OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO ?ICAAAeAIIss ? AAIAOEEE OAA?EI

?oaai Na?a?e TH??eiae/

OAeE 636.22/.28.082.26

Iaoiaeieia?y oa nenoaia naeaeoe??

oaa?ei oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai?

iiei/ii? ii?iaee

06.02.01 – ?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoe?y oaa?ei

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

n. *oaeinueea Ee?anueei? iaeano? – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: eao?aao Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie a iaeano?

iaoee ? oaoi?ee 1993 ?ieo,
aeieoi? n?euenueei-

ainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,
aeaaeai?e OAAI,

a?oea-i?aceaeaio OAAI
Ao?eao Aaea??e Iao?iae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaaeaaa Aieiaeeie?
THoeiiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?

eaoaae?e;

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e Aeaaeai??
iaoe aeui? oeiee Oe?a?ie Eiaaeaiei A?oae?e Iao?iae/, Oa?niinueeee
aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e;

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ?oaeee ?aai Aaeaiiae/,
A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo oaa?eiieoeoaa noaiiaeo ?aeii?a
?i.I.O.?aaiiaa

“Aneai?y-Iiaa” OAAI, Oa?niinueea iae.,
*aieeinueeee ?-i,

nio Aneai?y-Iiaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 29 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 27.355.01 ?inoeoooo
?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI ca aae?anith: 256319, Ee?anueea
iaeanoue, Ai?eni?euenueeee ?aeii, n. *oaeinueea.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo ?icaaaeaiiy
? aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI ca aae?anith: 256319, Ee?anueea iaeanoue,
Ai?eni?euenueeee ?aeii, n. *oaeinueea, aoe. Iia?aaiyea – 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 28 ” na?iiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee I?eue/aiei TH.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Anooi. Noaa?e?caoe?y oa ca?eueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea ? i?iaeoeo?a
eiai ia?a?iaee iiaeii? aacoaaoeny ia iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaai?e nenoai?
aaaeaiiy aaeoc? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa. Aei aeaiaio?a oaei? nenoaie
a?aeiinyoue: 1) iaa?oiooaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy aoaeoeaieo oaoiieia?e,
iaoai?caoe?th ? aaoiiaoecaoe?th ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a; 2) i?aai?caoe?th
aoaeoeaiiai ei?iiae?iaieoeoaa oa iioeiaeueii? aiae?ae? oaa?ei o iai?yieo
cieaeaiiy aeo?ao; 3) oe?eani?yiiaaia canoinoaaiiy ? iiooe aoaeoeaieo
iaoiae?a ?icaaaeaiiy, a?aeoai?aiiy ? aaiaoe/iiai iii?oi?eiao; 4)
aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iioeiaeueieo i?aai?caoe?eieo ia?aiao??a
aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai iiei/iiai neioa?noaa.

Oni?o canoinoaaiiy aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ?icaaaeaiiy (o?aoy i?aenenoaia)
cia/ii caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ic?iaee ? oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ioe?iie
aaeaioeaiiai ? i?iaeoeoeaiiai iioaioe?aeo a iiei/iiio neioa?noa?, ui
aeicaiey? aea?aoe iioeiaeueiee aa??aio naeaeoe??, aeoiaey/e ?c noaio aai
iiaeeeai? ci?ie ?ioeo i?aenenoai.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A Oe?a?i? oa ca ei?aeiiii i?ioean oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
aaaeaiiy aaeoc? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeei?enoaiiyi
e?aueo aaiaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a ye oeyoii aioo??oiueiii??aeiiai ?icaaaeaiiy,
oae ? i?aeii??aeiiai no?auoaaiiy (I.A.Coaaoeue, A. A. Ai?cia, 1981;
A.I.Ao?eao, 1992; O. I. Eeia?, 1982; A. Nooaiae, ?. Aieaea, 1985; I.I.
I?ioi?aiei, AE. A. Eiaeiia, 1986 oa ?i.). Oni?o oaei? ?iaioe cia/ii
caeaaeeoue a?ae i?aaeeueii? ? /?oei? i?aai?caoe?? i?aenenoaie
?icaaaeaiiy, a?aeoai?aiiy ? aaiaoe/iiai iii?oi?eiao, aea aoceiaeie
aeaiaioaie ia iao iiaeyae ?: 1) iioeiaeueia i?aai?caoe?y cai?o ? ia?iaee
?ioi?iaoe?? c aeei?enoaiiyi ia?niiaeueieo eiii’thoa??a ? cania?a
eiioi?eaoe??; 2) iaa?oiooaaiiy ? aea?? ye ianyao ? ia’?eoo iii?oi?eiao,
oae ? iiaeaeae noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co, ia aac? yeeo i?eeia?oueny
naeaeoe?eia ??oaiiy; 3) ei?aeoia ioe?iea naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/ieo
ia?aiao??a aeey iiaeaethaaiiy iiaeeeaeo noai?a ? ci?i o iiioeyoe?? i?e
i?eeiyoo? oiai aai ?ioiai naeaeoe?eiiai ??oaiiy.

Ca inoaii?e /an i?ioean ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie iaaaoeaii
aieeioa ia noai i?aeoe/ii an?o aaeocae aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno. A
iniiaiiio oea a?aeaoeiny /a?ac a?aenooi?noue iiaeaethaaiiy iiaeeeaeo
iane?aee?a ca ??ciiiai?oieo oiia aeiiii?/ii? iioeaaoe??. Oaea iieiaeaiiy
noino?oueny ? naeaeoe?eieo i?ia?ai ii aaeineiiaeaiith iniiaieo ii??ae
aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie. Noaei i/aaeaeiei, ui no??iea ?
iaeiinoi?iii? oi?noaaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiiai iioaioe?aeo ia i?ecaaei, ?
iniaeeai ca inoaii?e /an, aei a?ae/ooieo ?acoeueoao?a. C iaeiiai aieo,
oea iiynith?oueny iaaeinoaoi?i ?icaeoeii 1, 2 ? 3-ai aeaiaio?a
aeuacacia/aieo i?aenenoai, a c ?ioiai — iaeaea iiaiith a?aenooi?noth
eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ?aaeoe?? oaa?ei ??cieo aaiaoe/ieo a?oi ia ci?io oiia
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. E??i oiai, a e?a?iao c ?icaeiaiei iiei/iei
neioa?noaii noaee a?eueoo oaaao i?eae?eyoe caa?aaeaiith caei?ia`y,
ca?eueoaiith oa?i?i?a i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ei??a, ui ? iiooaeiei
aeiiii?/iei ?aca?aii ye ie?aieo noaae, oae ? aaeoc? a oe?eiio (G. Bratt,
1992; A. Meijering, 1984; J. Phillipson, 1976, 1980; J. I. Weller, I.
Misztal, D. Gianola, 1988; D. F. Andrus, L. D. McGilliard, 1975).

O ca’yceo c oeei, iaie aoei aeae?eaii /aoaa?oee iai?yi aeine?aeaeaiue,
iia’ycaiee c ioe?ieith ci?ie ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieo iciae i?ae ae??th
oe?ieiai eiiieaeno iaaaiaoe/ieo oaeoi??a. Oaea ioe?iea cae?enith?oueny
ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo aaiaoeei-aeieia?/ieo iiaeaeae (I.A. Coaaoeue, A.
I. Ao?eao, N. TH. ?oaai oa ?i., 1993; A. I. Ao?eao, N. TH. ?oaai, I. I.
Caeaiaoeue, A. ?. Ieeeoia oa ?i., 1994; A. I. Ao?eao, N. TH. ?oaai, A.
I. Aaaoiiia oa ?i., 1995).

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ?inoeoooo
oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI ca ia??iae c 1980 ?ieo ? ii oaia??oi?e /an (1999 ?.)
ii oaiao: “?ic?iaeoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe nenoaio ioe?iee, aeiai?o ? i?aeai?o
oaa?ei oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ? ae?oe?nueei? ii??ae, ui
caaacia/eoue i?aeaeuaiiy oaii?a aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano ii i?iaeoeoeaieo,
aaeaioeaieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo iciaeao”, “?ic?iaeoe aaiaoeei-aeieia?/i?
iiaeae? ioe?iee ?aae?ciaaiiai aaiioeio oaa?ei o iiei/iiio neioa?noa?” (?
aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?? 0196 UO11388, ui aoiaeyoue o caaaeaiiy 01.02 ? O01.
04 ii eii?aeeiaoe?eiiio ieaio).

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiaia iaoa ?iaioe – iaoiaeieia?/ii
iaa?oiooaaoe, ?ic?iaeoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe iioeiaeueio nenoaio ioe?iee,
aeiai?o ? i?aeai?o oaa?ei c o?aooaaiiyi iieaciee?a aaeaioeaiiai ?
i?iaeoeoeaiiai iioaioe?aeo ia i?eeeaae? noai?aiiy ? iiaeaeueoiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aoee iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaea/?:

— i?iaanoe eiiieaenio ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy neeaaeiiai
a?aeoai?iiai no?auoaaiiy a i?ioean? noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai?
iiei/ii? ii?iaee;

— a?aei?aoethaaoe nenoaio cai?o, ii?aoethaaiiy ? ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe??
ia iniia? ia?niiaeueieo eiii’thoa??a ? cania?a eiioi?eaoe?? aeey
ae??oaiiy naeaeoe?eieo caaaeaiue;

— ioe?ieoe nooi?iue aieeao aaiaoe/ieo ? iaaaiaoe/ieo oaeoi??a ia
oaiioeiiee i?iya oe?ieiai eiiieaeno ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieo iciae o
i?ioean? i?aeii??aeiiai no?auoaaiiy;

— ioe?ieoe aaiaoe/i? ei?aeyoe?? i?ae iciaeaie ? ?o eieeaaiiy a i?ioean?
no?auoaaiiy aeey iiaeaethaaiiy iiaeeeaeo ci?i i?e aeiai?? ca iaaei?i;

— iaa?oiooaaoe iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy aaiaoeei-aeieia?/ieo iiaeaeae
aeey naeaeoe?? iiei/ii? ooaeiae;

— iaa?oiooaaoe noaio ioe?iee na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? oaa?ei ? aea/eoe
ca’ycie oeueiai iieacieea c iieacieeaie a?aeoai?aiiy ? i?iaeoeoeaiiai
aeiaaie?ooy;

— a?aei?aoethaaoe iaoiae ioe?iee oaa?ei ??ciiiai?oieo aaiaoe/ieo a?oi c
aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeae? iaee?auiai e?i?eiiai iaci?uaiiai i?iaiico (BLUP);

— a?aei?aoethaaoe noaiaea?o aaaeaiiai oeio ? noaio ioe?iee aenoa?`??o
ei??a ? aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a c aeei?enoaiiyi e?i?eii? oeaee;

— iaa?oiooaaoe nenoaio oi?ioaaiiy aaiaaeia?/ieo a?oi aeey ianooiiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy i?iaeiaaeoaa/?a ? cae?eniaiiy ?ioaoe?eiiai i?aeai?o;

— i?iaanoe ioe?ieo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo, iiei/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?
aenoa?`??o oaa?ei ??cieo iii?nieo a?oi, io?eiaieo o i?ioean?
i?aeii??aeiiai no?auoaaiiy;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?ia?aio aaeeeiianooaaii? naeaeoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith iiai?
iiei/ii? ii?iaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oai?aoe/ii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii
iaa?oioiaaii canoinoaaiiy aaiaoeei-aeieia?/ieo iiaeaeae aeey naeaeoe??.
Aia?oa aeiaaaeaii iiaeeea?noue ioe?iee oaa?ei ??cieo aaiaoe/ieo a?oi ca
no?ee?noth aei na?aaeiaeuieo eieeaaiue oa ca’ycie ioe?iie na?aaeiaeuii?
/ooeeaino? c iieacieeaie a?aeoai?aiiy ? i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeiaaie?ooy.

Ocaaaeueiaii aeina?ae ? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy oaa?ei iiai? a?o/eciyii?
iiei/ii? ii?iaee aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae c aeei?enoaiiyi e?aueo na?oiaeo
aaiaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a.

Anoaiiaeaii iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ? noaio oe?ieiai eiiieaeno
i?iaeoeoeaieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo iciae o oaa?ei 18-oe aaiaoe/ieo a?oi,
io?eiaieo o ?acoeueoao? no?auoaaiiy neiaioaeuenei? ii?iaee ,ui
iie?auo?oueny aoaayie oaeeo ii??ae, ye ae?oe?nueea, iiiaaeuey?aenueea ?
/a?aiii-?yaa aieooeinueea.

Aia?oa c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo aeai?eoi?a aeey ia?niiaeueieo
eiii’thoa??a a?aei?aoeueiaaii oe?ieee eiiieaen iaoiae?a ioe?iee
iniaeeainoae aenoa?`??o ei??a ? aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a, ?aae?ciaaiiai
aaiioeio oaa?ei, ieai?iii? oe?iiino? c aeei?enoaiiyi oe?eueiai?
ooieoe??, ioe?iee c o?aooaaiiyi nooiaiy oeneo aeiai?o, ieai?iii?
oe?iiino? c aeei?enoaiiyi e?i?eii? iiaeae?.

Ia i?aenoaa? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeieia?th ?
nenoaio ?iaioe c iiaith oe?a?inueeith /a?aiii-?yaith ii?iaeith, ui
iai?aaeaia ia iie?ioaiiy eiiieaeno i?iaeoeoeaieo, aaeaioeaieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo iciae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aoei
ai?iaaaeaeaii aai aeei?enoaii a a?eueo i?ae 200 ainiiaea?noaao ?yaeo
iaeanoae Oe?a?ie. O oeeo ainiiaea?noaao noai?aii ianea oe?a?inueei?
/a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee, ui aeaei aoaeo a aeaeyae? aeiaeaoeiai?
i?iaeoeoe??, iie?ioeei oaoiieia?/i? iciaee oaa?ei.

Aaciina?aaeiuei a 29 ainiiaea?noaao Oa?e?anueei?, Iieoaanueei?,
A?iieoeueei?, Eoaainueei? iaeanoae a?aei?aoeueiaaia nenoaia ioe?iee,
aeiai?o ? i?aeai?o ooaeiae, ui aeicaieeei ca iaeei?iooee ia??iae
noai?eoe oaa?ei i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiai oeio iiai? ii?iaee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O ?iaio? iaaaaeaii iaoa??aee, ui io?eiai? a
?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo aeine?ae?a o ia??iae
c 1980 ii 1999 ?. Aaciina?aaeiuei i?iaiaeeeany ?iaioa ii cai?o e
ii?aoethaaiith ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey iio?aa naeaeoe?? i?e noai?aii?
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee. Ca i?aenoieaie oe??? ?iaioe
aaoi?ii io?eiaii 6 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa (?235 — “Caaiaenueea e?i?y
Aeii AEoaia 7960”; ?211 — “Caaiaenueea e?i?y Oaiiaa?a 1629391”; ?248 —
“Caaiaenueea e?i?y Iaea?aeae Naeoaeoi 1599075”; ?13 — “Oe?a?inueea
/a?aiii-?yaa iiei/ia ii?iaea aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae”; ?92 –
“I?aaeaiii-no?aeiee aioo??oiueicaaiaenueeee oei oe?a?inueei?
/a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee”; ?160 — “Oa?e?anueeee caaiaenueeee oei”)
? 2 iaoaioe (? (11) 15132A, (51) 5A0135/00 “I?eno??e aeey aecia/aiiy
i?oaeiino? aei`y” ? ? (51) 5A01E67/00 “Niin?a a?aeoai?aiiy noaaea”).
Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeieia?th ? iaoiae ioe?iee na?aaeiaeuii?
/ooeeaino? oaa?ei, a oaeiae iaa?oioiaaii aeei?enoaiiy oeeo ioe?iie o
naeaeoe??. A 1993 ?. aaoi?o ni?eueii c eieaeoeaii ni?aaeeiiaaoe?a ca
?ic?iaeo iaoiae?a aeaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee
aoei i?enoaeaeaii Aea?aeaaio i?ai?th Oe?a?ie a iaeano? iaoee ? oaoi?ee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny e io?eiaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia:

— ??/ieo ca?oieo eiioa?aioe?yo ni?a?ia?oiee?a ?inoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa
OAAI (Oa?e?a, 1980-1999);

— ??/ieo ?anioae?eainueeeo ?aaeao ii ?icaaaeaiith iiei/ii? ooaeiae ?
oaoiieia?? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa ?inoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI (Oa?e?a,
1980 — 1999);

— ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-ae?iaie/?e ia?aae? “Noai ? caaaeaiiy ii
aeaaaeaiith iiei/iiai oeio oeyoii no?auoaaiiy neiaioaeuenueei? ooaeiae c
iiei/ieie ii?iaeaie a Oe?a?i? (Oa?e?a, 1984);

— ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-ae?iaie/?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oeyoe
?ioaineo?eaoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa iieiea ? yeiae/eie a Oe?a?i?” (Oa?e?a,
1985);

— ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo ? oao?aoe?a “I?iaeaie
ae?iaieoeoaa ? ia?a?iaee iieiea” (?eaa, 1990);

— i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo ? oao?aoe?a
“Naeaeoe?eii-a?ioaoiieia?/i? iaoiaee aeei?enoaiiy aaiaoe/iiai
iioaioe?aeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei” (Ee?a, 1994);

— iaoeiai-ae?iaie/?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe
ii?iaeiooai?thaaeueiiai i?ioeano a iiei/iiio ? i’yniiio neioa?noa?”
(Ee?a, 1995);

— i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 80-??//th
a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy /eaia-ei?aniiiaeaioa AANAI?E O. O.Aenia?a
(Oa?e?a, 1996);

— i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 125-??//th
a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy aeaaeai?ea I. O. ?aaiiaa (Oa?e?a, 1996);

— i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 100-??//th
a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy eao?aaoa Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? N?N?, Caneoaeaiiai
ae?y/a iaoee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?a
I. TH. ssoeaiea (Oa?e?a, 1998);

— 48-?e oa 50-?e ui??/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ?a?iiaenueei? Anioe?aoe?? ii
oaa?eiieoeoao, ui a?aeaoeenue a Aano??? (A?aeaiue, 1997) oa Oaaeoea???
(Oeth??o, 1999);

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a aeena?oaoe?? ? 72
iaoeiaeo noaooyo, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeth/a? ianooii? iniiai? ?icae?ee:
anooi; noeneee iaeyae oiia, ui caaacia/othoue aenieii?iaeoeoeaia iiei/ia
neioa?noai; iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaee ioe?iee, aeiai?o ? i?aeai?o ooaeiae a
i?ioean? aeaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee, aea??
naeaeoe?eieo iciae; aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a ioe?iee aaiioeio ? ieai?iii?
oe?iiino? oaa?ei; aeei?enoaiiy aaiaoeei-aeieia?/ieo iiaeaeae aeey
naeaeoe?? iiei/ii? ooaeiae; iiooe ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iioeiaeueieo ieai?a
naeaeoe?? ? aeniiaee. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 361 n., 22 oiia.
ae?oea?nueeeo a?eoo?, i?noeoue 114 oaaeeoeue, 93 iaethiee. Nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae — 355, a oiio /ene? 131 — ?iicaiia.

