Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

OAeE 658. 022

Noa?ino?ia Aeea Ieaen??aia

Iaoiaeieia?y ? i?aeoeea ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.02 — i?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio, ia?eaoeia

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio Oaoi?/iiio Oi?aa?neoao? Oe?a?ie «EI?»
oa

Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? *A?AAIUeIA
Aeieo?i Ieeieaeiae/, aeaeai aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee
Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe

/eai I?aceae?? IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie *oia/aiei Ieeiea A?eai?iae/

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ia?eaoeiao Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Aie/ae Aiaoie?e Aieiaeeie?iae/

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaeai aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo IA?A?AA Iao?i
A?eai?iae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.
A?aeae?e aea/aiiy, i?iaiicoaaiiy eii(thieoo?e ?eieo oa aeiiii?ee
oi?a?ae? (i. Ee?a).

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “08” ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.12 o Ee?anueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith 252022, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aaneeuee?anueea, 90a, aoae.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: i.Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_7__” ___aa?aciy___________1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe I. ?. AEee?inueea

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia ae??th
o?ueio iniiaieo a?oi /eiiee?a. Ia?oa c ieo iia(ycaia ?c niaoeeo?eith
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaio Oe?a?ie ia no/aniiio aoai? ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?? aeiiii?ee. Ae?oaa a?oia oaeoi??a aeeeeeaia
c?inoath/ith ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe??th na?oiai? aeiiii?ee, aei yei?
caeo/aia ? Oe?a?ia. Ii-o?ao?, a?ae/ooia iaaeinoaoi?noue oai?aoe/iiai,
iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy ?ic?iaee ieoaiue
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

No/aniee aoai ?icaeoeo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oei, ui noaiiaeaiiy eiai ?eieiaeo canaae
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia oii? aeeaiei? nenoaiii?, aeiiii?/ii? oa o?iainiai?
e?ece. Ia noai? oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?ee ae?ae iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny
iecueeee ??aaiue ieaoini?iiiaeiiai iiieoo ia i?iieneiaiio oa niiaeea/iio
?eieao, neaae? eiieo?aioi? iiceoe?? aaniethoii? a?eueoino? oe?a?inueeeo
ae?iaiee?a, a?aenooi?noue ?icaeiooi? ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e (ia?o ca
ana – ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace) oa i?ioan?eii i?aeaioiaeaieo eaae??a
ea??aiee?a. An? oe? oaeoi?e iaoiiaeththoue iiooe iaoai?ci?a, ye? caeaoi?
ni?eyoe ae??oaiith aeuacacia/aieo i?iaeai. Iaeiei c ieo ? ? ia?eaoeiaia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? neoaothoue aacith aeey i?eeiyooy aoaeoeaieo
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.

Iaoith caaeaeea?iaaieo aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i a Oe?a?i? ? cai?ia
oeaio?ae?ciaaii-eiiaiaeii? iiaeae? i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy, ui
?nioaaea a N?N? i?ioyaii aaaaoueio aeanyoe??/, ia ?eieiao, caeaoio
?icaeaaoe i?e?iaeiee, ae?iaie/ee oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee iioaioe?ae
aea?aeaae. Ci?ie a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie i?ecaaee aei iiyae iiai?
oi?aae?inueei? ia?aaeeaie, nooue yei? iieyaa? a iieeaaeaii? ia aeaniee?a
oa iaiaaeaea??a i?aei?e?inoa an??? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nuee? ?acoeueoaoe ?o ae?yeueiino?.

Ia(?eoeaieie ia?aaeoiiaaie oeueiai i?ioeano ?

?ioaineaia ca?eueoaiiy /anoee iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o a aeiiii?oe? ye ca
?aooiie i?iaaaeaiiy ianiai? i?eaaoecaoe??, oae ? oeyoii aeieeiaiiy iiaeo
i?eaaoieo i?aei?e?inoa;

aeaiiioaae anaioiiethth/i? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai
ieaioaaiiy oa iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai iinoa/aiiy ? ia?aiin oeeo ooieoe?e
ia ??aaiue i?aei?e?inoa.

A?ae?iaeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoa a oeeo oiiaao
aeiaaa? canoinoaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy
i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiaith no?aoaa??th i?aei?e?inoa, ea??aieee yeeo iathoue
naiino?eii i?eeiaoe ??oaiiy uiaei aecia/aiiy:

oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oiaa??a, ye? aiie aaaeathoue
aeioneaoe;

??aiy iiieoo (o aa?o?niiio oa iaoo?aeueiiio aei???) ia ia?aieo
oe?eueiaeo ?eieao;

oe?iiai? no?aoaa??;

aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oa i?inoaaiiy nai?? i?iaeoeoe?? oa
iineoa;

aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a.

Oe? oa ?io? oi?aae?inuee? ??oaiiy ia?aaeaa/athoue iayai?noue
aeinoia??ii? ?eieiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, yeo i?aei?e?inoao iio??aii io?eioaaoe
naiino?eii. Iaeiae ca?ac ?nio? aeeaiea i?ioe??//y i?ae ia(?eoeaieie
aeiiaaie oi?aae?iiy oa ??aiai i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee eaae??a
ea??aiee?a, ye? ia iathoue iaoeiai — iaa?oioiaaiiai aeina?aeo ae?e a
oiiaao ianoaa?eueiiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua. Oiio iaaaeueiith
iio?aaith i?aeoeee ? iiaioaaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no/anieo ia?eaoeiaiaeo
oaoiieia?e. Ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy eiieo?aioieo ?eie?a Oe?a?ie ?
?ino?oiaioii, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai ea??aieee oa oao?aoe? caeaoi?
iaeaaiaeeoe ae?yeuei?noue nai?o i?aei?e?inoa oa i?iiiioaaoe ee??ioai
eiieo?aioiicaeaoi? i?iaeoeoe oa iineoae.

Ae?oaa a?oia oaeoi??a, ui aieeioea ia aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoiiaeaia c?inoath/ith ?ioaa?aoe??th Oe?a?ie o
i?aeaea?aeaai? oa i?ae?aa?iiaeuei? iioiee o?iainiaeo oa iaoa??aeueieo
?ano?n?a. Oae, i?ioyaii 1994-1997 ??. ianya aenii?oii-?iii?oieo
iia?aoe?e c??n ia 22 % — c 34,65 aei 42,25 ie?ae aeiea??a.

Iino?eia eiieo?aioia ai?ioueaa (ye ia caei?aeiiieo ?eieao, oae ? a
Oe?a?i?), noaea ii?iith i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. Na?oiaa
o?iainiaa e?eca, ui ?icii/aeany ainaie 1997 ?. o I?aaeaiii-No?aei?e
Ac??, aeiaeaoeiai caaino?eea i?iaeaio eiieo?aioiini?iiiaeiino?
a?o/eciyieo oiaa??a oa iineoa. Ea??aieee oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aeey
caa?aaeaiiy ?nioth/eo ?eieiaeo iiceoe?e iiaeii? ooeaoe iia?,
ianoaiaea?oi? ??oaiiy o ia?eaoeiaia?e no?aoaa??. Aeina?ae, ui iaaoee
a?o/eciyi? i?aei?e?ioe?, iieaco?, ui aac iiaioaaiiy ?ino?oiaioa??th
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue iaiiaeeeai oeea?e?ciaaii ia?aiiaoe
eiieo?aio?a.

O?aoy a?oia oaeoi??a, ui iaoiiaeea aeooaeuei?noue i?iaaaeaiiai
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, o?nii iia(ycaia c? nooiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ia?eaoeiao acaaae? oa ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue cie?aia a a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?/i?e iaooe?. Iacaaaeath/e ia
oa, ui a 90-o ?ieao a Oe?a?i? c(yaeeinue aeae?eueea aeanyoe?a ?ia?o, ye?
i?enay/ai? ??ciei aniaeoai ia?eaoeiao, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui ia
nueiaiaei? a?aenooi? i?aoe?, a yeeo aoee a eiiieaenii ?icaeyioo?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? oa i?aeoe/i? noi?iie ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao niaoeeo?/iiai oe?a?inueeiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai
na?aaeiaeua.

?nioth/o e?oa?aoo?o c ieoaiue ia?eaoeiao iiaeia oiiaii ?iciiae?eeoe ia
o?e eeane — ia?aeeaaeai? ?in?enueeith iiaith i?aoe? ?iicaiieo aaoi??a,
i?aoe? a/aieo oa i?aeoee?a c ?anioae?e aoaoiai N?N? oa ?iaioe
oe?a?inueeeo aaoi??a. Aei ia?oiai eeano aoiaeyoue i?aoe? oaeeo aaoi??a,
ye ?. Ainioo, A. Aa?iai, N. Aeae, Ae. Aieo, E. Aa?eiai, A. Aeaeai, Ae.
Aeaeaein, A. Ea?oa?, O. Eioea?, O. Eiee?ic, ?. Ii???n, Ae. Ia?ea?, Ae.
I?eae?aeae, E. ?iooie, O. Naiae?aeae, O. Oioa??aeae, A. O?aeao?aa?.
?iaioe oeeo aaoi??a i?enay/ai? ?ice?eooth nooiino? ia?eaoeiaiai?
ae?yeueiino? a caaaeueiiio, ooiaeaiaioaeueiiio ?icoi?ii?. Ui noino?oueny
eiie?aoieo iai?yie?a ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?, oi aiie caeaa?eueoiai
i?enay/ai? ?aeeaii?e oa caooia?e ae?yeueiino?, neeaaeaiith
a?cian-ieai?a, a ia iaoiaeieia?/i?e ?ic?iaoe? ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

C ii/aoeii ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue o e?a?iao NIAe ii/aee aeine?aeaeoaaoeny
i?iaeaie ia?eaoeiao. Oeei ieoaiiyi i?enay/ai? i?aoe? oaeeo a/aieo, ye E.
A. Aaeaaaiiai?, ?. I. Aieoaeiaa, ?. A. Aieueaeiaia, ?. I. Ai?/eeiaa, A.
N. Aeia?ii?aaiaa, A. ?. Aeaieaeiaa, A. I. Aeo?iae/a, I. N. Caa(yeiaa,
TH. ?. Ei?iaiaa, A. Ae. E?eeiaa, A. I. ?iiaiiaa, I. ?. Nieieiaa, ?. A.
Ooe?ia, A. ?. O?ooeueeiai.

?iaioe aeuaiacaaieo aaoi??a a o?e /e ?io?e i??? a?aeia?aaeathoue
i?iaeaie ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai ia?eaoeiao, i?aeia?iaeieo aniaeo?a
ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?, ?aeeaie, aaie?anueeiai ia?eaoeiao. ?o iniiao
neeaaeathoue iaoiaeieia?/i? oa i?aeoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei ae??oaiiy
ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a e?a?iao c ?icaeiooith
?eieiaith aeiiii?eith — NOA, I?ia//ei?, ssiii?? oiui. O a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a a?aenooiy aaeaioaoe?y aei niaoeeo?ee ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee.

Inoaii?i /anii a Oe?a?i? oaeiae c(yaeeenue ?yae ?ia?o a?o/eciyieo
a/aieo, ye? i?enay/ai? ??ciiiai?oiei noi?iiai ia?eaoeiao. Na?aae
a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe A. A. Aie/aea, N. ?.
Aa?eaaaiei, A. A. Aa?anei/oea, A. ss. Ea?aeaoa, ?. A. E?eeaanueeiai, A.
?. E?aaeeniaa, A. O. Ii?uaiei, A. O. Iaaeaiei, I. A. Ia?a?ao, A. I.
I?e?oaiei, Ae. I. *a?aaiueiaa, I. A *oia/aiei. A ?iaioao oeeo aaoi??a
aena?oeththoueny i?iaeaie ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai ia?eaoeiao, ia?eaoeiaiai?
eia?noeee, ia?eaoeiaiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, oiaa?ii? iie?oeee.
Aaciina?aaeiuei ieoaiiyi ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?enay/aia
iaiaaeaia e?euee?noue i?aoeue. A Oe?a?i? ua ia i?iaiaeeeinue iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo oai???, iaoiaeieia?? oa i?aeoeoe?
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao niaoeeo?/iiai a?o/eciyiiai
na?aaeiaeua, iieiaeaiiy yeeo noaee a iniiaith i?aai?caoe?? ia?eaoiaiai?
ae?yeueiino? ia oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao oa aacith aeey i?aeaioiaee
iaoe?iiaeueieo oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a. Aeuacacia/ai? ianoaaeie
iiyniththoue aeooaeuei?noue ? nai?/ani?noue ?ic?iaee oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae oa iaoai?cio
cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao no/anii? oe?a?inueei?
aeiiii?ee. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aaoi? iinoaaea ia?aae niaith oae?
caaaeaiiy:

?ic?iaeoe iniiai? iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy uiaei i?e?iaee oa
ia(?eoeaii? iaiao?aeiino? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ye ie?aii?
neeaaeiai? /anoeie ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa a oiiaao
noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

?ic?iaeoe iiiyo?eiee aia?ao aeey iio?aa a?o/eciyii? oai??? oa i?aeoeee
ia?eaoeiao oa ?ice?eoe ca(ycie i?ae eaoaai??yie “?eiie”, “ia?eaoeia”,
“ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy”; “a?eueiee ?eiie”, “?aaoeueiaaiee ?eiie”;

aecia/eoe iniiai? aoaie ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa iieacaoe ?o
aca?iica(ycie c aoaiaie i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue;

?ic?iaeoe iaoai?ci aecia/aiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai ? iiaeeeainoae;

aeine?aeeoe aaiethoe?th ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o na?oia?e
i?aeoeoe? oa niaoeeo?eo ?o iiyae ? ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i?;

i?iaiae?coaaoe ia(?eoeai? i?ioe??//y ia?eaoeiao oa ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue a no/anieo oiiaao;

?icaeyiooe noai, iniaeeaino? oa i?ioe??//y ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua a
Oe?a?i?;

aeine?aeeoe ?ieue aeene?aioeaii-aiae?oe/iiai aoaio o cae?eniaii?
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a no/ani?e aeiiii?oe?;

?ic?iaeoe aeai?eoi cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue;

i?iaiae?coaaoe aeaea?aea ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? a Oe?a?i?;

?ic?iaeoe iaoai?ci cai?o ia?aeiii? ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? a no/anieo
oiiaao;

ocaaaeueieoe i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i? oa na?o?;

?ice?eoe neeaaeia? i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaiaeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie;

?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei canoinoaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo
i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy a ae?yeueiino? ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a ia
oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao;

?ic?iaeoe aeey ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a i?aei?e?inoa iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie i?iaaaeaiiy
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i? oa ?o i?aeoeea a oiiaao
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee.

