IIEOAANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? TH??ss EIIAe?AOTHEA

Iaoeinueeee A?eoi? Aioiiiae/

OAeE 624.042.1

IAOIAeIEIA?ss II?IOAAIIss IAAAIOAAEAIUe

IA AOAe?AAEUeI? EIINO?OEOe??

05.23.01 — Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? oa nii?oaee

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iieoaaa — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iieoaanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? TH??y Eiiae?aothea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?ioia ?aaai Aaneeueiae/, Aeiiaanueea
aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e,
?aeoi? (i. Iae??aea);

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?ae??a Aaaeei Ieeieaeiae/, AAO
«Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo «I?iaeonoaeueeiino?oeoe?y»
Aea?-aeaaiiai Eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao aoae?aieoeoaa, a?o?oaeoo?e ?
aeeoeiai? iie?oeee, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c iaoeiai? ?iaioe (i. Ee?a);

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oo?nia Aaaeei A?eoi?iae/, Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e (i.
Oa?e?a).

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e Aea?aeaaiiai
Eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao aoae?aieoeoaa, a?o?oaeoo?e ? aeeoeiai?
iie?oeee (i. Ee?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “29” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 1300 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 25.01.02 i?e Iieoaanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? TH??y Eiiae?aothea ca aae?anith:

314601, i. Iieoaaa, Ia?oio?aaiaaee i?iniaeo, 24, aoae. 234.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iieoaanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? TH??y Eiiae?aothea ca
aae?anith: 314601, i. Iieoaaa, Ia?oio?aaiaaee i?iniaeo, 24.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 27 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.A.Naiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue aoae?aieoeoaa ae??oaeueiei /eiii caeaaeeoue
a?ae yeino? i?iaeooaaiiy iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae.
Aieiaia caaaeaiiy i?iaeoiiai ?ic?aooieo ca iaoiaeii a?aie/ieo noai?a
iieyay? a caaacia/aii? aeinoaoiueiai ??aiy iaae?eiino? eiino?oeoe?e i?e
i?i?iaeueii iiaeeeaeo aeo?aoao iaoa??ae?a. I?e oeueiio ne?ae
a?aoiaoaaoe, ui aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue eiino?oeoe?e aecia/a?oueny ia
eeoa ?o aa?o?noth, aea e aenieoaoaoe?eieie aeo?aoaie. A ?yae? aeiaaee?a
iaiao?aeia ca?eueoaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? eiino?oeoe?e i?ecaaaea aei
c?inoaiiy ?o aa?oino?, aea aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue iaae?eiino?,
ciaioeoe aeo?aoe ia aenieoaoaoe?th ? ?aiiioii-a?aeiiaethaaeuei? ?iaioe ?
oei naiei i?aeaeueoe aeiiii?/i?noue aoae?aaeueiiai ia’?eoa a oe?eiio.

Oeth i?iaeaio iiaeia ae??oeoe oeyoii aeai?o iioeiaeueieo ??ai?a
iaae?eiino?, canoinoaaiiy aoaeoeaieo eiino?oeoeaieo oi?i, aaeaeaaoiiai
o?aooaaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a oa oi/iiai aecia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo
ia?aiao??a. Iaea?eueo i?ieeaeie oa iaeiaio aeine?aeaeaieie oaeoi?aie,
ye? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?e i?iaeooaaii? iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e, ?
ciai?oi? iaaaioaaeaiiy oa aieeae aenieoaoaoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ooi/iaiiy naia oeeo oaeoi??a iiaea i?eaanoe aei
iae?noioi?oeo ci?i iieaciee?a yeino? oa aoaeoeaiino? aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? ?iaioe iaoiiaeth?oueny oei, ui a Oe?a?i? ia
?ic?iaeai? aeani? ii?ie iaaaioaaeaiue ia aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, a
ae?th/? NIeI 2.01.07-85 iathoue ?yae ?noioieo iaaeie?e?a:

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h i?eeiyoa noaia ii?ioaaiiy ia caaaeaee
a?aeia?aaeo? o?ce/io i?e?iaeo i?ioean?a iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ia aeicaiey?
a?aoiaoaaoe no?ie neoaeae oa ??aaiue iaae?eiino? nii?oaee i?e
i?iaeooaaii? eiino?oeoe?e;

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h i?eioeeiiaa ??cieoey a iaoiaeao
ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ??cieo aeae?a i?eaiaeeoue aei iani?anoaaeiino?
?acoeueoao?a;

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h iaiiaia o?aooaaiiy aaia?ao?/ieo oa
ee?iaoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie i?eaaei aei iaaeoi
a?oaiai ? ia caaaeaee ei?aeoiiai oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy Oe?a?ie ca
ni?aiaeie oa a?o?iaeie iaaaioaaeaiiyie.

?ic?iaea iaoe?iiaeueieo ii?i iaaaioaaeaiue, a?aoiaoth/eo on? aeinyaiaiiy
aoae?aaeueii? iaoee oa aa?iii?ciaaieo c? na?oiaei aeina?aeii
ii?iioai?aiiy, ? iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei oa aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi.
Iniaeeai oea noino?oueny ii?i aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue oa aieea?a, ye?
iaia’yceiai iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoe aaia?ao?/i? oa ee?iaoieia?/i?
iniaeeaino? oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Aeaia ?iaioa i?enay/aia ae??oaiith
aaaeeeai? iaoeiai? oa ia?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeaie: ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaeieia?? ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? oa
ii?ioaaiith ni?aiaeo ? a?o?iaeo iaaaioaaeaiue aeey oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie oa oaiaie. Oaia aeena?oaoe??
a?aeiia?aea? iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa ieaiai iaoeiai? ?iaioe eaoaae?e
eiino?oeoe?e c iaoaeo, aea?aaa oa ieanoian Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? TH??y Eiiae?aothea. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
iia’ycai? c aeeiiaiiyi aea?aeathaeaeaoieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o N
28/94 «?ic?iaea i?iiiceoe?e ii oaeineiiaeaiith ii?i i?iaeooaaiiy
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o
iaae?eiino?» oa N 43/96 «?ic?iaea iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo iaae?eiino?
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ? ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia ieo», ye?
aeeiioaaeeny ca ieaiaie I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie. Aeena?oaoe?y ?
oaeiae neeaaeiaith /anoeiith eiiieaeno ?ia?o, ye? aeeiiothoueny ca
i?aeo?yaeiaith oaiaeith ia ?ic?iaeo i?aeaea?aeaaieo ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a oa noaiaea?o?a (iaeac i?i?no?a o ni?aaao aoae?aieoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e Oe?a?ie N 86 a?ae 11 /a?aiy 1993 ?ieo).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy: ia iniia? ?iia??i?niiai i?aeoiaeo
?ic?i-aeoe caaaeueio iaoiaeieia?th ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia
aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, a oaeiae i?iiiceoe?? uiaei anoaiiaeaiiy
?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue ni?aiaiai oa a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiue aeey
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe oae? caaea/?:

1) ?ic?iaeoe noaio ?aaoethaaiiy iaae?eiino? oa i?eioeeie ii?ioaaiiy
iaaaioaaeaiue, ye? caaacia/aoue i?iaeooaaiiy iano/eo aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e iaoiaeii a?aie/ieo noai?a c o?aooaaiiyi anoaiiaeaiiai
no?ieo neoaeae ? caaeaiiai ??aiy iaae?eiino?;

2) aeey i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeiiai iaai?o ?iia??i?nieo iiaeaeae,
aaeaeaaoii a?aeia?aaeath/eo ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue iaaaioaaeaiue ia
aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee ia/eneaiiy oa ioe?ithaaiiy
oi/iino? ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue on?o aeae?a;

3) ?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeaiee iaoiae oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy
?ic?aooieiaeo ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue c o?aooaaiiyi no?ieo
neoaeae eiino?oeoe?e oa aeiaaeeiaeo iioeaie aeo?aeieo aeaieo;

4) oeyoii ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co aea?aoe iioeiaeuei? ?iia??i?ni? iiaeae?
aeey a?aeia?aaeaiiy ni?aiaiai oa a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiue, noi?ioaaoe
aaie iaoai?ieia?/ieo aeaieo, aeeiiaoe ?o noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo ?
i?iii?ioaaoe iaiao?aei? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy ni?aiaiai oa a?o?iaiai
iaaaioaaeaiue aeey oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie;

5) ?ic?iaeoe oa ai?iaoaaoe ia oa?aeoa?ieo i?eeeaaeao iaoiaee ii?ioaaiiy
iaaaioaaeaiue oa aieea?a ?ioeo aeae?a (iino?eieo, e?aiiaeo,
oaiia?aoo?ieo, a?ae iaeaeaae?).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

1) ?icaeioo? iaoiaee ii?ioaaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo, a?aie/ieo, oeeee?/ieo
oa eaac?iino?eieo ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue ci?iieo iaaaioaaeaiue c
o?aooaaiiyi caaeaiiai ??aiy iaae?eiino? oa no?ieo neoaeae iano/eo
eiino?oeoe?e;

2) aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii caaaeueiee iaoiae oa ?iai/? oi?ioee aeey
ioe?ithaaiiy oi/iino? aenieoaoaoe?eieo ? a?aie/ieo ?ic?aooieiaeo
cia/aiue ci?iieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, ia/eneaieo
ca ??cieie ?iia??i?nieie iiaeaeyie oa ??cieie ianyaaie noaoenoe/ieo
aeaieo;

3) ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iaoiae oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo
cia/aiue aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, yeee caaacia/o? aea?? iioeiaeueieo
iaae oa?eoi??aeueieo ?aeii?a oa o?aooaaiiy anoaiiaeaiiai no?ieo neoaeae
eiino?oeoe?e i?e iayaiino? aeiaaeeiaeo oeoeooaoe?e aeaieo ie?aieo
iaoainoaioe?e;

4) oaeineiiaeaii iaoiae a?aie/ieo noai?a, ui aeicaiey? i?iaeooaaoe
iano/? eiino?oeoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi anoaiiaeaiiai no?ieo neoaeae oa ??aiy
iaae?eiino?, a oaeiae aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe i?aeoiaee aei ia?aa??ee
aei?noeino? eiino?oeoe?e;

5) oeyoii ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co aea?ai? iioeiaeuei? ?iia??i?ni? iiaeae?
aeey ii?ioaaiiy ni?aiaiai, a?o?iaiai oa ?ioeo iaaaioaaeaiue ? aieea?a ia
aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

1) aeeiiaia ii?ioaaiiy ni?aiaiai oa a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiue aeey
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, ?acoeueoaoe yeiai iiaeooue aooe aaciina?aaeiuei
aeei?enoai? i?e i?iaeooaaii? iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e oa i?e ?ic?iaoe?
iaoe?iiaeueieo ii?i iaaaioaaeaiue;

2) ?ic?iaeai? ea?oe oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy Oe?a?ie ca iniiaieie
noaoenoe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ni?aiaiai oa a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiue, /ei
noai?aia ?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy ?ic?aooie?a iaae?eiino? iano/eo
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

3) ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee ii?ioaaiiy oa io?eiai? ?iai/? oi?ioee, ye? iiaeia
canoinoaaoe aeey ia/eneaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue ci?iieo iaaaioaaeaiue
ia oi?eaeuei? ia’?eoe oa ia’?eoe, ui ia?aaoaathoue a aenieoaoaoe??;