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny o
ia??iae c 1980 ii 1999 ??e o 29 ainiiaea?noaao /ioe?ueio iaeanoae
Oe?a?ie, a yeeo cae?enithaaeany ?iaioa ii noai?ai-ith
aioo??oiueiii??aeiiai oeio oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee
(oaae. 1).

1. *enaeuei?noue ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue ei??a o aaciaeo ainiiaea?noaao
Oe?a?ie (no?aeiee aioo??oiueiii??aeiee oei)IaeanoueE?euee?noue

ainiiaea?noaIiaie?a’y

ei??aI?iaeoeoeai?noueIaae?e, eaAi?no aee?o, %AEeaa iana,
eaOa?e?anueea13623842303.79534A?iieoeueea10601935663.85501Eoaainueea4320
034953.84456Iieoaanueea2154335123.74466Anueiai291700037913.82501

O ?iaio? ii noai?aiith ii?iaee noaaeeiny ca iaoo cae??ieaiiy a
iii?niiio iioiinoa? oe?iieo ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieo iciae, aeanoeaeo
iie?iooaai?e neiaioaeuene?e (n) ? iie?iooaaeueiei ae?oe?nuee?e (a),
iiiaaeuey?aenuee?e (i), /a?aiii-?ya?e aieooeinuee?e (a) ii?iaeai. Noaia
no?auoaaiiy i?e oeueiio aoaeoaaeany ia iniia? eiia?iaoe?eiiai aai
neeaaeiiai a?aeoai?iiai. ??ciiiai?oi?noue aa??aio?a no?auoaaiiy (o?noue
aaiaaeia?/ieo a?oi, 01 – 06) aoea i?iaeeeoiaaia iaiao?aei?noth iiooeo
iaea?eueo aaeaeeo ii?aeiaiue ? ?oiueiai ?ici?uaiiy a ia?aae? aaciaeo
(ieai?iieo) ? oiaa?ieo ainiiaea?noa Oe?a?ie.

Naeaeoe?eiee i?ioean o ainiiaea?noaao aeoeaii? ? ianeaii? (oiaa?i?
noaaea) /anoeiao iiioeyoe??, ui aoee caeo/ai? aei oe??? ?iaioe,
aoaeoaaany ca noaiaea?oiith noaiith, ui neeaaeaeany c ianooiieo iniiaieo
aeaiaio?a: 1) eiiieaenia ioe?iea ? aeia?? ei??a – iaoa??a aoaa?a c
ianooiiei oe?eueiaei in?iai?iiyi, iaiao?aeiei aeey a?aeoai?aiiy aoaa?a
ia?niaeoeaieo aaiaaeia?/ieo a?oi; 2) ioe?iea ? aeia?? aoaa?a ca aeaniith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth (1-e aoai naeaeoe??) ? ca ye?noth iioiinoaa (2-e aoai
naeaeoe??); 3) i?aai?caoe?y aeei?enoaiiy ioe?iaieo aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a o
ainiiaea?noaao aeoeaii? ? ianeaii? /anoei iiioeyoe?? a?aeiia?aeii, ca
noaiaie ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ? a?oiiaiai i?aeai?o (3-e aoai naeaeoe??).

Aeey cai?o, caa??aaiiy ? ii?aoethaaiiy aaeeeiai ianyao ?ioi?iaoe??
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ia?niiaeuei? eiii’thoa?e (IE) ? caniae
oaeaeiioi?eaoe?? – Telix –3.12. A ianyc? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo aac aeaieo
aiae?coaaeeny o?e a?oie iciae: 1. I?iaeoeoeai? (iaae?e, ai?no aee?o ?
a?eea a iieioe?, aeeaa iana). 2. Oaoiieia?/i? (oi?ia ? aoaeiaa aei’y,
oaeaee?noue iieieiaeaaaeaiiy, aeuee aeiaiaee iaae?e). 3. A?aeoai?i? ?
aaeaioeai? (a?e ia?oiai ioaeaiiy (AII), i?aeioaeueiee ia??iae (III),
i?iaeoeoeaia aeiaaie?ooy (IAe)).

Aeey aeiai?o ? i?aeai?o, ioe?iee ieai?iii? oe?iiino? oaa?ei oa
naeaeoe?eii? neooaoe?? a noaae? aai a?oi? noaae, cae?eniaiiy i?iaiico
aeei?enoiaoaaany aaeeeee eiiieaen ye noaiaea?oieo, oae ? i?ea?iaeueieo
iaoiaeee. Oae, aeey ei?aeoii? ioe?iee aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a, aai ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? no?auoaaiiy ca oe?ieei eiiieaenii iciae, aeei?enoiaoaaeany
iaeia c aa?n?e iaoiaeo BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction — iaee?auee
e?i?eiee iaci?uaiee i?iaiic), yea a iao?e/i?e oi?i? aeaeyae:

y = X + Zu + e,

aea y — aaeoi? niinoa?aaeaiue (iaae?e, aee?i?noue iieiea ? o. ae.);

— iaa?aeiiee aaeoi? o?eniaaieo aoaeo?a (noaaei, ??e, nacii,
aaiaoe/ia a?oia iaoa??);

X — a?aeiia iao?eoey, ui a?aeaeaa? ?iciiae?e niinoa?aaeaiue ii
a?aaeaoe?yo o?eniaaieo

oaeoi??a;

u — iaa?aeiiee aaeoi? ioe?iie ieai?iieo oe?iiinoae;

Z — a?aeiia iao?eoey, ui a?aeaeaa? ?iciiae?e niinoa?aaeaiue ii
a?aaeaoe?yo aeiaaeeiaeo

oaeoi??a (ie?aeieee);

e — aaeoi? aeiaaeeiaeo a?aeoeeaiue (iiieeie).

Aeey iaea?aeaiiy ioe?iie oa u neeaaea?oueny ianooiia nenoaia ??aiyiue:

X’X X’ZX’y=Z’X Z’Z + G-1uZ’y

O aeai?e iiaeae? ieai?ii? oe?iiino? oaa?ei ?icaeyaeathoueny ye
aeiaaeeia? ci?ii?, iia’ycai? aai iaiia’ycai? i?ae niaith. Ca’ycee i?ae
ieai?iieie oe?iiinoyie aecia/athoueny nii??aeiai?noth oaa?ei.
Eiaa??aoe?eia iao?eoey ieai?iieo oe?iiinoae G a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo
aei??aith? aeiaooeo iao?eoe? nii??aeiaiino? A i?ae oaa?eiaie ia
aaiaoe/io aeenia?n?th 2u. A?aeiia?aeii, cai?ioia aei ia? iao?eoey,
aeeth/aia a nenoaio ??aiyiue, aei??aith?:

G-1=A-1*(1/2u).

Caaaeueio noaio ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? i?aeii?iaeiiai no?auoaaiiy ia
iniia? iienaii? aeua iiaeae? iiaeaii a oaae. 2. Aeey ioe?iee
aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a aeei?enoiaoaaeany aiaeia?/ia noaia, ui a?ae??ciyeany
o?eueee oei, ui ioe?iea i?iaiaeeeany a ?aieao iaeiiai c aoai?a
no?auoaaiiy.

2. Caaaeueia noaia ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? i?aeii?iaeiiai no?auoaaiiy ?
aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ioeaaeo?e BLUPIieacieeeAoaie
no?auoaaiiy?acii123Aea??ea ii ainiiaea?noaao, ui
aiae?co?oueny“Oe?a?iea”2723245441140“*a?aiiee
aaeaoaiue”5304192921241“Oaaaeeiea”216450121787“Ai?ee”5333192161068Na?aae
iaeui? oa aaiaoe/i? oaeoi?eNoaaei 4* 4 4??e**695Nacii444Aaiaoe/ia
a?oia41613Ie?aeiee202020 * — aeacaii e?euee?noue a?aaeaoe?e oaeoi?a **
— caaaeueiee ia??iae — 20 ?ie?a

Aeey caeeth/ii? ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? no?auoaaiiy aai aeei?enoaiiy
aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a (a a?ioiaiio ae?aaeaii?), aoei cai?iiiiiaaii oe?eueiao
ooieoe?th (O):

(NEI/IAe)*365
365

O = ——————— OeI + —— OeI,

100
III

aea NEI — iaae?e, nei?aaiaaiee ia aacenio aee?i?noue (3,2%);

IAe — i?iaeoeoeaia aeiaaie?ooy, aei?a;

OeI — aa?o?noue 1oe iieiea aacenii? aee?iino?, ??aia 20 a?i.;

III — na?aaei? cia/aiiy i?aeioaeueiiai ia??iaeo ca aanue aeia?/iee
ia??iae eaeooaaiiy,

aei?a;

OeI — aa?o?noue 1 aieiae i?eieiaeo, ??aia 115,6 a?i.

Aeey ioe?iee oa?aeoa?o ?aae?caoe?? aaiioeio oaa?ei aeei?enoiaoaaany
iieaciee na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? (N. TH. ?oaai, 1988; A. I. Ao?eao, N.
TH. ?oaai, A. A. Aaaoiiia ? ?i., 1995).

Iieaciee na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? ?ic?aoiao?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

Xlk(Yilk — Yi)

bi = ——————— ,

(Xlk — Y)2

aea Xlk — a?aeoeeaiiy na?aaeiueiai iaaeith ii an?o aaiaoe/ieo a?oiao ia
l-iio i?nyoe? eaeoaoe??

k-ai i?nyoey ?ieo a?ae caaaeueiiai na?aaeiueiai;

Yilk — iaae?e i-? aaiaoe/ii? a?oie ia l-iio i?nyoe? eaeoaoe?? k-ai
i?nyoey ?ieo;

Yi — iaae?e i-i? aaiaoe/ii? a?oie ii an?o i?nyoeyo eaeoaoe?? oa
?ieo;

Y — na?aaei?e iii?ny/iee iaae?e ii anueiio eiiieaeno.

Aeey cae?eniaiiy i?iaiico ci?ie iciae o ianooiieo ?aia?aoe?yo i?e
aeiai?? ii iaeiiio c ieo aeei?enoiaoaaeany ioe?iea ei?aeueiaaii?
a?aeiia?ae?, ui ?ic?aoiaoaaeany ca oi?ioeith:

hyPy

CRyx = rGxy ———— Rx,

hxPx

aea rGxy — aaiaoe/ia ei?aeyoe?y i?ae iciaeaie x oa y;

hy = h2y, hx = h2x;

Py — oaiioeiiaa na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy iciaee y;

Px — oaiioeiiaa na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy iciaee x.

Iaoa??aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiue noaea aea??ea c 1408 eaeoaoe?eieo e?eaeo
ei??a ieaicaaiae?a “*a?aiiee aaeaoaiue” oa “Oe?a?iea”. Anueiai aeae?eaii
a?n?i aaiaoe/ieo a?oi, ui a?ae??ciyeeny ca ieoiiith aaaith
iie?iooaaeueieo ii??ae.

Aeey ioe?iee nooiaiy aieeao aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a canoiniaoaaeenue iaoiaee
iaeneiaeueii? i?aaaeiiiae?aiino? (ML) ? iaiaaeaii? iaeneiaeueii?
i?aaaeiiiae?aiino? (REML). I?e oeueiio ioe?iea eiiiiiaio aeenia?n??
i?iaiaeeeany c aeei?enoaiiyi iaeaoo i?ia?ai SPSS 8.0.

Aeey ioe?iee aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a ca iniaeeainoyie aenoa?’??o iai?anean?a
aeei?enoiaoaaany iaoiae oeaeoaaiiy ei??a oa aoaa?a ia iniia? c?noaaeaiiy
c? noaiaea?oii aaaeaiiai oeio (N. TH. ?oaai, A. A. Ai?cia, 1985; N. TH.
?oaai, 1987; N. TH. ?oaai, A. A. Oaoiaoeia, 1990).

Aeey io?eiaiiy iaci?uaiiai cia/aiiy ieai?iii? oe?iiino?
aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a i?ae aieeaii ooo/iiai aeiai?o i?iaiaeeee ioe?ieo c
o?aooaaiiyi neee aieeao aeiai?o (N. TH. ?oaai, 1986, 1987).

Iioei?caoe?y i?ia?ai aaeeeiianooaaii? naeaeoe?? i?iaiaeeeany ca
iaoiaeeeith I. C. Aanianueeiai, A. I. Eociaoeiaa (1982).

Ioe?iea ii?oieia?/ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae aei’y ei??a
i?iaiaeeeany ca?aeii c iaoiaee/ieie aeac?aeaie “Ioe?iea aei’y ?
iieieiaeaaaeaiiy iiei/ieo ? iiei/ii-i’ynieo ii??ae” (1970).

Ioe?iea iniaeeainoae i’ynieo oa?aeoa?enoee o aoaaeoe?a ??cieo iii?nieo
ii?aeiaiue i?iaiaeeeany ia iniia? aeine?aeo ii a?aeaiae?ae? ?
eiio?ieueiiio caaith ca iaoiaeeeith AANAI?E (1997). Oey ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeany ni?eueii c A. A. Ie?inai ? ?. TH. Caaei?iaeiith (A. A.
Ie?inue, ?. TH. Caaei?iaeia, N. TH. ?oaai, 1993).

A?aeoai?io ooieoe?th ? i?iaeoeoeaia aeiaaie?ooy ei??a aea/aee ii
aeieoiaioao ia?aeiiiai ciioaoi?/iiai iae?eo. Aeey oeueiai a
??ciiiai?oieo aaiaoe/ieo a?oiao aecia/aany i?aeioaeueiee ia??iae, a?e
ia?oiai ie?aeiiai in?iai?iiy ? ia?oiai ioaeaiiy (AII).

sse?ni? iieacieee iieiea (ai?no aee?o, a?eea, oeoe?o, eaca?io, a?oai?io
A, eeneioi?noue, u?euei?noue, cn?aeaiiy, i?e?ia?aeueia ian?iai?iiy), a
oaeiae eiioeaio?aoe?th ne?iai i?ioa?io ? aeinooiii? iai?iii? aia?a?? a
?aoe?iiao ei??a aecia/aee ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeeeaie ni?eueii c
eaai?aoi???th ioe?iee yeino? ei?i?a ? i?iaeoeo?a oaa?eiieoeoaa ?inoeoooo
oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI. ?ioiieia?/iee aiae?c ii B-nenoai? i?iaiaeeee oaeiae
ni?eueii c eaai?aoi???th aaiaoeee ?inoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa.

?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue

Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? no?auoaaiiy oa ieai?iii? oe?iiino?

oaa?ei ca eiiieaenii iciae

Ca R.L.Willham (1970), no?auoaaiiy aeei?enoiaothoue aeey io?eiaiiy
aoaeoo aaoa?iceno, oaeaeeiai ia’?aeiaiiy iio??aiiai aaiaoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo ? iaea?aeaiiy caaaeyee oeueiio oaa?ei c oe?ieei eiiieaenii
aaaeaieo iciae aeey ianooiiiai aeiai?o. O iaoiio aeiaaeeo, eiee aeey
no?auoaaiiy c neiaioaeaie aeei?enoiaoaaee e?eueea eiio?anoieo i?ae
niaith iie?iooaaeueieo ii??ae, iii?n? ia an?o aoaiao i?iaaaeaii? ?iaioe
a?ae??ciyeeny a ii??aiyii? c /enoiii?iaeieie oaa?eiaie ca
i?iaeoeoeaieie, aaeaioeaieie ? oaoiieia?/ieie iciaeaie.

Iaeiae i?eaaaeai? aeai? ia iiaeooue ia’?eoeaii na?ae/eoe i?i aaee/eio
io?eiaiiai aoaeoo. Oae, ia aeoieo ?yaeo aeine?aeiee?a (O. O. Yenia?,
1975; I. C. Aanianeee, 1983; A. I. Eociaoeia, 1983, 1985; A. I. Ao?eao,
N. TH. ?oaai, A. A. Aaaoiiia oa ?i., 1995; C. R. Henderson, 1974, oa
?i.) eia?/iith iniiaith aeey ia’?eoeaiiai aecia/aiiy aaiioeiii?
oe?iiino? oaa?ei ? aeeiiaiiy ianooiieo aeiia: 1) iaia’yceiaa a?aooaaiiy
? ae?i?iaoe?y an?o nooo?aeo oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua (a?e,
nacii ioaeaiiy, noaaei, ??e oa ?i.); 2) ae?i?iaoe?y aaiaoe/ieo
a?aei?iiinoae i?ae noaaeaie; 3) a?aooaaiiy aaiaoe/iiai o?aiaeo a
iiioeyoe??; 4) ioe?iea aieeao oe?eueiaiai i?aeai?o (ia?oaaiiy); 5)
a?aooaaiiy aaiaoe/ii? iaiaeii??aeiino? aaouee?a aoaa?a ? aaouee?a ei??a
o iiioeyoe??; 6) ae?aaeaiiy caaaeueii? ieai?iii? oe?iiino? a a?aeiinieo
iaeeieoeyo ca o?eniaaiee ia??iae /ano.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a i?ioean? an?o aoai?a no?auoaaiiy ?noioiee aieea ia
oae? naeaeoe?ei? iciaee iii?niiai iioiinoaa, ye iaae?e, ai?no aee?o,
i?aeioaeueiee ia??iae, i?iaeoeoeaia aeiaaie?ooy, iaee oaeoi?e noaaea,
?ieo ? naciio ?ieo (oaae. 3). A?aecia/aia oaeiae oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy
neee aieeao aaiaoe/ieo a?oi ? ie?aeiee?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i oi?ioaaiiy
iiaeo aaiioei?a o i?ioean? no?auoaaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, i?ney caaa?oaiiy
o?aoueiai aoaio no?auoaaiiy iaea?aeai? oaa?eie, naeaeoe?y yeeo ca
i?aeioaeueiei ia??iaeii ? i?iaeoeoeaiei aeiaaie?ooyi aoaea iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiith (oaae. 3). E??i oiai, iaaaaeai? aeai? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
aeneiaeaia ?ai?oa i?eiouaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue ae?i?iaoe?? iaaaiaoe/ieo
aeaea?ae i?ieeaino? aeey io?eiaiiy a?eueo ei?aeoii? ioe?iee aoaeoo
no?auoaaiiy. Aeey oe???

