?eueoiai a ieo ieoaiiy i?oiiiaoeee ia
aenoaaeiny. C e?oa?aoo?iciaaoe?a caaaeo? iia?noue A.Ae?icaea “E??e”
(1974) I.Ia/a?aiei, cacia/ath/e, ui ?e aeanoeaa “oeia?i?noue”, a
aoaeaii? iiae?? a ia?aeac? aaoi?a oai?o iinoathoue ye
eaceiai-oaioanoe/i?. Aiai?y/e i?i nai???aei?noue iinoiiaea?i?cio, Oaia?a
Aeaieniaa a noaoo? “Oaiiiai iinoiiaea?i?cio: eiioo?e e i???ioe?e” oaae
caa?oa? oaaao ia oai?e A.Ae?icaea “E??e”, “Aiaeoeaea”, a yeeo, ia ??
aeoieo, ciaeoia nai? aeyaeaiiy iinoiiaea?i?nonueeee iaioae?oao, ”ai aeey
eiai aa?iy ? i?aai?/iith iaaia ?icaeai?i?noue na?aeiiino? e ni?eeiyooy
aeeooy, ui a?aeaeaa? aaniethoii i?ea?iaeueia, aeeaiei ia?iaeia,
o?aaeeoe?eia ? ana ae oaee nii??aeiaia c iinoiiaea?i?ciii ieneaiiy
ienueiaiieea”.11 Aeaieniaa Oaia?a. Oaiiiai iinoiiaea?i?cio: eiioo?e e
i???ioe?e // Neiai ? /an. — 1995. — ?2. — N. 18-27. N.Aiae?on?a,
oa?aeoa?ecoth/e oai?e A.Ae?icaea o eiec? “?noi??y oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e OO noie?ooy”, cacia/a?, ui ?iiai “Eenoy caie?” i?iiecaiee
i?oieia?/i?noth o?einionueeiai ieaio. Iaae?y Eieiuoe o noaoo? “I?i
iiaoeeo ?iiaio A.Ae?icaea” caoaaaeo?, ui ienueiaiiee aeei?enoiao? a
aiin? iioeae i?oo, i?eo/?, oieueeei?o. C?iaeaoe ni?iao aecia/eoe
aeai?iao i?e?iaeo ?iiaio A.Ae?icaea, aaoi?ea iaaieioo? ia neioaoe/iino?
oai?o, ui ii?aeiaa o nia? aeaiaioe nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai,
neiaie?ei-oaioanoe/iiai (i?oieia?ciaaiiai) iia?nooaaiiy. I.AEoeeinueeee,
iae?aneeaoe e?oa?aoo?iee ii?o?ao A.Ae?icaea a noaoo? “AEi?noiea
ioae??noue aeeooy aeeaiai, aai ?aaiaae?? a?ae Aieiaeeie?a”, caa?ioa
oaaao, ui a ?iiai? “Aiaeoeaea” ciainiaeaiiy Aiae??y Oeoeae, aieiaiiai
aa?iy, iaaoaa? i?oieia?/iiai ae?aaeaiiy. A.Ae?icae a cia?aaeaii?
ii?aeueiiai ? aeooiaiiai i?aaethaaiiy iniaenoino? ciaoiaeeoue
i?ea?iaeuei? oi?ie, aeei?enoiao? i?oieia?/i?, eaceia? ia?ace ? nthaeaoe.
Aiae?coth/e ?iiai “Eenoy caie?”, I.AEoeeinueeee aeacaa ia aeei?enoaiiy
i?ica?eii ia?ac?a, “caai?iaieo” a aeaai??th, o iaoaoi?o /e o i?oiia?ac”.
22 AEoeeinueeee I. AEi?noiea ioae??noue aeeooy aeeaiai, aai ?aaiaae??
a?ae Aieiaeeie?a. Ni?iaa e?oa?aoo?iiai ii?o?aoa // E?oa?aoo?ia Oe?a?ia.
— 1999.- 26 na?iiy. — N. 3. I.Iaaeeoei o noaoo? “*iio ia oaeanoeoue
“Eenoy caie?”?” i?aee?aneth? i?oieia?ci ?iiaio, ?icaeyaeath/e oa?aeoa?
inieneaiiy a iueiio caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae oa eiai
o?einionueei-?noi?e/io i?iaeaiaoeeo. Oe? ?ene aeanoea? e ?ioei oai?ai
A.Ae?icaea, a a oaeeo ye “Aiaeoeaea”, “Ceee aeoo. ?c aeeo??i”, ye ? a
“Eeno? caie?”, aiie ? oa?aeoa?enoe/ieie iciaeaie noeeth, ?oiuei? iiaoeee
a oe?eiio. Naia oea, ye ? noai aea/aiiy a e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? i?ice
ienueiaiieea acaaae? ? iacaaieo oai??a cie?aia, ye ? iaiao?aei?noue
inieneeoe niaoeeo?eo ?oiuei? iiaoeee, coiiaeththoue aeooaeuei?noue
ia?aii? oaie oa aecia/aiiai a aeai?e aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? caaaeaiiy.

Oaia aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ye ? iai?yiie ??
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/iai inieneaiiy, ia? aaciina?aaei?e ca’ycie c ieaiiaith
iaoeiaith oaiith eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo — “Iaeiaeine?aeaeai? ? iaaeine?aeaeai?
noi??iee oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e (i?iaeaia iiaoeee oaenoo)” ?
i?aeii?yaeeiaaia aaeocaa?e i?ia?ai? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeaii? ?iaioe: ?icaeyiooe aeii?iaioi? ?ene i?oiiiaoeee
A.Ae?icaea, aeyaeoe ?oi? ooieoe?iiaeuei? ? anoaoe/i? iniaeeaino?. Aeey
oeueiai a i?ioean? oe?e?niiai aiae?co iia?no?, ?iiai?a ienueiaiieea
cina?aaeeoe oaaao ia ?icaeyae? ooaeiaeiuei? nai???aeiino? ae?aaeaiiy
eiioeaioe?? iniaenoino?, i?iaeai caa?ice ?? aeooiaii? nionoioaiino?,
a?ae/oaeaiino?, naiioiino?, ?oeioaaiiy iniaenoino? ? na?oo, ui iayai? a
i?ic? ienueiaiieea, iieacaoe naiiaooi?noue inoaiiuei? ye iaaiiai yaeua a
eiioaeno? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? ie?aneaii? iaoe
iaiao?aeii aoei aeeiiaoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

— c’ynoaaoe eaoaai??aeueii-oa?i?iieia?/iee aia?ao o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
a?o/eciyiiai e?oa?aoo?iciaa/iai aeina?aeo ? aeiia no/aniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy e?oa?aoo?e;

— inieneeoeoe aeooiai? e anoaoe/i? canaaee caa?iaiiy A.Ae?icaea aei
iioea?a ? ia?ac?a i?oo, ?oith eiioeaiooaeueio ? ooieoe?iiaeueio
nooi?noue a eiai oai?ao (“E??e”, “Aiaeoeaea”, “Eenoy caie?”, “Ceee
aeoo. ?c aeeo??i” );

— i?iaiae?coaaoe i?ico A.Ae?icaea o aecia/aiiio oaiith aniaeo?,
aeae?eeaoe aeey

iiaeeaeaiiai ?icaeyaeo o? oai?e, a yeeo iaea?eueo ae?acii
aeyaeany ?ioa?an

ienueiaiieea aei i?oieia?/ieo nthaeao?a, neiaie?a ? i?oieiaai;

— aena?oeeoe ci?no ? iniaeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
i?oieia?/ieo ?aoeaioe?e

(o?aaeeoe?eieo nthaeao?a, ia?ac?a, i?oieiaai) o eiie?aoieo oai?ao
ienueiaiieea;

— c’ynoaaoe oa?aeoa? ?o ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? a ooaeiaeiueiio na?o?
i?ica?ea, a nthaeaoao, ia?acao, /anii?inoi?? eiai oai??a;

— aeyaeoe ci?noia? e aeai?iai-noeeueia? aeii?iaioe
i?oioai?/ino? A.Ae?icaea,

iieacaoe ?o niaoeeo?eo a eiioaeno? c oeiieia?/ii aeecueeeie yaeuaie a
no/ani?e

e?oa?aoo?? ( a iaaeao aeai?o ).

O ?ica’ycaii? oeeo caaaeaiue ie a?aeoiaeeii a?ae onoaeaieo iaoiaeee
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/iai aiae?co oa i???ioiaaieo ia iienia?noue noa?aioei?a ?
caa?oa?iinue aei aeoeaiiai canoinoaaiiy i?eeii?a o?eieia?/ii? oeiee
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa, niieo/aieo ?c eiiia?aoea?nonueeeie i?aeoiaeaie,
iaiao?aeieie aeey ae??oaiiy iaoi? iaoeiai? i?iaeaie. Oai?aoe/iith
i?aeiniiaith aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aoe? I.Aaoo?ia,
A.A?aaiae/a, I.O.Ein?aa, C.O?aeaea, E.THiaa, O.Iaeca?nueei?, I.Oo?aai,
O.Aoiaei?iai?, I.O?aeaeaiaa?a, I.A.E?eaoeoia oa aeneiaeai? a ieo
i?iaeoeoeai? e ooiaeaiaioaeuei? ?aea?, a oaeiae e?oa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/i?
?ica?aeee c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e 60-90-o ??.
(I.AEoeeinueeee, A.Aeii/ee, I.Cai?ianueea, A.Ia?ei, I.Caaa?oaethe,
I.Ia?iei, A.Ia??anueea, I.Iaaeeoei, A.Ooiiue).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui a aeai?e
aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa i?iaiae?ciaaii i?ico A.Ae?icaea (“E??e”, “Aiaeoeaea”
, “Ceee aeoo. ?c aeeo??i”, “Eenoy caie?”) ?c iiceoe?e i?oiiiaoeee o
e?oa?aoo?iiio eiioaeno? eiai /ano. Aia?oa oe?iei iieacaii oa?aeoa? ?
ia?acio niaoeeo?eo aeei?enoaiiy i?oo (aioe/iiai, yce/ieoeueeiai,
o?enoeyinueeiai) o ooaeiaeiueiio oaeno? eiie?aoiiai oai?o,
?ioa?i?aoaoe?th caiice/aieo c iueiai iioea?a (iiooe?a ?ath, eaeiio?ii??,
?iaeo), eiioeaioe?e aeia?a-cea, aeeooy-nia?o?, ia?ac?a-i?oieiaai (oaoe,
iaoa??, aea?aaa) o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei aaoi?nueeiai na?oia?ae/oooy,
aenoiooeo i?iaeai ae?eniino? (aecenoaioe?eiiai noaio ethaeeie ? na?oo,
?o ?oeioaaiiy).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?i/eoaiiy oai??a
A.Ae?icaea a i?oieia?/iiio aniaeo? a?aee?eaa? ia?niaeoeae aeey
iiaeeaeaiiai ?icoi?iiy ooaeiaei?o aeinyaiaiue ienueiaiieea, ui ?
aaaeeeaei aoaiii aeey noai?aiiy a?oioiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
i?ice 60-90-o ??.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a niaoeeo?nao ?
ia nai?ia?ao c oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e a aoiai?oa?ieo aocao,
a/eoaeyie-o?eieiaaie a ?oi?e i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?, nooaeaioaie i?e
iaienaii? eo?niaeo oa aeeieiiieo ?ia?o, i?e canai?ii? ciaiue c ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O no/aniiio e?oa?aoo?iciaanoa? inoaii?i
/anii aeoeaii ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny i?oiiiaoe/iee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co
oai?/eo iaaooe?a ienueiaiiee?a, e?oa?aoo?ieo yaeu.

