17

IAOe?IIAEUeIA TH?EAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

?iai? ss?INEAAA IOAe?IAI

Ai?enaiei ?ai? Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE
343.977

IAOIAeEEA ?ICNE?AeOAAIIss AAEANOA C
?IC*EAIOAAIIssi O?OIA

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 12. 00.09 – e?ei?iaeueiee i?ioean oa e?ei?iae?noeea;

noaeiaa aenia?oeca

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa

th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y yaey? niaith ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? e?ei?iae?noeee Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe

Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee Oe?a?ie, aeaaeai?e

Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?

th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eiiiaaeiaa A?ieaooa Iiaeyi?aia, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e e?ei?iae?noeee Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie
?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eocueie/ia

Aieiaeeie? Na?a?eiae/, ia/aeueiee eaoaae?e

e?ei?iae?noeee Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iino?ea ?ai? Aieiaeeie?iae/,
i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe Iaeanueei? aea?aeaaii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa : Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
Oa?ana

Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a e?ei?iae?noeee I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “9” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.086.01 a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e th?eaee/i?e
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai (310024, i.Oa?e?a, aoe.
Iooe?inueea,77).

C aeana?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai (310024,
i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea,77).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “6” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee TH.I.Aeoye

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy o oi?ioaaii?
i?aaiai? aea?aeaae a Oe?a?i? ia? aoaeoeaia ae?yeuei?noue i?aaiioi?iiieo
i?aai?a o ai?iouea? c oyaeeeie cei/eiaie i?ioe iniae, aei /enea yeeo
iaeaaeaoue oaeanoaa. O 1997?. ii??aiyii c 1990?. a?eueo i?ae ia 70%
ca?eueoeeany e?euee?noue iaaienieo oaeanoa, a e?euee?noue aea?oa
noaiiaeoue iiiaae 3600 /ieia?e, ui aaea?/? a?eueoa iieaciee?a 1987?. sse
? ?ai?oa, ciiaie iaea?eueo aeniei? aeoeaiino? cei/eioe?a caeeoathoueny
Aei?i?iiao?ianueea, Aeiiaoeueea, Oa?e?anueea, Eoaainueea, Iaeanueea,
Caii??cueea, Euea?anueea iaeano?, Aaoiiiiia ?anioae?ea E?ei ? i.Ee?a. O
oeeo ?aa?iiao o/eith?oueny iiiaae 65% caaaeueiiai /enea cei/ei?a
(Aeo?aeeiaoeue A. Ai?ioueaa ?c cei/eii?noth ia? aooe anaioiiethth/ith e
yoaeoeaiith // I?aai Oe?a?ie, 1998.- ? 1. — N.26).

Iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee aeaii? i?iaeaie iaoiiaeaia oei, ui ca
inoaii? ?iee a Oe?a?i? niinoa??aa?oueny no?eea oaiaeaioe?y aei c?inoaiiy
e?eueeino? aaeanoa, ii?aeiaieo c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia. Na?aae
??ciiaeae?a oaeanoa aiie iaaoaathoue ona a?eueoiai iioe?aiiy.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy i?aeoeee ?icne?aeoaaiiy oeeo cei/ei?a iieaco?, ui ia
nueiaiaei? ne?ae/? i?aaie caciathoue iaaieo o?oaeiiu?a o ?ice?eoo?
iacaaieo aeae?a cei/ei?a. ?o ?ice?eooy iia’ycaii c? cia/iith
o?oaeii?noe?noth, aaeeeei ianyaii ?iaioe, ui aeicaiey? a?aeianoe ?o aei
eaoaai??? i?aeaeuaii? neeaaeiino?. Aaeeea noni?eueia iaaaciaea aaeanoa c
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia, o?oaei?noue ?o ?ice?eooy aeeeeeathoue
iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy iecee oai?aoe/ieo ? i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai.