3. Ioe?iea nooiaiy aieeao aaiaoe/ieo oa iaaaiaoe/ieo oaeoi??a ia

aa??aaaeuei?noue iniiaieo naeaeoe?eieo iciaeAoai
no?auo-aaiiyIieacieeeAeaea?aea i?ieeaino?noaaei??enaciiaaiaoe/ia
a?oiaie?aeiee1Iaae?e47,513,81,80,71,5Ai?no
aee?o5,829,11,00,21,5I?aeioaeueiee ia??iae1,65,23,30,20,2I?iaeoeoeaia
aeiaaie?ooy3,125,70,80,71,72Iaae?e47,57,11,92,91,3Ai?no
aee?o3,718,10,44,92,7I?aeioaeueiee ia??iae1,77,81,97,00,1I?iaeoeoeaia
aeiaaie?ooy0,227,51,38,01,43Iaae?e47,26,61,22,81,3Ai?no
aee?o2,811,80,96,32,9I?aeioaeueiee ia??iae4,73,10,324,70,01I?iaeoeoeaia
aeiaaie?ooy0,524,80,79,91,2

iaoe iaie aeei?enoaia iiaeaeue BLUP, ui aeicaieeea ioe?ieoe oaeee aoaeo
ca o?noueia ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieie iciaeaie, a?aoiaoth/e i?e oeueiio
aieea na?aaeiaeuieo oaeoi??a (oaae. 4). Iaaaaeai? a oaae. 4 aeai?
aeicaieeee eiinoaooaaoe, ui a ii?aeiaii? c oe?eani?yiiaaiei aeiai?ii ?
i?aeai?ii no?auoaaiiy aeaei iiaeeea?noue aaiaoe/ii cae??ieoe a iii?niiio
iioiinoa? oe?ieee eiiieaen ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieo iciae.

Iiceoeaiee aoaeo ia ia?oiio aoai? no?auoaaiiy a?aei?/aii: ca iaaei?i — o
aieooei?a, aea i?e nei?i/aii? oa?i?io i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeiaaie?ooy; ca
ai?noii aee?o — o ae?oe??a, aea i?e cieaeaii? aeeai? iane; iiiaaeuey?aee
caeiaee i?ii?aeia iieiaeaiiy oaeoe/ii ca an?ia iniiaieie iciaeaie, aea
naia a neeo oeueiai aiie aeyaeeeny e?aea?aie a ioe?ioe? oe?eueiai?
ooieoe??, ui aeeth/a? a naaa an? iaaaaeai? a oaae. 4 iieacieee,
a?aeaeaath/e i?e oeueiio na?aaeith aeia?/io i?iaeoeoeai?noue ? e?ioeaaee
aoaeo.

Ia ianooiieo aoaiao no?auoaaiiy /a?ac cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy eiia?iaoi?eee
aai?a iie?iooaaieo ? iie?iooaaeueieo ii??ae, a oaeiae ciaioaiiy ianya?a
aea??ie, a?aei?iiino? i?ae iii?nieie a?oiaie ciaioeeeny, aea ia an?o
aoaiao no?auoaaiiy iii?n? a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ia?aaa?ooaaee
/enoiii?iaeieo neiaioae?a.

Aoei i?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo /anoee aaiaoe/ii? aeenia?n?? a caaaeuei?e
oaiioei?/i?e aeenia?n?? o iii?nieo oaa?ei, yea aoea o aeaeyae? iieacieea
oniaaeeiaoaaiino? (h2), ui a?ae?a?aaea? ca’ycie i?ae aaiioeiiith
oe?ii?noth oaa?eie ? ?? oaiioeiii, ui a naith /a?ao aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
i?iaiicoaaoe aoaeo aeiai?o. Anoaiiaeaii (oaae. 5), ui an? iniiai?
ainiiaea?nueei-ei?eni? iciaee (ca aeiyoeii i?aeioaeueiiai ia??iaeo)
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieei nooiaiai oniaaeeiaoaaiino? ? iiaeooue aooe
oni?oii ci?iai? a i?ioean? naeaeoe?? a iio??aiiio iai?yieo. I?e oeueiio
niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y c?inoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa oniaaeeiaoaaiino? a
oiae? no?auoaaiiy, ui ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie i?i i?aeaeuaiiy a
i?ioean? no?auoaaiiy nooiaiy aieeao aaiaoe/ieo oaeoi??a (ie?aeiee,
aaiaoe/ia a?oia), ye? iaaaaeai? a oaae. 3.

Ia ?acoeueoaoeai?noue aeiai?o aieeaa? ia o?eueee oniaaeeiaoaai?noue
iciae, aea oaeiae oa?aeoa? ? aaee/eia ca’yceo i?ae ieie: ca iayai?noth
niaaeeiai coiiaeaiiai ca’yceo i?ae aeaiia iciaeaie, ui ae?aaeathoueny
iayai?noth aaiaoe/ii? ei?aeyoe??, aeia?? ii iaeiiio c ieo iaieio/a aaaea
aei ci?ie ?ioiai. A oaae. 6 a?aeaeo? aa??aoe?? cia/aiue aaiaoe/ieo
ei?aeyoe?e

4. Ioe?iea aaiaoe/iiai aoaeoo i?aeii?iaeiiai no?auoaaiiy a aaniethoieo
iaeeieoeyo ? a?ioiaiio ae?aaeaii? ca oe?eueiaith ooieoe??th ia iniia?
i?ioeaaeo?e BLUP (a ii??aiyii? c /enoiii?iaeieie neiaioaeaie)Aaiaoe/ia

a?oiaI c i a e eAoaeo ia 1 aie. ca ??e, a?i.Iaae?e,

eaai?no, %ia??iaee, aei?aaee?oa?eeaAIIIIIIAeNeiaioaee
//i42603,973,2979736222001216,301-e aoaiN1/2 + A1/2+104+0,024+0,005 +3
+2 -7 +78,94N1/2 + I1/2 +60-0,003-0,001 +1 -3 -67+253,07N1/2 +
A1/2+277-0,004-0,003-23 -1-135+116,262-e aoaiN1/4 + A3/4
+95+0,007-0,180-19 +3-395+453,33N1/4 + I3/4 +14+0,063+0,02
+9-216+225,85N1/4 + A3/4+304-0,062-0,03 -7 +3 -48 +67,47N1/4 + A1/4 +
I1/2+219-0,013+0,02 +1 +7-337+233,03N1/4 + I1/4 + A1/2
+44-0,05+0,02-14 -3-121 -11,81N1/4 + A1/4 + A1/2+275-0,08+0,04 -6-453
+68,09N1/4 + A1/4 + A1/2+130+0,03+0,07 -8 -1-108+119,54N1/4 + I1/4 +
A1/2+100+0,023+0,04 -4 -7+169+251,683-e aoai (?icaaaeaiiy “a nia?”)N +
A + I -40-0,007+0,007 -3 -8 -12+170,88N + I + A+135-0,012-0,002-10-15
-66 +2,35N + A + A+176+0,017+0,033-31-12 -11 +62,97N + A +
A+271-0,039+0,019-15 -5+136 +85,97N + I + A+175+0,014+0,023 -3 -5+249
+30,36N + A + I-125+0,006+0,034+12-17-411 +40,24

iniiaieo iciae ii aoaiao i?aeii?iaeiiai no?auoaaiiy. O oe?eiio oey ci?ia
oyaey?oueny ni?eyoeeaith c oi/ee ci?o iiaeeeaino? aaiaoe/iiai iie?ioaiiy
ooaeiae /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee ca eiiieaenii aaaeeeaeo
iieaciee?a i?iaeoeoeaiino?. Oae, niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy
iiceoeaiiai ca’yceo i?ae iaaei?i ? aee?i?noth iieiea, iaaei?i ? ai?noii
a?eea, iaaei?i ? aeeaith ianith; iaeiae i?e cieaeaii? ei?aeyoe?? i?ae
iaaei?i ? i?aeioaeueiei ia??iaeii, iaaei?i ? i?iaeoeoeaiei aeiaaie?ooyi.
Oe? iciaee aoaeooue iaoe oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy. Aeeeth/aiiy
noaiiaeoue ca’ycie i?ae aee?i?noth iieiea ? i?aeioaeueiei ia??iaeii, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i iiaeeeaa iie?ioaiiy oeeo iciae o i?ioean? ca?eueoaiiy
oeneo aeiai?o ca ai?noii aee?o.

Ciaiiy oniaaeeiaoaaiino? ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieo iciae, ?oiuei?
i?ieeaino? ? aaiaoe/ieo ei?aeyoe?e i?ae ieie aeicaiey? aecia/eoe
caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe?? a ?oi?e ci?i? i?ae aieeaii ooo/iiai aeiai?o. Oe?
ci?ie a?aeia?aaeathoue ei?aeueiaaio a?aeiia?aeue, ui iieaco?, ye
ci?ieoueny iaeia iciaea, yeui ?ioa aoaea ci?iaia a ?acoeueoao? naeaeoe??
ia iaaio aaee/eio. Iaie i?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo ei?aeueiaaii? a?aeiia?ae?
?yaeo iciae ia aeia?? ca iaaei?i (a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiaeeeaiai
na?aaeiuei??/iiai aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano ca oeei iieacieeii) o ianea?
iiai? oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee, ?acoeueoaoe yei?
i?aaenoaaeai? a

5. Oniaaeeiaoaai?noue ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieo iciae ia ??cieo aoaiao

noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaeeIieacieeeCaaaeueia
e?euee?noue oaa?ei1-aoai2-e aoai3-e
aoaih2th2th2tIaae?e37040,356,330,365,630,407,64Ai?no
aee?o37040,335,880,375,790,428,02Ai?no
a?eea20970,313,990,383,940,446,97AEeaa
iana36870,437,290,426,550,458,57III21510,030,420,060,690,050,72IAe15800,
151,890,191,650,212,66

oaaeeoe? 7. Iaea?eueo cia/ou? ioe?iee ei?aeueiaaii? a?aeiia?ae? io?eiai?
aeey aeeai? iane. Iiaeeea? ci?ie ai?noo aee?o ? a?eea i?e aeiai?? ca
iaaei?i oi/a ? iathoue iiceoeai? cia/aiiy, aea ia oyaeythoueny
aeinoaoiuei aaaiieie. Oa ae naia noino?oueny ? ei?aeueiaaieo
a?aeiia?aeae ii i?aeioaeueiiio ia??iaeo ? i?iaeoeoeaiiio aeiaaie?ooth.
Ioaea, naeaeoe?y o?eueee ca iaaei?i ia iiaea neoaeeoe iaae?eiei caniaii
iie?ioaiiy oaa?ei iiai? ii?iaee ca eiiieaenii ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieo
iciae, ia i?aenoaa? /iai ? aoei cai?iiiiiaaii ?iaeaen oe?eueiai?
ooieoe??.

6. Ci?ia aaiaoe/ieo ei?aeyoe?e i?ae iniiaieie ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieie
iciaeaie a i?ioean? i?aeii?iaeiiai no?auoaaiiy i?e noai?aii?
/a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee.IieacieeeAoai no?auoaaiiy 123Iaae?e —
aeeaa iana0,430,470,48Iaae?e – ai?no aee?o0,280,320,39Iaae?e – ai?no
a?eea0,170,210,23Iaae?e – III0,120,150,10Iaae?e –
IAe-0,21-0,20-0,13Ai?no aee?o – III0,330,410,43

?iaeaen (oe?eueiaa ooieoe?y) iiaoaeiaaii oaeei /eiii, ui a?i aeicaiey?
a?aoiaoaaoe aaiaoe/i? ci?ie iniiaieo naeaeoe?eieo iciae (iaae?e, ai?no
aee?o a iieioe?, i?aeioaeueiee ia??iae, i?iaeoeoeaia aeiaaie?ooy). Aeey
ioe?iee oiai, ye ae?? cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae, aoei i?iaaaeaii
iiaeaethaaiiy cia/aiue oe?eueiai? ooieoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiaeeeaeo
ci?i i?iaeoeoeaieo iciae ? ?nioth/eo oe?i (N. TH. ?oaai, 1999).
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy iaaeith, ai?noo aee?o, oe?ie iieiea aai
oaeyoe ca?eueoo? cia/aiiy oe?eueiai? ooieoe??, a ca?eueoaiiy
i?aeioaeueiiai ia??iaeo (a ?acoeueoao? ciaioaiiy aeoiaeo oaeyo) –
iaaiaee, cieaeo?.

7. Ei?aeueiaaia a?aeiia?aeue i?e ??cieo oaiiao aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano

ca iaaei?i o oaa?ei iiai? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaeeIciaeeAaiaoe/iee
i?ia?an ca iaaei?i, ea20304050Ai?no aee?o,
%+0,0018+0,0026+0,0035+0,0044Ai?no a?eea,
%+0,0006+0,0009+0,0012+0,0015AEeaa iana, ea+0,46+0,69+0,92+1,15III,
aei?a+0,02+0,03+0,04+0,05IAe, aei?a-1,09-1,63-2,17-2,72

A?oiooth/enue ia iiceoe?yo, ui noaee aaea eeane/ieie noiniaii iiaoaeiae
? aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo ?iaeaen?a (Hazel L. N., 1943; Henderson C. R.,
1963; Allaire F. R., Thraen C. S., 1985 oa ?i.), iaie aoei i?iaaaeaii
ioe?ieo ca’yceo oe?eueiai? ooieoe?? i?e ci?i? oe?i ia i?iaeoeoe?th
(iieiei, oaey). ?ai?oa aoei a?aecia/aii (Smith C., Dickerson G. E.; Tess
M. W., Bennet G. L., 1983), ui naia oa ae ioe?iea aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
aecia/eoe nooi?iue aeiiii?/iiai noeioethaaiiy i?e aeiai?? ca
cai?iiiiiaaiei ?iaeaenii ? ?eieiaith iie?oeeith ci?ie oe?i.

Anoaiiaeaii (oaae. 8), ui ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oe?ie iaeiiai oeaioia?a
iieiea aacenii? aee?iino? ca?eueoo?oueny aianie o oe?eueiao ooieoe?th
iaaeith ? ai?noo aee?o a iieioe?, iaeiae cieaeo?oueny aianie III, ui
aeeeeea? a?aeiia?aei? ci?ie aaniethoieo cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a
ei?aeyoe??. Aeey iaaeith ? ai?noo aee?o oe? cia/aiiy ca?eueoothoueny, a
aeey III – ciaioothoueny.

8. Ca’ycie oe?eueiai? ooieoe?? c iniiaieie ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieie
iciaeaie a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?eieiai? oe?ie ia iieiei

Iciaee?eieiaa oe?ia 1oe iieiea aacenii? aee?iino? (3,2%), a?i. (o.i.)*15
(10)20 (13,3)25 (16,6)30 (20)35 (23,3)Iaae?e0,220,240,270,300,31Ai?no
aee?o0,080,080,080,080,08A?e 1-ai
ioaeaiiy-0,17-0,17-0,17-0,17-0,17III-0,052-0,047-0,039-0,035-0,021I?iaeo
eoeaia aeiaaie?ooy

0,54

0,54

0,54

0,54

0,54*I?ei?oea: o.i. – oiiai? iaeeieoe? – aeiea?iaee aea?aaeaio,
i?eeiyoee ca eo?nii Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie ia o?aaaiue 1998 ?ieo
(1 aeiea? NOA = 1,5 a?eai?)

I?e ca?eueoaii? aa?oino? iaeiiai oaeyoe (i?e iaci?ii?e oe?i? iaeiiai
oeaioia?a iieiea aacenii? aee?iino?) niinoa??aa?oueny i?ioeeaaeia
oaiaeaioe?y: aaniethoi? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a ei?aeyoe?? i?ae
oe?eueiaith ooieoe??th ? iaaei?i, a oaeiae ai?noii aee?o ciaioothoueny,
a i?ae oe?eueiaith ooieoe??th ? III ca?eueoothoueny (oaae. 9). I?e
oeueiio oe?ia a?a? ?ieue aeiiii?/ii? aaae ia a?aei?io a?ae e?i?eiiai
?iaeaeno, cai?iiiiiaaiiai L. H. Hazel (1943), ai cai?iiiiiaaia iaie
iiaeaeue iae?i?eia.

Oaeei /eiii, cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? iie?aueoe a i?ioean?
naeaeoe?? oe?ieee eiiieaen aaaeeeaeo ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieo iciae.

Iaoai?ci canoinoaaiiy ?iaeaeno (oe?eueiai? ooieoe??) aaco?oueny ia
i?eioeeiao, cai?iiiiiaaieo Oaecae?i (Hazel L. H., 1943) ? iieyaa? a
ianooiiiio: 1) i?iaiaeeoueny ioe?iea aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a (aai aaiaoe/ieo
a?oi) c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ioeaaeo?e BLUP, ui aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
aeae?eeoe aaiaoe/iee aoaeo a?oi oaa?ei, ye? ioe?iththoueny; 2) ia iniia?
io?eiaieo ioe?iie aaiaoe/ieo aoaeo?a cae?enith?oueny caaaeueia ioe?iea
ie?aeiee?a c

9. Ca’ycie oe?eueiai? ooieoe?? c iniiaieie naeaeoe?eieie iciaeaie

caeaaeii a?ae ?eieiai? oe?ie iaeiiai oaeyoeIciaee?eieiaa oe?ia iaeiiai
oaeyoe, a?i. (
o.i.)50(33,3)115(76,6)150(100)200(133)250(192)Iaae?e0,310,240,210,190,17
Ai?no aee?o0,100,0830,0730,0680,064A?e 1-ai
ioaeaiiy-0,17-0,17-0,17-0,17-0,17III-0,043-0,047-0,052-0,058-0,065I?iaeo
eoeaia aeiaaie?ooy

0,54

0,54

0,54

0,54

0,54

canoinoaaiiyi oe?eueiai? ooieoe??. Anueiai c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ioeaaeo?e
aoei ioe?iaii 85 aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a, nia?ia yeeo aeei?enoiaoaaeany ia
??cieo aoaiao aeaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee. ?
yeui ca ?acoeueoaoaie oe??? ioe?iee aecia/eoe eiiieaenieo iie?iooaa/?a,
oei a?eueoa ca i’youeia iciaeaie, ae?ae neeaaeii (oaae.10), oi

10. O?aaiaio ioe?iee aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ioeaaeo?e BLUP?
i/iEee/ea,

iiia? aoaay-ie?aeieea

nIoe?ieaIaae?e, eaAi?no, %AIIIIIIAeoe?eueiaa ooieoe?y,
o.i.aee?oa?eea1Aio?e 723742-96-0,05-0,0110137-99,62Aeiac
7179-45-0.03-0.0141-56-105,33Aiaoeno
966312-610.010.0012093-198,44Aoeaio 837559188-0,03013029-43,45Eae?a?
97073130-0,01-0,01000+2,76Eeeiie 963535-52-0,0206-10+9,47Eanee
3829-2370,05-0,01000-3,48Iaaaieai 191179770,04-0,0116-2131+74,09?aae
171334137-0,05-0,03-70157+75,610Naoe 171517653-0,030-5023-13,811Neae/?o
34947120-0,03-0,01-6-20+52,012*ooeee 3833121680,070,011220+82,2

aeei?enoaiiy oe?eueiai? ooieoe?? aeaei iiaeeea?noue caanoe io?eiai?
ioe?iee aei noia?iiai cia/aiiy, ui ? a?ioiaei ae?aaeaiiyi (oaae. 10).