Ia(?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie a oiiaao
noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy.

Iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia nenoaiiiio
caaaeueiioai?aoe/iiio inieneaii? i?iaeai ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.
I?e ae??oaii? iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoiaee aiae?co ?
neioaco, eiie?aoiiai ? aano?aeoiiai. Ca aeiiiiiaith aeei?enoaiiy
i?eioeei?a ?noi?e/iiai ? eia?/iiai aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? aeieeiaiiy
iaiao?aeiino? oa noaiiaeaiiy i?aeoeee ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a
oiae? aaiethoe?? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Aacia? iiiyooy noi?ioeueiaai? ca
aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo iaoeiai? aano?aeoe??.

Aiae?c iaoai?cio i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a aeena?oaoe??
i?iaiaeeoueny ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a ye?niiai ? e?euee?niiai
aiae?co oa iaoiae?a oeaethaaiiy. A ?iaio? ia o?eueee oe?iei aeei?enoaii
iiiyo?eiee aia?ao, ui canoiniao?oueny ?iicaiieie
iaoeiaoeyie—ia?eaoieiaaie, aea e ?ic?iaeaii iiae?aiee aia?ao aeey iio?aa
a?o/eciyii? oai??? oa i?aeoeee ia?eaoeiao. Caeiiii??iino? noaiiaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo ia?eaoeiao oa ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i?
?icaeyaeathoueny a aeeiai?oe?, ia aac? ae?aeaeoe/iiai iaoiaeo.

?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeai? aeoe
c ieoaiue i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, aiae?oe/i? iaoa??aee Aia?eeainueei? oa
?a?iiaenueei? anioe?aoe?e ia?eaoeiao. Aeei?enoai? oaeiae noaoenoe/i?
aeai? I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie.

Iniiaiei aeaea?aeii ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey aiae?co oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?
iaoa??aee oa ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui c?a?ai? aaoi?ii a oiae? i?aai?caoe?? oa
i?iaaaeaiiy a?eueo i?ae 200 ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
noinothoueny ??ciiiai?oieo i?iieneiaeo oa niiaeea/eo oiaa??a oa iineoa,
ui i?iiiiothoueny a Oe?a?i?. Aaoi?ii i?ae /an noaaeoaaiue a iaoeiaeo
caeeaaeao NOA, Eaiaaee, Aaeeeia?eoai?? oa Oaaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii oe?iea
eiei i?ea?iaeueii? ?iicaiii? iiiia?ao?/ii?, o/aiai? oa ia??iaee/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e. I?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? iieiaeaiiy, ui
i?noyoueny a ?iaioao oaeeo a?aeiieo ?a?iiaenueeeo oa aia?eeainueeeo
ia?eaoieia?a, ye Ae. Aaea?, A. Aaaaae, ?. Aa?oaen, A. Aa?in, Ae. Aoia,
O. Aieae, ?. Aoo, Aeae. Aaanoa?, ?. Aanooiee, I. A??i, Aeae. Aeae, Ae.
Ea???, O. Eioea?, O. E?iia?, I. E??ii, A. IaeEa?o?, I. Iaeoio?a, I.
Ii???n, I. Ia?o?, O. Iaaa?n, Aeae. I??nii, A. ?aaiai, ?. ??aea?, A. ?oo,
A. Noao, I. Oaee, Aeae. Oaeei?, Aeae. O?aai, I. Oao, N. *aiae?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa io?eiai? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? ?
aaaeeeaei iai?yieii o oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaoeiai? eiioeaioe??
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue:

aecia/aia niaoeeo?ea aoai?a oa aioo??oiy eia?ea i?iaaaeaiiy
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai
ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua Oe?a?ie. Iieacaii, ui i?aaeeueii nieaiiaai?
oa i?iaaaeai? ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaothoue ae??aei caniaii
ciaioaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?ecee?a a ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?ioe?a oa
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a aeaaee a oiiaao ae?? eiieo?aioiiai iaoai?cio
ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiee ? anoaiiaeaiee ia(?eoeaiee aca?iica(ycie oaeiai
?ino?oiaioa oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaii, yeei ? ia?eaoeiaia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, c ?icaeoeii ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Iieacaii, ui
ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoai?ciii iii(yeoaiiy oa ?ica(ycaiiy
i?ioe??//y i?ae aeiiii?/ieie ?ioa?anaie ae?iaieea oa niiaeeaa/a.
Caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ia ?ica?aei?noue ?o ?ioa?an?a, yea i?eoaiaiia i?ioeano
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa a on?o iiaeaeyo i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/iiai
aeeooy, iaaoaa? niaoeeo?/ieo oi?i i?iyao a ?aieao ?nioth/eo a Oe?a?i?
ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei. Oea aieeaa? ? ia iai?yiee ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaaei??i? iiaeaoeia? noyaiaiiy ia oii? no??iei
c?inoath/i? caai?aiaaiino? i?aei?e?inoa oa aea?aeaae i?ae niaith oa
ia?aae ?ia?oieeaie, iaoiiaeee iiyao iiaeo oi?i o?aaeeoe?eii?
?ica?aeiino? ?ioa?an?a ae?iaiee?a oa niiaeeaa/?a. Ae?iaieee caoe?eaaeai?
ia o?eueee a io?eiaii? i?eaooeo ca ae?iaeaio oa ?aae?ciaaio
i?iaeoeoe?th, aea e a iiooeo oaeeo iaoai?ci?a ?? i?iaeaaeo, ye? a
aeicaieeee ye oieeiooe iaoyaeeeaiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, oae ? aa?aiooaaee a
nieaoo niiaeeaa/ai eioo?a ca iinoaaeaio i?iaeoeoe?th. Niiaeeaa/? ia
i?iieneiaiio ?eieo, a naith /a?ao, ooeathoue niinia?a i?iaeiaaeaiiy
naiai ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano a oiiaao iaoaaoee ia?aiaeo eioo?a oa
c?inoath/eo ciaia(ycaiue ii ieaoaaeai aei athaeaeaoo. Ca oaeeo oiia
ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy eiioeaio?othoueny ia iiooeo iiaeo iiaeaeae
ia?eaoeiaiai? iie?oeee.

I?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia iniia? aiae?co aeiiii?/ieo
?ioa?an?a ae?iaiee?a oa niiaeeaa/?a aeicaiey? ia o?eueee i?aeaeueoe
aoaeoeai?noue oi?aae?iiy ia ??ai? ie?aieo i?aei?e?inoa, aea e caeiiiieoe
eiooe, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a ?aieao aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo.
Aieiae?th/e aeinoia??iith ?ioi?iaoe??th a?aeiinii oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo
eiie?aoieo ?eie?a, aea?aeaai? i?aaie aeaaee ??cieo ??ai?a ca aeiiiiiaith
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oa aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a iathoue ciiao ?ic?iaeyoe
?aoe?iiaeuei? oeyoe ?aae?caoe?? caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a;

aia?oa a eaoaai??aeueiee aia?ao ia?eaoeiao aaaaeai? iia? aecia/aiiy
nooiino? “?eieo”, “?aaoeueiaaiiai ?eieo”, “ia?eaoeiao” oa “ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue”, ye? iieeaaeai? a iniiao ?ic?iaee oai??? oa iaoiaeieia??
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa iaoai?cio ?o cae?eniaiiy. ?eiie—oea
noa?a aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae niiaeeaa/aie oa ae?iaieeaie, a ye?e a
i?ioean? iai?io oiaa?aie /e iineoaaie /a?ac eieeaaiiy ?eieiaeo oe?i
cae?enith?oueny iiaiaeaeaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?y ?o aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a.
Ia?eaoeia ?icaeyaea?oueny ye oai??y ? i?aeoeea i?ioeano i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue a?aeiinii oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiai?
no?aoaa?? ? oe?eae i?aai?caoe?? oa iaoiae?a ?? aeinyaiaiiy ia iniia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua,
iai?aaeaieo ia ?aae?caoe?th aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a ae?iaiee?a ?
niiaeeaa/?a. Ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/athoueny ye nenoaiaoe/iee
i?ioean iinoaiiaee oe?eae aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ianya?a;
cai?o; aiae?co ia’?eoeaii? ?eieiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa ?ic?iaee
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey i?eeiyooy eiie?aoieo oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue
a?aeiinii aoaeue-yeeo aeaiaio?a i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiai? no?aoaa??
i?aai?caoe?? ? iaoiae?a ?o ?aae?caoe?? aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaeaeueo
e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoao?a a ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe?? a oiiaao eiie?aoiiai
ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua;

?ic?iaeai? iniiae iaoiaeieia?? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao
oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee, yea aeeth/a? noeoii?noue iniiaieo i?eioeei?a,
iaoiae?a, oi?i oa aoai?a ?o i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?y
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeia?aaea? aioo??oith eia?eo aiae?co oa
ae??oaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo i?iaeai ca aeiiiiiaith cania?a cai?o oa ia?iaee
?ioi?iaoe?? noiniaii ae?? oaeoi??a iae?i- oa i?e?iia?eaoeiaiaiai
?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c iae?i- oa i?e?ina?aaeiaeua a
Oe?a?i?, iieacaia eiai niaoeeo?ea, i?ioe??//y oa aieea ia iaoai?ci
cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeieia?/i?
i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? oa i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a
Oe?a?i?, aieiaieie na?aae yeeo ? ?o i???ioaoe?y ia ae??oaiiy eiie?aoieo
oi?aae?inueeeo i?iaeai, no?iaa iine?aeiai?noue aoai?a oa iino?eia
iiiiaethaai?noue;

cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeieia?y aeyaeaiiy ?eieiaeo iiaeeeainoae oa i?iaeai ye
iniiaa aeey ?ic?iaee a?iioace oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue noiniaii
i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiai? no?aoaa?? i?aai?caoe??. Aiia nie?a?oueny ia
?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeie aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeoi??a iae?i- oa
i?e?iia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua oa iaoiaee cai?o ia?aeiii? oa aoi?eiii?
?ioi?iaoe??. Aeine?aeaeaia nooue ye?nieo aenia?oieo aoai?a i?ioeano
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oi?ioaaiiy a?iioace oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue
ia iniia? aeyaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai oa iiaeeeainoae. Aeiyoeiaa
cia/aiiy oe??? iaoiaeieia?? iaoiiaeaia ae?ae iecueeei ??aiai
oi?aae?inueei? i?aeaioiaee a?eueoino? ea??aieo eaae??a oe?a?inueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa, ia caeaoieo naiino?eii noi?ioethaaoe caaaeaiiy ia?aae
ia?eaoieiaii-aeine?aeieeii;

?ic?iaeaiee oa ai?iaiaaiee o aaaaoi/enaeueieo ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeai?eoi ?o cae?eniaiiy ia ??ciiiai?oieo ?eieao Oe?a?ie.
Iaa?oioiaai? aeaiaioe oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaiaeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ye?
aeeth/athoue a)?ic?iaeo athaeaeaoo; a)ieaioaaiiy aea??eiaiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy; a)aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. I?aai?caoe?y ? oi?aae?iiy cai?ii ia?eaoeiaiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? ia?aaeaa/a? neeaaeaiiy /aniaiai a?ao?eo cai?o ?ioi?iaoe??,
?ic?iaeo athaeaeaoo, i?aea?? oa i?aeaioiaeo ia?niiaeo, ieaioaaiiy
iaiao?aeieo caoiae?a oi?aae?iiy a?aeiiaaie. A ?iaio? i?iiiiothoueny
iaoiaee ieaioaaiiy a?ao?e?a oa athaeaeao?a oa iaoiaee caiia?aaiiy
oeiiaeo iiieeie, ye? iia(ycai? c? cai?ii ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??;

aeine?aeaeaia ?ieue ye?nieo iaoiae?a cai?o ia?aeiii? ia?eaoeiaiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? a niaoeeo?/ieo oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo. Iaoeiaa
iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaeeea ?ic?iaee iieooaaeueii? aieaoe iio?aao? a?ae
ia?eaoieiaa-aeine?aeieea aeio?eiaiiy ?yaeo aeiia noiniaii ?? no?oeoo?e,
iine?aeiaiino?, ianyao oa oeio caieoaiue, aeai?o oeio oeaethaaiiy;

cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ia ??ai? i?aei?e?inoaa i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo oiaa??a oa
aecia/aii? ?eieiaiai iiieoo. Oe? oeie ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
iaea?eueo iioe?aieie a oiiaao Oe?a?ie, ? io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ni?eythoue
aoaeoeaiiio oi?ioaaiith ?eieiaeo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy;

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia ??ai?
i?aei?e?inoaa, yea aeeth/a? oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaoai?cio cae?eniaiiy
niaoeeo?/iiai aiae?co, aecia/aiiy oe?eae aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeai?o iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aeai?o aeaea?ae ?eieiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, ieaioaaiiy cai?o
?ioi?iaoe?? oa ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a, ?ic?iaee ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? oa
aecia/aiiy ?? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?;

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? a?aeiinii ?aae?caoe?? ia?eaoeiaiaeo
i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy /a?ac ae?yeuei?noue ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a
i?aei?e?inoa. ?ic?iaeai? ooieoe?iiaeuei? aca?iica(ycee an?o
i?ae?icae?e?a i?aei?e?inoaa, ?o ooieoe?? oa eiie?aoi? iieacieee
ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae ?o ?ieue a ieaioaaii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa a
?eieiaeo oiiaao.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

Noeoii?noue iieiaeaiue i?i nooi?noue, ia(?eoeai? i?e/eie iaiao?aeiino?
oa ?ieue ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a i?eeiyoo? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue
a ?eieiaeo oiiaao.

Iniiae oai??? oa iaoiaeieia?? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ye aaeoc?
ia?eaoeiao a Oe?a?i?.

Iiaee eaoaai??aeueiee aia?ao ia?eaoeiao.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie cae?eniaiiy oa i?ioe??//y ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?eoio i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a
Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia ??ai?
i?aei?e?inoa.

Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?aae?caoe?? ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?eioeei?a
oi?aae?iiy /a?ac ae?yeuei?noue ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a
i?aei?e?inoa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaea?aeai? aaoi?ii ?acoeueoaoe ?icaeaathoue eiioeaioe?th ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao no/anii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, ni?eyoeiooue
noaiiaeaiith iiaeo i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie ? noaiiaeaiith
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

Iaoeia? ?ic?iaee aaoi?a aeei?enoai? i?e noai?aii? eaoaae?e i?iieneiaiai
ia?eaoeiao a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, ?ic?iaee a?ey aeaaaeoeyoe o/aiaeo eo?n?a aeey
i?aeaioiaee aaeaeaa??a, niaoe?ae?no?a oa iaa?no??a ii niaoe?aeueiino?
“ia?eaoeia”. Iaoeia? ?ic?iaee aaoi?a aeei?enoai? aeey i?aai?caoe??
nenoaie ia?ai?aeaioiaee ea??aieo eaae??a i?aei?e?inoa, o??i, aaie?a i?e
I?aeia?iaeiiio oeaio?? i?eaaoecaoe??, ?iaanoeoe?e oa iaiaaeaeiaioo,
I?aeia?iaeiiio ?inoeooo? iaiaaeaeiaioo (i. Ee?a), I?aeia?iaeiiio
Oi?aa?neoao? O?iain?a (i. Ee?a), Aeuee oeie? a?ciano (i. Ae/aanuee),
Euea?anueeiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”,
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy eyaee a iniiao eiioeaioe?? ae?yeueiino?,
noaoooo oa Aoe/iiai Eiaeaeno Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe?? Ia?eaoeiao (OAI),
yea caniiaaia o 1996 ?. OAI noai?aia ye aeia?ia?eueia, iacaeaaeia,
iaaea?aeaaia ? naii?aaoeueiaaia i?aai?caoe?y aeey oiai, uia caaacia/eoe
aenieee ??aaiue ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i?. Aaoi? i?eeiaa
o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe? eiioeaioe?? oa i?aai?caoe?? aeaeaiiy oaoiaiai
aeo?iaeo OAI “Ia?eaoeia a Oe?a?i?”.

Oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee aaoi?a aoee aeei?enoai? aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy a?eueo i?ae 200 ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ??ciiiai?oieo
?eie?a Oe?a?ie c iaoith aecia/aiiy ??aiy iiieoo, niiaeea/eo iioeaaoe?e
oa ?ic?iaee i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiai? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa. Aaoi?ii
i?iaaaeai? ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca i?ia?aiaie TACIS 92N001
“Ae?iaieoeoai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oaoi?ee ia i?aei?e?inoaao
Oe?a?ie, A?ei?on?? oa ?in?? a iaaeao i?ia?aie eiiaa?n??”. A oaeiae ?eieo
aeaeo?icaa?thaaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy Oe?a?ie a ?aieao noi?niiai ieaio
?ia?o eaoaae?e i?iieneiaiai ia?eaoeiao IOOO “EI?” oa ?inoeoooo
aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i. ?. I. Iaoiia.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue aaoi?ii o 1992—1998 ??.
ia /eneaiieo (aeecueei 20) i?aeia?iaeieo oa oe?a?inueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo,
nai?ia?ao oa iaoeiaeo noaaeoaaiiyo a Eaiaae?, NOA, Aaeeeia?eoai??,
Oaaoe??, Eeoa?. Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
aaoi?ii i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaoeiai? ?iaioe i?ae /an noaaeoaaiiy ia
oaeoeueoao? iaiaaeaeiaioo a oi?aa?neoao? i. Oi?iioi (Eaiaaea) a 1993 –
1994 ??., ?ic?iaee iaa/aeueieo ainiiaea?nueeeo neooaoe?e a
?aineaoa?nueeiio oi?aa?neoao? i. O?ie (NOA) a 1995 ?., i?ae /an o/ano? o
i?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? SMD o .i. Noieaieuei (Oaaoe?y) a 1997 ?.,
noaaeoaaiiy o Oa?a?inueeiio iie?oaoi?/iiio ?inoeooo? (Eeoae). Iaoeia?
?ic?iaee aaoi?a aeei?enoai? aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ia caiiaeaiiy aaaaoueio oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoa.

Aaoi?ii i?aeaioiaeai? o/aia? eo?ne “Ia?eaoeia”, “I?iieneiaee ia?eaoeia”,
“Ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy”, “No?aoaa?/iee ia?eaoeia”, “Ia?eaoeiaia?
eiioi?eaoe??”. Aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaii a?eueo, i?ae 30 iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo
nai?ia??a aeey aeeeaaea/?a aoc?a, ea??aiee?a oa niaoe?ae?no?a
oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoa c i?iaeai ia?eaoeiao. Aaoi? ?
a?oea-i?aceaeaioii Oe?a?inueei? Anioe?aoe?? Ia?eaoeiao, /eaiii Oaoiai?
?aaee c iaiaaeaeiaioo, aieiaith naeoe?? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? eii?n?? c
iaiaaeaeiaioo oa /eaiii naeoe?? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? eii?n?? c ia?eaoeiao
i?e I?i?noa?noa? ina?oe Oe?a?ie, /eaiii ?aaeeieaa?? oaoiaiai aeo?iaeo
“Ia?eaoeia a Oe?a?i?”. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a
iaeiiin?ai?e iiiia?ao??, eieaeoeai?e iiiia?ao??, o?ueio eieaeoeaieo
i?ae?o/ieeao, 5 iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaeao, 17 noaooyo oa oacao caaaeueiei
ianyaii aaoi?nueeiai iaoa??aeo iiiaae 50 oiiaieo a?eoo?a.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a, 21
i?ae?icae?eo, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (339 iaeiaioaaiue)
caaaeueiei ianyaii 376 noi??iie oa aeaio aeiaeaoe?a ianyaii 255
noi??iie.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Anooi.

?icae?e 1. Iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie

1.1. Ia(?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a i?ioean?
?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei

1.2. Nooue oa iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue

1.3. Ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy a nenoai? i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo
??oaiue

Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 1

?icae?e 2. Iniaeeaino? eiioeaioe?? oa iaoai?cio cae?eniaiiy
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i?

2.1. Iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie ?ic?iaee a?iioace oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue

2.2.Niaoeeo?ea ia?eaoeiiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i? oa eiai i?ioe??//y

2.3.Niaoeeo?ea ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia ae?iaie/iio oa
niiaeea/iio ?eieao Oe?a?ie

2.4. Iiaeaeue ?ic?iaee aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue

Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 2

?icae?e 3. Iaoiaeeea cai?o ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??

3.1. ?ioi?iaoe?eia aaca i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue a Oe?a?i?

3.2. Ia?aeii? aeaea?aea ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??

3.3. Iaoiaee eiioi?eaoe?e i?e i?iaaaeaii? iieooaaiiy

3.4. I?eioeeie ?ic?iaee iieooaaeueieo aieao

3.5. Oeiia? i?aeoiaee aei ?ic?iaee aieao

Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 3

?icae?e 4. Ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ??ai? i?aei?e?inoaa

4.1. Ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo oiaa??a

4.2. Ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ??aiy iiieoo

4.3. Iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia i?aei?e?inoa?

4.4. I?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e a?aeae?e?a ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia
i?aei?e?inoa?

Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 4

?icae?e 5. Oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

5.1. Ieaioaaiiy i?ioeano ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

5.2. I?aai?caoe?ei? aniaeoe cai?o ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

5.3. I?eioeeie ia?iaee aeaieo oa aiae?co ?ioi?iaoe??

5.4. ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ca ?acoeueoaoaie ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue

5.5. Ia?eaoeiaia? ooieoe?? i?ae?icae?e?a i?aei?e?inoa

Aeniiaee aei ?icae?eo 5

Aeniiaee

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae

Aeiaeaoee

Aeiaeaoie A. C?acie ia?eaoeiaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c aecia/aiiy ??aiy
ei?ioeioa?i?iiaiai iiieoo ia iaaee/iee i?aia?ao ? ?ic?iaee
i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiai? no?aoaa??.

Aeiaeaoie A. C?acie noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a ia?eaoeiaiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aecia/aiith niiaeea/eo iioeaaoe?e i?e iieoioe?
i?iaeiaieue/eo oiaa??a.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe ?icaeyaeathoueny iieiaeaiiy, ye? neeaaeathoue
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a
neeaaeieo oiiaao no/anii? oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee. Aenooiath/e ie?aiith
aaeoccth ia?eaoeiao, aiie ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo neeaaeiaeo /anoei
a ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa, aeanieee oa ea??aieoeoai yeeo caoe?eaaeai?
a aeinyaiaii? noaeiai ?eieiaiai oni?oo a eiieo?aioiiio na?aaeiaeu?. A
?iaio? iieacaii, ui ia a?ae?aco ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee nai?
i?noea na?aae ?ino?oiaio?a no/aniiai iaiaaeaeiaioo. Aiii ? ?acoeueoaoii
aaiethoe?? ?eieiai? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Aiae?c inoaiiuei?
cae?enith?oueny aaoi?ii ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaiiai ?i aecia/aiiy ?eieo,
yea ? eyaei a ooiaeaiaio ?ic?iaee no/anii? eiioeaioe?? ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

?eiie—oea noa?a aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae niiaeeaa/aie oa ae?iaieeaie, a ye?e
a i?ioean? iai?io oiaa?aie /e iineoaaie /a?ac eieeaaiiy ?eieiaeo oe?i
cae?enith?oueny iiaiaeaeaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?y ?o aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a.
?eieiaee iaoai?ci ? aoaeoeaiei a oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee a ?acoeueoao? eiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny iiaiaeaeaiiy ? iaea?eueo iiaia
?aae?caoe?y aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a ?eieiaeo noa(?eo?a I?ae ?eieiaeie
noa(?eoaie ie ?icoi??ii ae?iaiee?a ? niiaeeaa/?a, oiio ui ?o aeiiii?/i?
?ioa?ane, ye? iathoue iiaiaeaeoaaoenue oa ?aae?ciaoaaoenue, ?
ia?aeiieie. ?ioa?ane ?ioeo noa(?eo?a ?eieo, iai?eeeaae, iina?aaeiee?a, ?
iio?aeieie.

C oe??? oi/ee ci?o i?iaeaaaoeue ia caaaeaee ? ?aaeueiei ae?iaieeii
oiaa??a, aea oiae? a?i, c iaeiiai aieo, ? niiaeeaa/ai ii a?aeiioaiith
aei ae?iaieea, a ye i?iaeaaaoeue, ? aoi?eiiei iin??i ?ioa?an?a
ae?iaiee?a. Oiio a aaciaiio aecia/aii? ?eieo ie i?iiiio?ii ?icaeyaeaoe a
?ie? ?eieiaeo noa(?eo?a naia ae?iaiee?a ? niiaeeaa/?a.

A ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? ye Oe?a?ie, oae ? aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie, yea
ooieoe?iio? ia ?eieiaeo i?eioeeiao, aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane ae?iaiee?a ?
niiaeeaa/?a ia ni?aiaaeathoue. ?nioth/a i?ioe??//y ?o ?ioa?an?a ?
iaoiiaeth? ia(?eoeaio iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Naia c ?o aeiiiiiaith noa? iiaeeeaei iiooe aoaeoeaieo
oeyo?a aca?iiiai i?enoinoaaiiy ?ioa?an?a ae?iaiee?a ? niiaeeaa/?a. Aeey
oeueiai iaiao?aeii:

ii-ia?oa, aea/eoe oe? ?ioa?ane ia iniia? aiae?co oaeoi??a i?e?i- oa
iae?ina?aaeiaeua;

ii-ae?oaa, ie?aneeoe noa?o ?ica?aeiinoae oeeo ?ioa?an?a

ii-o?ao?, ciaeoe oeyoe i?i?i?caoe?? noa?e ?ica?aeiino? ?ioa?an?a oeyoii
?ic?iaee aoaeoeaii? ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??.

Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui iaea?eueo aaaeeei aeey ia?eaoieiaa ? aeeiiaiiy
ia?oiai ioieoo aeuaiaaaaeaii? eia?ee ae?e. Ni?aaa a oiio, ui i?
ae?iaiee, i? niiaeeaa/ aei e?ioey ia ?icoi?thoue nai?o aeaeaeinyaeieo
aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a. Oaea neooaoe?y ia(?eoeaii aeieeaa? c ?o
i?ioeeaaeiiai iieiaeaiiy a eaioethao “ae?iaieoeoai—iai?i—niiaeeaaiiy”.

Aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane i?iaeaaoe?a, yeeie iiaeooue aooe ye ae?iaieee, oae ?
iina?aaeieee, iaoiiaeai? ?o i?aaaie aeaniino?. O ei?ioeioa?i?iia?e
ia?niaeoea? iieyaathoue o iaenei?caoe?? aeioiae?a a?ae aeei?enoaiiy
nai?? aeaniino? ca ia??iae ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia ?eieo ? ia(?eoeaii
caoe?eaaeai? a oaeeo ianyaao oa oe?iao ?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a oa iineoa,
ye? aeathoue ?i iiaeeea?noue iaenei?coaaoe a?ioia? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy c
iaoith a?aeoai?aiiy ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano ? io?eiaiiy iaaiiai i?eaooeo.
Niiaeeaa/?, iaaiaee, iaiaaathoueny i?i?i?coaaoe aeo?aoe ? io?eiaoe ca
a?io? iaeneiaeueia caaeiaieaiiy nai?o iio?aa.

?en. 1. Noaia ?ica?aeiinoae aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a ae?iaiee?a oa
niiaeeaa/?a.

A caeaaeiino? a?ae oiai, ye i?e oeeaaeaii? ae?iaie/i? i?ia?aie
a?aoiaothoueny iio?aae niiaeeaa/?a, iiaeia aeae?eeoe ianooii? oeie
?eie?a:

Ai?eciioaeueii ?aaoeueiaaiee ?eiie

Ae?iaieee i???ioothoueny ia aeyaeaiiai niiaeeaa/a.

Oe? oeie ?eie?a a?aeia?aaeathoue ?noi?e/i? aoaie ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/iiai
aaceno noni?euenoaa. Oe?eeii i?e?iaeii, ui ia ??cieo aoaiao o i?eeiyoo?
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue ia?eaoeia a oe?eiio oa ia?eaoeiaia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy cie?aia, a?ae?a?athoue ??cio ?ieue. Oa?i?ie “a?eueiee” oa
“?aaoeueiaaiee” ie canoiniao?ii ia a ?o aano?aeoiiio iie?oaeiiii?/iiio
cia/aii?, a ye oa?aeoa?enoeeo, yea na?ae/eoue i?i a?aooaaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaii iio?aa niiaeeaa/?a

A?eueiee ?eiie, aea ae?iaieeo iaa?aeiii, yeee naia niiaeeaa/ a?aeaeanoue
ia?aaaao eiai i?iaeoeoe??, a?aeiia?aea? oaeiio aoaio ?icaeoeo ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa, eiee iiieo ia?aaeuo? i?iiiceoe?th oiaa??a. A oae?e
neooaoe?? aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae ?eieiaeie noa(?eoaie cae?eniththoueny ca
ianooiiith noaiith.