4) ca ?acoeueoaoaie iaoai?ieia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue noi?iiaaii aaie
aeaieo, yeee aeicaiey? aeine?aeaeoaaoe ? ii?ioaaoe ni?aiaa oa a?o?iaa
iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeai? oa i?eeiyo? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
a Aea?aeaai? aoae?aaeuei? ii?ie Oe?a?ie: AeAI 362-93 «Ioe?iea
oaoi?/iiai noaio noaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e ae?iaie/eo aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae,
ui ciaoiaeyoueny a aenieoaoaoe??», AeAI A.1.2-…-97 «Nenoaia
caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino? oa aaciaee aoae?aaeueieo ia’?eo?a. Caaaeuei?
i?eioeeie caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino? ? aaciaee aoae?aaeue, nii?oae,
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e oa iniia» (i?iaeo), AeAI A.1.2-… «Nenoaia
caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino? oa aaciaee aoae?aaeueieo ia’?eo?a.
Iaaaioaaeaiiy oa aieeae. Ii?ie i?iaeooaaiiy» (a ?ic?iaoe?), a oaeiae
aeei?enoai? i?e aeeiiaii? ainiaeiaia??ieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ca
caiiaeaiiyie ?yaeo i?aei?e?inoa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? ?aea?, iaoeia?
?ic?iaee oa i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe io?eiai? caeiaoaa/ai iniaenoi oa
iioae?eiaai? a iaeiiin?aieo ?iaioao. A aeine?aeaeaiiyo, aeeiiaieo oa
iioae?eiaaieo ?acii c? ni?aaaoi?aie, iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa?
a ianooiiiio:

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ? iaienaiiy
ioieoo 2.31 [2];

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ? iaienaiiy
ioieo?a 2.16, 2.19, 2.22, 3.23 [3];

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy oa iaienaiiy
i?ae?icae?eo 5.2, a oaeiae ioieo?a 4.5.2, 4.5.3, 5.3.3 — 5.3.4 [4];

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiue oa
aea?ae ?iai/eo oi?ioe aeey o?aooaaiiy aieeao caei?a aeaioaa?iaeo a?oie
iane??cieo eieii [6];

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h iinoaiiaea caaea/, iaoiaeeea
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?ia?aie noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee aeaieo [7], [9], [14],
[15], [26], [34];

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h o/anoue a iaoo?ieo ianoaaeaiiyo,
noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a, noaoenoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia iano/? eiino?oeoe?? [10], [11], [27], [28],
[32];

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h iiaee aeae caeiio ?iciiae?eo ?aca?ao
i?oeiino? eiino?oeoe?? oa eiai iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeii Iiioa-Ea?ei [29],
[30];

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h ?aeay iaoiae?a oa?eoi??aeueiiai
?aeiioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue c o?aooaaiiyi no?ieo neoaeae eiino?oeoe?e,
aea?ae iniiaieo oi?ioe [31];

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h iinoaiiaea caaea/? oa aeaaaeaiiy
oi?ioee aeey ?ioa?aaea ei?aeyoe?? noie aeiaaeeiaeo i?ioean?a [16];

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h iaoiaeeea oa ?acoeueoaoe noaoenoe/iiai
aiae?co aeaieo [36], [37];

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy oa iaienaiiy
i?ae?icae?e?a iiiia?ao?? [24];

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h i?eioeeie ia?aa??ee aei?noeino?
eiino?oeoe?e, eeaneo?eaoe?y oa i?eioeeie ii?ioaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo
cia/aiue ci?iieo iaaaioaaeaiue [39].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia Ananithci?e eiioapaioe??
«I?iaeaie iioei?caoe?? oa iaae?eiino? a aoae?aaeuei?e iaoai?oe?
(A?eueithn, 1988 ??e), eiioa?aioe?? «Oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo
oa i?iaeooaaiiy no/anieo aeae?a aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e» (?iaii, 1988
??e), oeie?-nai?ia?? «I?ia?aneai? iaoiaee aaaeaiiy i?iaeoieo ?
aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ia?o i?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? noaeaaeo ea?ean?a aoae?aaeue
oa nii?oae» (Ee?a, 1991 ??e), Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aei?iaoaaiiy
aoae?aaeueieo iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e a oiiaao ae?th/eo i?aei?e?inoa»
(Iaai?oiai?nuee, 1991 ??e), *aoaa?o?e oa I’yo?e Oe?a?inueeeo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo c iaoaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e (N?ioa?iiieue,
1988 ??e oa Ee?a, 1992 ??e), eiioa?aioe?? «Iaae?ei?noue aoae?aaeue ?
nii?oae» (*a?eane, 1993 ??e), Ia?o?e ?a?iiaenuee?e oa Ae?oa?e
?a?iac?aonuee?e eiioa?aioe?yo c a?o?i?iaeeia??? (Aa?oaaa, 1994 ??e oa
Aaioy, 1997 ??e), Ia?o?e I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Oaoi?/ia iaoai?ieia?y Ea?iao» (Euea?a, 1998 ??e), can?aeaiiyo
Oe?a?inueei? a?oie I?aeia?iaeii? Anioe?aoe?? c a?o?i?iaeeia??? (Iieoaaa,
1996 ??e oa Ee?a, 1997 ??e), ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e iaoaeaaeo oa
aea?aa’yieo eiino?oeoe?e Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e (aeena?oaoe?y o iiaiiio ianyc?), a oaeiae
ia ui??/ieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo Iieoaanueeiai
?iaeaia?ii-aoae?aaeueiiai ?inoeoooo (1988-1994 ?iee) oa Iieoaanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? TH??y Eiiae?aothea (1995-1998
?iee).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? a iaei?e
iaeiiin?ai?e iiiia?ao??, o?ueio a?ioo?ao, 20 noaooyo a iaoeiaeo
aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao, aeaio aeaiiiiaaieo ?oeiienao, a oaeiae a 13
iaoa??aeao oa oacao eiioa?aioe?e.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, naie ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 380 iaeiaioaaiue oa /ioe?ueio
aeiaeaoe?a. Aiia aeeeaaeaia ia 609 noi??ieao, c yeeo 292 noi??iee
iniiaiiai oaenoo, 41 noi??iea nienea aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, 158 noi??iie
aeiaeaoe?a. Iniiaia /anoeia ?iaioe i?noeoue 76 oaaeeoeue ia 32 noi??ieao
oa 136 ?enoie?a ia 86 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeeiiaii iaeyae ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue a aaeoc?
?ic?aooieo iaae?eiino? aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e, ?iia??i?niiai
iiaeaiiy oa ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ??cieo aeae?a, a oaeiae iaoiae?a
o?aooaaiiy ?o noi?nii? ae?? i?e ?ic?aooieao iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oai??? iaae?eiino? oa iaoiaee ioe?ithaaiiy iieaciee?a
aaca?aeiiaiino? iano/eo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ?ic?iaeyee
A.ss.Aa?aoeeia, A.A.Aieio?i, ?.A.Ai?ioia, ?.Ae.A?oae?a, A.ss.Ae??a?ia,
I.A.Eoaeei, O.A.Eaneethea, I.A.E?aeianueeee A.I.Eoaec?n, I.N.Ee/ia,
A.A.Ia?aeueiooa?, N.O.I?/oa?i, A.Ae.?aeca?, I.?.?aeai?oeei,
I.I.Neeaaei?a, I.N.No??eaoeueeee, TH.Ae.Nooia, N.A.O?iaoaa,
N.A.Onaeianueeee, A.?.Oaaei?ia, A.I.*??eia, G.Augusti, A.Baratta,
F.Casciati, J.Murzevski, C.J.Turkstra, Y.K.Wen oa ?io? a/ai?. Ieie
cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee ioe?ithaaiiy iaae?eiino? iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e, ui
aacothoueny ia ??cieo ?iia??i?nieo iiaeaeyo iaaaioaaeaiue oa ia
aeei?enoaii? iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei /e aeiaaeeiaeo
i?ioean?a ??ciiai aeaeo. ??ci? aniaeoe i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino?
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e ?icaeyaeaeeny oaeiae a aeine?aeaeaiiyo
?.?.Aaeai?, I.O.Aaoiaiea, A.I.Ai?ae??aa, I.I.AEa?a?ia, I.?.E?e?ia,
O.?.Eeeiaiea, A.I.Ei?ieueiaa, A.O.Iouaiiaa, A.I.Ia?iyeiaa,
A.A.Neeueaano?iaa, E.?.Noi?iaeaiea, A.A.O?io?iiae/a, A.A.Oaeiieya?/ona,
E.I.Oii?oee, A.A.Oo?niaa, A.I.Oeiaiianueeiai, I.E.Oaa?ia oa ?yaeo ?ioeo
a/aieo.

?ic?aooiee ianiaeo eiino?oeoe?e aeioe?eueii aeeiioaaoe ca iaoiaeii
a?aie/ieo noai?a, iaa?oiooaaith yeiai i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
I.I.Aaoue, A.A.Aaeae?ia, A.A.Aieio?ia, A.A.Aaicae?aa, A.A.Aaiia?e?iaa,
?.?.Aieueaeaiaeaoa, A.I.Eaeaeeoa, A.I.Ionoaaiiaa, A.A.Ia?aeueiooa?a,
N.O.I?/oa?ia, A.Ae.?aeca?a, I.?.?aeai?oeeia, I.I.Neeaaei?aa,
I.N.No??eaoeueeiai, TH.Ae.Nooiaa. Aieiai? ia?aaaae iaoiaeo a?aie/ieo
noai?a iieyaathoue o iiaeeeaino? ?aaoethaaiiy oa aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy
??aiy iaae?eiino? eiino?oeoe?e oeyoii a?aeiia?aeiiai aeai?o
?ic?aooieiaeo ia?aiao??a. I?e oeueiio ?ic?aooiee iinyoue cae/iee aeey
?iaeaia?a aeaoa?i?iiaaiee oa?aeoa?, a ?iia??i?ni? aeanoeaino?
eiino?oeoe?e oa ae?th/eo iaaaioaaeaiue a?aoiaothoueny i?e ii?ioaaii?
?ic?aooieiaeo ia?aiao??a.

Caaaeuei? iaoiaee ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??
cai?iiiiiaai? a aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.ss.Aa?aoeeiaa, I.I.Aaoue,
A.A.Aieio?ia, A.I.Ionoaaiiaa, A.A.Ia?aeueiooa?a, N.O.I?/oa?ia,
A.Ae.?aeca?a, I.?.?aeai?oeeia, I.I.Neeaaei?aa, I.N.No??eaoeueeiai,
TH.Ae.Nooiaa, N.A.O?iaoaaa, A.I.*??eiaa, G.Augusti, A.Baratta,
F.Casciati, E.Gumbel, J.Murzevski, J.A.Zuranski.

Noaoenoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ic?iaea ?iia??i?nieo iiaeaeae ? ii?ioaaiiy
ni?aiaiai oa a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiue aeeiioaaeeny a ?iaioao caaaeaieo
aeua a/aieo, a oaeiae A.I.Aecaia, E.A.Aiaiieuenueei?, ?.I.Aa?iaa?aeoa,
?.I.Aanipicaaiii?, I.A.Aeiia?aaeiaa, E.A.Aa?oeiaia, A.A.A?eiaae/a,
A.ss.Ae??a?iaa, I.A.Caaa??ii?, ?.?.E?iaoa, E.A.Ee?i?eiaa, A.I.Eiooo?ia,
I.O.Iaco??ia, A.N.?icaiaa?aa, Ae.I.?ioooaeia, ?.A.Na?a??ai?,
A.A.Nieieiaa A.I.No?ieaoiaa, I.A.Neaei?aiea, A.TH.Oaa?iaa,
A.?.Oaaei?iaa, A.A.O?e?iiiaa, G.Solari, W.Shiraki, J.Wieringa. sse
i?aaeei, aeey ia/eneaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue aeacaieo iaaaioaaeaiue
aeei?enoiaoaaeany noaia iacaeaaeieo aei?iaoaaiue. Ni?aiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy
ii?ioaaeiny c aeei?enoaiiyi ??/ieo iaeneioi?a aaae ni?aiaiai iie?eao,
io?eiaieo o ?acoeueoao? ni?aii??ieo ceiiie. A?o?iaee oene aecia/aany ca
?iciiae?eaie ?acoeueoao?a no?ieiaeo aei??thaaiue, a oaeiae ??/ieo /e
i?ny/ieo iaeneioi?a oaeaeeino? a?o?o. Cia/iee aeeaae a aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiai?/ii? neeaaeiai? a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aianee I.O.Aa?iooaei,
I.?.Eacaeaae/, A.A.Eoeyaei, A.E.Naaeoeueeee.

A?aei?/aia iayai?noue ?yaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oaoiieia?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue
a?ae iinoiaeo oa i?aea?nieo e?ai?a, iane iaoa??ae?a o neeaaenueeeo
i?ei?uaiiyo, ei?enieo iaaaioaaeaiue a aeeoeiaeo i?ei?uaiiyo oa ?ioeo.
Aeineoue iiaii ae??oaia caaea/a o?aooaaiiy noi?nii? ae?? e?aiiaeo oa
aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

Aeeiiaiee aiae?c aeicaieea aeyaeoe iaaeie?ee /eiieo ii?i iaaaioaaeaiue,
ye? cia/iith i??ith iaoiiaeai? a?aenooi?noth ?aeeii? iaoiaeieia??
ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie
aiaeico e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c?iaeaii aeniiaee oa noi?ioeueiaaii
caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? cai?iiiiiaaia ?iaeaia?ia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooie?a
iaae?eiino?, yea aaco?oueny ia ?iia??i?niiio iiaeaii? ci?iieo
iaaaioaaeaiue o oi?i? iine?aeiaiinoae iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue, a
iino?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy oa iano/i? caeaoiino? aeaiaioa eiino?oeoe?? — o
aeaeyae? ii?iaeueii ?iciiae?eaieo aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei. ?iciiae?e ?aca?aa
iano/i? caeaoiino? aeaiaioa eiino?oeoe?? iieno?oueny e?i?eiith
eiia?iaoe??th ?iciiae?e?a Aoiaaey ? Aaonna c ia?aiao?aie, aecia/aieie
/a?ac iaoaiaoe/ia niiae?aaiiy, noaiaea?o oa eiao?oe??io aneiao???
?iciiae?eo ?aca?ao iano/i? caeaoiino?. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey?
aecia/aoe ?iia??i?noue aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe aeaiaio?a iano/eo
eiino?oeoe?e c o?aooaaiiyi ae?th/eo i?ioean?a iaaaioaaeaiiy oa
anoaiiaeaieo no?ie?a neoaeae eiino?oeoe?e.

C aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeai? caeaaeiino? ??aiy
iaae?eiino? aeaiaio?a aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e a?ae aieeaath/eo
oaeoi??a. Ia ?iia??i?noue a?aeiiae iaeneeuei?oa aieeaathoue eiao?oe??io
aa??aoe?? iaaaioaaeaiiy oa ??aaiue caaacia/aiino? eiai ?ic?aooieiaiai
cia/aiiy. Aeyaeaii, ui ?ic?aooieia? ia?aiao?e iaoiaeo a?aie/ieo noai?a ?
aca?iii caeaaeieie, a eiao?oe??io iaae?eiino? ca i?ecia/aiiyi ia
caaacia/o? ieaiii??iiai ?aaoethaaiiy iaae?eiino?.

.

I?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeiee ??aaiue iaae?eiino? aeaiaio?a iano/eo
eiino?oeoe?e aeyaeaii ca aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e, a oaeiae a ?acoeueoao?
aiae?co ?iia??iinoae aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe oeiiaeo noaeaaeo oa?i
iie?eoo?a. C o?aooaaiiyi iino?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae iie??aaeue ??cieo
aeae?a oa ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey ??cieo aaia?ao?/ieo ?aeii?a
anoaiiaeaii, ui 85% ?icaeyiooeo oa?i iathoue ?iia??i?noue aaca?aeiiaii?
?iaioe, ia aeuo ca P = 0,99 i?e no?ieia? neoaeae 50 ?ie?a. Oeae ??aaiue
iaae?eiino? iaaeae? aaaaea?oueny i?i?iaeueii aeinoaoi?i ? ii?ioaaiiy
iaaaioaaeaiue aeeiio?oueny, aeoiaey/e c iueiai. Ia?ao?ae aei ?ioeo
??ai?a iaae?eiino? caaacia/o?oueny a?aeiia?aeiei aeai?ii eiao?oe??ioa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Ii?ioaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue on?o iaaaioaaeaiue c iaeiei ? oei aea
??aiai caaacia/aiino? i?eaiaeeoue aei ??cii? iaae?eiino? aeaiaio?a
iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e. Oi/ia ??oaiiy ii caaacia/aiith ??aiiiaae?eiino?
caiaeeoueny aei ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeai?o ?ic?aooieiaeo ia?aiao??a o
eiaeiiio aeiaaeeo, a oiio aiii ia iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaia ia i?aeoeoe?.
Iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiei aa??aioii ? aea?? ?yaeo caaacia/aiinoae
?ic?aooieiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue oa ?ic?aooieiaeo iii??a aoae?aaeueieo
iaoa??ae?a oaeei /eiii, uia aeiaeoeny i?eaeecii? ??aiiiaae?eiino?
eiino?oeoe?e. I?e oeueiio caaacia/ai?noue ?ic?aooieiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
ia? caeaaeaoe eeoa a?ae eiai noaoenoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, a
caaacia-/ai?noue ?ic?aooieiaiai iii?o — eeoa a?ae iaoa??aeo
eiino?oeoe??.

:

. (1)

iaeneioia oeueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ca no?ie neoaeae eiino?oeoe?? i?e
anoaiiaeaiiio aeua ??ai? iaae?eiino? ai?ieneiiaaia ae?acii

. (2)

C iaoith aaeaeaaoiiai o?aooaaiiy oiia ?iaioe eiino?oeoe?e cai?iiiiiaai?
niiniae aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa oiia ?iaioe. I?e ei?ic?eiiio ciiooaaii?
a?i ? ooieoe??th no?ieo neoaeae eiino?oeoe?? a aa?aneaiiio na?aaeiaeu?,
a o aeiaaeeo iaoai?/ieo iioeiaeaeaiue iiaea ia caeaaeaoe a?ae no?ieo
neoaeae.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? i?eioeeie oa ?ic?iaeai?
i?aeoe/i? iaoiaee ii?ioaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue iaaaioaaeaiue,
iienaieo ??cieie ?iia??i?nieie iiaeaeyie. Eeaneo?eaoe?y iaaaioaaeaiue oa
?o ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue ?ic?iaeaia c o?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae
i?ioean?a iaaaioaaeaiiy oa ?ic?aooieiaeo neooaoe?e, o yeeo aiie
aeei?enoiaothoueny. I?e oeueiio ?aae?ciaaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei ia?aa??ee
aei?noeino? eiino?oeoe?e, ca?aeii c yeei on? eiino?oeoe?? ?icae?eai? ia
aeaa eeane: aeey iaeieo ii?ia aei?noeino? iiaea aooe ia?aaeuaia iaeei
?ac ca iaaiee ia??iae, a aeey ?ioeo — i?ioyaii iaaii? /anoee no?ieo
neoaeae. Ia?o? ?ic?aoiaothoueny ia ae?th a?aie/iiai, a ae?oa? — ia ae?th
aenieoaoaoe?eiiai ?ic?aooieiaiai cia/aiiy.

, i?ioyaii yei? aiii iiaea ia?aaeuoaaoeny, c ??aiyiiy:

, (3)

— caeii ?iciiae?eo i?aeeiaoe aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano iaaaioaaeaiiy.
Aeoiaey/e c (3), io?eiai? ?iai/? oi?ioee aeey iaeiioe?ai?oeo caeii?a
?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy Aaonna, Aoiaaey, Aaeaoeea, aeniiiaioe?aeueiiai
oa iie?iiii-aeniiiaioe?aeueiiai.

. Aeiionoeia /anoioa eiai ia?aaeuaiiy aei??aith?

. (4)

?iai/? oi?ioee aeey aecia/aiiy a?aie/ieo ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue ci?iieo
iaaaioaaeaiue io?eiai?, aeoiaey/e c aeacaieo aeua caeii?a ?iciiae?eo oa
/ioe?ueio ?iia??i?nieo iiaeaeae: noaie iacaeaaeieo aei?iaoaaiue,
iine?aeiaiino? iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue, ?iioeueniiai oa
aeeoa?aioe?eiaiiai aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano.

cae/aeii a?aeiia?aea? /anoio? ia?aaeuaiue aeiaaeeiaei i?ioeanii
iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaee eiai ?iciiae?eo. Aeoiaey/e c iaaaaeaieo ia?aaeoiia,
io?eiai? oi?ioee aeey aecia/aiiy oeeee?/ieo ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue
iaaaioaaeaiue c ii?iaeueiei oa aaeaoe?anueeei caeiiaie ?iciiae?eo
i?aeeiaoe.

, io?eio?ii ??aiyiiy

, (5)

;

— aeiaaeeiaee i?ioean ci?iiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, caaeaiee aonoeiith
?iciiae?eo i?aeeiaoe f(q,() oa oa?aeoa?enoeeaie /anoioii? no?oeoo?e.

aecia/a?oueny o ?acoeueoao? aiae?oe/iiai /e /eneiaiai ?ica’yceo
??aiyiiy (5).

. I?e t = ( io?eio?ii aiaeia ??aiyiiy (5), ?ica’ycie yeiai ia?
aeaeyae:

, (6)

aea b = 0,04 1/??e — oa?aeoa?eco? oaeaee?noue caoooaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e
iiaco/ino? aaoiio.

aecia/a?oueny ye eaaioeeue aeiaaeeiai? aaee/eie (6) aeey iaiao?aeii?
caaacia/aiino? P.

?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue iaaaioaaeaiue io?eiai? oeyoii e?iaa?ecaoe??
oi?ioe aeey ia/eneaiiy oeeo cia/aiue aai ca iaoiaeii Iiioa-Ea?ei.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea oi/iino? (, yea iacaaia ii?iiaaiith
iioeaeith ioe?iee ?ic?aooieiaiai cia/aiiy:

, (7)

— ianya aea??ee aeaieo, aeei?enoaii? aeey ioe?ithaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaiai
cia/aiiy Q.