Anueiai a i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy oaei? ioe?iee aoei aeae?eaii a?eueoa
aeaaaeoeyoe eiiieaenieo iie?iooaa/?a, ui aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
i?e caeeaaeoe? ? oi?ioaaii? aaiaaeia?/ii? no?oeoo?e iiaiai iiei/iiai
oeio ? ii?iaee.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy aaiaoeei-aeieia?/ieo iiaeaeae

aeey naeaeoe?? a iiei/iiio neioa?noa?

O?aaeeoe?eia naeaeoe?eia ?iaioa aoaeo?oueny ia iniia? i?eiouaiiy, ui
aaee/eia na?aaeiaeuiiai a?aeoeeaiiy ia caeaaeeoue a?ae iniaeeainoae
eiie?aoiiai aaiioeio. O oie aea /an o ?yae? aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii,
ui a?aei?ii?noue (aai ci?ia) a oa?aeoa?? oiia na?aaeiaeua ia?
iaiaeiaeiaee aieea ia ??ci? aaiioeie, ioaea a noaoenoe/iiio ?icoi?ii?
i?ae aaiioeiii ? na?aaeiaeuai ? aca?iiae?y. Oey aca?iiae?y aeyaey?oueny
aai o a?aei?iiino? ianiaaeeiaeo eiiiiiaio aeenia?n?? o ??cieo aaiioei?a,
aai a ci?i? a?aei?iiinoae i?ae aaiioeiaie i?e ia?aoiae? c iaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua a ?ioa (Iaca?, Aeaeeien, 1985). C oi/ee ci?o i?aeoe/ii?
naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iii? ?iaioe iniaeeai aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? naia ae?oaee
i?iya aca?iiae?? “aaiioei-na?aaeiaeua”. O iaoiio aeiaaeeo oaea
aca?iiae?y iicia/aia oa?i?iii “na?aaeiaeuia /ooeea?noue”.

A oaaeeoe? 11 i?aaenoaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe o?eoaeoi?iiai aeenia?n?eiiai
aiae?co aieeao ii?iaee ? na?aaeiaeuieo oaeoi??a (??e ? nacii) ia ye?ni?
iieacieee iieiea. Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i cia/iee aieea
na?aaeiaeuieo oaeoi??a i?aeoe/ii ia an? ye?ni? iieacieee iieiea. O oie
aea /an ca ?yaeii iieaciee?a, iniaeeai ca aee?i?noth, u?euei?noth,
ai?noii a?eea ? i?e?iaiith caa?oaeiai?noth aeyaeaii a??ia?aei?
i?aeii??aei? a?aei?iiino?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue iaaii?
aaiaoe/ii? eiiiiiaioe a oi?ioaaii? oeeo iciae. E??i oiai, ca aeayeeie
iieacieeaie (aee?i?noue, eeneioi?noue, cn?aeaiiy iieiea, ai?no a?oai?io
A ? i?e?iaia ian?iai?iiy) niinoa??aa?oueny aca?iiae?y oaeoi?a ii?iaee ?c
na?aaeiaeuieie oaeoi?aie.

11. Nooi?iue aieeao (ii Ni?aeaei?o) oaeoi??a ii?iaee, ?ieo ? naciio ia
ye?ni? iieacieee iieiea (4320 niinoa?aaeaiue ii 4 ii?iaeao ca 10 ?ie?a o
?ic??c? eiaeiiai i?nyoey)sse?ni? iieacieee
iieieaOaeoi?eii?iaea??enaciiii?iaea-??eii?iaea-naciiAi?no aee?o,
%45,68*** 8,11*** 8,68***5,22***1,11**-‘‘- a?eea, %
3,81***20,79*** 7,72***00-‘‘- eaca?io, % 1,77**32,79***
7,82***00-‘‘- oeoe?o, %0 6,38***000Eeneioi?noue, O0 2,92**
1,71*2,84**0U?euei?noue, A11,78*** 2,44** 9,75***00Cn?aeaiiy, oa.
1,21**27,59***02,76*0A?oai?i A, ia/e0 9,34***17,31***2,40*0I?e?iaia
ian?iai?iiy, oen./ni3 2,51***32,39***12,11***7,30***0I?ei?oea * —
P>0,95; ** — P>0,99; *** — P>0,999

Caaaeueio aeeiai?eo ci?ie nooiaiy na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? i?e
noai?aii? oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee i?aaenoaaeaii ia
iaethieo 1. Aoaie no?auoaaiiy aeacothoue ia ?aia?aoe?? oaa?ei (aeo?aeia
?aia?aoe?y – ioeueiaa, a?aeiia?aea? /enoiii?iaeiei neiaioaeai, 1-a
?aia?aoe?y – iai?ae?iaee ? o. ?i.) ? na?ae/aoue i?i o?eiaaiaoe/i? ci?ie
ioe?iie na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? i?e ci?i? ?aia?aoe?e a i?ioean?
naeaeoe?? ca iaaei?i, oae ? a ?acoeueoao? i?aeii?iaeiiai no?auoaaiiy,
eiee ieoiia aaaa e?ia? iie?iooaaeueieo ii??ae iine?aeiaii c?inoa?.
?iaeoa eaaeo/e, oaa?eie a?eueo iiei/iiai oeio oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaioith
caeaaei?noth iaaei?a a?ae oeo na?aaeiaeuieo eieeaaiue, ui aeieeathoue o
oiae? eaeoaoe?? (Ao?eao A. I., ?oaai N. TH., Caeaiaoeue I. I., I?eeoia
A. ?., 1993).

Eiao?oe??io

na?aaeiaeuii?

/ooeeaino?, bi

ieaicaaiae “Oe?a?iea”

1,00
ieaicaaiae “*a?aiiee aaeaoaiue”

0,75

0,50

0,25

0

0(0%) 1(50%)
2(75%) 3(87,5%)

Aoaie no?auoaaiiy (a aeoaeeao aeacaia ieoiia aaaa iie?iooaaeueieo
ii??ae)

Iae. 1. Ci?ia nooiaiy na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeano? ei??a o i?ioean?
i?aeii?iaeiiai

no?auoaaiiy oa noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee.

Aiaeia?/io caeaaei?noue anoaiiaeaii ? a ieaicaaiae? “*a?aiiee
aaeaoaiue”, aea ieoiia aaaa e?ia? iie?iooaaeueieo ii??ae o noaae? ca
inoaii? 10 ?ie?a c?inea ? neeaaea? ia oaia??oi?e /an aeecueei 85%. Ana
oea, iaaooue, coiiaeaia eiinoeoooe?iiaeueieie iniaeeainoyie oaa?ei
iiaiai iiei/iiai oeio, a yeeo ?aca?ae i?aai?cio cia/ii aeu?, ui ?
aeicaiey? ?i a?eueo o?eaaei eaeooaaoe ? a iaio?e i??? caeaaeaoe a?ae
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Iia?/ii oe? aeniiaee i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny
?acoeueoaoaie eiio?ieueiiai caaith aoaaeoe?a ??cieo ii?iaeieo ii?aeiaiue
(?oaai N. TH., Caaei?iaeia ?. TH., 1993), ye? iieacaee, ui a?aeeeaaeaiiy
aioo??oiueiai aee?o aeua o neiaioae-ae?oe??a ? neiaioae-aieooei?a, i?ae
o /enoiii?iaeieo neiaioae?a. Ca oaeeo aea iniaeeainoae iaeiie/oaaiiy
aee?o o ei??a, a?i iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee ia iio?aae eaeoaoe?? ?
iniaeeai i?e a?ae’?iiiio aaeain?.

Aeei?enoaiiy ia iaoi/iiio iiaie?a’? aeo?aeii? neiaioaeuenueei? ii?iaee
aoaa?a ae?oe?nueei?, iiiaaeuey?aenueei? ? aieooeinueei? ii??ae, yeeo
naeaeoe?iioaaee a ?io?e aeieia?/i?e ianoaiiaoe?, i?ecaaei aei ci?ie ye
i??e na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino?, oae ? i?iaeoeoeaieo, aaeaioeaieo,
aenoa?’??ii-eiinoeoooe?iiaeueieo ? o?c?ieia?/ieo iieaciee?a (?oaai N.
TH., 1995). ?ioeie neiaaie, oe?eani?yiiaaia naeaeoe?y ye
iie?iooaaeueieo, oae ? iie?iooaaii? neiaioaeuenueei? ii?iaee coiiaeea
ci?io oeeo iiioeyoe?e i?ae aieeaii oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ioe?iie iieyaa?, ia?aaeon?i, a iiaeeeaino?
i?iaiicoaaiiy ci?ie i?aeeiio?ieueieo iciae i?e ci?i? oiia na?aaeiaeua ?
aecia/aii? ii?ie e oiia ii??aeieo oaoiieia?e, a ?aieao yeeo ?
a?aeaoaa?oueny iaea?eueo iiaia ?aae?caoe?y aaiioeio oaa?ei. Aeey
cae?eniaiiy oaeiai i?iaiico iaie c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ia?aiieo cania?a IE
aoei iiaoaeiaaii ?yae iao?eoeue, a yeeo a?aeia?aaeai? iii?ny/i? iaaei? a
i?aeeiio?ieueieo noaaeao. I?e oeueiio aeei?enoiaoaaeenue io?eiai?
eiao?oe??ioe na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? (cia/aiiy bi ii neiaioaeao ?
neiaioae-aieooeiao o ieaicaaiae? “Oe?a?iea”). I?iaiic iiaaae?iee oeeo
a?oi aeey ieaicaaiaeo “*a?aiiee aaeaoaiue” cae?enithaaany c
aeei?enoaiiyi ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??:

Yijk = Yi + biXjk + bi(X — X),

aea Yijk — i?iaiiciaaiee iaae?e i-i? aaiaoe/ii? a?oie ia j-iio i?nyoe?
eaeoaoe?? k-ai i?nyoey ?ieo;

Yi — na?aaei?e i?ny/iee iaae?e i-i? aaiaoe/ii? a?oie;

bi — eiao?oe??io na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? i-i? aaiaoe/ii? a?oie;

Xjk — a?aeoeeaiiy iaaeith ia j-iio i?nyoe? eaeoaoe?? k-ai i?nyoey
?ieo a?ae na?aaeiueiai i?ny/iiai

iaaeith noaaea, aeey yeiai i?iaiaeeoueny i?iaiicoaaiiy;

X — na?aaei?e i?ny/iee iaae?e a noaae?, aeey yeiai i?iaiaeeoueny
i?iaiicoaaiiy;

X — na?aaei?e i?ny/iee iaae?e o aeo?aeiiio noaae?.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e iienaiee i?aeo?ae, ie io?eiaee iao?eoeth ia?aaeaa/aieo
iaaei?a ia?a?noie neiaioaeuenueei? ii?iaee ? neiaioae-aieooeinueeeo
iii?nae ii i?nyoeyo ?ieo ? eaeoaoe?? aeey ieaicaaiaeo “*a?aiiee
aaeaoaiue”. I?e aiae?c? ca’yceo i?ae cia/aiiyie caaaa/aiiai ? oaeoe/iiai
iaaeith ia?a?noie a?oi, ui ioe?iththoueny, anoaiiaeaia aeniea
ei?aeyoe?y. Oae, ii neiaioaeao cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa ei?aeyoe?? neeaei
0,96 (iiieeea 0,024; P>0,999). Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i aeineoue aenieo
i?iaiinoe/io oe?ii?noue iaoiaeo, ui i?iiiio?oueny, yeee iiaeia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ia?aaeaa/aiiy oa?aeoa?o ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoeaieo
iciae iiei/ii? ooaeiae i?e ci?i? oiia na?aaeiaeua.

Iniiaiith naeaeoe?eiith iaeeieoeath (eaoaai???th) ? aoaae-ie?aeiee.
Iaie aoei i?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? ye ii aoaayo, oae
? ca nooiaiai aieeao ie?aeieea ia oeae iieaciee. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
cia/aiiy na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? (bi) eieeaathoueny ii aoaayo a?oie, ui
aiae?co?oueny, a?ae 0,87 aei 1,0, ? oea neoaeeoue iia?/iei
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ?nioth/eo aaiaoe/ieo a?aei?iiinoae (oaae. 12).

Aeey io?eiaiiy a?eueo oi/iiai aeniiaeo i?i oaeo ni?iiiaei?noue iaie
aoei i?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? ei??a
? ioe?iaii nooi?iue aieeao aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a ia na?aaeiaeuio /ooeea?noue
?o aei/ie c aeei?enoaiiyi o?ueio iaoiae?a (oaae. 13). Io?eiai? aeai?
na?ae/aoue i?i iayai?noue iaaiiai, oi/a e iacia/iiai aieeao aaiioeio
aaoueea ia na?aaeiaeuio ieanoe/i?noue aei/ie, ui aeyaey?oueny a oiae?
eaeoaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

Ia iaio aaaeeeaith aeey naeaeoe?? i?e oeueiio ? ioe?iea ci?i iieaciee?a
??aiy a?aeoai?aiiy ? i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeiaaie?ooy. A?oiooth/enue ia
oeueiio, ie i?iaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ii ioe?ioe? ca’yceo iieaciee?a
na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? (ieanoe/iino?) ca iaaei?i ? iciaeaie
a?aeoai?aiiy, ine?eueee ?nioaaiiy oaeiai ca’yceo aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
ae??oeoe i?iaeaio iie?ioaiiy ??aiy a?aeoai?aiiy a noaaeao naeaeoe?eiei
oeyoii.

12. Cia/aiiy na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? (bi) oa noaa?eueiino? (A2d) ii
aoaayo-ie?aeieeao, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a i?ioean? aeaaaeaiiy
i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiai oeioEee/ea ? iiia? aoaaybiA2dOiooaai
881,06096902,574Neae/?o 3490,93585280,349Aea?uethn
10290,87662999,855Naoe 17151,059100522,196I?aceaeaio
18750,97496296,444?eaeaoe 27711,120100275,980Oaa?ae
62410,93473675,016Aioae 72370,96079934,294Aoeaio
83751,038107656,283Eae?a? 97071,04591260,227

Anoaiiaeaii (iae. 2), ui iecueeee ??aaiue ieanoe/iino? ia?a?noie ca
iaaei?i i?eaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy a?aeoai?ii? ooieoe??
(niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei ca?eueoaiiy i?aeioaeueiiai ia??iaeo).
Oea iiynith?oueny, i/aaeaeii, aeieeiaiiyi a?ae’?iiiai aaeaino aia?a?? o
ia?a?noie, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei iaaieo oneeaaeiaiue ? iiaeiaaeo?
i?aeioaeueiee ia??iae.

13. Ioe?iea nooiaiy aieeao aoaay-ie?aeieea ia na?aaeiaeuio /ooeea?noue
aei/ie c aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo iaoiae?aOaeoi?eIaoiaee
ioe?ieeaeenia?n?eiee aiae?ciaeneiaeueia i?aaaeiiiae?ai?noue
(ML)iaiaaeaia iaeneiaeueia i?aaaeiiiae?ai?noue
(REML)2%2%2%Ie?aeiee0,0042,070,00432,080,00442,07Caeeoee0,189-0,189-0,19
0-

Aiaeia?/ii iaie aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii ci?io iieacieea i?iaeoeoeaiiai
aeiaaie?ooy a caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? (iae.
2). Io?eiai? aeai? aeicaieeee ?ic?aooaaoe /anoeia? eiao?oe??ioe ?aa?an??
III ? IAe ia iieaciee na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? (oaae. 14), ye?
a?aeiia?aeii neeaee 0,14 ? 0,93, ui aeiaiaeeoue iiaeeea?noue
naeaeoe?eiei oeyoii aieeaaoe ia oe? aaaeeea? ainiiaea?nueei-ei?eni?
iciaee.

Ia aeoieo O. O. Aenia?a (1981), iiaoi?thaai?noue iciae a?aeaeaa?
nooi?iue ?oiuei? aaiaoe/ii? coiiaeaiino?, oiaoi, /ei a?eueo “aei?noei
cai?ia?aiiaaia” aaiioeiii aeaia iciaea, oei iaioa aiia aoaea eieeaaoeny
i?ae aieeaii ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a. I?e?iaeii, ui iaea?eueo no?ee? iciaee,
ia aeoieo aaoi?a, coiiaeai? iaeei /eneii aai?a, a ii i??? oneeaaeiaiiy
aaiaoe/ii? aeaoa?i?iaoe?? eiao?oe??io iiaoi?thaaiino? aoaea
cieaeoaaoeny. ?acii c oei ia ne?ae caaoaaoe, ui iaeia ? oa aea iciaea a
??cieo oiiaao na?aaeiaeua iiaea aooe coiia-

Eiao?oe??io

na?aaeiaeuii?

/ooeeaino?, bi

IAe

1,2 1,149
1,178

1,1

1,027 1,023
0,976 III

1,0 0,996

0,9

0,8

0,7 0,646

0,673

0,6

4 5 6
7 8 ? a?eueoa

Cia/aiiy IAe (/enei eaeoaoe?e)

303 304-373 374-443
444 ? a?eueoa

Cia/aiiy III (aei?a)

Iae. 2. Caeaaei?noue iieaciee?a i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeiaaie?ooy (IAe) ?

i?aeioaeueiiai ia??iaeo (III) a?ae nooiaiy na?aaeiaeuii? /ooee-

aino? ei??a (bi)

eaia ??ciei ii?aeiaiiyi niaaeeiaeo caaeaoe?a, ? oiio iecueeee
eiao?oe??io iiaoi?thaaiino? iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i ia?aaoaeiao nenoaie
aaiaoe/ii? oi?ioee i?ae aieeaii oiia, ui i?iythoueny.