Aeena?oaio aia?oa ?iaeoue ni?iao aeine?aeeoe ooaeiaeith
oai?/?noue A.Ae?icaea a aniaeo? i?oiiiaoeee o ?? an?e noeoiiino?:
ci?noia? iniaeeaino? i?oieia?/ieo ?aoeaioe?e o oai?ao A.Ae?icaea (iioeae
? ia?ace i?oo), oa?aeoa? ?o ?ioa?i?aoaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Ie?ai? ?icae?ee oa aeena?oaoe?y
a oe?eiio iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, ia eaoaae??
aenia?oece oa aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i Aeaaeai?? ieoii? neoaeae Oe?a?ie.
Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aoee ii?eethaeiai? ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iiaoeea ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo”
(Ee?a-Oa?nii, 1995), ia i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo “?noi??y oa
eoeueoo?a E?aiaa?aaeaey” (I?aeei, 1996), “E?oa?aoo?a e ?noi??y”
(Caii??aeaey, 1998), Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e
80-??//th a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy Ieany Aii/a?a “Ieanue Aii/a? ?
o?noaeanyoieoeoai” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998), ia ui??/ieo ca?oieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a ? ani??aio?a Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? ? 10 iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?e, a
oiio /ene? 4 – o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a ? ci?no ?iaioe i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ?? iniiai?e iao? —
inieneaiith eiiiiiaio?a i?oiiiaoeee, iayaieo o i?ic? A.Ae?icaea.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a
oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Ianya ?iaioe — 152 noi??iee. Nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae aeeth/a? 136 iaeiaioaaiue.

I N I I A I E E C I ? N O ? I A I O E

O Anooi? aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie
aeena?oaoe??, ?? ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie e?oa?aoo?iciaa/eo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aecia/aii iaoo oa coiiaeai? iath caaaeaiiy, aeeeaaeaii
iiaeyae ia iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue canoinoaaiiy
iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo, iiaeai? a?aeiiino? i?i eiai
ai?iaaoe?th ? ioae?eaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Ni?aa?aeianai?noue e?oa?aoo?e ? i?oo
(oai?aoe/iee aniaeo)” ?icaeyiooi i?iaeaio ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?oo a
e?oa?aoo?? oa noai ?? iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy.

Nai???aeiee “aeaoo” i?oieia?cio a e?oa?aoo?? OO noie?ooy — yaeua ia
aeiaaeeiaa. Iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy a /an i?iaoaeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? eoeueoo?e, a oiio /ene? e oe?a?inueea, oe?iei
caa?oathoueny aei i?oo — a?ae ia?a?niiai a eiai iaoe?iiaeueii-ia?iaei?e
oi?i?, aioe/iiai aei o?enoeyinueeiai, no?aeiiai. ?aae?? ae?eniino? OO
noie?ooy c eiai ae?ae iai?oaeaiei aeeooyi, nioe?aeueieie ? i?e?iaeieie
eaoaee?ciaie ? ?acii c oei aoiinoa?ith iaeiiiai?oiino? ? aaiaeueiino?
ni?yioaaee ieooe?a ia iiooe oeo aeooiaieo ia?oiaeaea?ae, ui, aeania, ?
iiaee aeaoe ?icoi?iiy ethaenueei? nooiino?. Iaei??th c i?e/ei
i???ioaoe?? e?oa?aoo?e ia i?o ? ? ni?iaa ienueiaiiee?a anainyaeii
inieneeoe aoooy, noai?eoe caaaeuei? iiaeae? ae?aaeaiiy aca?iinoinoie?a
i?ae ethaeeiith oa na?oii. Caa?oath/enue aei i?oieia?/ieo nthaeao?a oa
iioea?a, ienueiaiieee iaiaaathoueny aeei?enoaoe ye ci?noiaii-no?oeoo?i?
eiiiiiaioe i?oo, oae ? eiai aeai?ia? ia?aaeeaie.

Aeoea?caoe?y i?oieia?/iiai ia/aea a e?oa?aoo?? 60-90-o ??. OO
noie?ooy, ooaeiaei? a?aee?eooy i?oiiiaoeee a iaaeao eiie?aoiiai oai?o /e
oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea aeiaaa? a?aeiia?aeii ?o aeine?aeaeaiiy,
c’ynoaaiiy aca?iia?aeiinei i?oieia?? ? e?oa?aoo?e, ooieoe?e i?oo a
e?oa?aoo??.

Aeooaeuei?noue aenoiooi? i?iaeaie coiiaeaia e no/aniith
neooaoe??th, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny c?inoaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? ia?iaeo, iineeaiei ?ioa?anii aei aeoie?a eoeueoo?e, yea
a?aeia?aaea? ia?iaeiee na?oiaeyae, eiai aoe/i? oa anoaoe/i? ?aeaaee, ui
oi?ioaaeeny i?ioyaii oeny/ie?oue.

Aaiaoe/ii e?oa?aoo?a o?nii iia’ycaia c i?oieia??th /a?ac oieueeei?.
Caa??aath/e, iniaeeai nii/aoeo, ci?noiaio ni?euei?noue c i?oieia??th,
e?oa?aoo?a ia oeyoo naiai ?icaeoeo nie?aeanue ia i?o. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
i?oo a?oa?/iiai, “ia?a?niiai”, i?o o e?oa?aoo?? — oea ooaeiaei?e ia?ac,
a yeiio eiai i?oieia?/iee a?oaoei i?enooi?e ? ye aecia/ath/ee
no?oeoo?iee i?eioeei, ? ye ia?ac aeey iiaeaeueoeo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e.
Caa?iaiiy aei i?oieia??, aa/aiiy i?oo ye aeeaeiii? ia?oiiniiae
ethaenueei? naiina?aeiiino? noaei iniiaiith ye?niith iciaeith oai?/ino?
ienueiaiiee?a ? ooaeiaeiee?a.

A?eueo?noue aeaeaoieo iaeno??a neiaa OO noie?ooy ei?enoaeeny
iaoa??aeii i?oo, oieueeei?o. Oieueeei?i? oa i?oieia?/i? oaeoi?e
a?ae?a?athoue eiino?oeoeaio ?ieue o oai?/ino? ?.O?aiea, Ean? Oe?a?iee,
A’y/. ?aaiiaa, I.Aeiea, Aaeeie?a Oe?aieeiaa, I.Caa?aaaeueiiai,
Aae.Oaa/oea, A.Ae?icaea oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo. Aea aeey iaeieo ieooe?a a?i
aoa c?o/iei ? aaaeeeaei aeey ?ethno?oaaiiy aeanieo ?aeae; ae?oa? aaa/aee
o caa?iaii? aei iueiai nai? aeua iieeeeaiiy; o?ao? iaiaaaeenue oeyoii
eiai aea/aiiy ? a?aeoai?aiiy i?iieeiooe a oa?iieoe? ieioeiai ?
iaeaooiueiai; /aoaa?o? oai?/i canaithaaee eiai neiaiee, iaoaoi?e oiui.
I?oe, ye? ooaeiaeiuei ?ioa?i?aooaaeeny a e?oa?aoo??, oaae ia
iaeiicia/i?, aiie iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo no?oeoo?ii oeiieia?/ieo a?oi.
sse a?aeiii, aeine?aeieee aeae?eythoue aea? iniiai? a?oie aeei?enoaieo
i?o?a aai aeaa aeaee i?oieia??:

a) eeane/io i?oieia?th, yea caciaea iaaii? e?oa?aoo?ii? ia?iaee oa aoea
caaaeaia a oe?e?nio nenoaio nthaeao?a, iiae?e, ia?yae?a, a?aeiinei, ? a)
oae ae iiaeoe, aoi?/io i?oieia?th — o?aaiaioa?io ? noeo?eio ca nai?th
i?e?iaeith, nenoaii?noue yei? iiaea eeoa a?aeaeaeaii aaaaeoaaoeny.

Ii?aeiaiiy iaoeiaeo oai??e i?oioai?/ino?, ca’ycaieo c ?iaiaie
Aeae.Aeae.O?aca?a, A.Iaeeiianueeiai oa ?i., ? e?oa?aoo?iciaa/iai aiae?co
ni?eyei aena?oeaiith aeeaeiiiai ci?noo aaaaoueio oaeno?a, i???ioiaaieo
ia i?o.

Aeey ?icoi?iiy nooiino? i?oiiiaoeee aaaiieie ? i?aoe? I.O.Ein?aa
i?i niaoeeo?eo i?oo ? eiai ?ieue a aaiac? e?oa?aoo?e, ye? a?i ?icaeyaea?
ia aioe/iiio iaoa??ae?. O nai?e iiiia?ao?? “Ae?aeaeoeea i?oo” a?i
aena?oeth? ieoaiiy i?oieia?cio a e?oa?aoo??, aiae?coth/e nai???aei?noue
i?oo o Aaaia?a, aai?aeueio i?oieia?/io ?ioo?oe?th Aiaiey, yeee aeaa o
“A??”, ia aeoieo a/aiiai, aaio i?o?/ieo iano?i?a. I?o ye aeaiaio iiaoeee
oe?eaaeoue ? I.I.O?aeaeaiaa?a, yea i?inoaaeo? ca’ycie oieueeei?o,
e?oa?aoo?e c i?oii.

O?aaa cacia/eoe, ui a?o/eciyia iaoea, ?icaeyaeath/e i?iaeaio
“i?o-e?oa?aoo?a”, iieacaea aeeeth/ia cia/aiiy oieueeei?o ye i?ii?aeiiai
eaioethaeea i?ae i?oii ? e?oa?aoo?ith (I.I.Iioaaiy, I.I.Aanaeianueeee,
I.I.O?aeaeaiaa?a, I.I.Aaoo?i oa ?i.). O oeueiio ieai? iniaeeai aaaeeeaei
? a?aee?eooy I.Aaoo?iei “ia?iaeii? ni?oiai? eoeueoo?e”. Ia eiai aeoieo,
oieueeei? ye nai???aeia neiaania ienoaoeoai, ui ao?eth? o?aaeeoe?eio
neiaie?eo, iiaea noaoe ? aeaea?aeii eiie?aoieo ia?ac?a, ? niiaeea/ei
a?oioii i?oieia?/ii? ?ioo?oe?? aeey ienueiaiiee?a ??cieo aiio. ssne?aaei
i?eeeaaeii ? oai?/?noue I.Aiaiey oa ?yaeo ?ioeo ienueiaiiee?a, a ye?e
iayaia caeiiii??ia ia?aoai?aiiy i?o?a o iaoaoi?e, iiaoe/i? neiaiee ?
ia?ace.