Ae?iaieoeoai ?eiie

Ae?iaieee aeioneathoue i?iaeoeoe?th, nie?ath/enue ia ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
iiia?aaei? ianyae i?iaeaaeo oa na?e aeina?ae. I?e oeueiio o ieo
iaiaaeai? iiaeeeaino? aeey ci?ie oaoi?/ieo oa i?aai?caoe?eieo oiia
ae?iaieoeoaa. ?aaeueia a?aooaaiiy aeoiee niiaeeaa/?a a?aeaoaa?oueny aaea
i?ney i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa— i?ae /an ?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a ia ?eieo.
Oiaa?iae?iaiee aeaioiaey? i?iaeoeoe?th aai aioo?oueny iaaeaoe iineoae,
iiia?aaeiuei ia iath/e oyae i?i oiai, ooi naia aoaea eiai ee??ioii.

Ciaeueiaaia aeua neooaoe?y aoea oa?aeoa?ia aeey aoaio ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei, yeee cae?i/eany o e?ioe? 19-ai noi??//y. I?ioa iaa?oue ia
oe?e noaae?? noeo?eii ca?iaeaeothoueny ie?ai? ooieoe?? iaeaooiueiai
eiiieaeno ia?eaoeiao. Cie?aia, eaea ?icaeoie oaoi?ee i?inoaaiiy oiaa??a
oa ?aeeaie.

Aeieeiaiiy ?aaoeueiaaiiai ?eieo iaoiiaeaii ci?iith ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
iiieoo oa i?iiiceoe??. I?ae /an inoaiiuei? o?aoeie 19-ai noi??//y
a?aeaoeeny ea?aeeiaeuei? ia?aoai?aiiy o iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/i?e aac?
ae?iaieoeoaa, ui ciaeoei nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?iieneiaiio ia?aai?io?.

Ii/aoie 20-ai noi??//y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ooaa?aeaeaiiyi o i?iieneiaino?
nenoaie e?oiiiai iaoeiiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii/aoeo
aoaio ni?aaaeiueiai ianiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? ae?iaie/iai oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai niiaeeaaiiy. C oeueiai iiiaioo i?iiiceoe?y oiaa??a
ii/eia? ia?aaeuoaaoe iiieo. Oey oaiaeaioe?y iinooiiai noa? i?eoaiaiiith
ana a?eueo?e e?eueeino? oiaa?ieo ?eie?a.

A?oith o ?icaeoeo eai?oae?cio noaea na?oiaa e?eca ia?aae?iaieoeoaa 1929
— 33 ?ie?a. Aiia aeiaaea canoa??e?noue ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaii, iaoe?eaieo ia ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa aeeeth/ii
ca ?aooiie eiai aeanieo ?aca?a?a. Ia?aae ea??aieeaie i?aei?e?inoa
iinoaea i?iaeaia aeyaeaiiy oa i???ioaoe?? ia niiaeeaaoeueeee iiieo.

Iaiao?aeiith oiiaith ?eieiaiai oni?oo i?aei?e?inoa noaei a?aooaaiiy
iio?aa niiaeeaa/?a. C oeueiai iiiaioo a?eueiee ?eiie, i???ioiaaiee ia
iaa?aeiiiai niiaeeaa/a, ci?ith?oueny ?aaoeueiaaiei ?eieii:

?eiie Ae?iaieoeoai ?eiie

A neooaoe??, eiee ia eiaeiiio ?eieo ?nio? iino?eia caa?ica
ia?aae?iaieoeoaa, aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo ia ia?aaeae?iaie/?e noaae?? c
iaoith aeyaeaiiy oa cai???a iiieoo, niiaeea/eo iioeaaoe?e oa ?ioeo
oaeoi??a ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua iinooiiai noa? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith a
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa. Oae ?noi?e/ii aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue a
canoinoaaii? ia?eaoeiaiaeo canaae a oi?aae?ii? i?aei?e?inoaaie.

A no/ani?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ?nio? aeanyoee aecia/aiue ia?eaoeiao,
ye? ??ciia?/ii ?ice?eaathoue eiai nooi?noue. C iaoi? oi/ee ci?o, a ieo
iaia? aca?iiocaiaeaeaiiy ia?eaoeiao c ia(?eoeaiith noooth ?eieiaiai
iaoai?cio. Ie i?iiiio?ii aecia/aiiy ia?eaoeiao, yea a aeoiaeeei ?c
aecia/aiiy noo? ?eieo, ?ice?eaaei aieiai? ?ene aeaiiai yaeua ? iiaei a
aooe iniiaith i?aeoe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? ? oi?aae?iiy oeeie i?ioeanaie.
Ia?eaoeia—oea oai??y ? i?aeoeea i?ioeano i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo
??oaiue a?aeiinii oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiai? no?aoaa?? ? oe?eae
i?aai?caoe?? oa iaoiae?a ?? aeinyaiaiiy ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua, iai?aaeaieo ia
?aae?caoe?th aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a ae?iaiee?a ? niiaeeaa/?a.

Aeey i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue uiaei ?eieiai—i?iaeoeoiai?
no?aoaa?? ea??aieoeoao o??ie iaiao?aeii, ia?o ca ana, c?a?aoe oa
i?iaiae?coaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i o? oaeoi?e iae?i— ? i?e?i?eieiaiai
na?aaeiaeua, ye? aieeaathoue ia ?? ae?yeuei?noue a iaaiee a?ae??cie
/ano.

I?ioean i?eeiyooy ??oaiue uiaei ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? o??ie iiaea
noinoaaoeny aoaeue-yeiai c aniaeo?a ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?. Iniiai?
aoaie ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? iaaaaeai? ia ?enoieo 2.

Oi?aae?inuee? ??oaiiy iiaeooue noinoaaoeny i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiai?
no?aoaa?? a oe?eiio /e ie?aieo ?? oaeoi??a, iai?eeeaae, i?eeiyooy
??oaiiy uiaei ci?i a no?aoaa?? oe?iiooai?aiiy, ?aeeaie, eaiae?a
?iciiae?eo, oe?eueiaeo ?eie?a oiui

Oi?aae?iiy ?eieiai-i?iaeoeoiaith no?aoaa??th o??ie /e ie?aieo ??
eiiiiiaio?a aeeth/a? ?yae aoai?a:

ona?aeiieaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? i?iaeaie (II) /e ?eieiaeo iiaeeeainoae (?I);

/?oea aecia/aiiy II /e ?I;

aecia/aiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo iai?yie?a iiaeeeaiai ae??oaiiy II /e
?aae?caoe?? ?I;

ii??aiyiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aa??aio?a ae??oaiiy II;

ao?eaiiy aea?aiiai eo?no ? eiai ei?eaoaaiiy a i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? i?ioeano i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue iaiao?aeii
/?oei ona?aeiieoe II /e ?I o??ie. Ia?eaoeiaia? i?iaeaie oa ?eieia?
iiaeeeaino? ? ?acoeueoaoii ae?? oaeoi??a ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua aai
iane?aeeii cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ia?ai o??ie.

Aeae? a?aeaoaa?oueny aecia/aiiy i?iaeaie, yea ia? aooe ae??oaia, ?
oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaathoue ia ?? ?ica(ycaiiy. Oea ia caaaeaee eaaea
caaaeaiiy /anoi aeiaaa? neeaaeii? aiae?oe/ii? ?iaioe c iiooeo oeo
oaeoi??a, ye? i?ecaaee aei aeieeiaiiy II, ? ioe?ioe? oa?aeoa?o ?o aieeao
ia ia?. Ia?eaoieiao iio??aii iaoe aaeeeo e?euee?noue ia?eaoeiaiai?
?ioi?iaoe??. O?ao?e aoai ia?aaeaa/a? ?ic?iaeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo aa??aio?a
ae??oaiiy II. Ia oeueiio aoai? aeieea? iio?aaa a caeo/aii? aenia?o?a a
na?aaeei? o??ie.

Inoaiiueith noaae??th i?ioeano i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ? cae?eniaiiy aea?aiiai
iai?yieo ae?e. Aeey ieaioaaiiy oeueiai i?ioeano iaiao?aeii iaoe /?oeo
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i o? ci?ie , ye? aieeaathoue ia cae?eniaiiy i?ia?aie.
I?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue cae?enith?oueny ia ??ciiiai?oieo ??aiyo
oi?aae?inueeeo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? o??ie: a?ae aeuiai ea??aiiai
neeaaeo aei na?aaeiueiai.

?en. 2. Iniiai? aoaie i?ioeano ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?.

I?eeiyooy ??oaiue iiaea aacoaaoenue ia aiae?c? aioo??ae?iaie/eo
iiaeeeainoae o??ie, eaae?o?eaoe??, ina?o? oa aeina?aeo niaoe?ae?no?a, a
oaeiae ia iniia? aeinoia??ii? ?eieiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Aaca i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue caeaaeeoue a?ae niaoeeo?ee
eiie?aoii?noi?e/iiai ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua. Ca oiia eiai noaa?eueiino?,
eiee iae?i— oa i?e?ioaeoi?e iiaeeeai i?iaiicoaaoe ? oaiie ?eieiaeo ci?i
iaaenie?, oi?aae?inuee? ??oaiiy iiaeooue i?eeiaoenue ia iniia?
iiia?aaeiueiai i?aei?e?iieoeueeiai aeina?aeo, aea/aiiy aeaea?ae
aoi?eiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oiui.

?ieue ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?aeaeuo?oueny a oiiaao c?inoaiiy oaii?a
ia?aoai?aiue o ia?eaoeiaiaiio na?aaeiaeu?. Oaeoi?e ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua
iino?eii ? aeeiai?/ii ci?iththoueny, iniaeeai i?ioyaii inoaii?o
aeanyoee?oue. sseui ua a 50—60 ?iee ae?th/? caeiiii??iino? iiaee aooe
iniiaith aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy iaeaooiueiai ?icaeoeo, oi a no/anieo oiiaao
iaeaooi? iiaeeeai ia?aaeaa/eoe o?eueee ia iniia? cai?o oa aiae?co
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i oaeoi?e ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

O?oaeiii?iaiiciaaiee noai ?eieo ? oa?aeoa?iei ye aeey aeiiii?/ii
?icaeiooeo e?a?i, oae ua a a?eueo?e i??? aeey e?a?i, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia
oeyoo o?ainoi?iaoe?? nai?o aeiiii?e aei ?eieiaeo iiaeaeae. A oaeeo
oiiaao ?ieue ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue cia/ii c?inoa?, ? iniiaia ?o
iaoa iieyaa? a cieaeaii? ?eceeo o i?eeiyoo? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.
Aeeiai?/i? ci?ie, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei cia/iiai i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie?
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o na?oia?e i?aeoeoe?, noinothoueny
i?aeoe/ii an?o oaeoi??a i?e?i- oa iae?iia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

Ie i?iiiio?ii ianooiia aecia/aiiy noo? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy — oea nenoaiaoe/iiee i?ioean iinoaiiaee
oe?eae aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ianya?a; cai?o; aiae?co
ia’?eoeaii? ?eieiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa ?ic?iaee ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey
i?eeiyooy eiie?aoieo oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue a?aeiinii aoaeue-yeeo
aeaiaio?a i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiai? no?aoaa?? o??ie ? iaoiae?a ?o ?aae?caoe??
aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaeaeueo e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoao?a a ae?yeueiino? o??ie a
oiiaao eiie?aoiiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua. Cai?iiiiiaaia aecia/aiiy,
yea ?ice?eaa? iaoiaeieia?th, i?ioeaaeo?o oa oe?e? ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ye aaciina?aaeiuei ia?eaoieiaii
aeey i?aai?caoe?? i?ioeano aeine?aeaeaiue, oae ? caiiaieeii aeey
aoaeoeaiiai eiio?ieth ca oiaeii eiai cae?eniaiiy. O aeuaiaaaaeaiiio
aecia/aii? eiaeia neeaaeiaa /anoeia ia? ci?noiaia iaaaioaaeaiiy.
?icaeyiaii ?o a?eueo aeaoaeueii.

Iaie aeae?eaii oa, ui ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia iaeii?aciaei
aeoii, a i?ioeanii, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? aeeiiaiiy iaaieo iine?aeiaieo ae?e
aeey aeinyaiaiiy eiie?aoiiai ?acoeueoaoo. ?o iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe o
ianooiiiio aeaeyae?:

iinoaiiaea oe?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy

ca?? ?ioi?iaoe??

aiae?c ?ioi?iaoe??

?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

Nenoaiaoe/i?noue i?ioeano ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue icia/a?, ui a?i
ia? aooe iine?aeiaiei, aeaoaeueii nieaiiaaiei ? oaeei, ui iino?eii
iiiiaeth?oueny. Iine?aeiai?noue ia?aaeaa/a? cae?eniaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue o
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei anoaiiaeaieo aoai?a, ii/eiath/e c aecia/aiiy oe?e?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caaa?ooth/e i?aeaioiaeith ca?oo oa eiai i?acaioaoe??th.
Eiaeai c aoai?a ia? nai? i?aeaoaie, ye? iiaeii? aeaoaeueii ?ic?iaeyoeny
? ieaioaaoeny ( aeeaenue ?en. 3). Iaaeio?eiaiiy oeueiai iaoiaeieia?/iiai
i?eioeeio iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia aeinoia??iino? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui ia?
aooe io?eiaia.

Aoaie ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue Ci?no

1. Aecia/aiiy oe?eae ia?eaoeiaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:

aiae?c i?iaeaie ? iiaeeeainoae;

aecia/aiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo aa??aio?a ae??oaiiy

i?iaeaie /e ?aae?caoe?? iiaeeeainoae;

anoaiiaeaiiy iaae aeine?aeaeaiiy.

2. ?ic?iaea aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue:

neeaaeaiiy iiooeiaeo ieoaiue;

?ic?iaea a?iioac;

aecia/aiiy aeaea?ae ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

3. Ioe?iea oe?iiino? ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

4. I?aai?caoe?y ? ieaioaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy:

aea?? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy;

?ic?iaea iieooaaeueieo aieao;

neeaaeaiiy ieaio aea??eiaiai niinoa?aaeaiiy /e i?aeaioiaea aenia?eiaioo;

neeaaeaiiy athaeaeaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy.

5. Cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:

ca?? ?ioi?iaoe??;

ia?iaea ? aiae?c ?ioi?iaoe??.

6. ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

7. I?aeaioiaea ca?oo oa i?acaioaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ia?eaoeiaiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?en. 3. Iniiai? aoaie i?ioeano ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

C iaeyaeo ia aenieo ?ooii?noue oaeoi??a ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? ei?aeoe?? ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ia?ai,
aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue iiiiaethaaoenue c iaaiith ia??iaee/i?noth. Aeey
a?eueoino? oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aiia iiaeiia aooe i?i?iaeueia (ia
??aeoa, i?ae ?ac ia i?a?ieo).