14. ?acoeueoaoe ?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co ca’yceo ioe?iie na?aaeiaeuii?
/ooeeaino? c i?aeioaeueiei ia??iaeii (III) oa i?iaeoeoeaiei aeiaaie?ooyi
(IAe) Iieacieee*ani? eiao?oe??ioe ?aa?an??IIIIAeA?eueiee /eai,
a-301822,3Eiao?oe??io ?aa?an?? i?e e?i?eiiio /eai?,
b17819-49,4Eiao?oe??io ?aa?an?? i?e eaaae?aoe/iiio /eai?,
b2-440231,4Eiao?oe??io aeaoa?i?iaoe??, R20,14220,9310

Oe? i?eioeeie ie ni?iaoaaee ia?aa??eoe, ii??aithth/e iiaoi?thaai?noue
ioe?iie na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? o oaa?ei iaeieo ? oeo aea aaiaoe/ieo
a?oi, aea a ??ci? ia??iaee iioiaaiaco. Aeey oeueiai aeei?enoiaoaaee
?acoeueoaoe ioe?iee na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino?, aecia/ai? ca iieacieeaie
?inoo c iaeiiai aieo, a c ?ioiai – ca oa?aeoa?ii eaeoaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? (?en. 3).

Eiao?oe??io
— neiaioae //i

na?aaeiaeuii?
— neiaioae x

/ooeeaino?, bi ae?oe?e

— neiaioae x

1,1 1,0 iiiaaeuey?aee

1,0 0,88
0,87

0,9 0,81

0,8 R2 = 0,99

0,7

0,6
0,50

0,5

0,4
0,33

0,3

0,2

0,1

Iinoaia??iiaeueiee
Eaeoaoe?eiee

(c 1 ii 24 i?n.)
(1-a eaeoaoe?y)

I a ? ? i ae i i o i a a i a c o

?en. 3. Ii??aiyiiy ioe?iie na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? o oaa?ei o?ueio

aaiaoe/ieo a?oi ia ??cieo aoaiao iioiaaiaco

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae iieacieeaie na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino?, ui aoee
aecia/ai? ia ??cieo a?ae??ceao iioiaaiaco, ?nio? aenieee eiao?oe??io
ei?aeyoe?? (R2=0,99). ?ioeie neiaaie ii?ia ?aaeoe?? aai oei ?aaaoaaiiy
ia na?aaeiaeui? eieeaaiiy no?eei iiaoi?th?oueny i?ioyaii aeeooy oaa?ei.

A?oiooth/enue ia aaea aeiaaaeaieo caeaaeiinoyo i?ae cia/aiiyie
na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? ? oa?aeoa?ii i?iyao oaeeo iciae, ye iaae?e,
i?aeioaeueiee ia??iae, o?eaae?noue i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeiaaie?ooy, iaie aoee
aea/ai? iiaeeeaino? ?oiueiai i?iaiicoaaiiy ca iieacieeaie ?inoo. Iiaeae?
? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaiicoaaiiy iieacaii a oaaeeoe? 15.

15. I?iaiicoaaiiy ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieo iciae ca eiao?oe??ioii
na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? ??cieo iii?nieo a?oi, ui aaco?oueny ia ci?i?
aeeai? iane

I?aaeeeoaioIiaeaeueOaeoe/ia cia/aiiyIa?aaeaa/aia cia/aiiyR2Iaae?e

ca eaeoaoe?thy = 4499,5 + 301,6×480348010,97814760476547474744IIIy =
650,7 – 674,0x + 407,3×23843840,9997373373372371IAey = 2997,1 – 3085,7x
+ 1428,6×2134013410,99831388138714351435I?ei?oea: y — i?iaiiciaaiee
iieaciee; x — eiao?oe??io na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? ca aeeaith ianith.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui eiao?oe??ioe aeaoa?i?iaoe?? aeey an?o iciae aoee
aenieeie, ui na?ae/eoue i?i aenieo i?iaiinoe/io oe?ii?noue iieacieea
na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino?, io?eiaiiai ia ?aii?o noaae?yo iioiaaiaco, ?
eiai o?niiai ca’yceo c iiei/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth, a?aeoai?iith
caeaoi?noth ei??a ? ?oi?i i?iaeoeoeaiei aeiaaie?ooyi. I?e oeueiio, ye ?
o aeiaaeeo ioe?iie na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino?, iniiaaieo ia iii?ny/ieo
iaaeiyo, ca’ycie c III ? IAe iineoue yaii ae?aaeaiee e?eaie?i?eiee
oa?aeoa?. Aeai? ua ?ac i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iaiao?aei?noue /?oeiai ciaiiy
? aeeiiaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? an?o aeaiaio?a ii?iaeii? oaoiieia??. Oae, oiiae
aiae?ae? aai oo?eiaiiy iieiaeiyeo ? aei?ineeo oaa?ei iiaeii? caaaeaee
ni?eyoe iiai?e ?aae?caoe?? oeo a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae, ui aecia/ai? ?o
aaiaoe/ieie caaeaoeaie.

Ioe?iea iciae oeio aoaeiae o?ea

I?i aeioe?euei?noue ioe?iee ? aeiai?o oaa?ei ca aenoa?’??ii, na?ae/eoue
i?inoioa ?o a?aooaaiiy, ca’ycie c aaaeeeaeie ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieie
iciaeaie ? aeniea aaiaoe/ia aeaoa?i?iaoe?y. Oae, H. Freeman (1976), W.
Kucker (1977), J. M. White (1974) a?aecia/athoue, ui ia?aoeiia? oaeoi?e
iaioa aieeaathoue ia iciaee aenoa?’??o, i?ae ia iiei/io
i?iaeoeoeai?noue. Ca ocaaaeueiaieie aeaieie ?. Eeeiaioa ? ?. Iia?
(1983), aenoa?’??i? iciaee iathoue aenieee nooi?iue aaiaoe/ii?
aeaoa?i?iaoe??.

Ia aeaeue, aeanyoeaaeueia oeaea ioe?iee aenoa?’??o ye ei??a, oae ?
aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a, ui canoiniaoaaeanue a Oe?a?i? aei inoaiiueiai /ano,
iaea oe?eee ?yae iaaeie?e?a (N. TH. ?oaai, 1998). Iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe, ui naeaeoe?y caaaeaee a?oiooaaeany ia aeei?enoaii? oaa?ei
aai ?ineei, ye? iathoue a?aeoeeaiiy ca iciaeaie, ui noaiiaeyoue ?ioa?an
aeey ethaeeie. ? yeui aeia?? oaa?ei ca iaaei?i, aai ai?noii aee?o
a?aeiinii i?inoee, oi i?eeiyoa 10-aaeueia oeaea ioe?iee aenoa?’??o ia
aeicaieyea oeueiai ?iaeoe c aenieei nooiaiai aoaeoeaiino?. Noiaaeueia
oeaea, ui canoiniao?oueny a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao aeey ioe?iee aenoa?’??o
ei??a aai aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a, oaeiae ia iicaaaeaia aeuacacia/aieo
iaaeie?e?a ? ia aeicaiey? iiaiith i??ith oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe oeiieia?/i?
(aenoa?’??i?) iniaeeaino? oaa?ei.

O ca’yceo c oeei iaie cai?iiiiiaaiee ? aeei?enoiaoaaany iaoiae
ieii??ii? ioe?iee noaoae ei??a (N. TH. ?oaai, A. A. Ai?cia, 1985; N. TH.
?oaai, 1987) ? aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a ia i?aenoaa? a?aeiia?aeiino? noaiaea?oo
aaaeaiiai oeio. Iaoiae ai?iaiaaii ? ?aaoey?ii canoiniao?oueny c 1983
?ieo ia ei?iaao ? aoaayo-ie?aeieeao, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?ioean?
oi?ioaaiiy, a oaeiae iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
/a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee (N. TH. ?oaai, 1987, 1998). A?aei?ia
i?eeiyoi? oeaee ioe?iee a?ae ca?oa?aeieo iieyaa? a i?yiiio aeei?enoaii?
na?aaei?o cia/aiue a?aeoeeaiue a?ae i?eeiyoiai noaiaea?oo, ui cia/ii
ni?iuo? i?ioeaaeo?o io?eiaiiy naeaeoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee. O ca?oa?aei?e
i?aeoeoe? aeei?enoiaothoueny a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae na?aaeiueiiiioeyoe?eieo
cia/aiue, ui, ia iao iiaeyae, oneeaaeith? ?ic?aooiie ? io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe aaaeei ii??aithaaoe, iniaeeai o aeiaaeeo ioe?iee ??cieo
ii??ae, aioo??oiueiii?iaeieo oei?a aai e?i?e, eiaeia c yeeo iiaea iaoe
nai? a?aei?oi? oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Ioe?iea aenoa?’??o aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a oaeiae aeicaieeea anoaiiaeoe
oa?aeoa? ? nooi?iue a?aeoeeaiue a?ae i?eeiyoiai noaiaea?oo.
Aoaa?-ie?aeieee oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee iathoue
iaaeinoaoith a?aenoaiue i?ae n?aeie/ieie ai?aaie ? caaei?ie e?ioe?aeaie
ia ??ai? caieanie, a oaeiae o aeayeeo c ieo a?aecia/aii caeeaeaiiy i?ae
ia?aaei?ie e?ioe?aeaie.

16. Aieea aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a ia aaiaoe/io i?ieea?noue (h2)

iciae aenoa?’??o o aei/ie (n = 946)?

i/iI c i a e eh2t 1.Ae?aaeai?noue iiei/iiai oeio0,203,11 2.?ici??e
oaa?eie0,193,07 3.Nooi?iue ?icaeoeo i’yc?a0,213,33 4.Iieiaeaiiy ei?aiy
oainoa a?aeiinii iaeeae?a0,193,06 5.A?aenoaiue i?ae n?aeie/ieie
ai?aaie0,113,27 6.Oe?eia aei’y a i?noe? i?ee??ieaiiy0,243,82
7.A?aenoaiue i?ae caaei?ie ae?eeaie0,172,73 8.?icaeoie /anoie
aei’y0,182,90 9.?ici?uaiiy iaeeae?a a?aeiinii n?aeie/ieo
ai?a?a0,223,4110.I?ee??ieaiiy ia?aaeiuei? /anoeie
aei’y0,253,9611.A?aenoaiue i?ae ae?eeaie (aeae caieo)0,223,4712.Oi?ia
ae?eie0,203,1213.?icaeoie /aa?oae aei’y (aeae
caieo)0,213,3214.?iciianthaeaeaiiy aei’y aiec0,304,6715.Eoo caieaniaaiai
noaeiaa0,182,9116.Aaee/eia ?aoe/ie (caaei? e?ioe?aee)0,213,3817.Eoo
iaoeeo ia?aaeiuei? no?iee ?aoe/ie (caaei? e?ioe?aee)0,182,85

Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui c? an??? e?eueeino? ioe?iaieo aoaa?a, aeaye?
iaeaea ia iathoue a?aeoeeaiue a?ae i?eeiyoiai noaiaea?oo, ui aeanoue
iiaeeea?noue oeyoii oe?eani?yiiaaiiai i?aeai?o oaeeo aoaa?a aei
iaoi/iiai iiaie?a’y iaea?aeoaaoe iioiinoai c aenoa?’??ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ui ieaiothoueny. O ca’yceo c oeei iaiao?aeii
cacia/eoe, ui nooi?iue aaiaoe/iiai aieeao ie?aeiee?a ia oeiieia?/i?
iniaeeaino? nai?o aei/ie, iaa?oue ca iciaeaie, ui iia’ycai? c? noaooth,
aeineoue aeniea, a aaee/eia oaeeo ioe?iie (h2) eieeaaeanue o iaaeao a?ae
0,10 aei 0,30 (oaae. 16).

Aeey inoaoi/iiai noaeaeaiiy i?i ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ca’ycee o oaa?ei
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee iaie aoei i?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo
ei?aeyoeaieo ca’yce?a caeaaeiinoae i?ae iciaeaie oeio ? iniiaieie
iciaeaie, ui naeaeoe?iiothoueny (i?iaeoeoeai?noue, ??aaiue a?aeoai?aiiy
? i?iaeoeoeaia aeiaaie?ooy).

Anoaiiaeaii a??ia?aeiee ei?aeyoeaiee ca’ycie i?ae ?ici??ii oaa?eie ?
iaaei?i (+0,1088), nooiaiai ?icaeoeo i’yc?a ? iaaei?i (-0,1537), a
oaeiae i?iaeoeoeaiei aeiaaie?ooyi ? nooiaiai i?ee??ieaiiy ia?aaeiuei?
/anoeie aei’y (+0,1429), oi?iith ae?eie (+0,1861) ? eooii caieaniaaiai
noaeiaa (-0,1285).

Iaie aeyaeaii, ui ?yae aenoa?’??ieo ioe?iie ei??a ia? o?niee ca’ycie c
iia?aoe?yie iaoeiiiai aei?iiy. Iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
aeiy?ee aeo?a/athoue oei iaioa /ano ia iaieaaiiy aei’y aiaeith, a oaeiae
iaeii/aniee ianaae eiai ? aeeiiaiiy ?ioeo iia?aoe?e, /ei o a?eueoiio
nooiai? iiei/ia caeica a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai i?eeiyoiai noaiaea?oo.

Iiooe ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iioeiaeueieo ieai?a naeaeoe??

Oe?eani?yiiaaia ?aae?caoe?y noaie neeaaeiiai a?aeoai?iiai no?auoaaiiy
aeicaieeea noai?eoe oe?iiee ianea iii?nieo oaa?ei. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie
?iaioe aenia?oii? eii?n?? a 1992?. aoei aeaeaii iaeac ?106 INA Oe?a?ie
i?i aeaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee, ui ia /an
ai?iaaoe?? iaea ianooii? no?oeoo?i? i?ae?icae?ee: 1. Oeaio?aeueiee
aioo??oiueiii?iaeiee oei. 2. I?aaeaiii-no?aeiee aioo??oiueiii?iaeiee
oei. 3. A?iieoeueeee caaiaenueeee oei. 4. Ee?anueeee caaiaenueeee oei.
5. I?eeooeueeee caaiaenueeee oei. 6. Oa?e?anueeee caaiaenueeee oei. 7.
*a?eanueeee caaiaenueeee oei. 8. Caaiaenueea e?i?y ?ii?oaa?a 333471. 9.
Caaiaenueea e?i?y Nuthi??ia 333470. 10. Caaiaenueea e?i?y Oaiiaa?a
1629391. 11. Caaiaenueea e?i?y Oaa??y 6241. 12. Caaiaenueea e?i?y
Iaea?aeae Naeoaeoi 1599075. 13. Caaiaenueea e?i?y Aeii AEoaia 7960. 14.
58 caaiaenueeeo ?iaeei.

Anueiai a i?ioean? aenia?oii? ioe?iee aoei aeyaeaii a?eueoa 200
iaeoeiia?oeo aeey oe??? ii?iaee oaa?ei, a ia /an ai?iaaoe?? — iniiaieo
aaiaaeia?/ieo oi?ioaaiue iiai? ii?iaee, ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue eieeaaeanue
o iaaeao 4000-5500 ea iieiea i?e ai?no? aee?o 3,8-4,12%.

Eeane/i? aecia/aiiy ia a?aeia?aaeathoue niaoeeo?ee aeei?enoaiiy e?i?e a
ianiaiio oiaa?iiio oaa?eiieoeoa?. Ia iaoo aeoieo, oyaeaiiy i?i e?i?th
iiaeiia aooe aaeaeaaoiei oyaeaiith i?i aaiaaeia?/io a?oio, eiee iia?
aoaa?-e?aea?e nii??aeiai? c ?iaeiia/aeueieeii ia o?eueee ii
aaouee?anuee?e, aea ? ii iaoa?einuee?e noi?ii?. I?e oeueiio a
aaiaaeia?/i?e a?oi? aeae?eythoue ?iaeiia/aeueieea, i?aaee?a
aoaay-e?aea?a (ye naioe?a, oae ? naieoeue) ? iioaioe?eieo
?iaeiia/aeueiee?a iiaeo aaiaoe/ieo a?oi. Iaa?oiooaaiiyi aeey oaeeo
i?iiiceoe?e iiaeooue neoaeeoe ?ic?aooiee Ae. N. Oieeiia?a (1985), ye?
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui aaiaoe/ia eiaa??aoe?y iciae o an?o iioiie?a
aei??aith? iieiaei? aaeeoeaii? aaiaoe/ii? aeenia?n?? aaouee?a.

I?i?ethno?oaaoe oaeee aeniiaie iiaeia ia iniia? aiae?co oniaaeeiaoaaiiy
ia?e??iaaiiai iaoa??aeo ii aeaeyo A – nenoaie.

Iaie aeiaaaeaii, ui iioiiie (aoaae-ie?aeiee aai ei?iaa) oniaaeeiao?
iieiaeio aaouee?anueeiai ? iieiaeio iaoa?einueeiai ia?e??iaaiiai
iaoa??aeo. ?acii c oei, niinoa??aathoueny aeiaaeee, eiee aeaeue, ui
ia?e??o?oueny no?eei ia?aaea?oueny ii aaouee?anuee?e noi?ii? ?iaeiaiaeo
(a?eea Eiaeaea-Eeaaea o aaiaaeia?/i?e a?oi? Oaa??y) aai cai?uo?oueny
iaoa?einueeei, ye o aaiaaeia?/i?e a?oi? Aoeaio?iaea. O noai? oi?ioaaiiy
aaiaaeia?/ii? a?oie Eiaeaea iiaeia i?inoaaeeoe no?eea oniaaeeoaaiiy
iaoa?einueeiai aeaey IOI» a?ae Niii?o?eueii? /a?ac aoaa?a Eiaeaea,
Eeeiea ? Ee?in?ey aei Eeaaea.