E?oa?aoo?a OO noie?ooy aeiaeoea ??ci? aa??aioe aeei?enoaiiy i?oo a
ooaeiaeiueiio oai??. Ii-ia?oa, oea caiice/aiiy iioea?a ? oe?e?nieo
nthaeao?a o?aaeeoe?eieo i?oieia?e (?.O?aiei, Eany Oe?a?iea,
I.Caa?aaaeueiee, A.Ae?icae). Ii-ae?oaa, oea iiaiee ? oe?eaaee aa??aio
“iaii?oieia?/ieo” oai??a — oai?/a i?iaeiaaeaiiy, aeiieneaiiy aeia?a
a?aeiieo i?oieia?/ieo nthaeao?a (I.Ca?ia, Aae.Oaa/oe). Oeae aa??aio
iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye ia?ao?aeiee a?ae aeei?enoaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo
i?oieia?/ieo nthaeao?a aei oae caaieo aaoi?nueeeo i?o?a, o yeeo
neiaie?/ia iiaeaeue na?oo noai?th?oueny ca aiaeia??th aei i?oiiiaoe/ieo
oyaeaiue aai no?oeoo?ieo ?en i?oo. I?e aeai?? nthaeaoo aaoi? ia
ca’ycaiee i?yeeie iaiaaeaiiyie.

I?o o no/ani?e e?oa?aoo?? aeeiio? ia eeoa nthaeaoiooai?thth/?
ooieoe??: oa?aeoa?ieie ?? ?enaie ? aaeeo? aaoi?ii ?eooaeuei? i?oieiaaie,
oeeee?/i?noue oyaeaiue i?i /an, iiaoi?thaai?noue ia?niiaae?a, ui iaaea?
?iciia?ae? o?einionueeiai cao/aiiy. Aiie ae?acii iii?oi? a no/ani?e
e?oa?aoo??, cie?aia, a eaoeiiaia?eeainueeiio ?iiai? (A.Aa?n?a Ia?ean,
O.Aanoo??an), oe?a?inueeiio oeia?iiio ?iiai? 70-o (A.Caieye,
I.Caa?aaaeueiee, I.?eue/aiei, A.Ae?icae), o aaeaae? (?.Ae?a/, I.Iia/ai,
I.Ai?iaeia, ?.Eaeeiaoeue), o oai?ao oe?a?inueeeo i?ica?e?a 80-o-90-o
?ie?a (Aae.Oaa/oe, A.Oa?/oe, ?.Oaaei??a, A.Ae?icae oa ?i.).

O aeine?aeaeaii? ni?aa?aeianaiino? e?oa?aoo?e ? i?oo aaaiieie ?
iaoiaeeee oae caaiiai ?eooaeueii-i?oieia?/iiai iai?yieo aea/aiiy
e?oa?aoo?e ? a?oaoeiii? e?eoeee. Ia?oa c ieo aea? ciiao niinoa??aaoe e
aiae?coaaoe ianiiae?aai? oi?ie aca?iiae?? iniaenoino?, yea oai?eoue
“i?o”, ? i?oo, ui oai?eoue iniaeno?noue. Oea coiiaeth? aeeaiea
inieneaiiy aaoi?nueei? oai?/ino?, nii??aeiaiino? ?? iiaoeee c
i?oieia?/ieie no?oeoo?aie e iiaeaeyie ?eooaeo.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e eiiieaenii-nenoaiiee ? ?noi?eei-ii??aiyeueiee
iaoiaee aiae?co, a?aoiaoth/e caeiaooee iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?aaenoaaiee?a i?oieia?/ii?, ?eooaeueii-i?oieia?/ii? oe?e oa no/anii?
a?oaoeiii? e?eoeee, ie e aiae?coaaee oai?/?noue A.Ae?icaea c iaoith
aeyaeaiiy a i?e i?oieia?/ieo oi?aa?nae?e, aeno?aeieo aei i?oo ia?ac?a,
iiiyoue. Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeeaoa ?ice?eoe ci?no oai??a A.Ae?icaea
(“E??e”, “Aiaeoeaea”, “Ceee aeoo. ?c aeeo??i”, “Eenoy caie?”), oa?aeoa?
na?oini?eeiyooy oa na?oiaa/aiiy ienueiaiieea, nai???aei?noue eiai
iiaoeee.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iioea “E??th” a iaeii?iaii?e iia?no?
A.Ae?icaea” i?inoaaeo?oueny nai???aei?noue o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeei?enoaieo
aaoi?ii i?oieia?/ieo iioea?a, ?? coiiaeai?noue aaoi?nueeei iiiaeaiiyi
eiioeaioe?e ae?eniino? (“e??th”, iiooe?a i?aaaee, iiaa?iaiiy aeoaeiiai
neia), ia?ac?a-i?oieiaai (caie?, iaoa??, aei?iae).

Aeey e?oa?aoo?e 60-o ??. OO noie?ooy i?eoaiaiiee aaeeeee ?ioa?an
aei i?oieia??. Ienueiaiieee (I.?eue/aiei, A.Caieye, ?.Oaaei??a,
Aae.Oaa/oe, A.Ae?icae) oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoue ?ai?i?noeaioe?? c i?eo/,
eaaaiae, i?o?a, ii?aeiothoue ?aae?noe/ia c oieueeei?ii-oaioanoe/iei,
ooaeiaeiuei ?ioa?i?aoothoue i?oieia?/i? iioeae, nthaeaoe, aeaiaioe
ia?iaeii? ni?oiai? eoeueoo?e (ia?iaei? cae/a?, aea?oe, i?ene?a’y). Oae?
?oi? oai?e aeine?aeieee o nai?o /eneaiieo ?icaeyaeao ? caaaeeao
a?aeiinyoue aei oieueeei?ii-i?oieia?/ii? (iae/ano?oa “oeia?ii?”)
e?oa?aoo?e. Oa?i?i “oeia?iee” aaaaeaiee a e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai 1958 ?ieo c
iiyaith ?iiaio “?c ia?iaeieo ono” I.?eue/aiea “Eicaoeueeiio ?iaeo iaia
ia?aaiaeo, aai ae Iaiae ? /oaea Iieiaeeoey”. Oa?aeoa?i? aeey oeia?ieo
aeai??a oiiai?noue, ia?iae?ei?noue iayai? ? o oai?ao A.Ae?icaea. O eiai
iia?no? “E??e”, cie?aia, aiie i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ae?aaeaiith
nai???aeiino? na?oia?ae/oooy aaoi?a, coiiaeththoue niaoeeo?eo ia?ac?a,
neooaoe?e, aeaai?e/ieo ia?niiaae?a.

Aiae?c i?ice A.Ae?icaea iieacaa, ui ooaeiaeiy oiiai?noue o
oai?ao oeueiai ienueiaiieea oe?eeii i?ea?iaeueia, ?? aeoiee a
o?aaeeoe?ei?e ia?iaei?e “oeia???” oa aeaiiiieia?? — ? e?oa?aoo?i?e, ?
oieueeei?i?e — eaaaiaeao, ia?aeacao, eaceao, neia’yinueeeo i?oao.

Iia?noue A.Ae?icaea “E??e” (1974) — yne?aaee c?acie “oeia?ii?
i?ice”, a iiaoeoe? yeiai aeaiaioe i?oo, oieueeei?o nai???aeii
no?auothoueny c naoe?ith. Aiie ni?yiiaai? ia ?ica?i/aiiy aeaaeiae
iaeiie/aiiy oa i?uainueeeo iiaeyae?a ia aeeooy. Iacaa iia?no? “E??e” —
aoeiieia?/ii-cia/eia, aiia i?iaeeeoiaaia iioeaii iiooe?a ethaeeiith
uanoy-?ath, anioe?aoeaii ca’ycaiiai ?c oyaeaiiyie ? i??yie i?i oe?ai?,
oaie?, niiy/i? caie?, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ca ia???i, ca nei?ie ii?yie, i?i
?aenueeo e?a?io — ae??e (???e). O iia?no? A.Ae?icaea “E??e” ?ice?eooy
ci?noo oeueiai iioeao iia’ycaii ?c ?icaeoeii nthaeaoii? e?i?? Ieoaeea
?aoaoa, aa?iy, a?ae ?iai? yeiai aaaeaoueny iiia?aeue o oai??.

Ia?ac E??th, yeee iiaooo? ia?o ca ana a i??yo ? niiae?aaiiyo Ieoaeea,
aeaii a ieai? oyaeaiiy i?i aa?iii?eiee na?o. Aei??yiee E??e anioe?aoeaii
a?oioo?oueny ia ia?iaei?e ooii??. Aa?ie iaiaaa?oueny noai?eoe eiai o
?aaeueiiio E???, ui ca nai?th noooth ia a?aeiia?aea? aei??yiiio. Oey
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue coiiaeth? ?icaeoie eiioe?eoo, iiaoaeiaaiiai ia
c?oeiaii? ?aaeueiiai aeeooy a E??? (ye o i?inoi?ia?e ieiuei?) c
iaioth/eie a iueiio i?uainoaii, iani?aaaaeeea?noth, c E???i, aeieaeaiei
Ieoaeeii c aeeoeinoaa ye oiniaeaiiyi oaiea ? aeia?a.

Iai?ee?ioe? iia?no? ia?ac e??th iaaoaa? neeaaeiiai o?einionueeiai
ocaaaeueiaiiy. A.Ae?icae ?ai?acaioo? eiai ia nenoaio iiiceoe?e
einiiaii?/iiai na?oo (“ii?yaeie” — ”oain”), nei?enoaaoenue i?eeiiii
naiaioe/ieo c?ooaiue. Ianoi?ni?noue cia?aaeaieo iiae?e a i?noa/eo,
iacaaiiio E??e, c i?oieiaaiiith nooi?noth iiiyooy aeyaey?oueny ia
eiio?ano? iien?a iiaooo ?iaeeie Nieii’yiee?a, i?noa/eiaeo ii?yaee?a ?
aei??yiiai Ieoaeeii “???th”. I?e?iaeiee na?o aaouee?aueie c
iaoa?einueeith ethaia’th ? ??aeiith i?e?iaeith aeey i?aee?oea — na?o
ii?yaeeo, a na?o E??th, iaei??th ?c i?inoi?iaeo oi/ie yeiai ? ae?i
?iaeeie Nieii’yiee?a, ae??io/ee e?n e??enueeiai i?uainoaa, — na?o
oaino, a yeiio o?aaa a?aenoithaaoe ni?eeiyo? c aeeoeinoaa ?aeaaee. O
cia?aaeaii? oeueiai c?oeiaiiy A.Ae?icae aeaoaeiao? iiiceoe?th
aeia?i-cei.

Aeooiaiee na?o aa?iy-i?aee?oea noi?iiaaiee ca iiaeaeyie
“iaeoeuenueeiai” na?oiaa/aiiy, c aeanoeaith eiio ia?iaeiith noeo??th, ia
ii?aeiaii? oaioanoe/iiai oa ?aaeueiiai. O oeueiio na?o? iaio? aoiinoa?a
iaa?/iiai, a ye?e a?aeaoaathoueny iaeiia??i? ?a/?, a?aeii? c i?aaeaai?o
/an?a. Iai?eeeaae, neooaoe?? “io?oaiiy”, ui ? aeyaii eaceiai?
/oaeiae?eii? ae?? ? a?ae?a?athoue eiioeaiooaeueio ?ieue o iia?no?
“E??e”, ae?aaeath/e ii?ea aei aie?, aa?iii??. Oea oeiieia?/ii caeeaeo?
A.Ae?icaea c i?icith eaoeiiaia?eeainueeiai ienueiaiieea A.Ia?eana (“Noi
?ie?a naiioiino?”).