Io?eiai? ?iai/? oi?ioee aeey aecia/aiiy ii?iiaaieo iioeaie (7)
aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa a?aie/ieo ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue ci?iieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, ia/eneaieo ca ??cieie ?iia??i?nieie iiaeaeyie.
Oa?aeoa?enoeea oi/iino? (7) aeicaiey? ioe?ithaaoe ?iia??i? a?aeiini?
iioeaee (% oa aecia/aoe ianyae aeaieo Nmin, iaiao?aei? aeey ii?ioaaiiy
?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue c caaeaiith oi/i?noth. Oea a?aee?eaa?
iiaeeea?noue ii??aithaaoe ??ci? iaoiaee ia/eneaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo
iaaaioaaeaiue ca oi/i?noth ?acoeueoao?a oa iaiao?aeieie ianyaaie
aeo?aeieo aeaieo.

Ia aac? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a noi?ioeueiaai? i?eioeeie ii??aiyeueiiai
aiae?co ?iia??i?nieo iiaeaeae ci?iieo iaaaioaaeaiue oa iaoiae?a
ia/eneaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaai? iniaeeaino? iaoai?ieia?/ieo aeaieo
oa ?o aieea ia ?acoeueoaoe ii?ioaaiiy aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue.
Cai?iiiiiaai? niiniae o?aooaaiiy aieeao i?iione?a aeaieo, eaaiooaaiiy ca
??aiai ? /anii, a oaeiae oeaico?oaaiiy iayaieo aea??ie.

Aiane?aeie aieeao i?e?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo oaeoi??a oa aeiaaeeiaeo iioeaie
aei??thaaiue aeai? ie?aieo iaoainoaioe?e a?aeoeeythoueny a?ae caaaeueii?
caeiiii??iino? ci?ie iaaaioaaeaiiy ii oa?eoi???. Caaea/a
oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue iieyaa? o
anoaiiaeaii? ?aeiiieo cia/aiue ?ic?aooieiaeo ia?aiao??a oa iaae
oa?eoi??aeueieo ?aeii?a oaeei /eiii, uia cia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaiai
ia?aiao?a aeey eiaeii? iaoainoaioe?? iaee?aua a?aeiia?aeaee anoaiiaeaiei
?aeiiiei cia/aiiyi.

I?inoi?iaa i?ieea?noue ?ic?aooieiaeo ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue iieno?oueny ?iia??i?niith iiaeaeeth aeiaaeeiaiai iiey,
iaoaiaoe/ia niiae?aaiiy yeiai aecia/a?oueny oeyoii caeaaeaeoaaiiy
i?aeeiao, a noaiaea?o ia/eneth?oueny a ?acoeueoao? noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee
caeeoe?a a?ae caeaaeaeoaaiiy. E?ie a?aaeaoe?? oa?eoi??aeueieo ?aeii?a
iiaeiai aooe ii iiaeeeaino? iaaaeeeei, aea oaeei, uia a iniiaiiio
ia?ae?eaaoe aeiaaeeia? oeoeooaoe?? aeaieo aeayeeo iaoainoaioe?e. Oaeee
i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? i?i?i?coaaoe ?iia??iino? a?aeianaiiy ie?aieo
iaoainoaioe?e aei iaa?aeiia?aeieo ?aeii?a. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae
oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe iioeiaeueiee e?ie a?aaeaoe??, ?aeiii?
cia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaiai ia?aiao?a oa aaia?ao?/i? iaae? oa?eoi??aeueieo
?aeii?a. I?e oeueiio a?aoiaothoueny oi/iino? ioe?ithaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaiai
ia?aiao?a ia eiaei?e iaoainoaioe?? oa aaaeai? caiane oa?eoi??aeueiiai
?aeiioaaiiy.

A?aie/i? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy ci?iieo iaaaioaaeaiue ? ooieoe?yie no?ieo
neoaeae eiino?oeoe??, ia/eneaieie ca iaoiaeeeith, aeeeaaeaiith a
?icae?e? 3. Aiae?c ??cieo niinia?a oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy oeeo
caeaaeiinoae iieacaa, ui iaee?aua aeeiioaaoe oa?eoi??aeueia ?aeiioaaiiy
a?aie/iiai ?ic?aooieiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui a?aeiia?aea? aeayeiio
aaciaiio no?ieia? neoaeae eiino?oeoe??. Ia?ao?ae aei ?ioeo no?ie?a
neoaeae aeeiio?oueny ca ii?iiaaiith caeaaei?noth, ina?aaeiaiith a iaaeao
aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi???. Iaeiaio? iioeaee oa?eoi??aeueiiai
?aeiioaaiiy ni?aiaiai oa a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiue aeieeathoue i?e
aaciaiio no?ieia? neoaeae T = 40 ?ie?a. Ca oei aea i?eioeeiii
?aeiiothoueny caeaaeiino? aenieoaoaoe?eieo ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue a?ae
/anoee no?ieo neoaeae, i?ioyaii yei? aiie iiaeooue ia?aaeuoaaoeny.

?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy ?aae?ciaaiee a i?ia?ai?
aeey ia?niiaeueiiai eiii’thoa?a, yea caaacia/o? iiaoaeiao ea?o
?aeiioaaiiy ca ia/eneaieie cia/aiiyie ?ic?aooieiaeo ia?aiao??a
aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aii noaoenoe/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith oa ii?ioaaiith
a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. ?icaeyaea?oueny noaoe/ia
neeaaeiaa a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aenio? 10 i iaae iiaa?oiath caie?,
yea a?aeiia?aea? aeanyoeoaeeeiiiio ?ioa?aaeia? ina?aaeiaiiy oaeaeeino?
a?o?o. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai? ?acoeueoaoe ainueieno?ieiaeo
niinoa?aaeaiue, aeeiiaieo i?ioyaii 21 ?ieo ia 195 iaoainoaioe?yo
Oe?a?ie.

= 5,5 1/aeiao.

Ca aeaieie oeo aea iaoainoaioe?e oa iaoiaeeeith, ?ic?iaeaiith a ?icae?e?
3, ia/eneai? oeeee?/i? oa eaac?iino?ei? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy a?o?iaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aiae?c iieacaa, ui na?aaeiy neeaaeiaa a?o?iaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aeyaey? ?noioiiai aieeao ia aeo?eaae?noue ? ia
iiaco/?noue eiino?oeoe?e, a oiio ii?ioaaiiy oeeee?/ieo oa eaac?iino?eieo
?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue ia ia? naino.

A?aie/i? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia/eneai? ca
aeaieie 195 iaoainoaioe?e c o?aooaaiiyi iaiao?aeii? caaacia/aiino? oa
no?ie?a neoaeae a?ae 5 aei 200 ?ie?a. Aiie ci?iththoueny a aeineoue
oe?ieeo iaaeao, i?eeiath/e iaea?eueo? cia/aiiy a ?aeiiao Ea?iao, E?eio
oa a I?eacia’?. ??cea a?aei?ii?noue aeaieo aenieia??ieo iaoainoaioe?e
a?ae noi?aeieo ?aeii?a niiioeaea aei ii?ioaaiiy a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
aeey ??aieiieo i?noeaainoae oa ie?aiiai o?aooaaiiy aenioe iaae ??aiai
ii?y.

= 40 ?ie?a, iaaaaeaia ia ?enoieo 2, ia? 5 oa?eoi??eueieo ?aeii?a c
?ic?aooieiaeie cia/aiiyie a iaaeao a?ae 300 aei 800 Ia. Ei?enooth/enue
ea?oith oa cia?aaeaiith ia ?enoieo 3 ocaaaeueiaiith aeey on???
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie caeaaei?noth a?ae no?ieo neoaeae, a?aie/i?
?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy na?aaeiuei? neeaaeiai? a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ia/enethaaoe ca oi?ioeith:

. (8)

Aenieoaoaoe?ei? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia/eneai?
ca aeaieie oeo aea iaoainoaioe?e aeey oe?ieiai ae?aiaciio /anoie no?ieo
neoaeae eiino?oeoe?e, i?ioyaii yeeo aiie iiaeooue ia?aaeuoaaoeny.
Caeiiii??iino? oa?eoi??aeueii? i?ieeaino? io?eiaieo cia/aiue caaaeii
aeecuee? aei a?aie/ieo ?ic?aooieiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue. Ii??aiyiiy o?ueio
niinia?a oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy iieacaei, ui iaea?eueo oi/iei oa
c?o/iei aeey aeei?enoaiiy ? niin?a, aiaeia?/iee aei ?aeiioaaiiy
a?aie/ieo ?ic?aooieiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue. Ia ?enoieo 4 iaaaaeaia ea?oa
oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue
a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey aaciaiai cia/aiiy /anoee no?ieo neoaeae ( =
0,01, ia ye?e aeae?eaii 5 oa?eoi??aeueieo ?aeii?a c ?aeiiieie cia/aiiyie
a?ae 60 Ia aei 150 Ia. Ei?enooth/enue ea?oith oa cia?aaeaiith ia ?enoieo
5 ocaaaeueiaiith aeey oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie caeaaei?noth aenieoaoaoe?eieo
?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue a?ae /anoee no?ieo neoaeae, i?ioyaii yei? aiie
iiaeooue ia?aaeuoaaoeny, iiaeia ia/enethaaoe aenieoaoaoe?ei?
?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ca oi?ioeith:

. (9)

?ic?iaeai? ea?oe oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy ? aeineoue aeaoaeueieie ?
a na?aaeiueiio ii oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie caaacia/othoue iacia/ia ciaioaiiy
?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ii??aiyii c /eiieie NIeI
2.01.07-85. ?acii c oei, o aeayeeo ?aeiiao E?eio oa I?eacia’y
?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy iaiao?aeii ca?eueoeoe.

Aiae?c caeaaeiinoae a?aie/iiai ?ic?aooieiaiai cia/aiiy a?o?iaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae iai?yieo a?o?o iieacaa, ui o?aooaaiiy i???ioaoe??
aoae?aaeue iiaea aeaoe cia/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo i?e i?iaeooaaii?
iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e. Io?eiai? oa a ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii? ocaaaeueiai?
aeey ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie eiao?oe??ioe iai?yieo a?o?o iiaeaeoaee
iiaeooue cieaeoaaoe a?o?iaa iaaaioaaeaiiy iaeaea a aeaa ?ace .

C iaoith ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?ic?aooie?a iaae?eiino?
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e aeeiiaia oa?eoi??aeueia ?aeiioaaiiy Oe?a?ie
ca noaoenoe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?iia??i?nieo iiaeaeae
aeeoa?aioe?eiaiiai aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano oa iine?aeiaiino? i?ny/ieo
iaeneioi?a a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Oinoee ?icae?e i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe noaoenoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
ii?ioaaiiy ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Aeo?aeieie
aeaieie ? ?acoeueoaoe ?aaoey?ieo ni?aiceiiie ia 240 ioieoao
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ia??iae 16 — 40 ?ie?a. A?eueoa 80% oe?a?inueeeo
iaoainoaioe?e ?icoaoiaai? ia ??aieii?e i?noeaaino?, ia caoeuai?e a?ae
ae?? a?o?o. Ine?eueee naia oae? aaia?ao?/i? oiiae ? oa?aeoa?ieie aeey
Oe?a?ie, ?icaeyaea?oueny aaaa ni?aiaiai iie?eao ia iiaa?oi? caie? ia
a?aee?eo?e ??aieii?e i?noeaaino?. Aenioo iaae ??aiai ii?y,
a?eueoo ca 400 i, oa caoeuai?noue ieiuaaeee a?ae ae?? a?o?o ne?ae
a?aoiaoaaoe aeiaeaoeiaeie eiao?oe??ioaie.