I?ioean ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaa?eiieoeoaa ioiieth? an? noi?iie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeoc?, aeeth/ath/e naeaeoe?th. ?ioaineo?eaoe?y
naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano caniiaaia ia no/anieo aeinyaiaiiyo iiioeyoe?eii?
aaiaoeee, ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee, a?ioaoiieia?? ? ?aae?co?oueny ca
?aooiie iioei?caoe?? ieai?a ieai?iii? ?iaioe aeey eiie?aoieo noaae ?
naeaeoe?eieo i?ia?ai aeey ciiaeueieo iiioeyoe?e, ii??ae oaa?ei. Oea a
naith /a?ao aeaei iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?eioeeiiai iiao
iiaoaeiao ?ioaoe?? e?i?e a oiaa?i?e /anoei? naeaeoe?iio?ieo iiioeyoe?e,
ui a?aee?eaa? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy a ianiaiio a?aeoai?aii? noaae
nei?a eeoa iaeiiai aoaay-e?aea?a aac ia?iuoaaiiy ?ia?eaeeiao (Iaoaio UA
13910 A 01 Aei 67/00, ?oaai N. TH., Aaaoiiia A. I., Ai?enianeee A. A.);
aeei?enoaiiy aoaeoo e?inoaaiiy e?i?e ca ?aooiie iioei?caoe??
iine?aeiaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?o a oiaa?ieo noaaeao; iiaeaeueoa
aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?? ? i?aai?caoe?? ooo/iiai in?iai?iiy,
iai?aaeaia ia ca?eueoaiiy nia?iiaaieo aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a, c iaeiiai aieo,
? cieaeaiiy ieoiieo aeo?ao nia?ie i?e in?iai?ii? ei??a ? oaeeoeue, c
?ioiai; iiaeeeaino? iaoiaeo aia??iia?anaaeie (aeeth/ath/e io?eiaiiy
iiiiceaioieo aeeciyo), ui aeicaieeoue oe?aaeoaaoe ? eii?thaaoe iaea?eueo
oe?ii? aaiioeie.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? naeaeoe?eieo i?ia?ai ? i?aai?caoe?? aaeeeiianooaaii?
naeaeoe?? a?aoiao?oueny ia??aiii??i?noue aaiaoe/iiai aieeao ia iioiinoai
??cieo eaoaai??e ieai?iieo oaa?ei. No/ani? naeaeoe?ei? i?ia?aie
aeicaieythoue caaacia/eoe ?noioia i?aeaeuaiiy oaii?a ia?iuoaaiiy
aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo i?iaeoeoeaiino? ca ?aooiie ?ioaineo?eaoe??
aeiai?o aaouee?a aoaa?a, ia /anoeo yeeo iio??aii 40-42% caaaeueiiai
i?ia?ano iiioeyoe??, iaoa??a aoaa?a — 32-35%, aaouee?a ei??a — 18-20% ?
iaoa??a ei??a — 5-8%.

A oaaeeoe? 17 iaaaaeai? aa??aioe naeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aie aeey
/a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee, ui aeaiiino?othoue iiaeeeaino?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano ii i??? iioei?caoe??
ci?iieo oaeoi??a ye ia aioo??oiueiii?iaeiiio, oae ? ii??aeiiio ??aiyo.

I?e oeueiio caeiiii??ii niinoa??aa?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
naeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aie (ia?aaeon?i ca iieacieeii aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano) ii
i??? nei?i/aiiy /enaeueiino? aaouee?a aoaa?a, a ioaea, /enea ?ioaoe?eieo
e?i?e. ?ioeie oaeoi?aie, ui caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy oaii?a
aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano, ?: i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeiai?o
aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a ?c caaaeueiiai /enea, ye? ioe?iththoueny ca ye?noth
iioiinoaa (o oaeoe/iiio aa??aio? aeiae?a?oueny 1 iie?iooaa/ c 4
ioe?iaieo, a iioeiaeueiiio — 1 c 10); cieaeaiiy aeaeaoeo nia?ie ia
ie?aeia in?iai?iiy (o?e nia?iiaeice cai?noue oaeoe/ieo /ioe?ueio, ui ia
? iaaeath, ine?eueee a i?aeoeoe? ?yaeo e?a?i oeae iieaciee ia ia?aaeuo?
aeaio nia?iiaeic); ca?eueoaiiy caaaeueiiai nia?iiaaieo (aei 100 oen.
nia?iiaeic cai?noue 40 oen., oaeoe/ii iaeiie/aieo o na?aaeiueiio a?ae
iaeiiai aoaay). E??i oiai, aaaeeeaei ?aca?aii o ca?eueoaii? /enoiai
i?eaooeo c ?ic?aooieo ia ei?iao ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaiaoeei-aeieia?/ieo
iiaeaeae, niaoeeo?ea canoinoaaiiy yeeo aeanoue iiaeeea?noue nei?ioeoe
/anoeio iiioeyoe?? iiei/ii? ooaeiae, ui iiaeiia aoea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny
aeey ioe?iee aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a ca ye?noth iioiinoaa ? caaaeyee oeueiio
ca?eueoeoe ianooaae aeei?enoaiiy iie?iooaa/?a. Ca I.C.Aanianueeei (1983)
aoaeoeai?noue ioe?iee ? aeiai?o aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a cia/ii caeaaeeoue a?ae
/enea ei??a, yeeo in?iaiaii nia?iith ie?aeiee?a, ui ia?aa??ythoueny.
Oae, ?c ca?eueoaiiyi /anoee iiioeyoe??, yea in?iaiy?oueny nia?iith
iieiaeeo aoaa?a, c 20 aei 30%, oi/i?noue ioe?iee aaiioeio ca?eueoo?oueny
c 0,847 aei 0,970. Iaeiae ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ?aa?an?? aeua 0,929
ia aeeeeea? i?aeaeuaiiy oaeaeeino? aaiaoe/iiai iie?ioaiiy iiioeyoe??
aiane?aeie ciaioaiiy o??? /anoeie, ui iiaeiia in?iaiyoeny nia?iith
a?ae?a?aieo ca ye?noth iioiinoaa ie?aeiee?a.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae ioe?iee ?aae?ciaaiiai aaiioeio aeanoue
iiaeeea?noue nei?ioeoe oo /anoeio iiioeyoe??, ui in?iaiy?oueny nia?iith
iaia?aa??aieo aoaa?a ca ?aooiie nei?i/aiiy /enea aoaeoeaieo aei/ie.
Iiia?aaei? ?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui aa??aioe oaeiai nei?i/aiiy
ioe?ii/ieo noaae ia 15-20% aeicaieythoue a na?aaeiueiio ia 1-1,2 oiiaii?
iaeeieoe? ca?eueoeoe /enoee i?eaooie i?ia?aie naeaeoe?? a?ae i?eeiyoiai
aa??aioo (oaae. 17), ui a caeaaeiino? a?ae /enaeueiino? iiioeyoe?? iiaea
neeanoe a?ae 30 aei 144 oen. oiiaieo iaeeieoeue aeiaeaoeiaiai /enoiai
i?eaooeo.

17. Iniiai? ia?aiao?e naeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aie i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiai
aioo??oiueiii?iaeiiai oeio oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee

IieacieeIaeeieoey aei??th-aaiiyAoaie

(aa??aioe i?ia?aie)IIIIIIIVAnueiai ei??a o iiioeyoe??oen.aie.306090120
a o./. aeoeaii? /anoeie-//-4,511,113,125,2Ieoiia aaaa aeoeaii?
/anoeie%15,018,514,621,0Na?aaei?e iaae?e an???
iiioeyoe??ea2500360037003800 a o./. ii 1
eaeoaoe??ea2800290030003100Aeo?aoe nia?ie ia iaeia
in?iai?iiyaeic4,03,73,33,0Iaiao?aeiee nia?iiaaie aoaa?a-iie?i-ooaa/?a:
anueiaioen.aeic160300410510 a?ae iaeiiai
aoaayoen.aeic30253530E?euee?noue: aaouee?a ei??aaie.6121218
aoaa?aaie.6666 aoaa?a aeey
ioe?ieeaie.24484872iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ?aiiioieo
aoaaeoe?aaie.489696144Iio?aaa o ei?iaao-iaoa?yo
aoaaeoe?aaie.144288288432?o i?i?iaeueiee
iaae?eea6000620064006700E?euee?noue ei??a aeey in?iai?iiy nia?iith
iaeiiai aoaay ia ia?aa??oe?aie.80100120160Anueiai ei??a aeey in?iai?iiy
nia?iith aoaa?a ia ia?aa??oe?oen. aie.1,94,85,811,5Aaia?aoe?eiee
?ioa?aae aaouee?a?ie?a7675,5Aaiaoe/iee i?ia?an ia ei?iao ca
??eea10203050Oaii aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano%0,30,60,81,3Aeo?aoe ia i?ia?aio,
anueiaioen. o.iae.26465214522808Aaeiaee i?eaooie a?ae ?aae?caoe??
i?ia?aie: anueiaioen.o.iae.348,0107622984248 c ?ic?aooieo ia
ei?iao-//-11,619,325,535,4 c ?ic?aooieo ia 1 o
iieiea-//-3,35,06,99,3*enoee i?eaooie a?ae ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?aie:
anueiaioen. o.iae.844248461440 c ?ic?aooieo ia
ei?iaoo.iae.2,87,09,412,0 c ?ic?aooieo ia 1 o
iieieao.iae.0,81,92,53,1?aioaaaeuei?noue i?ia?aie%31,865,058,351,3

Cai?iiiiiaaia aaiaoeei-aeieia?/ia iiaeaeue ?aiiueiai i?iaiicoaaiiy
oa?aeoa?o i?iyao iniiaieo naeaeoe?eieo iciae (iaae?e, i?aeioaeueiee
ia??iae ? i?iaeoeoeaia aeiaaie?ooy) aeanoue iiaeeea?noue nei?ioeoe
aaia?aoe?eiee ?ioa?aae aaouee?a aoaa?a (AA) ? aaouee?a ei??a (AE) ca
?aooiie aeiai?o aeey ieai?iii? oe?e? ie?aeiee?a ca ii?iith ?aaeoe??
(na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino?) ?o aei/ie o a?oe? 12-18 i?n. (ca iieacieeaie
?inoo), ui ia iiaea ia iicia/eoeny ia oaiiao aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui nei?i/aiiy aaia?aoe?eiiai ?ioa?aaeo aaouee?a aoaa?a ?
aaouee?a ei??a c 7 aei 5 ?ie?a ca ?aooiie iiaeae?, ui i?iiiio?oueny,
aeicaieeoue i?enei?eoe oaiie aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano c 24,5 ea aei 31,9 ea
ia ei?iao ca ??e (oaae. 18).

18. Caeaaei?noue na?aaeiuei??/iiai aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano (G)

ca iaaei?i a?ae aaia?aoe?eiiai ?ioa?aaeo

Aaia?aoe?eiee ?ioa?aae
(?ie?a)Gnoia?ieena?aaei?e266,524,5256,325,5246,026,6235,827,8225,529,021
5,330,4205,031,9

Oaeei /eiii, cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae aeanoue iiaeeea?noue i?enei?eoe
naeaeoe?eiee i?ioean o iai?yi? noai?aiiy oaa?ei c iaaiei oeiii
na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino?, a ioaea, ? oa?aeoa? i?iyao oaeeo iciae, ye
iaae?e, i?aeioaeueiee ia??iae ? ia??iae i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeiaaie?ooy.

Aeniiaee

1. Iaoiaeieia?/ii iaa?oioiaai? naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/i? ? i?aai?caoe?ei?
i?aeoiaee, ni?yiiaai? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy eiia?iiaaieo ? iiei/ieo ii??ae
Oe?a?ie ca eiiieaenii i?iaeoeoeaieo, aaeaioeaieo ? aenoa?’??ieo
iieaciee?a.

2. Anoaiiaeaii aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo neeaaeiiai
a?aeoai?iiai no?auoaaiiy ia /anoei? iiaie?a’y neiaioae?a Oe?a?ie c
ae?oe?aie, iiiaaeuey?aeaie ? /a?aiii-?yaeie aieooeiaie a ii?aeiaii? c
oe?eani?yiiaaieie ioe?ieith, aeiai?ii ? i?aeai?ii, ui aeicaieeei
noai?eoe oaa?ei iiai? oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee,
ieai?iiee ianea yei? ia /an ai?iaaoe?? iae?/oaaa 13101 aie. ei??a.

3. A?aei?/aii ia ia?oiio aoai? no?auoaaiiy iaeneiaeueiee aoaeo naeaeoe??
ii ia?a?noeao: ca iaaei?i – o neiaioae-aieooei?a (aea i?e nei?i/aii?
oa?i?i?a i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeiaaie?ooy); ca ai?noii aee?o – o
neiaioae-ae?oe??a (aea i?e cieaeaii? aeeai? iane);
neiaioae-iiiaaeuey?aee iaee iioeiaeuei? iieacieee i?iaeoeoeaiiai
aeiaaie?ooy ? i?aeioaeueiiai ia??iaeo a ii?aeiaii? c i?aeaeuaiiyi
iaaei?a.

4. Iaoiaeieia?/ii iaa?oioiaaia aaiaoeei-aeieia?/ia iiaeaeue ioe?iee
na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? iiei/ii? ooaeiae ia iniia? e?i?eii? ?aa?an??,
ui aeicaiey? aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoeaiiai ?
aaeaioeaiiai iioaioe?aeo oaa?ei c iiaeeea?noth ianooiiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy
iciae oeeo a?oi a ?ioeo na?aaeiaeuieo oiiaao.

5. Anoaiiaeaii cia/aiiy ia?aaeaa/aiiai ? oaeoe/iiai iaaeith ia?a?noie ca
eiao?oe??ioii na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino?, ui noaiiaeoue 0,96 (P>0,999), ?
na?ae/eoue i?i aenieo i?iaiinoe/io oe?ii?noue cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoiaeo.

6. Aecia/aii, ui i?ae ioe?ieaie na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? oaa?ei, ?o
i?iaeoeoeaiei aeiaaie?ooyi (IAe) oa i?aeioaeueiei ia??iaeii (III) ?nio?
ca’ycie: cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa aeaoa?i?iaoe?? III, IAe c eiao?oe??ioii
na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? neeaee a?aeiia?aeii 0,14 ? 0,93, ui aeicaiey?
naeaeoe?eiei oeyoii aieeaaoe ia oe? iieacieee.

7. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ia an?o aoaiao i?aeii??aeiiai no?auoaaiiy ?noioiee
aieea iathoue oaeoi?e ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua (noaaei, ??e, nacii) ia
oi?ioaaiiy oaeeo iciae ye iaae?e, ai?no aee?o a iieioe?, i?aeioaeueiee
ia??iae ? i?iaeoeoeaia aeiaaie?ooy.

8. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?c ca?eueoaiiyi /anoee e?ia? iie?iooaaeueieo ii??ae
ia an?o aoaiao i?aeii??aeiiai no?auoaaiiy iaei i?noea ca?eueoaiiy aieeao
oaeoi?a aaiaoe/ieo a?oi (iii?nia ii?aeiaiiy, ie?aeiee) ia i?iaeoeoeai?
iciaee, ui na?ae/eoue i?i oi?ioaaiiy oaa?ei iiaiai iiei/iiai oeio.

9. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?nio? ?noioiee aieea ia ye?niee neeaae iieiea (ai?no
aee?o, a?eea, oeoe?o, eaca?io, a?oai?io A, eeneioi?noue, u?euei?noue,
cn?aeaiiy, i?e?ia?aeueia ian?iai?iiy) oaeeo oaeoi??a, ye ii?iaea, ??e,
nacii ?ieo, aeiey aieeao yeeo eieeaaeanue a?ae 2,5 aei 45%.

10. Anoaiiaeaii aeeiai?eo ci?i aaiaoe/ieo ei?aeyoe?e i?ae
ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieie iciaeaie, ui aeicaieeei aecia/eoe aaee/eie
iiceoeaii? ei?aeueiaaii? a?aeiia?ae? i?e aeiai?? ca iaaei?i oaeeo
iieaciee?a, ye ai?no aee?o ? a?eea a iieioe?, aeeaa iana ei??a,
i?iaeoeoeaia aeiaaie?ooy oaa?ei, iaeiae oe? cia/aiiy ?noioii
a?ae??ciyeeny.

11. Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue cai?iiiiiaaiiai ?iaeaeno (oe?eueiai?
ooieoe??) a?ae ci?ie oe?i ia iieiei ? i?eie?ae, i?e yeiio oe?ia a?a?
?ieue aeiiii?/ii? aaae, ia a?aei?io a?ae e?i?eiiai naeaeoe?eiiai
?iaeaeno Oaecaey (Hazel L. N., 1943).

12. A?aei?aoeueiaaii iaoai?ci canoinoaaiiy ?iaeaeno (oe?eueiai?
ooieoe??), ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai ioe?iaii 85 aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a o i?ioean?
aeaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee, e?au? c ieo
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeey oi?ioaaiiy caaiaenueeeo e?i?e Oaa?ay, Iae??aeae
Naeoaeoai, Aeii AEoaia.

13. Cai?iiiiiaaii noaio e?i?eii? ioe?iee aenoa?’??o ei??a ia iniia?
oeaeoaaiiy a?ae i?eeiyoiai noaiaea?oo aaaeaiiai oeio, ui aeicaieeei
aeyaeoe oaoiieia?/i? iniaeeaino? oaa?ei iiai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee.

14. Anoaiiaeaii aenieee nooi?iue aaiaoe/ii? aeaoa?i?iaoe?? iciae
aenoa?’??o ei??a c aieo aaouee?a aei/ie, ui eieeaaany a iaaeao a?ae 0,10
aei 0,30.

I?iiiceoe?? ae?iaieoeoao

1. Aeei?enoiaoaaoe nenoaio naeaeoe?? oa iaoiaeieia?th ioe?iee ?
i?aai?caoe?ei? i?eioeeie, ui aoee ai?iaiaai? a i?ioean? noai?aiiy
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee, aeey oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy iiei/ieo ? eiia?iiaaieo ii??ae ooaeiae Oe?a?ie.

2. Aeei?enoiaoaaoe cai?iiiiiaai? aa??aioe naeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aie
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiai aioo??oiueiii??aeiiai oeio
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a oiiaao
ieaii?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie, ui aeicaieeoue ca?eueoeoe oaiie aaiaoe/iiai
i?ia?ano aei 50 ea iieiea ia ei?iao ca ??e ? ?aioaaaeuei?noue i?ia?aie
aei 51,3%.