Na?o Ieoaeea ?aoaoa a cia?aaeaii? A.Ae?icaea niiaiaiee
i?nai?oieoeue. Aiie aeieeathoue ia aeiaaeeiaeo anioe?aoe?yo. Oaeei /eiii
aeinyaa?oueny eii?/iee aoaeo, ia?ace ?icai?oathoueny aei oe?eeo
ai?ciae?a. I?eeii a?aeiiee c aioe/iino? i?ae iacaith eieaeai?a. Eiai
aeei?enoiaoaaee naiai /ano O.?aaea, I.Aiaieue ( “I?n”). O A.Ae?icaea
i?eeii “eieaeai?a” aaeeoi aeey a?aeoai?aiiy oaioac?e aa?iy. C eiai
aeiiiiiaith ?oeiothoueny noa?aioeie a iiaoaeia? ooaeiaeiuei?
?aaeueiino?, ? aeieea? iiaa, oe?eeii aeania, i?ea?iaeueia ae?eni?noue.

Oaioanoe/ia, ui /anii nyaa? a?ai? ia?iae??, a “E???” ii?aeiaii c
eiie?aoieie ?aae?yie iiaooo, iaecaae?a, niiaaae?a aeeoeinoaa. O i??yo
oeiioey aeaoaeiaothoueny ? aeaa ia?ace-?aae?? (a?ae?ioaea ? aei?iaa) ye
iciaee eoeueoo?e ? oeea?e?caoe??, ye? c ?icaeoeii nthaeaoo iaaoaathoue
neiaie?/iiai ci?noo. Oae, ia?ac aei?iae a iia?no? i?i/eoo?oueny ia eeoa
ye i?inoi?iaa oi/ea, a ? ye oiniaeaiiy oeyoo aei naiiai naaa, nai??
nia?no?, aei i?e?iaeiiai a ethaeei?. Ni?aa?aeianaiiy aei?iae ? aa?iy ia?
? ineoieia?/iee i?aeoaeno. Aei?iaa Ieoaeea ia iaa/aiiy aei E??th a
oeueiio aniaeo? — ia i?inoi aei?iaa aei i?noa, a aei?iaa iiooe?a naiai
iieeeeaiiy, iaeaooiueiai. Aei?iaa iiaa?iaiiy aei ??aeii? inae?, aei
Iaeoey — iiooe na?oea, /enoioe, aa?iii??.

Iioea iiaa?iaiiy aa?iy aei naaa o A.Ae?icaea, ye ? o A.Neiiiaiea a
“Eacoe? i?i Aeo?eea”, anioe?aoeaii iaaeeaeaiee aei i?oo i?i iiaa?iaiiy
aeoaeiiai neia aei ??aeii? aeii?aee ? ? ae?aaeaiiyi aeooiaiiai i/euaiiy.
Aei?iaa Ieoaeea aeiaeiio, ye ? a?ae?eiee oeyo aei iiiaeaiiy, eaea /a?ac
ia?aiiie ? no?aaeaeaiiy.

I???iooth/enue ia oieueeei?ii-i?oieia?/i? o?aaeeoe??, A.Ae?icae
cia?acea E??e ye i??th aa?iy, ? aiia, ye aoaeue-yea ooii?y, noia?a/eoue
?aaeueiiio aeeooth. E??e-i?noi — iaaia noni?eueia na?aaeiaeua,
ye?nieie i?eeiaoaie yeiai ? iiaooiaa ? nioe?aeueia i?uainoai, ui
?ica?i/o?oueny i?ica?eii ca aeiiiiiaith oiiaieo cania?a a?ia?aiee,
eii?/ieo neooaoe?e. I?ioeeaaeiee eiio ia?ac Iaeoey ye ia?ac
aeineiiaeino? na?oo oaae aeaii a oyaeaiiyo aa?iy iia?no?. Oiio ? ia?ac
aei?iae aei Iaeoey ia no?eueee ?aaeueiee, ne?eueee neiaie?/iee — ye
oeyo aei aeooiaiiai i?iaoaeaeaiiy ? ona?aeiieaiiy naiai “y”. Ieoaeei —
anaciath/ee iiia?aea/, yeee, aae?ath/e aaoi?nueeee aiein, aiineoue o
iia?noue ae?acio e??e/io ?ioiiaoe?th. Nai???aei?noue iia?nooaaiiy
A.Ae?icaea coiiaeaia iayai?noth a i?e eaceiaeo aeaiaio?a, aeaai?e/ieo
ia?ac?a, oeia?iiai ia?aieao?iiy oaioanoe/iiai e ?aaeueiiai.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Aecenoaioe?aeuei? eiioeaioe?? aoooy ethaeeie
a ?iiai? A.Ae?icaea “Aiaeoeaea” oa niaoeeo?ea ?o ooaeiaeiueiai
ae?aaeaiiy» noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui, ooaeiaeiuei inienethth/e
ciaoe?iai?noue ii?aeueieo oi?aa?nae?e ethaenueeiai ni?aaeeooy a
noni?euenoa?, A.Ae?icae a ai?oeaio? oa?aeoa?enoeee /ano ? ethaeeie a
iueiio aei?n aecenoaioe?ei? eiioeaioe?? aoooy — a?ae/oaeaiiy,
naiioiino?, aeaoo, ni?iaeooaaaoe ?o ia oaio aano?aeiino? na?oo.
Cia?aaeoth/e aieiaiiai aa?iy Aiae??y Oeoeao, i?ica?e aeae?ey? aeaoae?,
ae??, neooaoe??, ye? ?ai?acaioiaai? ia ia?ac cea, ui i?ecaaaea aei
?oeioaaiiy ? ia?aoai?aiiy ethaeeie ia oeaeaea, nii/aoeo ii?aeueii, a
iio?i ? o?ce/ii. Aeii?ioth/ith ?enith oa?aeoa?o Oeoeae aeae?eaii
i?enoinoaainoai. Ienueiaiiee eia?/ii ? ineoieia?/ii aiioeaiao? ??
ca’ycie ?c ceii, o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ?c ceii aeey iaei??? ethaeeie. Aeey
Aiae??y Oeoeae caiice/aiiy ?aeae, aeoiie, ieai?a Oa?eaia noa? ii?iith
aeeooy. Iaaaaeaiiy caaeyiooe o aeanio aeooo ? ?ic?a?aoeny o nai?o
ii/oooyo iiaeeaeth? i?ioean ?oeiaoe?? “y”. Aioo??oiy ci?ia a Oeoec?
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie ciai?oiino?. Aiae???aa iaee//y ia?aoai?th?oueny
ia ianeo. Ci?ia ianie — oea aeanoea?noue aooiiaaee, oa?no; aiia
iaiaei?iii aaaea aei o?aaaae??: iniaeno?noue ao?a/a? naia naaa
iiai?noth, ia?ai???ioiao?oueny ia i?eeiyoee iath “oaao?aeueiee” ia?ac ?
c /anii ?ic?eaa? aoaeue-ye? ca’ycee ?c na?oii. ?iiai A.Ae?icaea a
ineoieia?/ii oe?oiiaieo oi?iao ?icai?oa? oeth eie?c?th. Oaao?ae?coth/e
?icaeoie nthaeaoii? e?i??, A.Ae?icae aeine?aeaeo? ineoieia?th aa?iy, a
yeiai oyae?iiy aei aeoi?noaa iaae?a? ae?ae aaioeaio?e/ieo oi?i. O oai??
c’yaey?oueny oie oei “aeoi?a”, yeiai ineoieiae iaceaathoue oeei?/iei —
ia a?aei?io a?ae ue?iai, yeee a?a? a neeo aoyiiy a iueiio iaoaoeciaaii?
oaao?aeueiino?.

O ?iiai? “Aiaeoeaea” A.Ae?icaea aei ?aea? aaioeaio?e/iiai aeoi?noaa
i?eoiaeeoue ia aoaeue-yea, ia aeiaaeeiaa ethaeeia. O aa?i?, Aiae???
Oeoec?, caeeaaeaia aaioeaio?e/ia yae?i, i?iyaeoenue yeiio aea?
iiaeeea?noue naia oaao?ae?ciaaia oi?ia iiaaae?iee. Ienueiaiiee iae?a?
a?aie/iee aeya aaioeaio?ecio: aiae — ia?ac, yeee o iia?oi? /ane
iia’yco?oueny ?c ae?aaeaiiyi oae caaiiai aeno?aiaeueiiai
?iaeea?aeoae?cio. Aia/a ia/aei ? aieiaiei a oa?aeoa?enoeoe? Aiae??y
Oeoeae, yeee nia?oo, caea?oueny, aeaeaeee a?ae aeoi?noaa. I?ioa a iaaiee
iiiaio ianooia? a eiai aeeoo? iiai?io ( ia ?aioii — A.Ae?icae o?eno?
ii?aeueio i?aeaioiaeai?noue aa?iy aei oeueiai: eiai ?inaia?aaaeuei?noue
?c ae?oaii Oa?eaiii, iniaeeaee niin?a aa/aiiy naaa o na?o?,
aaioeaio?e/io iiaaae?ieo a iaeneeaaei?o? ia??iaee aeeooy): Aiae??e
Oeoeaa i?eeia? ? ?icaeaa? aeae? ae?iaeaio eiai iiia?aaeieeii Iao?ii
Oa?eaiii o?einio?th aeeooy ? a?aeiia?aeio ?e iaia?o iiaaae?iee.
?icoi?iiy na?oo ? aeeoo?aa o?einio?y Oa?eaia eaaei ?anoaa?o?oueny
Oeoeaith ?c caien?a ? ie?aieo o?ac, ye? a?i caiai’yoaa i?e ni?eeoaaii?
c ae?oaii. Ianea Aiae??y Oeoeae a aeeoo? — oea ia a?eueiee aea?? ?ie?, a
iaaia aiieoa, c yeei iio??aii caeeoenue aioo??oiuei. O oiae? naii? a?e
aa?ie iiai?noth aeaoi?io? nai? noinoiee c ?ioeie, ia?anoa? aoiaeeoe a
aiioe?eiee eiioaeo c inoaii?ie, ai ?icaeyaea? ?o ia ye ??aiioe?ii?
noa’?eoe, c yeeie iiaeii? aooe ??aiii?aai? noinoiee, a ye ia’?eoe, ye
i?aaeiaoe iai?ioethaaiiy: a?ae/oa ethaia aei aee?aeoi?a, aiaeaa?eueia
aaaeaiiy ?caeeoe a eiai iaoei?, “eioaoe” eiai aei/eo A?eo. *a?ac ?yae
i?iiiaenoeo aeaoaeae, ai?ciae?a, cia?aaeoth/e ae??, a/eiee aa?iy,
iaaeath/e i?aai oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe eiai ?ioei ia?niiaaeai, A.Ae?icae
aeoeaioo? oaaao ia ii?aeueiiio ia?aoai?aii? ethaeeie ia oeaeaea,
aeae?eyth/e oae? eiai ?ene, ye-io: naaaethanoai, cacae?iu?,
iaeeaiieoeoai, ei?enoiethanoai, ea?’??eci.