Aeey aecia/aiiy oe?eae ia?eaoeiaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, — iaeneeaaei?oiai
c eiai aoai?a, — iio??aii cae?enieoe aeineoue neeaaeiee aiae?c
ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai oa iiaeeeainoae o??ie. A?i ia?aaeaa/a?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeoi??a iae?i- oa i?e?i-ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua.

I?aeoeea iieaco?, ui a?eueo?noue ea??aiee?a a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa ia
caeaoi? iinoaaeoe ia?aae aeine?aeieeii eiie?aoio oe?eue ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Caiiaieee cacae/ae iaceaathoue i?iaeaio, yeo ?i
iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe. sse i?aaeei, ?o oo?aothoue i?aeaeuaiiy ianya?a
caooo i?iaeoeoe??, ?icoe?aiiy aeie? ?eieo, ci?oeiaiiy iiceoe?e ii
a?aeiioaiith aei eiieo?aio?a oiui. An? oe? i?iaeaie ia iathoue i?/iai
ni?eueiiai c oi?ioethaaiiyi oe?e? ia?eaoeiaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
i?iaaaeaiiy yeiai iio??aii aeey i?eeiyooy iaaiiai oi?aae?inueeiai
??oaiiy.

Ia?aae iinoaiiaeith iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiao?aeii i?iaiae?coaaoe an?
oaeoi?e ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua, ye? aieeaathoue, iai?eeeaae, ia
ianya caooo i?iaeoeoe??, aecia/eoe ?eieia? iiaeeeaino? ? caa?ice. Ia
oe?e iniia? aaea ?ic?iaeythoueny aeueoa?iaoeai? eo?ne ae?e uiaei
eiia??ieo aa??aio?a oieeiaiiy caa?ic /e ?aae?caoe?? iiaeeeainoae ?
o?eueee i?ney a?aeai?o iaaiiai eo?no iiaeia aeeoe ia iinoaiiaeo oe?eae
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?ioi?iaoe??, yea cae?a?oueny oa aiae?co?oueny ia oeueiio aoai?, ua
cian?i iaaeinoaoiuei aeey i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. Ia ?? iniia?
eeoa ?ic?iaeythoueny a?iioace iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a ae??oaiiy i?iaeai.

Aoai, yeee ie ?icaeyaea?ii, iiaea aooe iaea?eueo o?eaaeei ? eiooiaiei. A
e?a?iao c ?icaeiooith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith, aea ia?eaoieiae-aiae?oeee
iino?eii cae?eniththoue aiae?c oa ioe?ieo ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua,
caiiaiee /ano?oa ca ana /?oei oi?ioeth? eiie?aoio oe?eue aeine?aeaeaiiy
? oieea? aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?ao, iia’ycaieo c iinoaiiaeith oe?e?.

Ia’?eoeai?noue ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? caeaaeeoue, ii-ia?oa, a?ae
/?oei? ? iine?aeiaii? nenoaiaoecaoe?? i?ioeano ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue; ii-ae?oaa, — a?ae caiia?aaiiy iiaeeeaeo iiieeie a oiae?
cai?o ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa i?aai?caoe?? aea??eiaiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy.

Aaaeeeaith ?enith ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? oa, ui ?ioi?iaoe?y, yea
io?eio?oueny a oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue, iaiao?aeia ia acaaae?, a aeey
i?eeiyooy eiie?aoiiai oi?aae?inueeiai ??oaiiy. Oey aaaeeeaa aeiiaa
aeicaiey? /?oei anoaiiaethaaoe iaae? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
aecia/eoe ianya iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeaoaeueii aeine?aeaeaii ?noi?e/i? aniaeoe oa na?oiao
i?aeoeeo ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Noaoenoe/i? aeai? ia?aeiieeai
na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ia no/aniiio aoai? naiai ?icaeoeo a?cian,
iia(ycaiee c i?iaaaeaiiyi ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?icaeaa?oueny
oaeaeeeie oaiiaie. Oae, o 1996 ?ioe? ?o ianya o anueiio na?o? neeaa 8,7
ie?ae. aeth, ui ia 9 % ia?aaeuo? iieaciee iiia?aaeiueiai ?ieo.

Oe?a?ia o?eueee-ii ii/eia? i?ioean ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue ? ia?aaeeaa? ia
oeueiio oeyoo iaaaeye? o?oaeiiu?. Aea, iacaaaeath/e ia oea, i?ioean
noai?aiiy no?oeoo?, ye? caeiathoueny ?ica’ycaiiyi ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai,
a?aeaoaa?oueny aeineoue ?ioaineaii.

No?oeoo?o i?aai?caoe?e, ye? i?iaiaeyoue ia?eaoeiaiao ae?yeuei?noue,
iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe oaeei /eiii.

Aoc?anuee? eaoaae?e ia?eaoeiao, ye? caeiathoueny i?aeaioiaeith
niaoe?ae?no?a a oe?e aaeoc?, iaoeiaith iaoiaee/iith ?iaioith, a oaeiae
cae?eniaiiyi ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?eieo Oe?a?ie.

Niaoe?ae?ciaai? ia?eaoeiaia? eiinaeoeiaia? o??ie. A Oe?a?i? a inoaii?
?iee ?ioaineaii ?aea i?ioean ?o noai?aiiy.

A?aeae?ee ia?eaoeiao ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao.

Aaoi? iieaco? a aeena?oaoe??, ui ia ae?yeuei?noue
ia?eaoieia?a-aeine?aeiee?a a ia?oo /a?ao aieeaathoue /eiieee, eio??
iia’ycai? ?c no?oeoo?ith no/anii? oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee. C iaeiiai
aieo, aeu? aea?aeaai? o?yaeiaoe? iieeaaeathoue iaae?? ia oae caai?
“oi/eia?” ?iaanoeoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeo?eieo iaiaaeaii? e?eueeino?
eiie?aoieo i?aei?e?inoa, iioaioe?eii caeaoieo cae?enithaaoe noaa?euei?
a?ae?aooaaiiy aei aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo. Oea, ye i?aaeei,
aenii?oiii???ioiaai? i?aei?e?inoaa oae caaieo “aaciaeo aaeocae”.
Iai?eeeaae o 1996 ?. 100 iaea?eueoeo oe?a?inueeeo aenii?oa??a aeaee 37%
onueiai ?anioae?eainueeiai aenii?oo (aeecueei 2,7 ie?ae aeiea??a), c
yeeo 2 ie?ae aeiea??a i?eiaaea? ia 33 i?aei?e?inoaa iaoaeo?a?eiiai
eiiieaeno. Aeey ieo oa?aeoa?i? oae? ?ene: inai?i? ?eiee caooo,
oaai?eoeci c aieo o?yaeo, e?aaeeoia i?aeo?eiea, iayai?noue no?aoaa?/ieo
?iaanoi??a; oiio ea??aieee oeeo i?aei?e?inoa ia i?eae?eythoue
aeinoaoiuei? oaaae ia?eaoeiaiaei aeine?aeaeaiiyi. ?nioth/e a?aeae?ee
ia?eaoeiao ia oeeo i?aei?e?inoaao cae?eniththoue ooieoe?? i?anoeaeo aai
aeeiiothoue cae/aei? ooieoe?? a?aeae?e?a caooo. C ?ioiai aieo, iaaaeueio
iio?aao a oao?aoeyo ia?eaoieiaao a?ae/oaa? ea??aieoeoai i?aei?e?inoa
iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano. Aea ?o o?iainiaee noai ia aeicaiey?
caiiaeoe ae?enii ye?ni? ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, ie ia?ii ia’?eoeaia i?ioe??//y ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
a Oe?a?i?. Aiii iieyaa? a oiio, ui eiina?aaoeaia no?oeoo?a noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa iaoiiaeth? oae? aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane aeaniee?a oa
?icii?yaeiee?a ye iacia/ii? e?eueeino? iaea?eueoeo i?aei?e?inoa —
athaeaeaoieo aeiii??a, oae ? aeanyoe?a ? nioaiue oeny/ iaeeo oa
na?aaei?o i?aei?e?ioe?a, ui aeaoi?iothoue iiieo ia ia?eaoeiaia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia noeioeththoue i?iaiaeeoe naia o? c ieo, eio??
iio??ai? aeey ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/eo nee oa noaiiaeaiiy iiai? no?oeoo?e
ae?iaieoeoaa oa niiaeeaaiiy.

Aaoi? ?icaeyaea? a aeena?oaoe?? niaoeeo?eo iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae
i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey ??cieo oei?a ?eieo. C
oi/ee ci?o ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy aeae?ey?oueny ?o aeaa
iniiaieo oeie: niiaeea/ee oa i?iieneiaee (aai a?cian-?eiie). E?eoa???i
?o iiae?eo ? oa?aeoa? niiaeeaaiiy oiaa??a oa iineoa, a ia ?o o?ce/i?
aeanoeaino?.

A ?iaio? iieacaii, ui oa?i?i “i?iieneiaee ?eiie”, yeee aaea oa?eoia a
iaoeiaee aia?ao a?o/eciyiiai ia?eaoeiao, ia ia? a?aeiioaiiy aei
caaaeueiii?eeiyoi? noaoenoe/ii? eeaneo?eaoe?? aaeocae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa — i?iieneia?noue, n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai, aoae?aieoeoai
? o.ae. A oai??? ia?eaoeiao i?iieneiaee ?eiie ioiieth? noa(?eo?a
ainiiaea?noaa aoaeue-yei? aaeoc?, ye? eoiothoue oiaa?e oa iineoae aeey
aeei?enoaiiy o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei oe?eae naiai a?ciano.

Aaoi? aeine?aeaeo? iaoiaeeeo ? iniiai? aoaie ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ye ia ae?iaie/iio, oae ? ia niiaeea/iio ?eieao.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe ?ic?iaeaii iaoai?ci i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue a niaoeeo?/ieo oiiaao ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua a
Oe?a?i?. Ia?oei aoaiii (aeea. ?en. 3) ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
aecia/aiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai (II) oa ?eieiaeo iiaeeeainoae (?I).
Aaoi?ii aeiaiaeeoueny, ui a eiie?aoieo oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee
?ieue naia oeueiai aoaio ia? iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy, ui
aeeeeeaii ye aenieei ??aiai ?ooiiino? an?o aac aeiyoeo oaeoi??a
ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua ? iaaecae/aeiith neeaaei?noth a ia?aaeaa/aii?
iai?yie?a eiai ?icaeoeo, oae ? a?aenooi?noth o ainiiaea?thth/eo
noa(?eo?a iio??aiiai aeina?aeo oi?aae?iiy.

Iae?ioaeoi?e

Aeiiii?/i?, i?e?iaei?, eoeueoo?i?, aeaiia?ao?/i?, iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?,
iie?oe/i?

I?e?ioaeoi?e

Eiieo?aioe, iinoa/aeueieee, niiaeeaa/?

Oe?ie, i?iaeoeoiaa e?i?y, nenoaia i?inoaaiiy, nenoaia ?iciiae?eo,
aeeaa?neo?eaoe?eiee iaa??

Iiaaae?iea niiaeeaa/?a, ?aaeoe?y niiaeeaa/?a, ?aaeoe?y eiieo?aio?a,
?aaeoe?y iinoa/aeueiee?a, ?aae?caoe?y (ianyae i?iaeaaeo, aeiey ?eieo,
aeo?aoe, i?eaooee, eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy, ca?ia?oia ieaoa).

Aeieeiaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai /e ?eieiaeo iiaeeeainoae

Iaiao?aei?noue i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue

Iio?aaa a ia?eaoeiaia?e ?ioi?iaoe??

?en. 4. Aca?iica(ycie iacaeaaeieo ? caeaaeieo oaeoi??a ia?eaoeiaiai?
nenoaie

Ca oeeo oiia aeinoia??ia ia?eaoeiaiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y ? iniiaiei caniaii
cieaeaiiy ?eceeo i?eeiyooy iioeaieo oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.
Aoaeoeai?noue inoaii?o i?yii ? a iaea?eueo?e i??? iaoiiaeth?oueny
i?aaeeueiei aecia/aiiyi II oa ?I. Aaoi? aia?oa ?ice?eaa? iaoai?ci
ae?aaiinoeee II oa ?I. A aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny , ui iayai?noue o
o??ie II ? ?I ? iane?aeeii ci?i o oaeoi?ao ciai?oiueiai iae?i- oa
i?e?iia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua. A ca(yceo c oeei caaaeaiiy aeine?aeieea
iieyaa? ia?o ca ana o aecia/aii? oa ioe?ioe? oeo oaeoi??a, ye?
ni?e/eieee aeieeiaiiy II ? ?I.

Aaaeeeaei aeniiaeii, aei yeiai ae?eoia aaoi? ? oa, ui ia?eaoeiaia?
i?iaeaie ? ?eieia? iiaeeeaino? i?aei?e?inoaa ia ? aaeaeaaoieie oe?e?
ia?eaoeiaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiae?c II ? ?I iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe
ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeieo ? iacaeaaeieo ci?iieo oaeoi??a
ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua. Aaoi?ii i?iiiio?oueny iiaeaeue o aca?iiae??
oaeoi??a ia?eaoeiiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua nenoaie aeey aiae?co II ? ?I. (
aeeaenue ?en. 4 ).

I?ney c(ynoaaiiy iayaiino? II ? ?I ?ic?iaeythoueny aeueoa?iaoeai?
iai?yiee ae?e. Neooaoe?y oneeaaeith?oueny a oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee iiaeeeai
?nioaaiiy aeae?eueeio aeueoa?iaoeaieo eo?n?a. Naia ia oeueiio aoai?
aeieea? iio?aaa a ?ioi?iaoe??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, yea cae?enith?oueny i?ae
/an ioe?iee aeueoa?iaoeaieo eo?n?a ae?e, iacaaii aaoi?ii a?aea??eiaei
aiae?cii, a iaaeao yeiai aecia/a?oueny iio?aaa a ?ioi?iaoe?? ? iaoe
eiie?aoiiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aaaaoi/enaeuei? ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy iioeaaoe?e ea??aiee?a
oe?a?inueeeo i?aei?e?inoa i?e i?eeiyoo? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue aeaee
iiaeeea?noue aaoi?o ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui a?eueo?noue c ieo ia a ciic?
/?oei noi?ioethaaoe nai? aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane ?, a?aeiia?aeii, oe?e?
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? a aiie aaaeaee caiiaeoe. Oeiiaei aeey
?o noeeth ea??aieoeoaa ? aenoiaiiy ia ia?oee ieai neiioii?a i?iaeai, a
ia i?e/ei, ye? ?o ii?iaeaeothoue. A?aeiia?aeii, oey ianoaaeia neeueii
aieeaa? ia iniaeeaino? cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a
Oe?a?i? o ii??aiyii? ?c e?a?iaie c ?icaeiooith ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith.