3. Nei?aaoaaoe caaaeueiee iai?yi naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano a iiei/iiio
neioa?noa? ia iaeaeeae/o ia?niaeoeao, ni?yiiaoth/e eiai ia noai?aiiy
noaae ? iiioeyoe?e c a?aeiinii aenieei iiei/iei iioaioe?aeii ? ??aiai
i?enoinoaaiiy oaa?ei aei niaoeeo?/ieo oiia oo?eiaiiy e aenieoaoaoe?? a
??cieo ciiao Oe?a?ie. Aeey oeueiai ia?aeoe aei ia?aaaaeiiai aeei?enoaiiy
a?o/eciyiiai naeaeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo, iaea?aeaiiai oeyoii ?io?iaeoeoe??
e?auiai na?oiaiai aaiioiiaeo, aea cia/iith i??ith aaea aaeaioiaaiiai aei
oiia na?aaeiaeua. ?iii?oiee naeaeoe?eiee iaoa??ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe
o?eueee a aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?eyo.

4. O naeaeoe?ei?e no?oeoo?? iiei/iiai neioa?noaa Oe?a?ie, ye iieacothoue
?ic?aooiee, aeinoaoiuei iaoe ieai?iia yae?i (ieaicaaiaee, ieaiainie) c
iiaie?a’yi ei??a aeecueei 1,5% a?ae caaaeueii? eiai /enaeueiino? ?
na?aaeith i?iaeoeoeai?noue ia ??ai? 5000 ea iieiea ca ??e. Iiiiaeoe
ia?aaeo ioe?ii/ieo ainiiaea?noa c iiaie?a’yi aeecueei 10,5% a?ae
caaaeueii? /enaeueiino? ei??a a Oe?a?i? ? na?aaeiueith i?iaeoeoeai?noth
ia ??ai? 3700 ea.

5. A?aeiiaeoeny a?ae ni?iae iaia’yceiaiai 100%-ai ioiieaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueiei iae?eii anueiai iiaie?a’y iiei/ii? ooaeiae,
cina?aaeeaoe iniiai? coneeey ia i?aai?caoe?? iaia’yceiaiai ?
a??ia?aeiiai iae?eo o?eueee ii oaa?eiao aeoeaii? /anoeie iiei/ii?
ooaeiae (ieai?ii? ? ioe?ii/i? noaaea, iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i aeaniino?). O
ca’yceo c oeei ia?a?iaeoe an? ii?iaoeai? (?ino?oeoeai?) iieiaeaiiy
nenoaie ciioaoi?/iiai ? ieai?iiiai iae?eo a iiei/iiio neioa?noa?
Oe?a?ie.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo

1. Ai?cia A.A., No?aeyiay I.I., ?oaai N.TH. Iai?aaeaiey a ieaiaiiie
?aaioa i?e niaa?oainoaiaaiee ae?oe?neie ii?iaeu ia Oe?aeia // IOA ? 47.-
IEEAE Eaninoaie e Iieanuey ONN?.- Oa?ueeia, 1988. — N. 6-10.

2. Ao?eao A.I., ?oaai N.TH., Aaaoiiia A.A. e ae?. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea
iaoiaeia ioeaiee aaiioeia aeeaioiuo a iiei/iii neioiaiaenoaa. — E.:
Annioeeaoeey «Oe?aeia», 1995. – N.110.

3. Ao?eao A.I., ?oaai N.TH., Caeaiaoe A.I. e ae?. ?acaaaeaiea iiei/iiai
neioa: iiuo, i?iaeaiu, iooe eo ?aoaiey. — E.:Annioeeaoeey “Oe?aeia”,
1994. – 60 n.

4. Coaaoe I.A., Ao?eao A.I., ?oaai N.TH., e ae?. Iiaia a iaoiaeieiaee
ioeaiee e naeaeoeee aeeaioiuo. E: Annioeeaoeey “Oe?aeia”, 1993 – 20 n.

5. Iaiaiei I.I.. ?oaai N.TH. ?noi??y, noai ? ia?niaeoeae iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI // Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie. —
1996. — ?10. – N.2-5.

6. Iipinue A.A., Caaeipiaeia I.TH., ?oaai N.TH. Aiaeaiaeiaaeueii oa
caaieii oapaeoapen oeee aoaa?a,iaeapaeaieo ipe aeaaaeaiii iiaiai
/apaiii-pyaiai iiei/iiai oeio a Oepa?ii // Iiei/ii-i’ynia neioapnoai:
Iiaea.oaiao.iaoe.caipiee. -E.:Opiaeae, 1993. -Aei.83. -N.25-27.

7. ?oaai N.TH. Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey e?aoeia?aiaiiiai i?iaiica e
noaiaea?oa ii oaeith i?e ioai?a ia?aioaeie. // IOA ? 40. – IEEAE
Eaninoaie e Iieanuey ONN?. – Oa?ueeia, 1984. — N.14-23.

8. ?oaai N.TH., Iaoeei I.E., THaae E.Ae. I?iaeoeoeaiua ea/anoaa
/enoiii?iaeiiai e iiianiiai neiiaioaeueneiai neioa //Iiauoaiea
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa: Na. iao/. o?. / OCAE. — o.313.
— Oa?ueeia, 1985. –O. 313. — N.73-78.

9. ?oaai N.TH. Ni/aoaaiinoue naeaeoeeiiiuo i?eciaeia i?e ioai?a iiianiuo
aeeaioiuo // Iiei/ii-iyniia neioiaiaenoai: Iaaea. oaiao. iao/i. na.- E.:
O?iaeae, 1985.- Aui. 67.- N. 21-24.

10. ?oaai N.TH. Iiaua iaoiaeu ioeaiee aeeaioiuo neiiaioaeueneie ii?iaeu
a oneiaeyo ia?ano?ieee e eioaineoeeaoeee iiei/iiai neioiaiaenoaa
Oa?ueeianeie iaeanoe // AIE neiiaioaeueneie ii?iaeu.. – E.: O?iaeae,
1987. — O. 105 — N.49-59.

11. ?oaai N.TH. Iaoiae ioeaiee aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae n o/aoii neeu
aeaaeaiey ioai?a. // Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee atheeaoaiue / IOA ? 47 / IEEAE
Eaninoaie e Iieanuey ONN?. — Oa?ueeia, 1988. — N.18-23.

12. ?oaai N.TH., Aaca?aaaa Y. Ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe ne?aueaaiey iooai
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai n?aaiaiey ni noaiaea?oii // Iiauoaiea
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa: Na. iao/. o?. / OCAE. —
Oa?ueeia, 1988. — N.30-36.

13. ?oaai N.TH., Oaoiaoeia A.A. Iiaay nenoaia ioeaiee yenoa?uea?a
aeeaioiuo a iiei/iii neioiaiaenoaa //Iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e?oiiiai
?iaa oiai neioa e iaaoe: Na. iao/. o?. / OCAE. – Oa?ueeia, 1990. — N.
25-36.

14. ?oaai N.TH., Caaei?iaeiay E.TH. Eiiieaeniay ioeaiea e ioai? iaoa?ae
aueia. // IOA ? 57 / IEEAE Eaninoaie e Iieanuey. — Oa?ueeia, 1991. – N.
29-38.

15. ?oaai N.TH. I?aaiecaoeey e iai?aaeaiea naeaeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna i?e
nicaeaiee iiaiai iiei/iiai oeia a neiiaioaeueneie ii?iaea. //Iiauoaiea
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa, iaaoe e eioaaeae: Na. iao/. o?.
/ OCAE. – Oa?ueeia, 1991. — N. 10-17.

16. ?oaai N.TH., Aei?ioeaae/ I.A. Ioeiiea oa iniaeeainoi aenoa?’??o
oaa?ei iiaiai iiei/iiai oeio /a?aiii-?yai? ii?iaee // Iiei/ii-i’ynia
neioa?noai: Iiaeaiae. oaiao. iaoe. ca. — E.: O?iaeae, 1993. –Aei. 83. —
N. 27-34.

17. ?oaai N.TH., Caaei?iaeiay E.TH., Ieeeoia A.A.,e ae?. Ainoi/iue oei
oe?aeineiai e?anii-iano?iai neioa e iooe aai niaa?oainoaiaaiey // Na.
iao/. o?. / EAE OAAI. – Oa?ueeia: ?EI «I?eaeiae», 1994. – O. OOOVII. —
N.23-35.

18. ?oaai N.TH., Oaaey A.I. Caaei?iaeia I.TH. Ioeiiea nooiaiy aieeao
aaiaoe/ieo i iaaaiaoe/ieo oaeoi?ia i?e na?aaeiueiio ?iaii aiaeiaei a
i?ioeani ?aaeicaoei? eiiaiiaoeieii? noaie aeaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
/a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee //Iiei/ii-i’ynia neioa?noai: Iiaeaiae.
oaiao. iaoe. ca. — E.: O?iaeae, 1994. – Aei 84. — N. 54-56.

19. ?oaai N.TH., Caaei?iaeiay I.TH., Oaaey A.I. Ioeaiea noaiaie aeeyiey
aaiaoe/aneeo e iaaaiaoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia i?e auaaaeaiee oe?aeineie
e?anii-iano?ie iiei/iie ii?iaeu (/anoue 1). // IOA ? 63 / EAE OAAI. —
Oa?ueeia, 1994. — N. 18-20.

20. ?oaai N.TH., Oaaey A.I. Aeaioei A.A. Ioeaiea ianeaaeoaiinoe
i?eciaeia iaoiaeii eiaa?eaoeeiiiiai aiaeeca //IOA ? 71 / EAE OAAI. —
Oa?ueeia, 1995. — N. 6-13.

21. ?oaai N.TH., Aeaioei A.A. N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea n?aaeiaie
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe iiei/iiai neioa iooai eniieueciaaiey iiaeaee eeiaeiie
?aa?annee // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue/?O OAAI. – Oa?ueeia, – 1995. –
Aei. XXXVIII. — N. 49-59.

22. ?oaai N.TH., Ai?enianueeee A.A. Ia?niaeoeae noai?aiiy
aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo noaae ae?oe?nueei? ii?iaee a oiiaao ainiiaea?noa
Oe?a?ie ia iniiai i?aaiicaoei? ?iaioe ca i?eioeeiii iaei? iiioeyoei?
//Iiei/ii-i’ynia neioa?noai: Iiaeaiae. oaiao. iaoe. ca. — E.: O?iaeae,
1995. – Aei. 86. -N. 23-27.

23. ?oaai N.TH. Oe?a?inueea /a?aiii-?yaa iiei/ia. Iia? iaoiaee noai?aiiy
? oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaee // Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie. – 1996. — ?10. —
N.10-12.

24. ?oaai N.TH., Oaaey A.I.. Aaaoiiia A.A. Aunieioi/iua iaoiaeu ioai?a
oaeie a ?aiiai aic?anoa // Ciioaoiey. – 1997. — ?11. — N.10-11.

25. ?oaai N.TH., Aeaioei A.A. Nia?aiaiiay iaoiaeieiaey ioeaiee
aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae (iainiiaaiea noaoenoe/aneie iiaeaee) // A?niee
aa?a?ii? iaoee. – 1999. — ? 3. – N. 34-40.

Oace eiioa?aioe?e

26. Ao?eao A.I., ?oaai N.TH., Caeaiaoeue I.I. ?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy
oa i?aai?caoe?y naeaeoe?eiiai i?ioeano i?e noai?aii? oa iiaeaeueoiio
oaeineiiaeaii? iiaiai oeio oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee
// Oai?aoe/i? e i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe ii?iaeiooai?thaaeueiiai i?ioeano o
iiei/iiio oa i’yniiio neioa?noa?: Iaoa?. aeii. iaoe.- ae?iai. eiio.
22-23 aa?aciy 1995 ?.- E.: Anioe?aoe?y “Oe?a?ia”, 1995.- N. 32-33.

27. ?oaai N.TH. Aeei?enoaiiy o?aaeeoeieieo oa iiaeo nenoai ioeiiee o
i?ioeani aeaaaeaiiy oaa?ei aaaeaiiai oeio // Oai?aoe/ii i i?aeoe/ii
aniaeoe ii?iaeiooai?thaaeueiiai i?ioeano o iiei/iiio oa i’yniiio
neioa?noai. Iaoa?. aeii. iaoe.-ae?iai. eiio. — E.: Anioeiaoeiy
«Oe?a?ia», 1995. — N. 127-128.

28. ?oaai N.TH. Ioeaiea e ioai? aeeaioiuo i?e nicaeaiee iiaiai iiei/iiai
oeia a neiiaioaeueneie ii?iaea. //Aeeaae iieiaeuo o/aiuo o/aiuo Oe?aeiu
a eioaineoeeaoeeth naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa: Oacenu aeiee. /
IEEAE Eaninoaie e Iieanuey ONN?. – Oa?ueeia, 1986. — N. 67-68.

29. ?oaai N.TH., Iieioia A.?. Ioeiiea na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeainoi oaa?ei
?icieo aaiaoe/ieo a?oi o iiei/iiio neioa?noai. // Ia?oa iiaeia?iaeia
iaoe. eiio. iieiaeeo a/aieo oa niaoeiaeinoia 16-17 ethoiai 1994 ?.
“Naeaeoeieii-aiioaoiieiai/ii iaoiaee aeei?enoaiiy aaiaoe/iiai
iioaioeiaeo n.-a. oaa?ei”: Oace aeiiiaiaeae. / ?-o ?icaaae. ? aai. oaa?.
-E.,1994. – N. 79.

30. ?oaai N.TH.,Aeaioei A.A.. Ie?iiaiei A.A. Aaiaoe/aneay naycue iaaeaeo
iniiaiuie naeaeoeeiiiuie i?eciaeaie o aeeaioiuo oe?aeineie
e?anii-iano?ie iiei/iie ii?iaeu //Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee, iinayuaiiie 125-eaoeth aeaaeaieea
Eaaiiaa I.O. / OCAE. –Oa?ueeia, 1996. — N.28.

31. ?oaai N.TH., Eaeaa A.A. I?iaeaiu oeo/oaiey neioa a 21 aaea //
Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee, iinayuaiiie
80-eaoeth ni aeiy ?iaeaeaiey Yenia?a O.O./ EAE OAAI. – Oa?ueeia, 1996. —
N. 30-31.

32. ?oaai N.TH., Aei?ioeaae/ I.A., Ie?iiaiei A.A. e ae?. Eniieueciaaiea
eeiaeiie ioeaiee yenoa?uea?a a nicaeaiee noaaea e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa
aeaeaoaeueiiai oeia // Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie
eiioa?aioeee, iinayuaiiie 80-eaoeth ni aeiy ?iaeaeaiey Yenia?a O.O. /
EAE OAAI. – Oa?ueeia, 1996. — N. 53-54.

33. ?oaai N.TH. Ioeaiea e eniieueciaaiea ?aaeoeee n?aaeiaie
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe a naeaeoeee iiei/iiai neioa // Iia? iaoiaee naeaeoe??
? a?aeoai?aiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ii??ae ? oei?a oaa?ei: Iaoa?. i?aei.
iaoe.-ae?iai. eiio. 29-30 o?aaiy 1996 ?. / Iaoe?iiaeueia ia’?aeiaiiy ii
ieai.ni?aa? a oaa?eiieoeoa?.- E., 1996.- N. 146.

34. Ruban S.Y. Application of Genetic-Ecological Models to Evaluate the
Realized Genotype of the Dairy Cattle. Book of Abstracts of the 48th
Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production.
Vienna, Austria, 25-28 August 1997. — ?.67.

35. Trishin A.K., Ruban S.Y., Danshin V.A. Evaluation of Genetic
Parameters of the Ukrainian Black-and-White Dairy Cattle. Book of
Abstracts of the 48th Annual Meeting of the European Association for
Animal Production. Vienna, Austria, 25-28 August 1997. — ?.67.

36. Ruban S. Effect of genetic and environmental factors on milk
production of crossbred cows. // Book of Abstracts of the 50th Annual
Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production. Zurich,
Switzerland 22-25 August 1999. — ?.193.

Aaoi?nuee? na?aeioeoaa, iaoaioe

37. A.n. ?13 Oe?a?ia. Oe?a?inueea /a?aiii-?yaa iiei/ia ii?iaea aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae/ N.TH.?oaai oa ?i. (Oe?a?ia). – 1n.

38. A.n. ?92 Oe?a?ia. I?aaeaiii-no?aeiee aioo??ii?iaeiee oei
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae/
N.TH.?oaai oa ?i. (Oe?a?ia). – 1n.

39. A.n. ?160 Oe?a?ia. Oa?e?anueeee caaiaenueeee oei oe?a?inueei?
/a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae/ N.TH.?oaai oa
?i. (Oe?a?ia). – 1n.

40. A.n. ?200 Oe?a?ia. Caaiaenueea e?i?y Oaa?ay 6241 oe?a?inueei?
/a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae/ N.TH.?oaai oa
?i. (Oe?a?ia). – 1n.

41. A.n. ?211 Oe?a?ia. Caaiaenueea e?i?y Oaiiaa?a 1629391 oe?a?inueei?
/a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae/ N.TH.?oaai oa
?i. (Oe?a?ia). – 1n.

42. A.n. ?235 Oe?a?ia. Caaiaenueea e?i?y Aeii AEoaia 7960 oe?a?inueei?
/a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae/ N.TH.?oaai oa
?i. (Oe?a?ia). – 1n.

43. A.n. ?248 Oe?a?ia. Caaiaenueea e?i?y Iae??aeae Naeoaeoi 1599075
oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae/
N.TH.?oaai oa ?i. (Oe?a?ia). – 1n.

44. Iao. UA 13910 A 01 E 67/00. Niin?a a?aeoai?aiiy noaaea/ Aaaoiiia
A.I., Ai?enianueeee A.A., ?oaai N.TH. — ?94127973; Caya. 12.12.94;
Iioae. 25.04.97 — 1n.

45. Iao. UA 15132 A 01 J 5/00. I?eno??e aeey aecia/aiiy i?oaeiino?
aeiai?/ Oaaey A.I., ?oaai N.TH. — ?93007347; Caya.11.08.93; Iioae.
30.06.97. – 1n.

?oaai N.TH. Iaoiaeieia?y ? nenoaia naeaeoe?? oaa?ei oe?a?inueei?
/a?aiii-?yai? ii?iaee.

— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.02.01 –
?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoe?y oaa?ei. – ?inoeooo ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee
oaa?ei OAAI, Ee?a, 1999.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aaiethoe?? neiaioaeuenei? ooaeiae Oe?a?ie ? iaoiae?a
naeaeoe??, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o i?ioean? ?? oaeineiiaeaiiy. Ca
inoaii? 20 ?ie?a ocaaaeueiaii aeai?, io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? aeei?enoaiiy
neeaaeiiai eiia?iaoe?eiiai no?auoaaiiy neiaioaeuenei? ii?iaee c
iie?iooaaeueieie ii?iaeaie: ae?oe?nueeith, iiiaaeuey?aenueeith oa
/a?aiii-?yaith aieooeinueeith. I?iaaaeaii eiiieaenio ioe?ieo
aoaeoeaiino? no?auoaaiiy ia eiaeiiio c o?ueio aoai?a oaei? ?iaioe, ui
aeicaieeei aeae?eeoe iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeai? a?oie
oaa?ei-i?iaeiaaeoaa/?a. Anoaiiaeaii aeeiai?eo ci?ie aaiaoe/ieo
ei?aeyoe?e iii?nieo oaa?ei oa oaa?ei iiaiai iiei/iiai oeio, ui aeaei
ciiao i?iaanoe iiaeaethaaiiy iiaeeeaeo ci?i o iiioeyoe?? i?e aeiai?? ca
iaaei?i. O ?acoeueoao? aeei?enoaiiy oe?eani?yiiaaieo iaoiae?a ioe?iee,
aeiai?o oa i?aeai?o oaa?ei aoei noai?aii oe?iiee ianea ooaeiae, ieai?iia
/anoeia yeiai neeaea iniiao oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee
(ai?iaiaaia o 1992 ?ioe?). Ca oeae ia??iae oai?aoe/ii oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaii canoinoaaiiy aaiaoeei-aeieia?/ieo
iiaeaeae aeey oe?eae naeaeoe??. Aia?oa iieacaia iiaeeea?noue ioe?iee
oaa?ei ??cieo aaiaoe/ieo a?oi ca no?ee?noth aei na?aaeiaeuieo eieeaaiue
oa ca’ycie ioe?iie na?aaeiaeuii? /ooeeaino? c iieacieeaie a?aeoai?aiiy
oa i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeiaaie?ooy. Aia?oa c aeei?enoaiiyi ia?niiaeueieo
eiii’thoa??a ii?aoeueiaaii oe?ieee eiiieaen iaoiae?a ioe?iee
iniaeeainoae aenoa?’??o ei??a oa aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a, ?aae?ciaaiiai
aaiioeio oaa?ei, ieai?iii? oe?iiino? c aeei?enoaiiyi oe?eueiai?
ooieoe??, ioe?iee c o?aooaaiiyi nooiaiy oeneo aeiai?o, ieai?iii?
oe?iiino? c aeei?enoaiiyi e?i?eii? iiaeae?. Ana oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue
iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaeieia?th ? nenoaio ioe?iee oaa?ei iiei/ieo ii??ae a
oiiaao ainiiaea?noa Oe?a?ie. Ia i?aenoaa? oeeo aeaieo ?ic?iaeaii
i?ia?aio naeaeoe?? oaa?ei oe?a?inueei? /a?aiii-?yai? iiei/ii? ii?iaee,
yea aeicaiey? i?enei?eoe oaiie aaiaoe/iiai i?ia?ano ca iaaei?i aei 31 ea
iieiea ia ei?iao ca ??e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoiaeieia?y ioe?iee, noaoenoe/i? iiaeae?, aaeeea ?iaaoa
ooaeiaa, eiia?iaoe?eia no?auoaaiiy, aaiioei, oaiioei, ieai?iia
oe?ii?noue, iiaeeo?eoth/? oaeoi?e, nenoaie ?icaaaeaiiy, aiae?aey.

Ruban S.Y. Methodology and system of selection for animals of the
Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed. – Manuscript.

Thesis for doctor’s degree on speciality 06.02.01 – animal breeding and
selection. – Institute of animal breeding and genetics of UAAS, Kiev,
1999.

Analysis of evolution of the Simmental cattle of the Ukraine and
selection methods applied to its improvement has been done. The data
obtained from results of the complex combinative crossbreeding of the
Simmental breed with Ayrshire, Montbelliard and Red Holstein breeds for
last 20 years have been summarized. At each stage of the work the
complex evaluation of crossbreeding efficiency has been done that
allowed to select the most perspective genetic groups of animals. The
study of dynamics of changes in genetic correlations of crossbreed
animals and animals of the the new dairy type allowed to simulate
possible changes in milk yield of the population. As a result of using
the purposeful methods of evaluation, selection and mating the valuable
population of cattle was created, the breeding part of which became the
basis of the Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed (approved in 1992). The
genetic-ecological models for selection of cattle have been founded
theoretically and practically. The possibility of evaluation of animals
from different genetic groups for resistance to environmental changes
and relationships of such evaluations with reproductive traits and
productive longevity have been shown. The large complex of evaluation
methods (evaluation of exterior particularities of cows and sires,
evaluation of a breeding value for the objective function, evaluation
with respect to selection and evaluation of a breeding value using a
linear model) has been implemented using personal computers. As a
result, the methodology and system of evaluation of dairy cattle in the
Ukraine were founded. On the basis of these data the breeding program
for the Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed was worked out which allows
to increase genetic progress up to 31kg milk per cow per year.

Key words: evaluation methodology, statistical methods, cattle,
combinative crossbreeding, genotype, phenotype, breeding value,
modifying factors, systems of breeding, feeding.

?oaai N.TH. Iaoiaeieiaey e nenoaia naeaeoeee aeeaioiuo oe?aeineie
e?anii-iano?ie iiei/iie ii?iaeu. ?oeiienue (ia ?onneii ycuea).

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.02.01 – ?acaaaeaiea e
naeaeoeey aeeaioiuo. – Einoeooo ?acaaaeaiey e aaiaoeee aeeaioiuo, Eeaa,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaiai iienea, iainiiaaiey e
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai i?eiaiaiey yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia ?acaaaeaiey e?oiiiai
?iaaoiai neioa. Iaoa?eaeii aeey aiaeeca iineoaeeee aeaiiua, iieo/aiiua
ca iineaaeiea 20 eao a oicyenoaao Oe?aeiu, aaea i?iaiaeeeanue ?aaioa ii
nicaeaieth aeeaioiuo iiaiai iiei/iiai oeia iooai ne?aueaaiey neiiaioaeia
n aueaie ae?oe?neie, iiiaaeuey?aeneie e e?anii-iano?ie aieooeineie
ii?iae. Iiianiua aeeaioiua ninoaaeee iniiao iiaiai thai-ainoi/iiai
iiei/iiai oeia, eioi?ue aioae ninoaaiie /anoueth a oe?aeineoth
e?anii-iano?oth iiei/ioth ii?iaeo (ioeoeeaeueii ai?iae?iaaia a 1992
aiaeo). A i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee o?ao yoaiia neiaeiiai
aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiiai ne?aueaaiey, aue eniieueciaai aeenia?neiiiue
aiaeec, eioi?ue iieacae aeinoiaa?iia aeeyiea ia oaeie oaeeo oaeoi?ia,
eae “noaaei” (47%), “aiae” (6,6-13,8%), “i?iecaiaeeoaeue” (1,3-1,5%); ia
niaea?aeaiea aee?a a iieiea — “aiae” (11-29%), “noaaei” (2,8-5,8%),
“i?iecaiaeeoaeue” (1,5-2,9%); ia iaaeioaeueiue ia?eiae — “aiae”
(5,2-7,8%), “aaiaoe/aneay a?oiia” (0,2-24,7%); ia i?iaeoeoeaiia
aeieaieaoea — “aiae” (24,8-27,5%), “aaiaoe/aneay a?oiia” (0,7-9,9%).
Oaeei ia?acii, aeieacaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue yeeieiaoeee iaaaiaoe/aneeo
enoi/ieeia eciai/eainoe aeey aieaa ei??aeoiie ioeaiee yooaeoa
ne?aueaaiey. N yoie oeaeueth aeey ioeaiee aaiaoe/aneiai yooaeoa i?e
iaaeii?iaeiii ne?aueaaiee auea i?eiaiaia i?ioeaaeo?a BLUP, aeaaiaea?y
/aio aeieacaii – ia ia?aii yoaia aue iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo
(ioiineoaeueii /enoiii?iaeiuo neiiaioaeia) ii oaeith o aieooeineeo
ia?aioaeie (+277 ea), ii i?e nie?auaiee n?ieia i?iaeoeoeaiiai
aeieaieaoey (-135 aeiae); ii niaea?aeaieth aee?a a iieiea – o ae?oe?ia
(+0,024%), ii i?e nieaeaiee aeeaie iannu (-25-30 ea). I?iaaaeaia ioeaiea
aeiee aaiaoe/aneie aeenia?nee a iauae oaiioeie/aneie (2) ii
i?iaeoeoeaiui i?eciaeai. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oaeie, niaea?aeaiea aee?a e
aaeea, aeeaay ianna oa?aeoa?ecothony aeiaieueii aunieie noaiaiueth
ianeaaeoaiinoe (io 0,33 aei 0,45), a iaaeioaeueiue ia?eiae – ieceie (io
0,03 aei 0,05). Ianeaaeoaiinoue i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeieaieaoey ia o?ao
yoaiao ne?aueaaiey eieaaaeanue io 0,15 aei 0,21. I?aaeeiaeai eiaeaeniue
iaoiae ioeaiee ieaiaiiie oeaiiinoe ii oeaeaaie ooieoeee (a aeaiaaeiii
au?aaeaiee) ia iniiaa i?ioeaaeo?u BLUP, i?eiaiaiea eioi?iai iicaieeei
ioeaieoue 17 iniiaiuo iiianiuo a?oii. Iaeaieueoee yooaeo ia ia?aii yoaia
ne?aueaaiey iieo/ai io neiiaioae iiiaaeuey?aeia (+253,07 a?i.) a
n?aaiaiee n /enoiii?iaeiuie neiiaioaeaie, ia aoi?ii yoaia – ii neiiaioae
1/4 ae?oe?ai 3/4 (+453,33 a?i.) e o?aoueai yoaia – ii neiiaioae ae?oe?
iiiaaeuey?aeai (+170,88 a?i.). Ioeaiaia aaiaoe/aneay eiaa?eaoeey
i?eciaeia, /oi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue ei??aee?iaaiiue ioaao
oicyenoaaiii-aaaeiuo i?eciaeia i?e ioai?a ii oaeith (a caaeneiinoe io
aiciiaeiiai n?aaeiaaiaeiaiai aaiaoe/aneiai i?ia?anna ii yoiio
iieacaoaeth). Onoaiiaeaia nouanoaaiiay iieiaeeoaeueiay naycue iaaeaeo
oaeiai e aeeaie iannie (+0,46 — +0,92). Aiciiaeiua eciaiaiey
niaea?aeaiey aee?a e aaeea a iieiea i?e ioai?a ii oaeith oioy e eiatho
iieiaeeoaeueiua cia/aiey, ii ia i?aaenoaaeythony aeinoaoi/ii aaaeiuie e
yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi naeaeoeey oieueei ii oaeith ia iiaeao
neoaeeoue iaaeaaeiui niiniaii oeo/oaiey aeeaioiuo iiaie ii?iaeu. Ia
iniiaaiee yoiai i?iaaaeaii iiaeaee?iaaiea cia/aiee i?aaeeiaeaiiiai
eiaeaena (oeaeaaie ooieoeee) a caaeneiinoe io oeaiu ia iieiei eee
i?eieiae. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oeaia ea?aao ?ieue yeiiiie/aneiai aana a
ioee/ee io eeiaeiiai eiaeaena, i?aaeeiaeaiiiai L.H.Hazel (1943), oae eae
i?aaeeaaaaiay iiaeaeue – iaeeiaeiay. N o/aoii cia/aiee oaeeo i?eciaeia,
eae oaeie, niaea?aeaiea aee?a a iieiea, aic?ano ia?aiai ioaea,
iaaeioaeueiue ia?eiae, i?iaeoeoeaiia aeieaieaoea ioeaiaii 85
aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae e yoa ioeaiea eniieueciaaeanue ia ?aciuo yoaiao
auaaaeaiey oe?aeineie e?anii-iano?ie iiei/iie ii?iaeu. Iaeaieaa oeaiiuie
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie ieacaeenue *ooeee 3833 (+123,4 a?i. ii oeaeaaie
ooieoeee), ?aae 1713 (+113,5 a?i.), Iaaaieai 191 (+111,0 a?i.).
Iainiiaaia aaiaoeei-yeieiae/aneay iiaeaeue ioeaiee n?aaeiaie
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe (ieanoe/iinoe) aeeaioiuo, eioi?ay iniiaaia ia
eniieueciaaiee eaeoaoeeiiiuo e?eauo e e?eauo ?inoa. Iieacaii, /oi a
i?ioeanna auaaaeaiey oe?aeineie e?anii-iano?ie iiei/iie ii?iaeu i?e
oaaee/aiee aeiee e?iae oeo/oathueo ii?iae iaaethaeaaony nieaeaiea
noaiaie n?aaeiaie /oaonaeoaeueiinoe (eiyooeoeeaio n?aaeiaie
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe nieceeny n 0,87-0,88 aei 0,14). Iieacaii, /oi
iieo/aiiua eiyooeoeeaiou n?aaeiaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe iicaieytho n
aunieie oi/iinoueth (eiyooeoeeaio ei??aeyoeee ninoaaee 0,960,024)
i?iaiice?iaaoue ?ani?aaeaeaiea iiiany/iiai oaeiy i?e eciaiaiee oneiaee
n?aaeu. Iieo/aiu ioeaiee n?aaeiaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe ii a?oiiai iioiieia
aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae, eioi?ua eieaaaeenue a i?aaeaeao io 0,87 aei 1,00;
noaiaiue aeeyiey aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae ia n?aaeiaoth /oanoaeoaeueiinoue
eo aei/a?ae ninoaaeea, i?eia?ii, 2,07%. Auyaeaia naycue ioeaiie
n?aaeiaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe n iieacaoaeyie aini?iecaiaenoaa e
i?iaeoeoeaiui aeieaieaoeai ei?ia, eioi?ay a ?yaea neo/aaa iineea
e?eaieeiaeiue oa?aeoa?. Ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey aeaiiuo i ?inoa oaeie
neiiaioaeueneie ii?iaeu e aa iiianae n ae?oe?aie e iiiaaeuey?aeaie
i?iaaaeaia ioeaiea n?aaeiaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe aeeaioiuo oeacaiiuo a?oii
a iinoyia?eiiaeueiue ia?eiae (n 1 ii 24 ianyoeu) e iieacaia aunieay
naycue yoeo ioeaiie n iieacaoaeyie n?aaeiaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe,
iieo/aiiuie a ia?eiae eaeoaoeee (eiyooeoeeaio aeaoa?ieiaoeee ninoaaee
0,99). Enoiaey ec aeieacaiiuo caaeneiinoae oicyenoaaiii-iieaciuo
i?eciaeia (oaeie, III e i?iaeoeoeaiia aeieaieaoea) io n?aaeiaie
/oanoaeoaeueiinoe, iieo/aiu o?aaiaiey ?aa?annee, iicaieythuea n aunieie
oi/iinoueth (eiyooeoeeaio aeaoa?ieiaoeee aue a i?aaeaeao io 0,97 aei
0,99) i?iaiice?iaaoue cia/aiea iacaaiiuo i?eciaeia o aaiaoe/aneeo a?oii
aeeaioiuo. I?aaeeiaeai iaoiae aeaciia?iie ioeaiee noaoae oaeineiaeaiey
ei?ia e aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae, iniiaaiiue ia i?yiii eniieueciaaiee
n?aaeieo cia/aiee ioeeiiaiee io i?eiyoiai noaiaea?oa aeaeaoaeueiiai
oeia, eioi?ue aue ai?iae?iaai a i?ioeanna auaaaeaiey oe?aeineie
e?anii-iano?ie iiei/iie ii?iaeu. Onoaiiaeaii aeinoiaa?iia aeeyiea
aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae ia oeiieiae/aneea iniaaiiinoe eo aei/a?ae, i?e
yoii ioeaiee ianeaaeoaiinoe iaoiaeeeenue a i?aaeaeao io 0,10 aei 0,30.
N?aaiaiea yenoa?uea?iuo ioeaiie ei?ia e aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae ii
i?eciaeai, ia ?acaeaeaiiui iieii, iieacaei aunieoth noaiaiue eo
niaiaaeaiey. I?iaaaeaia ioeaiea nayce iaaeaeo i?eciaeaie yenoa?uea?a e
naeaeoeeiie?oaiuie i?eciaeaie. Auyaeaiu aeinoiaa?iua ei??aeyoeaiua nayce
iaaeaeo ?acia?ii aeeaioiiai e oaeiai (+0,1088), noaiaiueth iioneoeaiinoe
e oaeiai (-0,1537), a oaeaea iaaeaeo i?iaeoeoeaiui aeieaieaoeai e
noaiaiueth i?ee?aieaiey ia?aaeiae /anoe auiaie (+0,1429), oi?iie nineia
(+0,1861) e oaeii caiethniaaiai nonoaaa (-0,1285). E?iia oiai, ?yae
yenoa?uea?iuo ioeaiie ei?ia eiaao oanioth naycue n iia?aoeeyie iaoeiiiai
aeiaiey. I?iaiaeece?iaaii /aou?a aa?eaioa naeaeoeeiiiie i?ia?aiiu aeey
thai-ainoi/iiai aioo?eii?iaeiiai oeia oe?aeineie e?anii-iano?ie iiei/iie
ii?iaeu. I?e yoii iieacaii, /oi i?aaeeaaaaiay aaiaoeei-yeieiae/aneay
iiaeaeue ?aiiaai i?iaiice?iaaiey iniiaiuo naeaeoeeiiiuo i?eciaeia aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue ca n/ao nie?auaiey aaia?aoeeiiiiai eioa?aaea iooeia aueia
e iooeia ei?ia onei?eoue oaiiu aaiaoe/aneiai i?ia?anna n 24,5 ea aei
31,9 ea iieiea ia ei?iao a aiae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoiaeieiaey ioeaiee, noaoenoe/aneea iiaeaee, e?oiiue
?iaaoue neio, eiiaeiaoeeiiiia ne?aueaaiea, aaiioei, oaiioei, ieaiaiiay
oeaiiinoue, iiaeeoeoee?othuea oaeoi?u, nenoaiu ?acaaaeaiey, ei?ieaiea.

________________________________________________________________________
________

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 18.08.1999 ?. oi?iao 6090/16

Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 2,3 Iae. ae?oe. a?e._______

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ? 31.

________________________________________________________________________
_______

Ae?eyiea iia?aoeaiiai ae?oeo ?inoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI.

312120, i. Oa?e?a, i/a Eoeeie/?

Похожие записи