A.Ae?icae ia?aa iacae/aeio ooaeiaeith oi?io, uia aeeaiei ?
ineoieia?/ii oiiei cia?aceoe aeooiaio e?eco noni?euenoaa: “ia?aaa?iaiiy”
ethaeeie, eiee a ia? “anaey?oueny” aeooa ii?aeueii? ieoeino?, cea.
Ca?iaeaeaiiy, ?icai?oaiiy, eoeuei?iaoe?eia oi/ea ia?aoai?aiiy ethaeeie o
aiaea aeai? a ?iiai? ianaiia?aae ineoieia?/ii. Ciai?oi? ?oi? aeyae
o?enothoueny eeoa /a?ac ie?ai? aeaoae?, eaeii?/i? iiene neooaoe?e,
?aie?ee naiiai aa?iy. I?ica?e canoiniao? i?eeii oaioaniaai???:
ia?aoai?aiiy ethaeeie ia aiaea nii/aoeo oa? ni?, a iio?i — o ae?eniino?.

Ia?ac “aiaeoeaee” a ?iiai? A.Ae?icaea “Aiaeoeaea” a iaai?e i???
aeecueeee aei aa?i?a i?ice I.E.Oienoiai, ye? oaae iathoue oieueeei?ia ?
i?oieia?/ia iioiaeaeaiiy, a cia?aaeaii? yeeo ae?acia oaioanoe/ia ia/aei
( “Oie?”, “Aiai”, “N?i’y ao?aeaeaea”, “Cono??/ /a?ac o?enoa ?ie?a”). A
“Oie??”, iai?eeeaae, oa?iieoe? ? aeaoe a?aecia/ai? a iien? ioi/aiiy
aa?i?a. O “Aiaeoeaoe?” — aeao iiaooo? a aeoo? aa?iy, a?i coiiaeaiee
?icoi?iiyi oiai, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny, ui ii?iaeaeothoue noo?iee, oai?yaa,
“/i?iioa”. A iaio ?iiaiao o?nii ia?aie?oathoueny ?aaeuei?noue ?
oaioanoeea, aeeoo?aa ? eaceiaa, ae?eni?noue oa nii.

*a?ac iioea “ia?aaa?oiy” o oai?? A.Ae?icaea iaeae?aci?oa aeyaey?oueny
a?ae/oaeai?noue aa?iy, ui ia? nioe?aeueiee i?aeoaeno, coiiaeaiee eiai
aaaeaiiyi ae?eoe aei aeuiai uaaey aeaaee. Ia?aao?eaiiy aa?iy o aiaeoeaeo
? aeaai???th, ui i?aeii?yaeeiaaia aeyaeaiith eiai aioo??oiueiai noaio,
noai?aiith ie?aiiai ooaeiaeiueiai oeio ethaenueeiai oa?aeoa?o. Iniiaith
aeaai??? ? ciai?oiy iiae?ai?noue ae?e Aiae??y Oeoeae c oeaeaoeoaii
aiaea. Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e eiai, A.Ae?icae caa?oa?oueny aei cania?a
oaioanoeee, ia?ac?a aeaiiiieia??, ui a?aee?eaathoue oaiio aioeethaenueeo
nooi?noue Aiae??y, caia?a/oth/e eiai aioo??oi? “y” ? ooaa?aeaeoth/e
ia?aiiao “/i?ii?” aia?a??.

Ia?ac aiaea a ?iiai? “Aiaeoeaea” ? aeyaii noa?e ethaenueei?
ineo?ee, aeo?niaii? a i?aena?aeiia. Aeei?enoai? A.Ae?icaeii aeaiaioe
ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai aenia?eiaiooaaiiy: ?icaeai?iiy iniaenoino?,
iacae/i? nie, i?eno?ano? — a?aeii? ua c iai?iiai? naoe?e. A?aeaeoeii
aioe/ii? iai?ia? ? ? nii Oeoeae, yeee ?oeio? oe?e?ni?noue ia?aco aa?iy
? eiai aeie?. Aiae??e ia ioioiaeith? naaa ?c nai?i iiaei “y”, aeieea?
ae?aeia?/ia oyaeaiiy aa?iy i?i naaa naiiai. ?iciia?aeue a?ae ia?oi?
iniae ia?aiaaeiao?oueny c iiia?aeaeth aaoi?a, yea oeyoii iaiii?oieo
ia?aoiae?a ciiao ceeaa?oueny ?c aeyaii ni?eeiyooy iiae?e aieiaiei
aa?i?i, aea iiia?aeue eaea aaea a?ae o?aouei? iniae: aa?ie aiae?co? nai?
a/eiee ye noi?iiiy ethaeeia. Iiaeyae aa?iy ia naaa c aieo aeooae?co?
ae?aaeaiiy ?aea? naiia?ae/oaeaiino?. Aa?aneaia, iai?eoiaaii ai?iaea
noaaeaiiy aei ioi/oth/eo ?iaeoue eiai naiioi?i, coiiaeth? eiioe?eo i?ae
iei ? ni?a?ia?oieeaie.

Ca oeiii oa?aeoa?o (cina?aaeaeai?noue ia aeani?e inia?,
naiioi?noue, a?ae/oaeai?noue) aa?ie A.Ae?icaea aeecueeee aei aa?iy
?iiaio “Noi?iii?e” A.Eaith, iaeiiai ?c yne?aaeo i?aaenoaaiee?a
o?aioeocueeiai aecenoaioe?ae?cio. Aeieeioaoe ye o?einionueea oa/?y (
E.ssnia?n o I?ia//ei?, I.Aa?aey?a o ?in??, I.Ia?ei-Iiio? e A.Ia?naeue o
O?aioe?? ), a?i ae?acii i?iyaeany a e?oa?aoo??, ianaiia?aae o
o?aioeocuee?e ( AEai-Iieue Na?o? ? Aeueaa? Eaith). A?ae/oaeai?noue
aa?i?a a?ae na?oo e ethaeae ia?iaeaeo? a?ae/oooy aano?aeiino? naiiai
aeeooy, ui aeaaeae? a?eueoa iiaeeaeth? ? caaino?th? eiai. Naiioi?noue ye
aeii?ioth/a ?ena aiaeoeaee, Aiae??y Oeoeae, ? iniiaith a?ae/oaeaiino?. O
oeueiio ieai? A.Ae?icae nie?aea?eco?oueny ?c aaoi?ii ?iiaio “Noaiiaee
aiae” A.Aanna. Iaeaeaa aaoi?e cia?aaeothoue ?icaeai?i?noue iniaenoino?,
iaaoooy inoaiiueith aeanoeainoae aia/i? iaoo?e, o?aeoothoue naiioi?noue
ye iane?aeie iaiaeoea/aiiy. Anioe?aoeaio aeecuee?noue iaca ?iiai?a —
“Noaiiaee aiae” ? “Naiioi?e aiae” (iacaa ia?oi? ioae?eaoe??) iiaeia
iiynieoe ni?euei?noth ienueiaiieoeueeeo canaae o a?aeia?aaeaii?
neeaaeiiai aioo??oiueiai na?oo aa?i?a, ai?ioueae i?ioeeaaeiinoae a ?oi?o
iaoo?ao, ?oiuei? naiioiino? ? a?ae/oaeaiino? a?ae noni?euenoaa.

Aeoeaiooth/e oaaao ia cia?aaeaii? aano?aeiino? ?aaeueieo yaeu
no/aniiai eiio na?oo ye aeyao aeooiaiiai ae?iaeaeaiiy, A.Ae?icae o
?iiai? “Aiaeoeaea” oei?co? aecenoaioe?ei? eiioeaioe?? aoooy ethaeeie —
a?ae/oaeaiiy iniaenoino?, aeaoo, a?ae/ath, naiioiino?. Inienethth/e ?o,
a?i nei?enoaany i?eeiiaie ? caniaaie i?oiiiaoeee (iioea eaeiio?ii??,
aeaai?e/i? nthaeaoe ? ia?ace, neiaiee), aeae?eyth/e aioo??oi? eie?c??
aecenoaioe?eiiai aeai?o aa?iy. Aioo??oi?e iiiieia, iio?e i?aena?aeiiino?
(/a?ac nie, ia?aiiy), oneeaaeiaia o?ii?ea ia?aaeathoue a?ae/oooy
aano?aeiino? ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy (aecenoaioe??) a aano?aeiiio na?o?,
ui aoei nai???aeiei caia?a/aiiyi eaiii?ciaaieo iinooeao?a nioe?aae?cio.
Aa?ie ?iiaio “Aiaeoeaea” ? oiniaeaiiyi aacaeooiaiino?, ?aaie?inoaa,
niiaeeaaoeueei? ineoieia?? ethaeeie aia/i? iaoo?e, yea o?eueee “aa?a”.
?? nioe?aeueia ? ii?aeueia nooi?noue ni?iaeoiaaia ia oaio ?oeioaaiiy
iniaenoino? a oiiaao aacaeooiaiiai na?oo, a?aaeaiiai ea?’??eciii,
aaeaeoae?noth, i?enoiniaieoeoaii. Oea oie aea oei, ui ? ia?ac Aieiaeueee
Eiaiaee a ?iiai? “Niai?” I.Aii/a?a. Aea a inoaiiueiio eiio
i?ioenoaaeai? ?iiaioe/ii cia?aaeai? oai?oe? aeeooy. O?einionueea
iia?nooaaiiy I.Aii/a?a aoaeo?oueny ia iiiceoe?yo i?ae?ania — iioai?ia,
oai?oe? — a?aeiiue??e, iai’youe — caaoooy.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe “Aaoi?nueea
iiaeeo?eaoe?y ?ioa?oaenoo a ?iiai? “Ceee aeoo. ?c aeeo??i” aieiaiee
aeoeaio c?iaeaii ia aecia/aii? nai???aeiino? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? i?oieia?/ii?
? oieueeei?ii? iiiceoe?? aeia?i-cei a ?iiai? “Ceee aeoo. ?c aeeo??i”. O
oeueiio oai?? oeaio?aeueio iiceoe?th iin?aea? iioea cea, ui
ia?ao?aciaaii a ia?ac? Ceiai Aeooo — ethaeeie-aeaiiia, naoaie, yeee
aeaoaeiao?oueny ienueiaiieeii o i?ioean? inieneaiiy oaie. sse ?
“Aiaeoeaea”, ?iiai “Ceee aeoo. ?c aeeo??i” ? “nai???aeiith ?icai?iooith
iaoaoi?ith” (nei?enoa?iinue aecia/aiiyi I.AEoeeinueeiai), aea ia?ac
Aiae??y Oeoeae — ao?eaiiy “aeooiaii? ? ii?aeueii? nionoioaiino?
ethaeeie, yea caieooaeany a eaa??eio? aai?noe/ieo ?inoeieo?a”, a ia?ac
Aa?eoo? — aeooiaiiai aeaiii?cio ye aeyao oaino aeaae?aiino? aei iaaeeae,
ui iaaeo? ?c cei/eii?noth, ? oae naii c ?oeiaoe??th, aeooiaiith ?
o?ce/iith. sse ? a iiia?aaei?o nai?o ?iiaiao, A.Ae?icae aaiaeeoue o
aaaaoiieiueiio no?oeoo?o oeueiai oai?o o?aaeeoe?ei? i?oieia?/i?,
a?ae?ei? oa e?oa?aoo?i? iioeae ? ia?ace, ?ioa?i?aooth/e ?o a?aeiia?aeii
aei ?aae?e cia?aaeaiiai /ano, iaaeath/e ?i ooieoe?? ?ica?i/aiiy
aeooiaii? ii?iaeia/?, ii?aeueii? e?ece, ?icionoaa ia o?eueee ye
iiaaae?iee ie?aii? ethaeeie, a e ye noni?eueiiai yaeua.