Ioaea, ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? ia caiaeyoueny eeoa aei
cai?o oa ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe?? i?ae caaeaio oe?eue. I?aeoeea aeiaiaeeoue,
ui iniiaiei aeaeii ae?yeueiino? a aaeoc? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a
Oe?a?i? ? i?iaaaeaiiy ae?aaiinoeee ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai oa ?eieiaeo
iiaeeeainoae ? ?ic?iaea aeueoa?iaoeaieo eo?n?a ae?e, ui iio?aao? cia/ieo
aeo?ao /ano oa eioo?a. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia, ai?iaiaaia oa i?iiiio?oueny
aei aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeeea ae?aaiinoeee ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai oa
iiaeeeainoae, ?ic?iaee aeueoa?iaoeaieo eo?n?a ae?e oa aecia/aiiy oe?eae
ia?eaoeiaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiaith ae?aaiinoeee ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai oa ?eieiaeo iiaeeeainoae ?
oa?aeoa?enoeea oaeoi??a ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeu, a yeiio ae??
i?aei?e?inoai. Ia iniia? aiae?co oe?ieiai eiea oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo,
yeee oa?aeoa?eco? oaeoi?e iae?iia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i?,
aaoi? noi?ioethaaa niaoeeo?/i? ?ene i?ioeano ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa eiai i?ioe??//y.

A ?iaio? aeiaaaeaii, ui a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie,
a?aenooiino? aeina?aeo ainiiaea?thaaiiy a ?eieiaeo oiiaao iaea?eueo
neeaaeiei aoaiii ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaea a?iioace
iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. Oey ?iaioa ? iane?aeeii
neeaaeii? aiae?oe/ii? ?iaioe, yea iia(ycaia c i?aeai?ii oa aiae?cii
oaeoi??a i?e?i- oa iae?iia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua. A?ae oiai,
iane?eueee aeaaaeaii noi?ioeueiaaia a?iioaca, caeaaeeoue ??aaiue
aeinoia??iino? ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. Oeae aoai iiaea iaoe
naiino?eia iaaecae/aeii aeniea cia/aiiy aeey iaieiae?iiy iaoiaeaie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a ?eieiaeo oiiaao.

Aoai aecia/aiiy aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue ia?aaeaa/a? anoaiiaeaiiy
eiea ?ioi?iaoe??, yea ia? aooe c?a?aia a oiae? ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeey ?aae?caoe?? eiai oe?eae. Aecia/aiiy
aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue ia?aaeaa/a? cae?eniaiiy o?ueio aoai?a:
neeaaeaiiy iiooeiaeo ieoaiue, ?ic?iaea a?iioac oa aecia/aiiy aeaea?ae
?ioi?iaoe??. I?aaeeueiee aea?? iaiao?aeiiai eiea ?ioi?iaoe??
aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaa? ia iioei?caoe?th ?ici??o aeo?ao, iio??aieo aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ? nooi?iue ?eceeo i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue ia iniia? i?ea?iaeueii? ia?eaoeiaiai?
?ioi?iaoe??.

A ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaai? aoaeoeai? iaoiaeeee ?ic?iaee aeine?aeieoeueeeo
caaaeaiue. Aaoi? oaeiae ?icaeyaea? ieoaiiy ioe?iee oe?iiino?
ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, oiaoi ??aiy ?? cia/ouino? aeey i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue a oiiaao eiie?aoii? ia?eaoeiaiai? neooaoe??. Naia
ia iniia? oeueiai e?eoa??th aecia/a?oueny noia aeo?ao ia ia?eaoeiaia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?o iaae?.

A i?aeoeoe? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?niothoue o?e ?o iniiai? oeie:,
ye? aaoi? iaceaa? oaeei /eiii:

aeine?aeieoeueeee;

aeene?aioeaiee aai iieniai-aiae?oe/iee;

i?e/eiii—iane?aeeiaee.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eaa?oueny ?ieue oa nooue eiaeiiai c aeuaicia/aieo
oei?a ia ??cieo aoaiao ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?icaeyaeathoueny ?o
ia?aaaae oa iaiaaeai?noue.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoiaeeea cai?o ia?aeiii?
ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aeena?oaioii iieaco?oueny, ui a oiiaao
oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee ia?aeiia ?ioi?iaoe?y ? iniiaiei aeaea?aeii
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeaieo. Oaea neooaoe?y ? iane?aeeii i?ioe??//y i?ae
nooi?noth aeiiii?/iiai ?eceeo ainiiaea?thaaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao, yeee
aecia/a? aeiiae aei ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, ? ??aiai ?icaeoeo
?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace a?ciano a Oe?a?i?. Aeena?oaioii aeiaiaeeoueny, ui a
Oe?a?i? nueiaiaei? a?aenooiy aeinoaoiy i?aaiaa oa aeinoia??ia aaca
aeaea?ae aoi?eiii? ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Oi/a naia aoi?eiia ia?eaoeiaiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y ? iaea?eueo eaaei
aeinooiiith oa aeaoaaith, ?? ia?icaeiai?noue a oiiaao Oe?a?ie ?iaeoue
iaiao?aeiei nenoaiaoe/iee ca?? ia?aeiii? ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, aeey
cae?eniaiiy yei? iaia? aeinoaoi?o eioo?a oa i?ioan?eii i?aeaioiaeaieo
eaae??a. Aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ca oaeeo oiia iaei??th c
iniiaieo ooieoe?e aea?aeaae a noaiiaeaii? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia? noaoe
?iaioa ii oi?ioaaiith ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Aeena?oaioii
aiae?co?oueny niaoeeo?ea iaoiae?a cai?o ia?aeiii? ia?eaoeiaiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? a Oe?a?i?. Iniiaieie aeaea?aeaie ia?aeiii? ia?eaoeiaiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? ? iieooaaiiy, niinoa?aaeaiiy, iiaeaethaaiiy oa i?aai?caoe?y
? i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo.

A Oe?a?i? iaea?eueo iioe?aiei iaoiaeii cai?o aeaieo ? iieooaaiiy, a
i?ioean? yeiai aea/athoueny iiaeyaee ?aniiiaeaio?a oeyoii io?eiaiiy
a?aeiia?aeae ia iinoaaeai? caieoaiiy. C iaeyaeo ia oa, ui a Oe?a?i?
i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? aeina?ae cai?o ia?aeiii? ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??,
aeine?aeaeaiiy niiaeea/eo iioeaaoe?e, eeaneo?eaoe?y
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e niiaeeaa/?a, oi naia oeae iaoiae aea?
iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe aeoiee oa iioeaaoe?? niiaeeaa/?a. A?i aeiaaa?
iaioeo cao?ao /ano oa eioo?a.

?en. 5. Noaia cai?o ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??

Aaoi? i?iiiio? eeaneo?eoaaoe iieooaaiiy ca ianooiieie e?eoa??yie:

??aaiue oi?iae?caoe??;

eiei iieooaaieo;

e?euee?noue iieooaaieo;

/anoioa iieooaaiiy;

iaoiaee eiioi?eaoe??.

Ia iniia? oe??? no?oeoo?e aiae?cothoueny iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? iaoiaee
iieooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?. A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeothoueny neooaoe?? canoinoaaiiy
?ioeo iaoiae?a cai?o ia?aeiii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Oea — niinoa?aaeaiiy oa
aenia?eiaio. Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui a Oe?a?i? a?aeo? aeinoaoiueiai
aeina?aeo cai?o ia?aeiii? ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, iniaeeaa oaaaa a
?iaio? i?eae?ey?oueny iaoiaeieia?? oa i?eioeeiai ?ic?iaee iieooaaeueieo
aieao. A aieao? iaoiaeyoue a?aeia?aaeaiiy an? iiia?aaei? aoaie
aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoiaeieia?/ii i?aaeeueii neeaaeaia aieaoa aeicaiey?
aeine?aeieeo io?eiaoe aeinoia??io ?ioi?iaoe?th. Iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith ?ic?iaee iieooaaeueii? aieaoe ? a?iioaca aeueoa?iaoeaiiai
aa??aioo ae??oaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai /e ?aae?caoe?? ?eieiaeo
iiaeeeainoae, iaoa ia?eaoeiaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeine?aeieoeuee?
caaaeaiiy. Aaoi?ii i?iiiiothoueny iaoiaee/i? i?eioeeie ?ic?iaee
iieooaaeueieo aieao, ye? noinothoueny: no?oeoo?e aieaoe, iine?aeiaiino?
caieoaiue, ianyao aieaoe, oeio caieoaiue, ?aaeaeoe?? caieoaiue oa aeai?o
oeio oeaethaaiiy.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe ?icaeyaeathoueny i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe
i?aai?caoe?? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia ??ai? i?aei?e?inoaa.
Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeieia?? oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii noaiiaeaiith
i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaii, ye? i???ioiaai? ia
aoaeoeaio ?eieiao ae?yeuei?noue ia aac? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aaoi? ?ice?eaa? iniiai? i?eioeeie ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i?
oa ?o eiie?aoiee ci?no. Aei iniiaieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a,
aeio?eiaiiy yeeo caaacia/o? aoaeoeai?noue ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
a?aeiinyoueny:

iaoeiaa iaa?oioiaai?noue — i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia
iniia? iaa?oioiaaiiai aecia/aiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai /e ?eieiaeo
iiaeeeainoae, ?ic?iaee iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a ?o ae??oaiiy ia iniia?
aiae?co oaeoi??a iae?i- ? i?e?iia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua;

ia(?eoeai?noue — iaiao?aei?noue cai?o ?ioi?iaoe??, yea aaeaeaaoii
a?aeoai?th? ?aaeueio ?eieiao neooaoe?th ca aeiiiiiaith /?oei?
nenoaiaoecaoe?? i?ioeano ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa caiia?aaiith
iiaeeeaeo iiieeie;

nenoaiaoe/i?noue — i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ii
?ic?iaeaiiio ieaio o no?ia?e a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iaiao?aeieo aoai?a;

eiiieaeni?noue — cae?eniaiiy eiiieaeno iine?aeiaieo aca?iiiia(ycaieo
aoai?a, iaei? c yeeo caaacia/othoue aoaeoeai?noue ianooiieo;

aacia?a?ai?noue — i?ioean, ui iino?eii iiaoi?th?oueny o ca(yceo c
aeeiai?/iith ci?iith oaeoi??a ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua;

iia?aoeai?noue — ia?aaeaa/a? caeaoi?noue oaeaeei ? nai?/anii aei?aaeyoe
i?ioean aeine?aeaeaiue /e iai?aaeyoe ?o a aaaeaiiio ?one?.

Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia i?ea?iaeueia iniaenoa iaoiaeeea ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeey i?aei?e?inoa ? i?aai?caoe?e. Aiia aeicaiey?
ea??aieoeoao i?aei?e?inoa i?aai?coaaoe i?ioean ?ic?iaee oa oi?aae?iiy
i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiaoth no?aoaa??th o??ie.

A ?iaio? aeiaaaeaii, ui aeey i?aeoe/iiai ao?eaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo
iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie iaiao?aeii ei??iiei /eiii ci?ieoe i?aai?caoe?eio
no?oeoo?o i?aei?e?inoaa, oe?e?, ooieoe?? oa aca?iica(ycee
ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a. Aiae?c i?aeoeee ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a i?aei?e?inoa na?ae/eoue, ui a a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a aiie aein? caeeoathoueny ?ii?iaeiith no?oeoo?ith, yea i?aoeth?
?cieueiaaii a?ae ae?yeueiino? ?ioeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a aai
aeeiio? cae/aei? iia?aoeai? ooieoe??, aeaeae? a?ae ae?enii?
ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?.

Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui ia?eaoeiaia? ooieoe?? ia iiaeooue aooe ni?aaith
iaeiiai i?ae?icae?eo. Ia?eaoeia ? o?einio??th ae?yeueiino? anueiai
i?aei?e?inoaa, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ?aeeiee i?aai?ci. Ia?eaoeiaia?
ooieoe?? iiaeii? aooe i?eoaiaii? ae?yeueiino? an?o i?ae?icae?e?a,
aeeth/ath/e aee?aeoe?th. O?eueee ca oiiae ?aae?caoe?? eiiieaeniiai
i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe?? ia?eaoeiao ea??aieoeoai i?aei?e?inoaa iiaea
?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia ie?aei? ?acoeueoaoe.

Ia?eaoeiaiaa ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoaa ?aae?co?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith
?eieiai? no?aoaa?? o??ie, yea o i?aenoieo ao?eth?oueny o aeioneo
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeii? i?iaeoeoe??, iaenei?caoe?? ianya?a caooo ia
a?ae?a?aiiio oe?eueiaiio ?eieo, aea ?nio? ?aaeueiee ieaoini?iiiaeiee
iiieo.

Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? iieiaeaiiy i?i iniiai? ia?eaoeiaia? ooieoe?? an?o
ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a i?aei?e?inoa, oa?aeoa? aca?iia?aeiinei
i?ae ieie oa cai?iiiiiaai? iieacieee ioe?iee ?o ae?yeueiino?.

A i(yoiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeieia?y oa i?aeoe/i?
aniaeoe oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aiie
aeeth/athoue: ieaioaaiiy i?ioeano ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?aai?caoe?th aea??eiaiai niinoa?aaeaiiy, aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e a?aeiinii iaaieo aniaeo?a i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiai? no?aoaa??.

I?aai?caoe?y ? oi?aae?iiy cai?ii ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??
ia?aaeaa/athoue neeaaeaiiy /aniaiai a?ao?eo cai?o ?ioi?iaoe??, ?ic?iaeo
athaeaeaoo, i?aea?? oa i?aeaioiaeo ia?niiaeo, ieaioaaiiy iaiao?aeieo
caoiae?a oi?aae?iiy a?aeiiaaie. A ?iaio? i?iiiiothoueny iaoiaee
ieaioaaiiy a?ao?e?a oa athaeaeao?a, aiae?cothoueny oeiia? iiieeee, ye?
iia(ycai? c? cai?ii ?ioi?iaoe??, oa iaoiaee ?o caiia?aaiiy.