Aeoiaey/e c ?acoeueoao?a ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co iiaeeeaeo ?iia??i?nieo
iiaeaeae, a?aie/i? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
ia/eneai? ca iine?aeiaiinoyie ??/ieo iaeneioi?a aaae ni?aiaiai iie?eao c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?iai/eo oi?ioe oa caaacia/aiinoae, io?eiaieo a ?icae?eao 2
oa 3. Ea?oa oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy Oe?a?ie ca a?aie/ieie
?ic?aooieiaeie cia/aiiyie ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey aaciaiai no?ieo
neoaeae 40 ?ie?a iiaeaia ia ?enoieo 6. Ia i?e aeae?eaii o?noue
oa?eoi??aeueieo ?aeii?a c ?ic?aooieiaeie iaaaioaaeaiiyie a?ae 0,8 aei
2,2 EIa. Caeaaei?noue a?ae no?ieo neoaeae ia? oaeee aea aeaeyae, ye ?
aeey a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, o ca’yceo c /ei a?aie/i? ?ic?aooieia?
cia/aiiy ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ne?ae ia/enethaaoe ca oi?ioeith (8), o
ye?e Q0 — cia/aiiy c ea?oe 6.

, ye? iiaeooue ia?aaeuoaaoeny i?ioyaii 1% no?ieo neoaeae aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e. Ia?ao?ae aei ?ioeo /anoie no?ieo neoaeae ( aeeiio?oueny
ca oi?ioeith

, (10)

— cia/aiiy c ea?oe 7.

C ?ic?iaeaieo ea?o aeaeii, ui aeey caaacia/aiiy aeinoaoiueiai ??aiy
iaae?eiino? iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy ni?aiaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy iaiao?aeii ca?eueoeoe ii??aiyii c? NIeI 2.01.07-85 a
1,3 — 2,2 ?ace . Aeeiiai? a ?icae?e? 7 i?eeeaaee ?ic?aooieo iieacothoue,
ui i?e iaaaeeeiio ca?eueoaii? iaoa??aeii?noeino? oea i?eaiaeeoue aei
ea?aeeiaeueiiai c?inoaiiy iaae?eiino? iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e iie?eoo?a.

Eaac?iino?ei? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia/eneai?
aeey o?aooaaiiy iiaco/ino? aaoiio ia iniia? iaoiaeeee, ?ic?iaeaii? a
?icae?e? 3. O aeiaaeeo eaac?noaoe?iia?iiai aeeoa?aioe?eiaiiai
aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy eaac?iino?ei? ?ic?aooieia?
cia/aiiy caeaaeaoue a?ae eaeaiaea?iiai iiiaioo caaaioaaeaiiy
eiino?oeoe??, a oiio aiie ia/eneai? aeey iaaecia/aiiai /ano ii/aoeo
aenieoaoaoe??. ?ic?iaeaia ea?oa oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy Oe?a?ie ca
eaac?iino?eieie ?ic?aooieiaeie cia/aiiyie ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ia
ye?e aeae?eaii o?noue ?aeii?a c ?ic?aooieiaeie cia/aiiyie a?ae 100 EIa
aei 600 EIa (?enoiie 8). I?e iaiao?aeiino? iiaeia ia?aeoe aei
eaac?iino?eiiai ?ic?aooieiaiai cia/aiiy, ui a?aeiia?aea?
iaeiaaea?aei?oiio iiiaioo ii/aoeo aenieoaoaoe?? eiino?oeoe??, ca
oi?ioeith:

. (11)

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaio?eaaei? i?ieeaino? ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
aeeiiaia ca aeaieie 23 iaoainoaioe?e, aeey yeeo iayai? aeineoue aeiaa?
(a?eueoa 40 ?ie?a) ?yaee niinoa?aaeaiue. Aaaaoini?aei? ceie, ui
ia??iaee/ii niinoa??aathoueny ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie, ? aeineoue ??aeeei,
aea ia iaaecae/aeiei yaeuai. Aeyaeaia ia??iaee/i?noue o ci?i?
iaeini?aeieo oa aaaaoini?aeieo cei, yea a?aee?eaa? iiaeeea?noue
ei?ioeioa?i?iiaiai i?iaiicoaaiiy a?aie/ieo ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue
ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.

C iaoith ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ?ic?aooie?a iaae?eiino?
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e aeeiiaia oa?eoi??aeueia ?aeiioaaiiy Oe?a?ie
ca iniiaieie noaoenoe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie eaac?noaoe?iia?iiai
aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy oa iine?aeiaiinoyie eiai
??/ieo iaeneioi?a.

O nueiiiio ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeai? ?iia??i?ni? iiaeae? oa iaoiaee ii?ioaaiiy
aeayeeo i?e?iaeieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, ?icaeyioo?
iniaeeaino? ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia ia’?eoe, ui ia?aaoaathoue a
aenieoaoaoe??, a oaeiae aeeiiai? i?eeeaaee ?ic?aooie?a iano/eo
eiino?oeoe?e ?c canoinoaaiiyi io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ii?ioaaiiy
ni?aiaiai oa a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiue.

Ca aeaieie iaoainoaioe?? *i?iiaeeue ia/eneai? a?aie/i? ?ic?aooieia?
cia/aiiy ni?aiaiai oa a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aeey ia??iae?a
iiaoi?thaaiino? aei 10000 ?ie?a oa aenieoaoaoe?ei? — aeey /anoie no?ieo
neoaeae eiino?oeoe?e, a?eueoeo ca 0.00001. Oae? aeai? iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a ?ic?aooieao iniaeeai a?aeiia?aeaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Oiaueia oa?o iaeaeaae? iiaeaia o aeaeyae? ?iioeueniiai aeiaaeeiaiai
i?ioeano, ui aeicaiey? ia/enethaaoe ?? a?aie/i? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy.
Ia i?eeeaae? oanoe oe?a?inueeeo iaoainoaioe?e aeine?aeaeai? oaeiae
aonoeia iaeaeaae?, oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y oa oaeaee?noue a?o?o i?e
iaeaeaae?. Aeyaeai? aca?ii? caeaaeiino? ia?aiao??a iaeaeaaeiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy aeacothoue ia iiaeeea?noue ooi/iaiiy ?ic?aooieiaiai
cia/aiiy aonoeie iaeaeaae? oa a?o?iaiai oeneo i?ae /an iaeaeaae?.

Ci?ie na?aaeiueiaeiaiai? oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y iienai? ?iia??i?niith
iiaeaeeth eaac?noaoe?iia?iiai aeeoa?aioe?eiaiiai aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano c
??/iei ia??iaeii ianoaoe?iia?iino?. Oaiia?aoo?a eiino?oeoe?? ?
aeiaaeeiaei i?ioeanii, io?eiaiei o ?acoeueoao? iioi/iiai caeaaeaeoaaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y ia ?ioa?aae?, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae oaieiai? ?ia?oe??
eiino?oeoe??. Oeyoii ?ioaa?oaaiiy aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano oaiia?aoo?e
iia?o?y ?ic?iaeaia i?aeoe/ia iaoiaeeea ia/eneaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue
oaiia?aoo?ieo aieea?a ia iano/? eiino?oeoe??. Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeicaieythoue i?iii?ioaaoe oaiia?aoo?i? aieeae ia iano/? eiino?oeoe?? c
o?aooaaiiyi ?o oaieiai? ?ia?oe??, no?ieo neoaeae oa aaia?ao?/iiai
iieiaeaiiy.

Noaoenoe/iee aiae?c oaoiieia?/ieo oaiia?aoo? noaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e
oeao?a c iaaeeeoeiaeie aeae?eaiiyie oaiea aeicaieea i?aaenoaaeoe ?o o
oi?i? ii?iaeueieo noaoe?iia?ieo aeiaaeeiaeo i?ioean?a, ui caaacia/o?
ia/eneaiiy a?aie/ieo, aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa oeeee?/ieo ?ic?aooieiaeo
cia/aiue. C aeei?enoaiiyi aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo TH.I.Aiaiue?ia
anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ic?aooieia? oaiia?aoo?e iiaeooue ia?aaeuoaaoe
200(N ? aeyaeyoe cia/iee aieea ia ?iaioo iano/eo aoae?aaeueieo
eiino?oeoe?e. Ia ie?aieo i?eeeaaeao i?iaiae?ciaai? caeiiii??iino? ci?ie
oaoiieia?/ieo oaiia?aoo? eiino?oeoe?e ii aenio? oa ii aeiaaeei? oeaoo.

Aa?oeeaeuei? iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae iinoiaeo e?ai?a aeine?aeaeai? c
aeei?enoaiiyi iioae?eiaaieo ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueii-noaoenoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue A.I.Eiooo?ia oa TH.N.Eoi?ia. Iiaeaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
iaaaioaaeaiue o oi?i? ii?iaeueieo noaoe?iia?ieo aeiaaeeiaeo i?ioean?a
aeicaieeei ia/eneeoe a?aie/i?, aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa oeeee?/i? ?ic?aooieia?
cia/aiiy. C iaoith ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeoaai? e?aie
ca?oiiaai? ca oaoiieia?/ieie iciaeaie oeao?a, o yeeo aiie
aeei?enoiaooueny. Io?eiai? ioe?iee /anoio oeeee?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue
(/anoioa iane??cieo i?i?cae?a acaeiaae i?aee?aiiai? eiino?oeoe?? a
iaaeao a?ae 250 aei 1950 1/aeiao), iaiao?aei? aeey ?ic?aooie?a
i?aee?aiiaeo eiino?oeoe?e ia aoiiethaai?noue.

Iino?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae iane eiino?oeoe?e iiaeia ii?ioaaoe aeaiia
niiniaaie: a?aeiia?aeii aei ae?th/eo NIeI 2.01.07-85, a oaeiae oeyoii
?icae?eueiiai anoaiiaeaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo ? a?aie/ieo ?ic?aooieiaeo
cia/aiue ?ici???a eiino?oeoe?e oa aonoeie aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a.
Anoaiiaeai? caeaaeiino? caaacia/aiinoae ?ici???a ? aonoeie a?ae
eiao?oe??io?a aa??aoe?? oeeo oa?aeoa?enoee. I?e ii?ioaaii? iino?eiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe caieiaeaiiy ?ciethth/eo oa??a aiane?aeie
i?iieeiaiiy ia?e c na?aaeeie aoae?ae?, yea iaieio/a aeieea? a
noaoe?iia?iiio ?aaeei? aenieoaoaoe??. Aeiaaeie iiaiiai iane/aiiy aiaeith
i?e ii?ooaii? u?eueiino? a?ae?i?cieyoe?? aeioe?eueii aaaaeaoe aaa??eiei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi.

Iiaeaiiy i?inoi?iai? i?ieeaino? iino?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy o oi?i?
aeiaaeeiaiai iiey aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe caeaaei?noue a?aie/iiai
?ic?aooieiaiai cia/aiiy a?ae ?ici???a aaioaaeii? iiaa?oi? iano/i?
eiino?oeoe??. Ia ?aaeueieo aeaieo, io?eiaieo i?e iaoo?ieo ianoaaeaiiyo
iie??aaeue, iieacaii, ui ca ?aooiie ina?aaeiaiiy ii aaioaaei?e iiaa?oi?
?ic?aooieiaa cia/aiiy ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eaiiai iino?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
ia e?iea’yio oa?io iiaea aooe ia 10% — 20% iaioei a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
ieeoo iie?eooy.