O oai?? A.Ae?icaea iane??ciei ? ia?ac “ceiai aeooo”, aeianaiee o
caaieiaie. Eiai oiniaeaiiyi aenooia? aieiaiee aa?ie ?iiai Aa?eooa. Oea —
oei eiii?aaei?a, ae??, a/eiee ? iiienee yeiai a?aeaeca?eaeththoue cea
ia/aei. O ooaeiaeiueiio aeyaeaii? eiai ineoieia?? ienueiaiiee
i???ioo?oueny ia a?oaoeie, caei??iai? a neia’yinueeo i?oieia?th.
Oa?aeoa? Aa?eoo? aeaii oe?eeii noi?iiaaiei. Eiai aaiethoe?y
i?inoaaeo?oueny ia c?noaaeaii? Aa?eoo? no/aniiai ? eieeoiueiai (inoaii?
i?aaenoaaeaii ?ao?iniaeoeaii). Aaoi?, ye ? a ?ioeo nai?o oai?ao, aeyaey?
iaenoa?i?noue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ae??th ? oa?aeoa?ii. Ia?aoeaii
aeie?aneaii oa, ui aoei a ieioeiio, a cia?aaeaii? no/aniiai aa?iy
ia?aaaaea? ooaeiaei?e iieac eiai ae?e. Nii??aeiai?noue aa?iy ?c
Naoaiith i?aee?aneaia /a?ac ie?ai? aeaoae? ii?o?aoo, neooaoe?? eiai ae?e
? aeya aioo??oiueiai na?oo, iae/ano?oa naiiae?aaeaiiy. O ?iiai? “Ceee
aeoo. ?c aeeo??i” A.Ae?icae, ye ? a “E???” oa “Aiaeoeaoe?”, aaea?oueny
aei c?noaaeaiiy ethaeeie ?c ca??ii-oeaeaeii. ?iiai Aa?eooa, ye ?
Aiae??e Oeoeaa, — oei ethaeeie aia/i? iaoo?e.

Neiaieii aeaaee, aaaaonoaa aeey Aa?eoo? ? o?eiiaa?oiaee aoaeeiie.
Ae?i aeey aa?iy — einiin a i?i?aoth??. ? a iien? aoaeeieo, ye ? a
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aa?iy, iaiaeii?aciai aaeeaathoueny ai?oaoe “/i?iee”,
“oeaeee”. I?inoi?iaa oi/ea (ia noee? ai?e, ioi/aiee aiaeith), oi?ia
aoaeeieo Aa?eoo?, eiai eieuei?iaa iciaea i?aee?aneththoue neiaie?/iee
ci?no ia?aco aeiio ye oiniaeaiiy iaaii? a?aeai?iaeaeaii? oe??ieaii?
aeooiaii? neee, eio?a caaaeaee ianoi?iae?. Oa?aeoa?ia iciaea — /i?iee
eie??, ui ia?aaaaea? a iien? aoaeeieo, — iana a nia? a?ae/oooy
o?aa?/iiai o?iaeo oacy?ia ? eiai iaeaoeo. Cia?aaeoth/e iiaee ae?i
Aa?eoo?, A.Ae?icae nei?enoaany a?ae?eiei iioeaii “oa?iii? aa/a??”,
o?ainoi?ioth/e eiai c iaoith ?ica?i/aiiy “aa?eoo”.

Aa?ie A.Ae?icaea a iaai?e i??? aeecueeee aei aa?iy I.Oaeeueaea c
?iiaio “Ii?o?ao Aei??aia A?ay”. Ni?eueiith ?oiueith ?enith ? oa, ui cei
aiie ?icaeyaeathoue ye iaeei ?c cania?a aeinyaiaiiy “e?ane”. Aei??ai
A?ae I.Oaeeueaea aaaea iiaea?eia aeeooy: aaeaiue eiai oaeeththoue
ni?aaaei? aeoai?e ienoaoeoaa, ioceea, a aii/? a?i aaaea ?iciooia aeeooy.
Aaaiiei o eiai oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ? ii?o?ao: aioo??oiy nooi?noue aa?iy
i?inooia? ia i?eoiaaiiio a?ae ?ioeo iiaeyae?a eiai ii?o?ao?,
iaiaeueiaaiiio ooaeiaeieeii Oieeoi?aeii. E?ana ? na?oe? eieuei?e oa?a
cieeathoue c ii?o?aoo i?ney eiaeiiai cei/eio Aei??aia A?ay, a ia ?o
i?noe? c’yaeythoueny cii?oee ? e?eaaa? oa?ae. O I.Oaeeueaea
eiioeaiooaeueiei a oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aa?iy ? ia?ac aeca?eaea. Aeca?eaei —
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ciai?oiino? aa?iy, a ii?o?ao — ae?aaeaiiy eiai aeooiaii?
nooiino?. Aei??ai ethaea naith a?iaeo a aeca?eae?, ye Ia?oeen, a ia
ii?o?ao? niinoa??aaa ca ?iceeaaeaiiyi nai?? aeoo?. C ieeiii /ano a?iaea
ii/aea ae?aooaaoe Aei??aia, ? a?i ?icaea aeca?eaei. Oeae i?eeii
aeei?enoaa ? A.Ae?icae. Eiai aa?ie Aa?eooa caiieiaeo aiaeeiaie ieeoaaany
nai?i a?aeia?aaeaiiyi o aeca?eae?, a c /anii a?aeia?aaeai? a aeca?eae?
aei?noie?noue aa?iy A.Ae?icaea, aioo??oiy nionoioai?noue, noa??iiy aeoo?
? o?ea oaae ae?aoothoue aa?iy. Iicaaaeoenue iiaiai aeca?eaeueiiai
a?aeia?aaeaiiy Aa?eooa iaiaaa?oueny oeyoii caeeaaiiy aeca?eaea
aa?icieai. Aeaieee?noue aa?iy A.Ae?icaea aeyaeaia a ?iiai? /a?ac nenoaio
eiai aioeoaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee: c iaeiiai aieo, aeaai/eii? ae??
(cao?eniaai? ia ii?o?ao? Aeaieeaeea “aeeo?ei? noeaie”: i?ia?aeoaaiiy
oai?eo o e?ea?iyi?e iaeao?, a?o/aiiy ?i e?e?a; ?yooaaiiy ooaeiaeieea
a?ae iaoa??aeueii? ne?ooe), a c ae?oaiai — aii?aeuei?, cei/eii?.

?icai?oath/e nthaeaoi? e?i?? Aa?eooa ? na?o, Aa?eooa ? ioi/aiiy,
Aa?eooa ? Ia??eea — ?aa, ienueiaiiee iaiaeii?aciai oeeoo? c “Eieae
aoooy”, ia?ainieneth? ?yae ?? iioea?a ? ia?ac?a. Iioea “aeeo?y” nai?ie
aeoieaie a aa?ia?ao?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? i?i ethaeae, i?ina?oeaieo a??ith,
?oi?e aeeoo?aee iiaeaea, ii?aeuei? ?aeaaee. ?iiai A.Ae?icaea “Ceee aeoo.
?o aeeo??i” — aioeaeeo??, yea oai?eoue nai aa?ie. “Eieaa eiea”, yeo
Aa?eooa ia? iai?? iaienaoe, aecia/aiee iei ye “aioea?ae?y”, “Caeii
?iiaia Aa?eoo?”, “Naoai?aaea”.

Iioea “aeeo?y” o ca’yceo c ia?acii “ceiai aeooo” i?ea?iaeueii
o?ainoi?iiaaiee a ?iiai?. Caaeaaia iiceoe?y neeaaeiaeo aecia/aii?
iiiceoe?? aeyaey? ?o ?aei?noue ? ianoi?ni?noue. “Ceee aeoo”, ca
a?ae?eieie a??ia/aiiyie (ye? caaaeai? aaoi?ii o oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aa?iy),
— Naoaia, Aeeyaie, Ci?e, oiniaeaii a eiie?aoiiio ia?ac? ?iiaia Aa?eoo?.
Eiai iiaeyaee ? ia?aeiiaiiy cana?ae/othoue cea ia/aei ye iniiao eiai
nooiino?.

O cia?aaeaii? “aeeo?y” aa?iy ienueiaiiee ea?o?oueny oe?a?inueeei
i?oiiiaoe/iei eaiiiii: Aeia?i anaia?aiaaath/a, Ceiai aeooa “eiaoioea
caiey, iinoaaeaoe e?aieo a caiiiio aeeo?? eiai”. Caaaeea i?i iaeei o
o?iae? ?iiaio — oea ciiao iaoye ia Naoaio ye ia ao?eaiiy Ceiai aeooo.
Aeath/e nai? o?aeooaaiiy oeueiai ia?aco, A.Ae?icae ?ice?ea ii?aeueio
nooi?noue iiae?aieo Aa?eoo? ye yaeua a oiiaao e?ei?iae?caoe?? no/aniiai
noni?euenoaa.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “I?oiiiaoe/ia cia?aaeaiiy ea?oeie na?oo a ?iiai?
“Eenoy caie?” A.Ae?icaea” ?icaeyaea?oueny noeeuei?noue i?ica?ea aei
ia’?eoeaiaaii? i?oineiaie?/ii? iiae, yea ? ye?niith iciaeith
aiae?ciaaieo aeua oai??a (“E??e”, “Aiaeoeaea”, “Ceee aeoo. ?c aeeo??i”)
? aaaaoianiaeoii aeei?enoiao?oueny aaoi?ii o ?iiai?-aiiia? “Eenoy
caie?”.

O ?iiai? “Eenoy caie?” A.Ae?icae cia?acea nioe?aeueiee ? aeooiaiee
na?o e?eueeio iieie?iue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, yeei aeiaei aeeoe a aiioo
a?aaionueeeo nioe?aeueieo ia?aoai?aiue, ii/eiath/e c a?n?iaeanyoeo ?ie?a
O?O noie?ooy. Oa?? iaienaiee ia iaoa??ae? na?ae/aiue aaaaoueio
?aaeueieo ethaeae, aaaaeaiiy yeeo a no?oeoo?o oai?o a ?ie? iiia?aea/?a
noai?th? a?ae/oooy ?noi?e/ii? ?aaeueiino?.

I?e an?e iacae/iino? iiaoaeiae ? noeeth ?iiai “Eenoy caie?” oeiiaee
aeey ia??iaeo eiai iaienaiiy, eiee a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?ainieneaiiy oe?ei?
?noi?e/ii? aeiae. Iia?nooaaiiy, oa?aeoa?ia aeey i?eo/ ? eaaaiae, ui
i?aai?/ii aieaoai? aaoi?ii a eiioaeno oai?o, aeeth/a? a naaa i?oieia?/i?
iioeae, o?ainoi?iaoe?th a?ae?eieo ia?ac?a (?aenueeee naae, Aia, noae ,
yiaiee, /i?o, a??oieee, iaeei, aeeyaie), i?oieia?/i? iioeae. Naiiaooiy ?
iiaa iiia?ae?, ui aeyaey? iaaiee aaia?ao?/iee oa aoi?/iee eiei?eo. Oae,
aeey iiae iiia?aea/?a oa?aeoa?ia ia?iaeia ia?aci?noue, niaoeeo?/i?
iaeeieoe? iiaeaiiy (ni?ao/a iie?nueea aia??ea, ia?aneiaia
ae?aeaeoeciaie). Aeoiee iiaoeee ?iiaio “Eenoy caie?” A.Ae?icaea, ye ?
?ioeo eiai oai??a, — a aeeaeiieo ieanoao oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii?
eoeueoo?e, o oieueeei??, a yce/ieoeuee?e ? o?enoeyinuee?e i?oieia?yo. O
iueiio cia?aaeai? cae/a?, ia?yaee, iia??’y Iie?nny. I?e oeueiio /anoeio
oaenoo iaae?oeiaaii cae/aeiei o?eooii, a iiia?ae?, c iciaeaie aeeai?
ia?iaeii? iiae — eo?neaii, ui aeeeeea? ineoieia?/iee aoaeo ae?aeiao c
ia?iaeii.