A ?iaio? aeiaaaeaii, ui aea??eiaa niinoa?aaeaiiy i?e i?iaaaeaii?
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia? niaoeeo?eo a ii??aiyii? c aea??eiaeie
niinoa?aaeaiiyie i?e nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo /e ia?aa??oe? yeino?
i?iaeoeoe??. Oey niaoeeo?ea noino?oueny o?oaeiiu?a, ye? iia(ycai? c
oi?ioaaiiyi an?o aoai?a aea??eiai? noeoiiino?. Aei ieo a?aeiinyoueny:
aecia/aiiy aaia?aeueii? noeoiiino?; anoaiiaeaiiy iaae aea??ee;
aecia/aiiy i?ioeaaeo?e a?aeai?o iaeeieoeue aea??eiaiai niinoa?aaeaiiy;
aecia/aiiy ?ici??o aea??ee. A ?iaio? aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e
aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aiae?co?oueny ?iia??i?nia oa aeaoa?i?iiaaia
i?ioeaaeo?e a?aeai?o iaeeieoeue aea??ee oa ?icaeyaea?oueny ?o ?ieue a
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo.

Cia/ia oaaaa a aeaiiio ?icae?e? i?eae?ey?oueny i?iaeaiai aei??thaaiith
iiaeyae?a niiaeeaa/?a. Iaei??th c? neeaaeieo i?iaeai o oiae?
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia aoai? ?ic?iaee eiioeaioe?? cai?o aeaieo
? ciaoiaeaeaiiy ?ino?oiaioo aeey aei??thaaiiy iciae, ye? oe?eaaeyoue
aeine?aeieea. Oea caaaeaiiy ? aeoaea aaaeeeaei, ai a?ae oa?aeoa?o
aeo?aeieo aeaieo caeaaeeoue iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo
iaoiae?a noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee. sse?noue aei??thaaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei
iaoiiaeth? ye?noue io?eiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoee, ye? ia iathoue aaciina?aaeiueiai ca(yceo c oei, ui
iiaeia ni?eeiaoe aii??e/ii /e ia i?aeaeathoueny aaciina?aaeiueiio
niinoa?aaeaiith (iai?eeeaae, iiaeyaee, oyaeaiiy, i?anoeae, noeeue oiui),
caanoe io?eiai? aeai? aei e?euee?nieo cia/ii neeaaei?oa. Niaoeeo?ea
oaeeo oai?aoe/ieo eiino?oeoe?e iieyaa? a oiio, ui aaaeei aecia/eoe
niin?a aei??thaaiiy. Aeey oeueiai i?iaiaeeoueny iiooe ?iaeeeaoi??a, ye?
iia(ycai? c oai?aoe/iith eiino?oeoe??th oa i?aeaeathoueny aei??thaaiith.
A ?iaio? aiae?cothoueny ??ci? aeaee oeae, ye? canoiniaothoueny aeey
aei??thaaiiy ?iaeeeaoi??a ? ?icaeyaeathoueny e?eoa??? ?o aeei?enoaiiy a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oe?eae cai?o ?ioi?iaoe??.

A ?iaio? oaeiae ?ic?iaeththoueny ieoaiiy ioe?iee aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ye? ?ic?iaeththoueny ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ? iaa?ae(?iiei aoaiii ?o i?iaaaeaiiy.

Aeniiaee.

I?iaaaeaia a aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeieia?? oa i?aeoeee
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i? aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? iniiai?
aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe??:

1. A oe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? a?aenooi? iaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa i?aoe?, ye? i?enay/ai? oai???, iaoiaeieia?? ?
i?aeoeoe? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui
aeooaeuei?noue ?o ? iaaecae/aeii aenieith a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie. Oea coiiaeaii oei, ui a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo no?oeoo?
ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy ? ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa ia?aiinyoueny
ia ?o ??aaiue. ?ioi?iaoe?eiith ae aacith aeey i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo
??oaiue a?aeiinii i?iaeoeoiai – ?eieiai? no?aoaa?? o??ie ? ia?eaoeiaia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

2. Aaoi? ?icaeyaea? ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ye nenoaiaoe/iee i?ioean
iinoaiiaee oe?eae aeine?aeaeaiiy, cai?o, aiae?co ia(?eoeaii? ?eieiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? oa ?ic?iaee ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey i?eeiyooy eiie?aoieo
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue a?aeiinii aoaeue-yeeo aeaiaio?a
i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiai? no?aoaa?? o??ie. Cai?iiiiiaaia aecia/aiiy ?ice?eaa?
iaoiaeieia?th, i?ioeaaeo?o oa oe?e? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ye aaciina?aaeiuei ia?eaoieiaii aeey i?aai?caoe??
i?ioeano aeine?aeaeaiue, oae ? caiiaieeaie aeey aoaeoeaiiai eiio?ieth ca
eiai oiaeii.

3. A no/anieo oiiaao ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ?nio? ia(?eoeaia iio?aaa a
?icaeoeo iaoiaeieia?? oa i?aeoeee ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey
oni?oii? ?ic?iaee i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiai? no?aoaa?? o??ie a oiiaao
ianoaa?eueiiai ?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aiae?co
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? oai??y aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a noa(?eo?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa ?o i?ioe??//y. ?eiie ?icaeyaea?oueny aaoi?ii ye
aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci iiaiaeaeaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a
noa(?eo?a ?eieo a i?ioean? iai?io oiaa?aie /a?ac eieeaaiiy ?eieiaeo
oe?i. Aeiaaaeaii, ui i?ae aeiiii?/ieie ?ioa?anaie ae?iaiee?a oa
niiaeeaa/?a ? iaeanoue ?ica?aeiino? ?ioa?an?a, ye? iiaeooue i?eeiaoe
eiioe?eoiee oa?aeoa?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a ?eieiaeo
noa(?eo?a ? iniiaith ?o ocaiaeaeaiiy ? ?aae?caoe??.

4. A ?iaio? aeiaaaeaii, ui iayaia a Oe?a?i? niaoeeo?/ia ia?eaoeiaiaa
na?aaeiaeua ia aeicaiey? aaciina?aaeiuei aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoiaeeeo oa
aeina?ae i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui neeaeeny a e?a?iao
c ?icaeiooith ?eieiaith nenoaiith, iio?aaoth/e ?ic?iaee aaeaioiaaiiai
aeai?eoio ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aieiai? iniaeeaino? a i?iaaaeaii? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a Oe?a?i?
iia(ycai? ?c cae?eniaiiyi ?o ia?oiai aoaio — iinoaiiaeith oe?eae
aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oiiaao ?ooiiino?, ianoaa?eueiino? oa iaaecia/aiino?
oaeoi??a ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua Oe?a?ie caaaeaiiy aecia/aiiy oe?eae
aeine?aeaeaiiy noa? iaeneeaaei?oei ? o?eaaeei i?ioeanii, yeee nai ii
nia? aeiaaa? iayaiino? oe?ieiai eiea ?eieiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa neeaaeii?
aiae?oe/ii? ?iaioe c aieo aeine?aeieea.

Iinoaiiaea oe?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aao? ia?o ca ana aiae?co
ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai oa ?eieiaeo iiaeeeainoae o??ie ia iniia? aea/aiiy
oaeoi??a ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua, a yeiio iieieeanue o??ia,
aecia/aiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo eo?n?a ae?e ?? ea??aieoeoaa oa anoaiiaeaiiy
iaae aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nooi?iue ?eceeo o i?eeiyoo? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue
caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaith aeinoia??iino? ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, a
inoaii? a iaea?eueo?e i??? aecia/a?oueny oi/i?noth aeyaeaiiy i?iaeai /e
?eieiaeo iiaeeeainoae.

Iayai?noue o o??ie i?iaeaie ia?aaeaa/a? iayai?noue ?ica?aeiino? i?ae
oe?eyie o??ie ? ?aaeueiei noaiiaeuai, ui ae?aaea?oueny o oaeeo yaeuao,
ye aeinyaiaiiy iaioeo, i?ae ieaioaaeiny ianya?a caooo /e io?eiaii?
iaioeo aeioiae?a aai cieaeaii? aeie? ?eieo oiui. E?ea?aeoaaoe i?iaeaio
icia/a? caeieaoe oeth iaeanoue ?ica?aeiino?, aeey /iai iaiao?aeii
aeyaeoe oaeoi?e ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua, ye? noaee i?e/eiith
i?iaeaie. Ca oaeith noaiith aiae?cothoueny ? ?eieia? iiaeeeaino?, ye?
a?aeia?aaeathoue ?ica?aeiino? i?ae aeinyaiooei ? iiaiei iioaioe?aeii
o??ie.

Aeaiee aiae?c ? iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee a?iioace iiaeeeaeo oi?aae?inueeeo
??oaiue, iio?aaa a cae?eniaii? yeeo ? ? i?e/eiith cae?eniaiiy
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

5. Oa?aeoa?enoeea oaeoi??a ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua a Oe?a?i?
aeicaieeea aeyaeoe ianooii? eiai oa?aeoa?i? ?ene oa i?ioe??//y:

oaeaeea iai?iaiiciaaia ci?ia oaeoi??a ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua ?, ye
iane?aeie, iaaecae/aeii noene? no?iee cae?eniaiiy i?ioeano ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Oea a naith /a?ao aeiaaa? caeo/aiiy a?eueo cia/iiai eiea
oao?aoe?a ? a?eueoeo o?iainiaeo aeo?ao. A?aeiia?aeii aeieea? i?ioe??//y
i?ae aeaiith aeiiaith oa a?aenooi?noth aeinoaoiueiai eiea i?ioan?eii
i?aeaioiaeaieo oao?aoe?a ? eioo?a;

?acoeueoaoe ae?? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e iinyoue ei?ioeino?ieiaee oa?aeoa?, ui
aeiaaa? iino?eieo iii?oi??iaiaeo niinoa?aaeaiue ca ?eieii, oiaoi
ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaoaathoue oa?aeoa?o aacia?a?aiiai
i?ioeano;

a neeo o?oaeiiu?a c aecia/aiiyi ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai oa ?eieiaeo
iiaeeeainoae ?nio? aaaaoiaa??aioi?noue aeueoa?iaoeaieo eo?n?a ae?e. Oea
oaeiae oneeaaeith? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?iaeoue a?eueoeie aeo?aoe ia ieo;

ye iane?aeie iaaecae/aeii? ?ooiiino? oaeoi??a ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua
a iaeaeeae/? ?iee aoaea ?nioaaoe e?aeiy iaiaaeai?noue na?aaeiuei- oa
aeiaaino?ieiaeo i?iaiicieo ioe?iie;

aeine?aeieeaie aeei?enoiaothoueny a iniiaiiio ye?ni? iaoiaee cai?o oa
aiae?co ?eieiai? ?ioi?iaoe??;

a?aenooi?noue ?ic?iaeaieo eeaneo?eaoe?e nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e
ianaeaiiy, niaoeeo?/ia iiaeaeue iioeaaoe?e niiaeeaa/?a nooo?ai
oneeaaeiththoue aeine?aeaeaiiy niiaeea/eo iioeaaoe?e.

6. A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui a Oe?a?i? a?aenooiy ?icaeiooa ?ioi?iaoe?eia aaca
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, yeo neeaaeathoue aeaea?aea aoi?eiii? ia?eaoeiaiai?
?ioi?iaoe??, iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? ca?? ia?aeiii? ia?eaoeiaiai?
?ioi?iaoe??, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui aiia ? iaaaaaoi eiooiai?oith ? ??
ca?? iio?aao? o?eaaeiai /ano. Oea ii?iaeaeo? na??th i?ioe??/, ye?
oneeaaeiththoue aeo?ae aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie c e?ece oa niia?eueiththoue
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Aei oeeo i?ioe??/ iaeaaeaoue:

i?ioe??//y i?ae iaaecae/aeii aenieei ?eceeii i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ? a?aenooi?noth ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace a?ciano;

i?ioe??//y i?ae iaiaaeaieie o?iainiaeie iiaeeeainoyie i?aei?e?inoa oa
iaiao?aei?noth cae?eniaiiy cai?o eiooiaii? ia?aeiii? ia?eaoeiaiai?
?ioi?iaoe??.

Iiaeieaiiy oeeo i?ioe??/ iiaeeeaa aeaiia oeyoaie: ii-ia?oa, noai?aiiy oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy no/anii? iaoiae?ee cai?o ia?aeiii? ia?eaoeiaiai?
?ioi?iaoe??, ye aace oi?aae?iiy a ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa. Ii ae?oaa,
a ca(yceo c oei, ui i?aei?e?inoaa ia iathoue aeinoaoi?o o?iainiaeo
eioo?a aeey caaacia/aiiy ye?nii? ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy oa
ieaioaaiiy nai?? ae?yeueiino?, aea?aeaaa ia? acyoe ia naaa ?o /anoeio.
Oea noino?oueny noai?aiiy ?icaeiooi? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace. Oaea
?aaoethaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ? ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith
aeey noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?.

7. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaiee ? ai?iaiaaiee iaoeiaee aeai?eoi oa i?eioeeie
i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aiie ? neeaaeiei, eiooiaiei ?
o?eaaeei i?ioeanii, yeee cae?enith?oueny no?iai o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei
anoaiiaeaieo aoai?a. ?acoeueoaoii ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
aeinoia??ia ?eieiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y, ia iniia? yei? ?ic?iaeththoueny o? /e
?io? aeaiaioe i?iaeoeoiai-?eieiai? no?aoaa?? o??ie ? i?eeiathoueny
a?aeiia?aei? ??oaiiy. Aei iniiaieo iaia(yceiaeo aoai?a ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeiinyoueny: aecia/aiiy oe?eae ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aecia/aiiy aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue, ioe?iea
oe?iiino? ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, ieaioaaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ca?? oa
ia?iaea ?ioi?iaoe??, ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, i?acaioaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a.

A aocueeiio ?icoi?ii? ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy — oea i?ioean cai?o oa
aiae?co iaiao?aeii? ?eieiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. A oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? — oea
i?ioean, yeee aeeth/a? an? aoaie ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ii/eiath/e c ae?aaiinoeee ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?iaeai oa ?eieiaeo iiaeeeainoae
? caaa?ooth/e ?ic?iaeith ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e. ? a oeueiio aniaeo? eiai iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ye i?ioean ieaioaaiiy ?eieiai? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Ooieoe?? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae e?a?i c ?icaeiooei ?eieiaei ainiiaea?noaii.

no?aoaa??, iaea?eueo oeiiaith iaoith ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
aecia/aiiy ??aiy iiieoo oa niiaeea/eo iioeaaoe?e aeey ieaioaaiiy
ae?yeueiino? anueiai i?aei?e?inoaa.