?ic?iaeai? ?iia??i?ni? iiaeae? oa iaoiaee aiae?co canoiniaai? oaeiae
aeey i???ioiaiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy a?o?iaia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a Oe?a?ie.
?icaeyaeath/e iiooaei?noue a?o?iaia?aaoe/iiai aa?aaaoa ye aeiaaeeiaee
i?ioean, io?eiaiee /a?ac i?ioean oaeaeeino? a?o?o oa aia?aaoe/io
oa?aeoa?enoeeo a?o?iaa?aaaoa, ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy
aa?aioiaaii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? a?o?iaa?aaaoa. sse i?eeeaae, caoaeiaaia
ea?oa oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy Oe?a?ie ca ??/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth
a?o?iaia?aaoe/iiai aa?aaaoa 56-100 o??ie Windpower, ye? aaea
i?aoeththoue a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaeeea aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo ii?iaoea?a a?o?iaiai oa ni?aiaiai
iaaaioaaeaiue iieacaia ia i?eeeaaeao ?ic?aooieo noaeaai? aaeee iie?eooy
oa eieiie ea?eana neeaaenueei? aoae?ae?. Io?eiai? iiia?a/i? ia?a??ce
aaeee oa eieiie ii??aithaaeeny c ia?a??caie, cai?iaeoiaaieie ia
iaaaioaaeaiiy ca?aeii c? NIeI 2.01.07-85. ?iia??i?noue aaca?aeiiaii?
?iaioe aaeee iie?eooy i?e no?ieia? neoaeae 60 ?ie?a ca?eueoo?oueny c
0,89 i?e i?iaeooaaii? ca NIeI aei 0,995 i?e i?iaeooaaii? ia
?aeiiaiaeiaai? a ?icae?eao 5 oa 6 ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy aoiinoa?ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue. Ioaea, cai?iiiiiaaia a ?iaio? ca?eueoaiiy ni?aiaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e ii??aiyii iacia/iiio (ia 8%) c?inoaii?
iaoa??aeii?noeino? ea?eana aa?aioo? i?eioeeiiaa i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino?
iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e, a oiio ? oe?eeii ii?aaaeaiei ? iaiao?aeiei.

AENIIAEE CA ?ACOEUeOAOAIE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i ae??oaiiy
e?oiii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeaie: ?ic?iaee caaaeueii? iaoiaeieia??
ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? oa ii?ioaaiiy
ni?aiaiai ? a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiue aeey oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Oaeei /eiii,
iinoaaeaio iaoo ?iaioe iiaeia aaaaeaoe aeinyaiooith. Aiae?c io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ianooii? aeniiaee:

1. *eii? ii?ie i?iaeooaaiiy ia caaacia/othoue aeinoaoiuei oi/iiai
?aaoethaaiiy iaae?eiino? oa o?aooaaiiy no?ieo neoaeae i?e ?ic?aooieao
iano/eo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e, a ?iia??i?ni? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo ia
iiaeooue aaciina?aaeiuei aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey i?iaeooaaiiy ianiaeo
eiino?oeoe?e aiane?aeie neeaaeiino? ?ic?aooieiai? i?ioeaaeo?e oa
a?aenooiino? iaiao?aeiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy.

2. Ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ca iaoiaeeeith, iieeaaeaiith a iniiao NIeI
2.01.07-85, i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai caieaeaiiy a?aie/ieo ?ic?aooieiaeo
cia/aiue ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui iiaea noaoe iaei??th c i?e/ei
aaa??e iie?eoo?a o i?aaeaiieo ?aeiiao Oe?a?ie. Oa?eoi??aeueia
?aeiioaaiiy NIeI iaaeinoaoiuei aeaoaeueia oa i?eaiaeeoue aei caieaeaiiy
?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue iaeaea aeey iieiaeie
iaoainoaioe?e.

3. I?iaeooaaiiy iano/eo aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e c o?aooaaiiyi
anoaiiaeaiiai no?ieo neoaeae oa caaeaii? ?iia??iino? aaca?aeiiaii?
?iaioe iiaeia aanoe c aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? iaoiaeo
a?aie/ieo noai?a, o ye?e ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy iaaaioaaeaiue
ii?iothoueny, aeoiaey/e c caaeaii? ?iia??iino? ?o iaia?aaeuaiiy
(caaacia/aiino?) i?ioyaii anoaiiaeaiiai no?ieo neoaeae, a iaiao?aeiee
??aaiue iaae?eiino? eiino?oeoeaiiai aeaiaioa ?aaoeth?oueny eiao?oe??ioii
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. Aecia/ai? caaacia/aiino? ?ic?aooieiaeo
iaaaioaaeaiue, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeiiio ??aith
iaae?eiino? aeaiaio?a iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e.

4. Aeey ii?ioaaiiy ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? iaaaioaaeaiue oa aieea?a ia
aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?iia??i?ni?
iiaeae? ?iciiae?eo ?acoeueoao?a iioi/ieo aei??thaaiue, iine?aeiaiino?
iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue iaaaioaaeaiiy ca oa?aeoa?i? i?ii?aeee /ano,
?iioeueniiai oa aeeoa?aioe?eiaiiai aeiaaeeiaeo i?ioean?a. A?aeiia?aeii
aei cai?iiiiiaaii? eeaneo?eaoe?? iaaaioaaeaiue oa ?o ?ic?aooieiaeo
cia/aiue, ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a aeacaieo iiaeaeae oa
io?eiai? ?iai/? oi?ioee aeey ia/eneaiiy a?aie/ieo, aenieoaoaoe?eieo,
oeeee?/ieo oa eaac?iino?eieo ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue ci?iieo
iaaaioaaeaiue.

5. ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy iaaaioaaeaiue, ia/eneai? c aeei?enoaiiyi
ne?i/aiiai ianyao noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, iiaeooue iaoe iaoiaee/i?,
nenoaiaoe/i? oa aeiaaeeia? iioeaee. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee ioe?ithaaiiy oeeo
iioeaie ? cai?iiiiiaaia oa?aeoa?enoeea oi/iino?, yea aeicaiey? aecia/eoe
aeiaaeeiao iioeaeo oa aeia??/? iaae? aeey ?ic?aooieiaiai cia/aiiy,
ia/eneaiiai ca ia?aiith ?iia??i?niith iiaeaeeth oa iaaiei ianyaii
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo.

6. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo
ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue c o?aooaaiiyi no?ieo neoaeae
eiino?oeoe?e (/e eiai /anoee aeey aenieoaoaoe?eieo cia/aiue) oa
aeiaaeeiaeo iioeaie aeo?aeieo aeaieo.

7. Ca aeaieie aeecueei 200 iaoainoaioe?e Oe?a?ie noi?iiaaii aaie
iaoai?ieia?/ieo aeaieo, yeee i?noeoue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aei??yio
aiaii?oiaii??aie 10-oaeeeiio na?aaeith oaeaee?noue a?o?o oa aecia/aio o
i?ioean? ni?aiceiiie aaao ni?aiaiai iie?eao ia iiaa?oi? caie?.
I?iaiae?ciaaii aieea iniaeeainoae iaoai?ieia?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue ia
?acoeueoaoe ii?ioaaiiy aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue.

8. Oeyoii ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co aea?ai? iioeiaeuei? ?iia??i?ni? iiaeae?
aeey ii?ioaaiiy aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue:

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h aeeoa?aioe?eiaiee aeiaaeeiaee i?ioean
oaeaeeino? a?o?o — aeey ia/eneaiiy on?o ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue a?o?iaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy;

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h iine?aeiai?noue ??/ieo iaeneioi?a aaae
ni?aiaiai iie?eao — aeey ia/eneaiiy a?aie/ieo ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue
ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy;

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h eaac?noaoe?iia?iee aeeoa?aioe?eiaiee
aeiaaeeiaee i?ioean — aeey ia/eneaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa eaac?iino?eieo
?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue ni?aiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.

9. Ca aeacaieie ?iia??i?nieie iiaeaeyie ia/eneai? oa ?aeiiiaai? ii
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy ni?aiaiai ? a?o?iaiai
iaaaioaaeaiue. ?ic?iaeai? ea?oe oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy
aeicaieythoue aecia/aoe ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy iaaaioaaeaiue:

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h a?aie/i? — aeey caaeaiiai
aaia?ao?/iiai ?aeiio oa no?ieo neoaeae eiino?oeoe??;

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h aenieoaoaoe?ei? — aeey caaeaiiai
aaia?ao?/iiai ?aeiio oa /anoee no?ieo neoaeae, i?ioyaii yei? aiii iiaea
ia?aaeuoaaoeny;

NEIAIE 183 \f «Symbol» \s 12 \h eaac?iino?ei? — aeey caaeaiiai
aaia?ao?/iiai ?aeiio.

Ii??aiyiiy c a?aeiia?aeieie aeaieie NIeI 2.01.07-85 iieacaei, ui o
na?aaeiueiio ii oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie a?o?iaa iaaaioaaeaiiy iaeaea ia
ci?ith?oueny. Aeey caaacia/aiiy aeinoaoiueiai ??aiy iaae?eiino? iano/eo
eiino?oeoe?e iie?eoo?a a?aie/i? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy ni?aiaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy iaiao?aeii ca?eueoeoe ii??aiyii c? NIeI o na?aaeiueiio a
aeaa ?ace.

10. ?ic?iaeai? ea?oe oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy Oe?a?ie ca iniiaieie
?iia??i?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ni?aiaiai oa a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiue, ye?
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a ?ic?aooieao iaae?eiino? iano/eo
aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

11. Aeeiiaia ii?ioaaiiy ni?aiaiai oa a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiue ca aeaieie
iaoainoaioe?? *i?iiaeeue aeey aaeeeeo ia??iae?a iiaoi?thaaiino?, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai aei iniaeeai a?aeiia?aeaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e
Cai?iiiiiaai? oa iaa?oioiaai? ia ie?aieo i?eeeaaeao ?iia??i?ni? iiaeae?,
ye? caaacia/othoue ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue a?ae iaeaeaae? oa
oaiia?aoo?ieo aieea?a. ?icaeyioo? iniaeeaino? ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue
a?ae iinoiaeo e?ai?a oa a?ae iane aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e.

12. Ia i?eeeaae? i?iaeooaaiiy ea?eana neeaaenueei? aoae?ae? iieacaii, ui
cai?iiiiiaaia a ?iaio? ca?eueoaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue ni?aiaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy caaacia/o? aeiaaaeaiiy iaae?eiino? iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e
iie?eoo?a aei i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy i?e ii??aiyii iaaaeeeeo
aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?aoao noae?.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Iiiia?ao?y:

1. Iaoeinueeee A.A. Aoiinoa?i? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aoae?aaeuei?
eiino?oeoe?? ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.- E.: Oe?IAe?i?iaeonoaeueeiino?oeoe?y,
1999.- 185 n.

A?ioo?e:

2. Iiniaea ii i?iaeoe?iaaieth oneeaiey noaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee (E NIeI
11-23-81).- I.: No?ieecaeao, 1989.- 159 n.