On? iiae?? ?iiaio “Eenoy caie?” iiaeathoueny e??cue i?ecio
ia?iaeiiai na?oiaa/aiiy. Aa?i? e iiia?aea/? iiyniththoue ?o ?iiae? ia c
iiceoe?e eia?ee, a iieeaaeathoueny ia i?aena?aeiiee aeina?ae a?e?a,
iaaeath/e oaeoai a?aeo?ieo i?o?/iino?. Oea coiiaeei nai???aei?noue
eiiiiceoe?? oai?o: iacae ?icae?e?a “?c eieae aei?a”, “Eieaa i?i ethaia ?
iaiaaenoue”, “Eacaiiy i?i ?ici? Iaeoey”, “Eieaa Eocueie, neia
Naie?icoiiaiai”, “AEeo?? O?eno?, aeooath o aeia?? neoiai?e” oa iiae?ai?
i?aee?aneththoue ca’ycie ?c aeai?ii aeeoo?ieno, e?oiieno. O nthaeao?
“eiea”, ui neeaaeathoue ?iiai, a aniaeo? ia?iaeieo oyaeaiue ooaeiaeiuei
inieneththoueny iiiceoe?? aeia?i ? cei, ethaia ? iaiaaenoue, iioeae
uanoy ? ?ath, aeeooy ? nia?o?, ia?ace Aiaa ? aeeyaiea, ethaenueei? aeoo?
oiui. I?e oeueiio aaoi? caeo/a? a o?aeooaaii? ?o ?yae yce/ieoeueeeo,
o?enoeyinueeeo, a?ae?eieo iioea?a ? ia?ac?a. O ooaeiaeiueiio ae?aaeaii?
ethaenueeeo aeieue, aeoi, aeina?aeo, /anoi o?aa?/iiai, aaoi?
i???ioo?oueny ia i?oe i?i caieth, aeeooy ? nia?oue, i?i ??ae. Ia oe?
E?ath iinoathoue o?aa?/i? aeie? ie?aieo ethaeae ? ?oeiaoe?y oe?eeo
?iae?a ? ?iaeei. Aiieae?ioe/i?noue iioeao ?oeioaaiiy aeooae?co?oueny
/a?ac ia?ac-neiaie “eenoy caie?”, ui aeianaiee o caaieiaie oai?o. Ia?ac
“eenoy caie?” iaiaeiicia/iee. C iaeiiai aieo, a iueiio noieoniaaii
?aeath ca’yceo ?iaeo ?c Aea?aaii aeeooy, i?oieia?/iei ia?acii, ui ca
ia?a?niei oyaeaiiyi, oiniaeth? ?aei?noue na?oo, eiai a?nue, oeaio?
einiino, c ae?oaiai — a?i ciae ?o?ie (eenoy a oiiaao noeo?eieo c?ooaiue
ineia?oueny ia caieth). Aeii?ioth/ith i?e oeueiio ? eiioeaioe?y
iaa?aeai?ioiino? ? iaia’yceiaino? iaia?aae aecia/aiiai.

Ae?oaee aeii?iaioiee ia?ac o ooaeiaeiueiio ?ice?eoo? aeie? ethaeeie
a ?iiai? A.Ae?icaea ? ia?ac caie?. Caiey — i?noea i?iaeeaaiiy ?iaeo,
?iaeeie. Eiioeaiooaeueiei o ?icaeoeo iioeao ?iaeo a eiec? A.Ae?icaea ?
?icae?e “Neiai i?i caieth Ai??oiao”, aea ciaoiaeeoue nai???aeia
i?iaeiaaeaiiy oie aea iioea iiooe?a ooii?/ii? aei??yii? e?a?ie, ui ? a
iia?no? “E??e”.

O ooaeiaeiueiio ae?aaeaii? o?aaaae?? /ano ( ?oeioaaiiy iniaenoino?,
?iaeo ), aeieue aa?i?a, ?oi?o noinoie?a c iaaeieeoi?i na?oii A.Ae?icae o
oeaio? eaoano?io?/ieo neooaoe?e, eaeo/e ca ia?iaeieie a??oaaiiyie,
i?oieia?/ieie oyaeaiiyie, noaaeoue ia?ac ae?iee, yea iaea?eueoa
no?aaeaea? a?ae ?oeioaaiiy ?iaeo, aea yea ia? ? eiai ii?yooaaoe. Ia?ac
iai? Aea?eie, aeienaiee ai?/ii, ia?a?inoa? nai? no?oeoo?i? ?aiee,
iaaoaath/e ?en i?oieia?/iiai ia?aco iaoa?einoaa — “Iaoa?? ae?oae
ethaeyoeueeeo”. Aea?eia Eenoiiaae aie?a? c? nia?oth nai?o ae?oae, ? ye
i?oieia?/iee ioao Oai?en, a?ae?iaeaeo?oueny ?c iiiaeo aeanii? ?iaeeie a
ia?ac? Iaoa?? ae?oae ethaeyoeueeeo, yea caeeoa?oueny a iai’yo? ia?iaeo
iaa?ee. Ienueiaiiee noaaeoue ia iaeio noiaeeieo — O?enoa ? ae?ieo-iao??,
cia?aaeoth/e inoaiith Aiai??aiith. Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e Aea?eio a ?? ai??,
?iiai?no ii??aith? ?? c Iao??’th Aiaeith c aeeoyi. Oaeei /eiii aaoi?
i?aee?aneea iioieia?/io ?eno a?oaoeio ae?iee, yea ao?aoeea aeania
aeiiaoi? aiaieua, aeaniee ??ae, — caoeuaoe, ia?a??aaoe ? aeaaaoe
i?eooeie ae?oyi, yeeo ine?ioeee nioe?aeuei? eaoano?ioe. O oae?e ?iinoan?
a?ae?iaeaeaia niieiia?/ia i?ecia/aiiy ae?iee ye aa?aaei? ?iaeo. AE?iea c
aeeoyi, Aiaea iaoe — oaeith iaeth? Aiai??aio A?ae?y. A.Ae?icae,
aaeath/enue aei aeuacaaaeaiiai ii??aiyiiy, noaa?aeaeo?: iaoe c aeeoyi —
caaaeaee Aiai??aia o nai?e e?an? iaoa?einoaa, aiia ? iniiaith aeeooy ?
i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?iaeo.

C a?oaoeiii iaoa?? iia’ycaiee ? ia?ac Oeyie Ianoi?ee, yeee iinoa? a
?iiai? a ??cieo ?iinoanyo: Oacyeee Ciie, *i?iiaeeuenueei? Iaaeiiie,
Aa?aaei? anueiai aeeaiai ia io?o?i?e Aiaii nia?o? caie?. Ia?ac Oeyie —
Oacyeee ciie — ia?aaoeo?oueny c aiaeia?/ieie ia?acaie o oai?ao ?yaeo
no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a (“*i?iiaeeuenueea iaaeiiia”
?.Ae?a/a, “Ia??y c iieeiii o e?ioe? noie?ooy” A.ssai??anueeiai).

A inieneaii? oeaio?aeueii? oaie ?iiaio “Eenoy caie?” — oaie ?iaeo,
ui iinoa? ia oe? ?aae?noe/ii cia?aaeaieo iiae?e, ye? ?oeiothoue na?o
(a?ei, ?aaiethoe?e, nioe?aeueieo ia?aoai?aiue a oiiaao oioae?oa?ecio),
A.Ae?icae aeoeaioo? iioeae ?oeioaaiiy ?iaeo ? na?oo. ?o aca?iica’ycie
aeieea? a eiioaeno? a?ia?ieo iiiceoe?e aeeooy-nia?oue, aeia?i-cei, Aia
ethaia? ? Aia cea, a nenoai? oeo ia?ac?a, ye? aecia/athoue aiaeaiaoe/iee
??aaiue ?iaeo — AE?iea — iao?? — aa?aaeiy ?iaeo, oaoa, aea?aai.

O Aeniiaeao i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe — aiae?co
i?iciaeo oai??a A.Ae?icaea “E??e”, “Aiaeoeaea”, “Ceee aeoo. ?c aeeo??i”,
“Eenoy caie?”, ui aeathoue i?aenoaao aiai?eoe i?i oaeo aeanoea?noue
i?ice ienueiaiieea ye i?oieia?/i?noue. O?einionueee inienethth/e
ae?eni?noue, ethaenuee? aeoo?, i?ae?ania e iioai?ia a aeeoo?, i?ica?e
nie?a?oueny ia oieueeei?ii-i?oieia?/i? o?aaeeoe??, nai???aeii ?o
?ioa?i?aooth/e a?aeiia?aeii aei aaoi?nueeiai na?oiaa/aiiy, aenoiooeo iei
i?iaeai ? caaaeaiue oai?aiiy ia?aco no/aniiai ienueiaiieeia? na?oo.
Aeei?enoai? A.Ae?icaeii i?oieia?/i? ?aoeaioe?? (iioeae, ia?ace)
i?aai?/ii aaaaeai? a no?oeoo?o nthaeaoo oai??a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy

a ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Ia?ac “Ceiai Aeooo” a ?iiai? A.Ae?icaea “Ceee aeoo. ?c aeeo??i” // Ex
professo: Ca.iaoe.i?. iieiaeeo a/aieo I?eaei?i?ia’y. — Ae.: AeAeO, 1997.
— N. 50-55.

2. Nai???aei?noue ae?aaeaiiy iiiceoe?? aeia?i-cei o oai?/ino? A.Ae?icaea
// Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa. Iaoe. ?aae. i?io.
I.?.Caaa?oaethe: Ca. iaoe. i?. — O.3. — Ae.: Iaa/aeueia eieaa, 1998.
— N. 103-108.

3. Nai???aei?noue ooaeiaeiueiai inieneaiiy iioeao ?iaeo a ?iiai?
A.Ae?icaea “Eenoy caie?” // Oa?ie ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo ( aei i?iaeaie
iiaoeee oaenoo): Ca. iaoe. i?. — Ae.: AeAeO, 1998. — N. 73-78.

4. Iioea “e??th” a iia?no? “E??e” A.Ae?icaea // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa. Iaoe. ?aae. i?io. I.?.Caaa?oaethe: Ca. iaoe. i?. —
O. 4. — Ae.: Iaa/aeueia eieaa, 1999. — N. 116-126.

5. I?oieiaaia Caie? a ?iiai? I.Eaci?nueeiai “Noaiiaa ea?oea” // Iiaa
i?i/eoaiiy caaooeo noi??iie oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e: Ca.iaoe. i?.
— Ae.: AeAeO, 1996. — N. 86-92.

6. ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oieueeei?iiai iioeao a iia?no? A.Ae?icaea “Aiaeoeaea”
(“Naiioi?e aiae”) // Iiaa i?i/eoaiiy caaooeo noi??iie oe?a?inueei?
e?oa?aoo?e: Ca.iaoe. i?. — Ae.: AeAeO, 1996. — N. 81-86.

7. ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oieueeei?iiai iioeao aiaeoeaee o oai?/ino? A.Ae?icaea
// E?oa?aoo?a oa eoeueoo?a Iie?nny. Oai?/a niaaeueia ienueiaiiee?a
Iie?nny (I.Aiaiey, ?.A?aa?iee, E.Ae?aiaa, I.Eoe?oa, I.Oe/eie oa ?io.) oa
iniaeeaino? iiae ?o oai??a // Oii?yaei. ? a?aeiia?ae. ?aae.
A.A.Naiieeaiei. — Aei. 9. — I?aeei: IAeI?, 1997. — N. 170-174.

8. Eiioeaioe?y ethaeeie o oai?/ino? I.Aii/a?a oa A.Ae?icaea ( ia
iaoa??ae? ?iiai?a “Aa?aa ethaia?” oa “Eenoy caie?” // Ieanue Aii/a? ?
o?noaeanyoieoeoai: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/aii? 80-??//th a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy Ieany Aii/a?a. — Ae.:
Iaa/aeueia eieaa, 1998. — N. 81-85.

9. Nai???aei?noue ooaeiaeiueiai inieneaiiy ?aaiethoe?? a ?oeioaaii?
?iaeo a ?iiai? A.Ae?icaea “Eenoy caie?” // E?oa?aoo?a e ?noi??y:
Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — Caii??aeaey, 1998. — N.
35-40.

10. Iiaoeea “E??th” a iia?no? A.Ae?icaea ”E??e” // Iiaoeea ooaeiaeiueiai
oaenoo: Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. — Aei. 1. — Ee?a — Oa?nii, 1996. —
N. 100-102.

ssoeia E.?. I?oiiiaoeea ai?ee A.Ae?icaea. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.01.01 — oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?a. —
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeioe?euei?noue ?icaeyaeo i?oiiiaoeee
i?ice A.Ae?icaea ye /eiieea ooaeiaeiuei? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?
ienueiaiieea. Ia iaoa??ae? aiae?co eiai oai??a 70-90-o ??. aecia/ai?
anoaoe/i? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? i?oieia?/ieo ? oieueeei?ieo
?aoeaioe?e, i?ea?iaeueia aeei?enoaiiy yeeo aeicaiey? ooaeiaeiuei
ae?aceoe aaoi?nuee? eiioeaioe?? iniaenoino? ? na?oo. I?e oeueiio a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? inieneth?oueny nai???aei?noue ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
oaeeo i?oieia?/ieo iioea?a ye iiooe?a uanoy, “caie? ia?oiaaii?” (“E??e”,
“Eenoy caie?”), eaeiio?ii?? (“Aiaeoeaea”, “Ceee aeoo. ?c aeeo??i”), oaie
?iaeo, iiiceoe?e Aeia?i-Cei, AEeooy-Nia?oue, ia?ac?a-i?oieiaai Caie?,
Aea?aaa, Iaoa?? oiui. Caa?iaii oaaao ia ?o i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue
caaaeaiith aaoi?a inieneeoe aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/aniino?
(aecenoaioe?eiiai noaio iniaenoino?, ?oeioaaiiy ?? aeooiaiiai na?oo),
cie?aia o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei aeaniiai na?oiaa/aiiy ? na?oia?ae/oooy.

I?i/eoaiiy oai??a A.Ae?icaea a i?oieia?/iiio aniaeo? a?aee?eaa?
ia?niaeoeae aeey iiaeeaeaiiai ?icoi?iiy ooaeiaei?o aeinyaiaiue
ienueiaiieea, ui ? aaaeeeaei aoaiii aeey noai?aiiy a?oioiaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? i?ice 60-90-o ??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?oiiiaoeea, i?oieiaaia, aecenoaioe?ae?ci, eaeiio?ii?y,
iiiceoe?y aeia?i-cei, iiaeaeue na?oo.

ssoeia E.E. Ieoiiiyoeea yieee A.Ae?icaea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.01 — oe?aeineay eeoa?aoo?a. —
Aeiai?iiao?ianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

Aeaaeeie? Ae?icae ioiineony e oiio iieieaieth ienaoaeae, eioi?uo
iacaaee “oanoueaeanyoieeaie”. Aai oai?/anoai, eae e eeoa?aoo?iie
eioaeeeaaioeee oiai a?aiaie ( E.Ae?a/a, Eeiu Einoaiei, E.Naaoee/iiai,
Aae.Oaa/oea, A.Aooeaea, E.AEeeaiei e iiiaeo ae?oaeo), ianei a aeooiaioth
aoiinoa?o nia?aiaiieeia iiaua eaeae, i?iaeaiu, oaiu.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?ica A.Ae?icaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony a eiioaenoa
oe?aeineie e ie?iaie eeoa?aoo?u, /oi aea?o aiciiaeiinoue auyaeoue
niaoeeoeeo ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ie?iaicc?aiey ienaoaey e oa?aeoa?
au?aaeaiey aai a eiie?aoiuo i?iecaaaeaieyo, ii?aaeaeeoue eae aeiieiaioo
— eo ieoiiiyoeeo, eioi?ay no?ieony ia aaeeinoaa ?aaeenoe/aneiai e
ieoieiae/aneiai.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony ieoiiiyoeea oai?/anoaa A.Ae?icaea: a?
ooieoeeiiaeueiua e ynoaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe, naiaia?acea iiyoe/aneiai
ecia?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, eniieueciaaiiua i?icaeeii
ieoiiiyoe/aneea iioeau, nthaeaou, neiaieu e ieoieiaaiu. Aeenna?oaio
ia?auaao aieiaiea ia ooaeiaeanoaaiiua iniaaiiinoe au?aaeaiey eiioeaioeee
ee/iinoe e ie?a, yecenoaioeeaeueiua i?iaeaiu aeooiaiie iionoioaiiinoe,
io/oaeaeaiey, ?ac?ooaiey ee/iinoe e ie?a.

A aeenna?oaoeee iainiiauaaaony oeaeaniia?aciinoue ?anniio?aiey
ieoiiiyoeee i?icu A.Ae?icaea eae oaeoi?a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe ienaoaey. Ia iaoa?eaea aiaeeca aai i?iecaaaeaiee
70-90-o a. ii?aaeaeaiu ynoaoe/aneea e ooieoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe
ieoieiae/aneeo ? oieueeei?iuo ?aoeaioeee, i?eaeiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea
eioi?uo iicaieyao ooaeiaeanoaaiii au?aceoue aaoi?neea eiioeaioeee
ee/iinoe e ie?a. I?e yoii a aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?iaioa iniuneeaaaony
naiaia?acea eioa?i?aoaoeee oaeeo ieoieiae/aneeo iioeaia eae iienee
n/anouey, “caiee iaaoiaaiiie” (“E?ee”, “Eenouey caiee”), eaeiio?iiee
(“Ao?aeaeae”, “Ceie aeoo. Ec aeeoeai”), oaia ?iaea, iiiceoeee
Aeia?i-Cei, AEeciue-Nia?oue, ia?acia-ieoieiaai Caiee, Aea?aaa, Iaoa?e e
o.ae. Ia?auaii aieiaiea ia eo iiae/eiaiea caaeaieth aaoi?a iniuneeoue
aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiinoe (yecenoaioeeaeueiiai ninoiyiey
ee/iinoe, ?ac?ooaiey a? aeooiaiiai ie?a) niioaaonaaiii ee/iiai
ie?iiuouaiey.

Eniieuecoy ieoieiae/aneea iioeau e ia?acu (ieoa, oieueeei?a, Aeaeee),
eioa?i?aoe?oy e o?ainoi?ie?oy eo, A.Ae?icae nicaeae i?eaeiaeueioth
ieoiiiyoe/aneoth ooaeiaeanoaaiioth nenoaio.

A naieo i?iecaaaeaieyo i?icaee ia?auaaony e niauoeyi a iniiaiii aoi?ie
iieiaeiu OO noieaoey, i?e yoii (/oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey anao yie/aneeo
i?iecaaaeaiee A.Ae?icaea) oeaio?aeueiie aunooiaao i?iaeaia ?ac?ooaiey
/aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe, naiuee, ?iaea, ie?a, /oi aiieiuaii a
ooaeiaeanoaaiiii ?ane?uoee aacaeooiaiinoe aa?iaa, eo ii?aeueiie, a /anoi
e oece/aneie aeaaee eae ia o?iaia ?aaeenoe/aneiai ecia?aaeaiey, oae e
oaioanoe/aneiai.

Aiaeec i?iecaaaeaiee A.Ae?icaea a ieoieiae/aneii aniaeoa ioe?uaaao
ia?niaeoeau aeey oaeoae?iiiai iiieiaiey ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo aeinoeaeaiee
ienaoaey, /oi yaeyaony aaaeiui yoaiii aeey nicaeaiey ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai
enneaaeiaaiey oe?aeineie i?icu 60-90-aiaeia.

?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeee iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a niaoeeo?nao e ia
naieia?ao ii oe?aeineie eeoa?aoo?a ia aoiaieoa?iuo oaeoeueoaoao,
o/eoaeyie-oeeieiaaie a eo i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, nooaeaioaie i?e
iaienaiee eo?niauo e aeeieiiiuo ?aaio, i?e onaiaiee ciaiee ii enoi?ee
oe?aeineie eeoa?aoo?u.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ieo, ieoieiaaia, yecenoaioeeaeeci, eaeiio?iiey,
iiiiceoeey aeia?i-cei, iiaeaeue ie?a.

Yashina L. I. V. Drozd’s Mythological Poetics of Epics. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for a Candidate Degree by speciality 10.01.01 — Ukrainian
Literature. — Dnipropetrovsk State University, Dnipropetrovsk, 1999.

The main point V.Drozd’s Mythological Poetics as one of the specific
features of the writer’s individuality is being viewed in the
dissertation. Aesthetic and functional peculiarities of mythological and
folk-lore trends are being analysed in his works of 1970 — 90 s. The
investigation of the problem under consideration allows to express the
author’s conception concerning personality and world. Moreover the
originality of interpretation of such mythological motifs as searching
for happiness, “Land Obetovannaya” (“Yriy”, “Earth’s Leaves”),
lakontronii (“Vovkulaka”, “Evil Soul. With Life”), family theme,
opposition of Kindness — Evil, Life — Death, image — myths of the Earth,
Tree, Mother, etc. finds its sense in the dissertation.

Much attention is paid to the author’s views of the contempopary world
problems (existential personal state, collapse of the individual
spiritual world) in connection with his personal outlook.

The analysis of V.Drozd’s masterpieces in mythological aspects gives us
perspectives for deep understanding of the writer’s achievements as a
literary artist. It’s an important stage for creating the basis of the
fundamental research of Ukrainian prose of 1960 — 90 s.

Key words: mythopoetics, mythologema, existentialism, lakontroniya,
opposition kindness-evil, world model.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 16. 09. 99 ?. Oi?ia 60o84 / 16.
Iai?? ae?oea?nueeee.

Ae?oe ieineee. Aa?i?oo?a Times New Roman Cyr. Oiia.
ae?oe. a?e. 1.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ? 1858.

?ioai?eio AeAeO. 49050, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee-50, aoe.
Eicaeiaa, 4a.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei??iee?a.

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