Ia?aeiia ?ioi?iaoe?y a no/anieo oiiaao ? aieiaiei aeaea?aeii
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeaieo. Aei iniiaieo neeaaeiaeo /anoei ia?aeiii?
ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? iaeaaeaoue: iieooaaiiy, niinoa?aaeaiiy,
iiaeaethaaiiy oa i?aai?caoe?y aenia?eiaio?a. Aea?? iaoiaeo cai?o
?ioi?iaoe?? caeaaeeoue a?ae iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy; iayaiino? a?iioaoe/ieo
a?aeiia?aeae (a?iioac) ia iiooeia? ieoaiiy; iayaiino? aeaea?ae aoi?eiii?
ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??; c?o/iino? oa iiaeeeaiai athaeaeaoo.

Iniiaiei caniaii io?eiaiiy ia?aeiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? iieooaaeueia aieaoa.
Aeio?eiaiiy iaoeiaiai i?aeoiaeo a ?ic?iaoe? aieaoe i?yii aieeaa? ia
aeinoia??i?noue io?eioaaii? c ?? aeiiiiiaith ?ioi?iaoe??. Aaoi?ii
?ic?iaeai? iniiai? i?eioeeie i?aeaioiaee oa ia?iaee iieooaaeueieo aieao
a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?aeoa?o aaaeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

8. A?aeiiaa a?ae oeaio?ae?ciaaieo iaoiae?a ieaioaaiiy ae?yeueiino?
noa(?eo?a aeiiii?ee oa a?aenooi?noue aoaeoeaii? nenoaie ieaioaaiiy ia
??ai? i?aei?e?inoaa iaoiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee
cae?eniaiiy oeueiai i?ioeano. Aac inoaiiuei? i?aei?e?inoaa ia caeaoi?
aecia/eoe i?eaooeia? noa?e ae?yeueiino?.

Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? i?aeoe/i? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye?
i?iiiiothoueny i?aei?e?inoaai aeey cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? ?eieiai? ae?yeueiino?. Iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeicaieythoue i?iaiaeeoe ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa
i?aai?ciaoaaoe ?iaioo a?aeiia?aeieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a
i?aei?e?inoa.

9. A?eueo?noue i?aei?e?inoa oa i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie anooieee a
iinoeiioi?noe/iee ia??iae ?c noa?eie i?aai?caoe?eieie no?oeoo?aie ?
eaae?aie, ye? ia ia?ciai? c ?eieiaei iaoiaeaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy. A
aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui aoaeoeaia ae?yeuei?noue ia?eaoeiaiaeo
i?ae?icae?e?a i?aei?e?inoa caeeoa?oueny iecueeith.

Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui ia?eaoeiaia? ooieoe?? ia iiaeooue aeeiioaaoeny
eeoa iaeiei niaoe?ae?ciaaiei i?ae?icae?eii. Ia?eaoeia — oea o?einio?y
ae?yeueiino? anueiai i?aei?e?inoaa, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ?aeeiee
i?aai?ci. ?acoeueoaoii ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa ia? aooe
?aae?caoe?y ?ic?iaeaii? ?eieiai? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa, yea
ao?eth?oueny o aeioneo eiieo?aioini?iiiaeii? i?iaeoeoe??, iaenei?caoe??
ianya?a caooo ia aea?aiiio oe?eueiaiio ?eieo.

I?aei?e?inoai, yea ooieoe?iio? a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?, a?ae/oaa? eiai
aieea aei ? i?ney i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa. A caeaaeiino? a?ae oiai, yeo
noaae?th ianeoaiao? oie /e ?ioee i?ae?icae?e, ?ic?iaeythoueny ? eiai
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaia(ycee oa oa?aeoa? aca?iia?aeiinei c ?ioeie
i?ae?icae?eaie. Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ooieoe?e
i?ae?icae?e?a, ye? ianeoaiaothoue ??ci? noaae?? ae?iaieoeoaa oa ia?ao,
aeeth/ath/e iieacieee ?o ae?yeueiino?, ?ice?eaa?oueny ?o ?ieue a
ieaioaaii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa a ?eieiaeo oiiaao.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue ii oai? aeena?oaoe??.

Iiiia?ao??.

Noa?ino?ia A. I. Ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aeoe/iee aniaeo. — E.;
I.; NIa.: Aeaeaaie/ee ae?i “A?eueyin”, 1998. – 292 noi?., ?e. ( 21,3 oi.
ae?oe. a?e.).

I?iaiice?iaaiea ni?ina: iaoiaeu e iiaeaee (Aa/aay A. A., ?icai A. I.):
Iiae iau. ?aae. Noa?inoeiie A. I. – E.: III Eiiioiyeiiiieea, 1996. – 196
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I?ae?o/ieee.

I?iieneiaee ia?eaoeia. Oai??y oa ainiiaea?nuee? neooaoe??. I?ae?o/iee.
I?ae ?aae. A. I. Noa?ino?ii?. – E.: ?aai Oaaei?ia, 1997. – 400 noi?.,
?e. ( 25 oi. ae?oe. a?e.).

Noa?ino?ia A. I. , Cicoeueia I. A. Iniiae ia?eaoeiao. Oai??y oa
ainiiaea?nuee? neooaoe??. Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee. – E.: Oi?aia?e, 1998. –
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I?eeeaaeiay yeiiiieea aeey eiaeaia?ia. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee. – E.: Aaainoai
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeoey NOA. Oiiae Aa?acey. II Aaoa, 1995 ?. – 270 n.
(14 oi. ae?oe. a?e., a o. /. 5 oi. ae?oe. a?e. aaoi?a).

Noaoo?.

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Oai??y oa ainiiaea?nuee? neooaoe??. – E.: ?aai Oaaei?ia, 1997. – N. 1 –
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Noa?ino?ia A. I. Iniiai? ?ene i?ioeano iinoa/aiiy ia i?iieneiaiio ?eieo
// I?iieneiaee ia?eaoeia. Oai??y oa ainiiaea?nuee? neooaoe??. – E.: ?aai
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Noa?ino?ia A. I., Eiiyeia I. A. Oe?iiooai?aiiy a i?iieneiaiio ia?eaoeiao
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Aiioaoe?y

Noa?ino?ia A. I. Iaoiaeieia?y ? i?aeoeea ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a
Oe?a?i?. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.02.— i?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio, ia?eaoeia. –
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae oa iaoai?cio
cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao no/anii? oe?a?inueei?
aeiiii?ee. A aeena?oaoe? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy i?i ?ieue
ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ye ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace aeey i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. A eaoaai??aeueiee aia?ao ia?eaoeiao aaaaeai?
iia? aecia/aiiy nooiino? “?eieo”, “ia?eaoeiao”, “ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue”. A ?iaio? iaaiaeeoueny ?ic?iaeaiee oa ii?iaiaaiee o
aaaaoi/enaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeai?eoi cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy a
o/aiaiio i?ioean? oa i?iaaaeaii? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
??ciiiai?oieo ?eie?a Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?eaoeia, ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?aae?inueea
??oaiiy, aeai?eoi ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ia?eaoeiaia? i?eioeeie
oi?aae?iiy, ia?eaoeiaiaa na?aaeiaeua.

AIIIOAOeEss

Coa?inoeia A. I. Iaoiaeieiaey e i?aeoeea ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee a
Oe?aeia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.02. – i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iaiaaeaeiaio,
ia?eaoeia. — Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai iaoiaeieiae/aneeo iniia e iaoaiecia
inouanoaeaiey ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee a oneiaeyo nia?aiaiiie
oe?aeineie yeiiiieee. A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeieiae/aneea
iieiaeaiey i?i ?ieue ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee eae eioi?iaoeeiiiie
aacu aeey i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee. A eaoaai?eaeueiue aiia?ao
ia?eaoeiaa aaaaeaiu iiaua ii?aaeaeaiey nouiinoe “?uiea”, “ia?eaoeiaa”,
“ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee”. A ?aaioa i?eaiaeeony ?ac?aaioaiiue e
ii?iaiaaiiue a iiiai/eneaiiuo enneaaeiaaieyo aeai?eoi inouanoaeaiey
ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee
i?eiaiaiea a o/aaiii i?ioeanna e i?iaaaeaiee ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee
?aciiia?aciuo ?uieia Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?eaoeia, ia?eaoeiaiaua enneaaeiaaiey, oi?aaeai/aneia
?aoaiea, aeai?eoi ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee, ia?eaoeiaiaua i?eioeeiu
oi?aaeaiey, ia?eaoeiaiaay n?aaea.

ANNOTATION

Starostina A. O. Methodology and practice of marketing research in
Ukraine. Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree in the field of economic sciences,
specialty 08. 06. 02 — enterprise, management, marketing. — Taras
Shevchenko Kiev University, Kiev, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the problems of methodological means and
mechanisms of conducting marketing research in the condition of modern
Ukrainian economy. The revival of the activity of Ukrainian enterprises
in the condition of system, economic and financial crisis requires the
application of marketing principles of management of the product –
market strategy of enterprises. Marketing research of competitive,
profitable markets in Ukraine as well as abroad is an instrument by
which managers and specialists can improve activities of their
enterprises and offer competitive products and services to their
clients.

In this thesis the methodological aspects of marketing research role as
an information basis for management decision making are worked out.
Marketing research is considered as a systematic process of research
aims statement, collection and analysis of objective market information
and development of recommendations for definite management decision
making concerning any elements of product-market strategy of an
enterprise.

The methodological basis of marketing research analysis is the theory of
economic interests of management subjects and their contradictions.
Market is considered by the author as an economic mechanism of
settlement and realization of economic interests of market subjects in
the process of products exchange through fluctuation of market prices.
Economic interests research is a basis of their agreement as to the
development of marketing relations.

Specific marketing environment available in Ukraine doesn’t allow to
apply directly marketing research methods and experience which were
developed in the countries with highly developed marketing systems. The
main peculiarities of marketing research in Ukraine are connected with
the implementation of its first stage — to set the aims of research. In
the conditions of factors of marketing environment in Ukraine the task
of setting the aims of research is the most difficult and longest
process, demanding detailed marketing information and hard analytic work
of the investigator.

Investigation of the factors of the marketing environment in Ukraine
made it possible to define the characteristic features and
contradictions in fast and unprognosticated change of marketing
environment factors. Therefore the terms of marketing research are very
short. It is necessary to carry on continuous monitoring observation of
the market. There is a great variety of alternative courses of action.
The investigators use reliable methods of collection and analysis of
market information.

Scientific algorithm and principle of conducting marketing research are
developed and tested in this work. The main necessary stages of
marketing research are the definition of the of marketing research aims,
the determination of research tasks, the evaluation of market
information, planning of research, the collection and analysis of
information, the development of recommendations, the presenting of
results.

The repudiation of centralized methods of planning the activities of the
subjects of economy and the lack of effective system of planning at the
enterprises make it necessary to develop the methods of this process.
Without these methods enterprises cannot determine the profitable
spheres of activity.

The author has developed practical methodological recommendations, which
are offered to enterprises for their marketing research and development
of the strategy of their market activities. The methodological
recommendations allow to conduct marketing research and to organize work
of relative functional departments of enterprises.

The majority of enterprises and organizations of Ukraine entered the
post-communist period with the old organizational structures and
specialists, which don’t know the marketing methods of management. The
thesis discovers that activity of marketing departments of enterprises
remains rather inefficient.

The author proves that marketing functions cannot be carried out by only
one specialized department. Marketing is the philosophy of the activity
of the whole enterprise, which is considered as an entity. The result of
marketing activity of the enterprise must be the realization of
developed market strategy of the enterprise. This strategy is embodied
into the manufacture of competitive products, into the maximization of
sale amounts at the chosen market.

The enterprise, which functions in market environment, depends on its
influence before and after the process of production. Efficient
functioning of the enterprise on each of three stages is guaranteed by
the activity of functional departments. Depending on the stage that is
ensured by this or that department its functional responsibilities and
the character of the departments are worked out. The author has
developed the recommendation as to the functions of the departments,
which serve different stages of production and turnover including the
indices of their activity. The author underlines the role of these
recommendations in planning enterprise activity in market conditions.

Key words: marketing research, management decision, algorithm of
marketing research, marketing principles of management , marketing
environment.

Aaoi?ii aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e iiiia?ao?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iaa?oioiaaii
eiai canoinoaaiiy a eiec? “I?iieneiaee ia?eaoeia. Oai??y oa
ainiiaea?nuee? neooaoe??”, yea aeeoea a na?o o 1997 ?.

PAGE 31

I?i?iaeuei?

oe?e?

Aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane niiaeeaa/a

Iaeneiaeuei? oe?e?

Noa?a ?ica?aeiinoae aeiiii?/ieo ?ioa?an?a

I?i?iaeuei?

oe?e?

Iaeneiaeuei? oe?e?

Aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane ae?iaieea

1-e aoai. ?ic?iaea ?eieiai? no?aoaa??

Aiae?c ?eieiaeo i?iaeai /e iiaeeeainoae

Aiae?c oaeoi??a ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua

Aecia/aiiy oeio ?eieo

Aiae?c niiaeea/eo iioeaaoe?e

A?aea?? oe?eueiaeo ?eie?a

A?aea?? ?eieiai? no?aoaa?? (naaiaioaoe?y, ianiaee ia?eaoeia, iiiaeeiia
naaiaioaoe?y)

Iic?oe?iioaaiiy oiaa??a

Aecia/aiiy aieino? ?eieo

2-e aoai. ?ic?iaea i?iaeoeoiai? no?aoaa??

Aecia/aiiy oeio iiieoo

?ic?iaea oiaa??a

Aecia/aiiy aeeaa?neo?eaoe?eii? no?aoaa??

Aecia/aiiy i?iaiico aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo

?ic?iaea no?aoaa?? oe?iiooai?aiiy

?ic?iaea no?aoaa?? ?iciiae?eo

?ic?iaea oiaeiaee, iie?oeee ia?i/ieo iaca, oiaa?ieo ciae?a

?ic?iaea no?aoaa?? i?inoaaiiy

?ic?iaea eiiieaeno ia?eaoeiao o??ie

3-e aoai. Oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii

Ao?eaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??

Ieaioaaiiy ia?eaoeiao

Eiio?ieue

Noai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaii

Aecia/aiiy oe?eae ia?eaoeiaiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy

Aecia/aiiy iio?aa a ?ioi?iaoe??

Iiooe oa aiae?c aioo??oi?o aeaea?ae aoi?eiii? ?ioi?iaoe??

Iiooe oa aiae?c ciai?oi?o aeaea?ae aoi?eiii? ?ioi?iaoe??

?ioi?iaoe?y, ui cae?a?oueny noi?iii?ie i?aai?caoe?yie

A?ae?ioa/i? aeaea?aea

Ca?? ia?aeiii? ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe??

Niinoa?aaeaiiy

Iieooaaiiy ?aniiiaeaio?a

I?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo

Aiae?c

aiaeia?/ieo neooaoe?e

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