3. AeAI 362-93. Ioe?iea oaoi?/iiai noaio noaeaaeo eiino?oeoe?e
ae?iaie/eo aoae?aaeue ? nii?oae, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a aenieoaoaoe?? /
Aea?aeaoae Oe?a?ie.- E.: Oe?a?oaoae?ioi?i, 1995.- 46 n.

4. AeAI A.1.2-…-97. Nenoaia caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino? oa aaciaee
aoae?aaeueieo ia’?eo?a. Caaaeuei? i?eioeeie caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino? ?
aaciaee aoae?aaeue, nii?oae, aoae?aaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e oa iniia.
(I?iaeo).- E.: Oe?IAe?INE, 1997.- 57 n.

Noaoo? o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo:

5. Iaoeinueeee A.A. A?aoiaoth/e ni?aia? iaaaioaaeaiiy // N?euenueea
aoae?aieoeoai. — 1988.- ? 10.- n. 13.

6. Iaoeineee A.A., Oa?/aiei TH.A. Oneeaiea noaeueiuo eieiii n iaueie
iiaeaaie aaoaae // I?iiuoeaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai e eiaeaia?iua
nii?oaeaiey. — 1989.- ? 3.- n. 30-31.

7. Iaoeinueeee A.A., Eaeaeaiianueeee A.A., Eaeue/aiei A.I. Ni?aiaa
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia iie??aeth // AIE. Iaoea, oaoi?ea, i?aeoeea.- 1990.- ?
12.- n. 43.

8. Iaoeineee A.A. E o/aoo n?iea neoaeau i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee yeaiaioia
ianoueo eiino?oeoeee // Iaaeaaeiinoue no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee:
Iaaeaocianeee nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia.- Eoeauoaa: 1990.- n. 95-96.

9. Iaoeineee A.A., Naiaiiaa O.TH., Eaieueieoeuia E.A. Ii?aaeaeaiea
aao?iaie iaa?ocee ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua caeaiey n o/aoii eo i?eaioaoeee e
n?iea neoaeau // I?i/iinoue, iaaeaaeiinoue e aeieaiaa/iinoue
no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee: Iaaeaocianeee nai?iee. Iaaieoiai?ne: 1990.-
n. 114-122.

10. Aeeiia A.A., Iaoeineee A.A., Ie/oaei N.O., Ooaaaa ?.E. Iaoo?iua
ianeaaeiaaiey noaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee
aaoiiiaeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe // Atheeaoaiue no?ieoaeueiie
oaoieee.-1990.- ? 3.- n. 43.

11. Aeaee A.I., Iaoeineee A.A., O?onia A.I., Aa?aa?neee A.E. Iniaaiiinoe
yenieoaoaoeee noaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee a oeaoao i?aaei?eyoee oeiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe // Atheeaoaiue no?ieoaeueiie oaoieee.- 1990.- ? 3.- n.
44.

12. Iaoeineee A.A. I?aaenoaaeaiea aoiinoa?iuo iaa?ocie a aeaea
aeeooa?aioee?oaiuo neo/aeiuo i?ioeannia. // No?ieoaeueiay iaoaieea e
?an/ao nii?oaeaiee.- 1992.- ? 1.- n. 92-96.

13. Iaoeineee A.A. Iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey aeoaeiu ycaaiiie ei??icee i?e
ioeaiea oaoie/aneiai ninoiyiey yenieoaoe?oaiuo noaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee //
I?i/iinoue, iaaeaaeiinoue e aeieaiaa/iinoue no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee:
Iaaeaocianeee nai?iee.- Iaaieoiai?ne: 1992.- n. 106-110.

14. Iaoeineee A.A., Oaiei A.A. Au/eneaiea e aiaeec eiyooeoeeaioia
ni/aoaiey oneeee io iinoiyiiuo iaa?ocie ia no?ieoaeueiua eiino?oeoeee //
Yooaeoeaiua no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu e eiino?oeoeee, eniieuecoaiua i?e
aicaaaeaiee caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee.-E.: OIE AI.- 1992.- n. 36-43.

15. Iaoeineee A.A., Oaiei A.A. Aa?iyoiinoiia iienaiea iaeneiaeueiuo
cia/aiee niaaiaie iaa?ocee ia no?ieoaeueiua eiino?oeoeee // Iooe
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe no?ieoaeuenoaa: Oaiaoe/aneee nai?iee iao/iuo
o?oaeia.- E.: ?NAe AI.- 1993.- n. 65-72.

16. Iaoeinueeee A.A., Oaiei I.A. Aecia/aiiy ia??iaee/iino?
iine?aeiaiinoae iaeneioi?a oei/aniaeo iaaaioaaeaiue i?e a?aooaaii? ?o
ni?eueii? ae?? // Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ai?iaeia: ?anioaeeeaineee
iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiue iao/ii-oaoie/aneee nai?iee. Aui. 12.- E.: Oaoieea.-
1997.- c. 58-60.

17. Iaoeinueeee A.A. Caaacia/ai?noue ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue aoiinoa?ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue ia aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? // I?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee
cae?ciaaoiio: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae. Iieoaaa: 1997.- c. 380-383.

18. Iaoeinueeee A.A. Iaoiaeeea oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy
?ic?aooieiaeo ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia aoae?aaeuei?
eiino?oeoe?? // Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ai?iaeia: ?anioaeeeaineee
iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiue iao/ii-oaoie/aneee nai?iee.- Aui. 12.- E.: Oaoieea.-
1997.- c. 50-55.

19. Iaoeinueeee A.A. I?iaeaia oi/iino? ioe?ithaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo
iaaaioaaeaiue ia aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? // Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee
oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? TH??y Eiiae?aothea: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
(aaeocaaa iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoai).- Aei. 1.- Iieoaaa: IAeOO.-
1998.- c. 73-78.

20. Iaoeinueeee A.A. Eaac?iino?ei? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy iaaaioaaeaiue
ia aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? // Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ai?iaeia:
Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee nai?iee.- Aui. 18.- E.: Oaoieea.- 1999.- c. 78-81.

21. Iaoeinueeee A.A. Ioe?ithaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue ia
aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? ca ?iia??i?niith iiaeaeeth iine?aeiaiino?
iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue // Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia / Aeiiaanneee
ai?ii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneee einoeooo.- Ae/aane: AeAIE.- 1999.- n. 134-139.

22. I?/oa?i N.O., Iaoeinueeee A.A., A?a?e A.I. Ia aeiioneaoe oaoi?/iiai
a?aeo // N?euenueea aoae?aieoeoai. — 1977.- ? 10. — n.16.

23. Iaoeinueeee A.A. Oeeee?/i? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia
aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? // Anaoe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee aeo?iae
«Aea?aoeee a oaoieea e oaoiieiaeyo».- 1999.- ? 2.- n. 15-17.

24. Ia?aeueiooa? A.A., Iaoeineee A.A. Aiaeec i?iaeoiie iaaeaaeiinoe
eiino?oeoeee // Ia?aeueiooa? A.A. Eca?aiiua i?iaeaiu iaaeaaeiinoe e
aaciianiinoe no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee.- E.:
Oe?IEEi?iaeonoaeueeiino?oeoeey, 1999.- n. 89 — 122.

Aeaiiiiaai? ?oeiiene:

25. Iaoiaeeea o/aoa aaee/eiu a?ociaie ieiuaaee i?e ii?aaeaeaiee
iinoiyiiie iaa?ocee ia eiino?oeoeee iie?uoee i?iicaeaiee / Iaoeineee
A.A.; Iieoaaneee ENE.- Iieoaaa, 1988.- 12 n.- Aeai. ai AIEEEN 29.07.88,
? 9362.

26. E o/aoo iai?aaeaiey aao?a i?e ii?ie?iaaiee aao?iaie iaa?ocee /
Iaoeineee A.A., Eaieueieoeuia E.A., Naiaiiaa O.TH.; Iieoaaneee ENE.-
Iieoaaa, 1988.- 8 n.- Aeai. ai AIEEEN 29.07.88, ? 9363.

I?aoe? oa oace eiioa?aioe?e:

27. Ie/oaei N.O., Iaoeineee A.A. Auyaeaiea pacapaia ianouae niiniaiinoe
yenieoaoepoaiuo noaeueiuo eiinopoeoeee iaoiaeaie oaipee iaaeaaeiinoe //
?acaeoea, niaapoainoaiaaiea e paeiinopoeoeey niaoeeaeueiuo naapiuo
noaeueiuo eiinopoeoeee caeaiee e niipoaeaiee: Oacenu aeieeaaeia 4-e
Oepaeineie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioapaioeee ii iaoaeee/aneei
eiinopoeoeeyi.- Nai?iee 3.- E.:- 1988.- n. 23.

28. Iaoeineee A.A., Ie/oaei N.O. Iaaeaaeiinoue noaeueiuo eiinopoeoeee
ipiecaiaenoaaiiuo caeaiee ipe aeaenoaee aoiinoapiuo e epaiiauo iaapocie
// Ipiaeaiu iioeiecaoeee e iaaeaaeiinoe a nopieoaeueiie iaoaieea:
Aiiioaoeee aeieeaaeia Ananithciie eiioapaioeee.- Aeeueithn:- 1988.- n.
62.

29. Ie/oaei N.O., Iaoeineee A.A. E o/aoo niaianoiiai aeaenoaey iaa?ocie
ia eiino?oeoeee // I?ia?anneaiua iaoiaeu aaaeaiey i?iaeoiuo e
enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio i?e ?aeiino?oeoeee noaeueiuo ea?eania caeaiee
e nii?oaeaiee: Oacenu aeieeaaeia oeieu-naieia?a.- Eeaa:- 1991.- n.
27-28.

30. Ie/oaei N.O., Iaoeineee A.A. O/ao niaianoiiai aeaenoaey yeno?aioiia
neo/aeiuo iaa?ocie // Eniuoaiey no?ieoaeueiuo iaoaeee/aneeo eiino?oeoeee
a oneiaeyo aeaenoaothueo i?aaei?eyoee: Oacenu aeieeaaeia Ananithciie
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31. Iaoeineee A.A., Eaeaeaiianeee A.A. Aiciiaeiinoe oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
?aeiie?iaaiey niaaiaie iaa?ocee n o/aoii ia?eiaea iiaoi?yaiinoe //
I?ia?anneaiua iaoiaeu aaaeaiey i?iaeoiuo e enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio i?e
?aeiino?oeoeee noaeueiuo ea?eania caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee: Oacenu
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32. Iaoeineee A.A., Ie/oaei N.O., Oa?/aiei TH.A.,*e/oeei A.I.
Yenieoaoaoeeiiiua iia?aaeaeaiey eiino?oeoeee i?aaei?eyoee aaoiiiaeeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe // Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey eiaeaia?iuo
nii?oaeaiee (iaoiaeu, i?eai?u, iai?oaeiaaiea, iao?ieiae/aneia
iaania/aiea): Oacenu aeieeaaeia YII Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee.- Noiu:-
1991.- n. 183-185.

33. Iaoeineee A.A. Iaoiaeeea ii?ie?iaaiey aoiinoa?iuo iaa?ocie ia
oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu // Iyoay Oe?aeineay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay eiioa?aioeey
ii iaoaeee/aneei eiino?oeoeeyi. Oneeaiea e ?aeiino?oeoeey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caeaiee, iino?iaiiuo a iaoaeea: Oacenu aeieeaaeia.-
E.:- 1992.- n. 9-10.

34. Iaoeineee A.A., Oaiei A.A. Au/eneaiea eiyooeoeeaioia ni/aoaiey
iaa?ocie, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a aeaea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae iaeneiaeueiuo
cia/aiee // Iyoay Oe?aeineay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay eiioa?aioeey ii
iaoaeee/aneei eiino?oeoeeyi. Oneeaiea e ?aeiino?oeoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
caeaiee, iino?iaiiuo a iaoaeea: Oacenu aeieeaaeia.- Eeaa:- 1992.- n.
37-38.

35. Iaoeineee A.A. O/ao n?iea neoaeau ianoueo eiino?oeoeee i?e
ii?ie?iaaiee aoiinoa?iuo iaa?ocie aeey oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu //
Iaaeaaeiinoue caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee: Oacenu aeieeaaeia
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee: *anoue 1: Iaaeaaeiinoue no?ieoaeueiuo
eiino?oeoeee, caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee.- *a?eannu:- 1993.- n. 53-54.

36. Pashinski V.A. and Pichugin S.F. Wind Load Probabilistic Description
and Value Computation Procedure Adopted for Building Code of Ukraine //
East European Conference on Wind Engineering «EECWE’94».- Warsaw,
Poland:- 1994.- Part 1.- Vol. 3.- p. 49-51.

37. Mikitarenko M., Pashinskiy V., Perelmuter A., Pichugin S., Terentiev
S. Comparative Analysis of Wind Speed in Points disposed in a short
Distanse (not very remote one from another) // Proceedings of the 2nd
Europen & African Conference on Wind Engineeringth- Genova.- 1997.- vol.
2.- p. 1883-1890.

38. Iaoeinueeee A.A. Aei iaoiaeeee oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?aeiioaaiiy
aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue c o?aooaaiiyi no?ieo neoaeae eiino?oeoe?e //
Oaoi?/ia iaoai?ieia?y Ea?iao: Iaoa??aee ia?oi? I?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? — OIE-98.- Euea?a: Iena?o.-
1998.- c. 91-96.

39. Ia?aeueiooa? A.A., Iaoeinueeee A.A. I?i eeaneo?eaoe?th iaaaioaaeaiue
oa ae?e ia aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe?? // Oaoi?/ia iaoai?ieia?y Ea?iao:
Iaoa??aee ia?oi? I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? — OIE-98.-
Euea?a: Iena?o.- 1998. c. 75-78.

AIIOAOe??

Iaoeinueeee A.A. Iaoiaeieia?y ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ia aoae?aaeuei?
eiino?oeoe??.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.01 — Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? oa
nii?oaee.- Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? TH??y
Eiiae?aothea, Iieoaaa, 1999.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeeo?eaoe?y iaoiaeo a?aie/ieo noai?a, yea aeicaiey?
i?iaeooaaoe iano/? eiino?oeoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi anoaiiaeaiiai no?ieo
neoaeae oa iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy iaae?eiino?. Caeaaeii a?ae o?ce/ii?
i?e?iaee, iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaeooue iaoe aei /ioe?ueio ?ic?aooieiaeo
cia/aiue: a?aie/i?, aenieoaoaoe?ei?, oeeee?/i? oa eaac?iino?ei?.

Aeoiaey/e c ?iia??i?niiai iiaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue o oi?i? aeiaaeeiaeo
i?ioean?a, aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei oa iine?aeiaiinoae iaeneiaeueieo
cia/aiue, ?ic?iaeaia caaaeueia iaoiaeieia?y ii?ioaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue,
yea aeicaiey? anoaiiaethaaoe iaiao?aei? caaacia/aiino? ?ic?aooieiaeo
cia/aiue, ia/enethaaoe ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy iaaaioaaeaiue, ioe?ithaaoe
?o oi/i?noue oa aeeiioaaoe oa?eoi??aeueia ?aeiioaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo
ia?aiao??a aoiinoa?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ? aieea?a ia aoae?aaeuei?
eiino?oeoe??. ?ic?iaeai? oa ai?iaiaai? ia ?aaeueieo i?eeeaaeao
?iia??i?ni? iiaeae? oa iaoiaee ii?ioaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aoiinoa?ieo,
oaoiieia?/ieo oa iino?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue ? aieea?a ia aoae?aaeuei?
eiino?oeoe??. Aeeiiaia ii?ioaaiiy ni?aiaiai oa a?o?iaiai iaaaioaaeaiue
aeey oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, ?acoeueoaoe yeiai iiaeia aaciina?aaeiuei
aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e i?iaeooaaii? iano/eo eiino?oeoe?e, a oaeiae i?e
?ic?iaoe? iaoe?iiaeueieo ii?i iaaaioaaeaiue ia aoae?aaeuei?
eiino?oeoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Iaoiae a?aie/ieo noai?a, iaaaioaaeaiiy, ?ic?aooieia?
cia/aiiy, ii?ioaaiiy, ni?aia? oa a?o?ia? iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Iaoeineee A.A. Iaoiaeieiaey ii?ie?iaaiey iaa?ocie ia no?ieoaeueiua
eiino?oeoeee.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.01 — No?ieoaeueiua eiino?oeoeee, caeaiey e
nii?oaeaiey.- Iieoaaneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao eiaie
TH?ey Eiiae?aothea, Iieoaaa, 1999.

A ia?aie aeaaa i?iaiaeece?iaaiu eeoa?aoo?iua enoi/ieee, eanathueany
iaoiaeia ioeaieaaiey iaaeaaeiinoe no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee, iaueo
iaoiaeia ii?ie?iaaiey iaa?ocie, a oaeaea ?acoeueoaoia noaoenoe/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee e ii?ie?iaaiey iaa?ocie e aicaeaenoaee eiie?aoiiai aeaea.
I?e yoii iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii iaa?oceai io niaaa e aao?a. Ia
iniiaaiee aiaeeca noi?ioee?iaaiu caaea/e enneaaeiaaiey.

Ai aoi?ie aeaaa iieacaii, /oi iaoiae i?aaeaeueiuo ninoiyiee a aai
nia?aiaiiie oi?ia ia iaania/eaaao aeieaeiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey o?iaiy
iaaeaaeiinoe no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee. I?aaeeiaeaia iiaeeoeeaoeey
iaoiaea i?aaeaeueiuo ninoiyiee, eioi?ay iicaieyao i?iaeoe?iaaoue ianouea
eiino?oeoeee n o/aoii onoaiiaeaiiiai n?iea neoaeau e caaeaiiiai o?iaiy
iaaeaaeiinoe eiino?oeoeee. Onoaiiaeaiu iaania/aiiinoe ?an/aoiuo cia/aiee
iaa?ocie, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey aeinoeaeaiey o?aaoaiiai o?iaiy iaaeaaeiinoe
yeaiaioia ianoueo eiino?oeoeee.

A o?aoueae aeaaa i?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey ?an/aoiuo cia/aiee iaa?ocie
ia no?ieoaeueiua eiino?oeoeee e ?ac?aaioaiu iauea iaoiaeu eo
ii?ie?iaaiey. Caaeneii io oece/aneie i?e?iaeu, iaa?ocee iiaoo eiaoue aei
/aou?ao ?an/aoiuo cia/aiee: i?aaeaeueiia, yenieoaoaoeeiiiia,
oeeeee/aneea e eaaceiinoiyiiia. Enoiaey ec aa?iyoiinoiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey
iaa?ocie a oi?ia neo/aeiuo i?ioeannia, neo/aeiuo aaee/ei e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoae iaeneiaeueiuo cia/aiee, ?ac?aaioaia iauay
iaoiaeieiaey ii?ie?iaaiey iaa?ocie, eioi?ay iicaieyao onoaiaaeeaaoue
iaiaoiaeeiua iaania/aiiinoe ?an/aoiuo cia/aiee, au/eneyoue ?an/aoiua
cia/aiey iaa?ocie e ioeaieaaoue eo oi/iinoue.

A /aoaa?oie aeaaa i?iaiaeece?iaaiu oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe aoiinoa?iuo
iaa?ocie e eo aeeyiea ia ?acoeueoaou noaoenoe/aneie ia?aaioee.
I?aaeeiaeai iaoiae oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?aeiie?iaaiey ?an/aoiuo ia?aiao?ia
aoiinoa?iuo iaa?ocie e aicaeaenoaee n o/aoii onoaiiaeaiiai n?iea neoaeau
no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee e neo/aeiuo oeoeooaoeee aeaiiuo ioaeaeueiuo
iaoainoaioeee.

A iyoie e oanoie aeaaao auiieiaii noaoenoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea e
ii?ie?iaaiea aao?iaie e niaaiaie iaa?ocie aeey oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu. Ii
aeaiiui aieaa 200 ioieoia iaaethaeaiey ?ac?aaioaiu ea?ou
oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?aeiie?iaaiey ii a?aie/iui, yenieoaoaoeeiiiui e
eaaceiinoiyiiui (aeey niaaiaie iaa?ocee) ?an/aoiui cia/aieyi. Auyaeaia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiauoaiey ?an/aoiuo cia/aiee niaaiaie iaa?ocee ii
n?aaiaieth n aeaenoaothueie NIeI 2.01.07-85. Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou
iiaeii iaiin?aaenoaaiii eniieueciaaoue i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee ianoueo
eiino?oeoeee, a oaeaea i?e ?ac?aaioea iaoeeiiaeueiuo ii?i iaa?ocie ia
no?ieoaeueiua eiino?oeoeee.

A naaeueiie aeaaa ?ac?aaioaiu e ai?iae?iaaiu ia ?aaeueiuo i?eia?ao
aa?iyoiinoiua iiaeaee e iaoiaeu ii?ie?iaaiey ?acee/iuo aoiinoa?iuo,
oaoiieiae/aneeo e iinoiyiiuo iaa?ocie e aicaeaenoaee ia no?ieoaeueiua
eiino?oeoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Iaoiae i?aaeaeueiuo ninoiyiee, iaa?ocee, ?an/aoiua
cia/aiey, ii?ie?iaaiea, niaaiaua e aao?iaua iaa?ocee.

Pashinski V.A. Methodology of load norm designing on building
structures.- Manuscript.

Dissertation for a scientific degree of the doctor of engineering
science on Specialily 05.23.01 — Building Structures, buildings &
construction.- Poltava State Technical University named in honor of Juri
Kondratjuk, Poltava, 1999.

The modification of a limit state of the method is suggested. It allows
to design baring structures with the account of durability & reliability
service. The loads can be classified in accordance with their principal
nature & they can possess four disigned parameters: ultimate,
exploitational, cyclical & quasipermanent.

Taking into account the probabilistic aspect of the loads in the form of
random processes, stochastic value & sequence of maximum values the
general methodology of determining load norms was worked out. It allows
to esteblish the necessary design values, to compute the load values, to
evaluate its accuracy & to determine the atmospheric loads & their
influence on building structures in different territories of Ukraine.
The probabilistic models & methods of determining load norms of
differents atmospheric, technological & permanent loads & their
influence on different building structures were performed & approbated
on the existing samples. The norms of snow & wind loading on building
structures for Ukraine were determined. The obtained results can be used
for designing bearing structures as well as for developing National
Building Code for building structures.

Key words: the method of limit states, loads, design values, to
determine norms of loads, snow & wind loads.

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