?noioiee aianie o aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c
i?iaeaiaie iaoiaeeee ?icne?aeoaaiiy cei/ei?a aianaiee o?oaeaie oaeeo
a/aieo-e?ei?iae?no?a Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo aea?aeaa, ye TH.I.Aeai?i,
A.I.Aao?i, ?.N.A?ee?i, I.Ae.A?eai/oe, I.I.Aaneeue?a, A.E.Aaaei,
?.O.Aa?aneiia, A.A.Aii/a?aiei, E.ss.Ae?aie?i, A.A.?uaiei, I.?.Eeeiaiei,
I.I.Eieanie/aiei, A.I.Eiiiaaeiaa, A.N.Eocueie/ia, A.E.Eene/aiei,
A.A.Eoeaoaae/, ?.I.Eoca?i, A.A.Iaoonianueeee, ?.A.Iino?ea,
I.A.Naeoaanueeee, I.I.Nae?aaiia, I.ss.Naaae, A.A.Oaianaae/, A.A.O?uaiei,
I.I.Oie?ia, A.TH.Oai?oueei, I.I.ssaeieia oa ?i.

Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy ? yeiiiaa oe?oiai ?ice?eooy
i?iaeaie, coiiaeaiee oaiith ? ci?noii aeena?oaoe?? ? ia?aaeaa/a? o?niee
aca?iica’ycie c ?ioeie i?aaiaeie iaoeaie. I?ae /an ?? iaienaiiy aaoi?
aea/aa o?oaee a/aieo a aaeoc? e?ei?iieia??, e?ei?iaeueiiai i?ioeano,
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? iaoee, noaeiai? ineo?ao???, a oaeiae
naeniiaoieia??, naenieia??, o?einio?? oa ?noi???, iia’ycai? c oeei
iiiia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi. O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? e ?iaioe
a/aieo a aaeoc? noaeiai? iaaeeoeeie, ye? aeineoue anaa?/ii aena?oeeee
iaaeeei-e?ei?iae?noe/iee aniaeo iacaaii? i?iaeaie (I.?.Aaae??aa,
I.N.Aiea??ona, ?.I.A?e?oeueeiai, E.A.Aiaoneaanueeiai, A.I.Aieeiaa,
I.?.Aoeianueei?, I.A.Aeao?e, A.I.Caa?yaenueei?, I.A.E?n?ia,
A.?.Eiiiiaiea, A.I.Na?oieeiaa, N.N.Nai?uaiea, TH.N.Naiiaeieeiaa oa ?i.).

Cia/iee aianie o ?icaeoie e?ei?iae?noe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii
?icne?aeoaaiith aaeanoa ?, cie?aia, aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia,
c?iaeee oae? e?ei?iae?noe, ye: E.A.A?aeiiia, A.A.Aonoia, A.I.Eieiaeia,
A.O.Eaaeiyi, A.I.Ioaeuetha?i, I.I.Nae?aaiia, ?.I.Ni?ieioya?i,
E.I.Niy-Na?ei, A.?.Oeeaiia, ss.I.sseiae?a oa ?io? a/ai?. A inoaii? ?iee
ie?aiei ieoaiiyi ?icne?aeoaaiiy oaeiai oeio cei/ei?a aoee i?enay/ai?
?iaioe N.A.Aoaianue?aa, TH.I.Aeoaya?ia, I.I.Eeoa?aa, I.I.O?eueoeiaa,
A.A.Noa?ooeaae/a oa ?i. Iaeiae ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ?ic?iaie c
?icne?aeoaaiiy aaeanoa, iia’ycaieo c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia inoaii?ie
?ieaie a?aeo?. Aei nueiaiaeaiiy iniiaiith iaoeiaith ?iaioith,
i?enay/aiith eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaiith aeacaieo cei/ei?a, aoea ?iaioa
A.I.Eieiaeiaa “Iaoiaeeea ?icne?aeoaaiiy ni?aa i?i aaeanoaa c
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oi?a” (1941 ?.).

Ia io?eiaee ?icaeoeo, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o i?aeoeeo ?icne?aeoaaiiy
aaeanoa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui aacothoueny ia oai??? e?ei?iae?noe/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, ia a/aii? i?i ne?ae/? neooaoe?? oa oeiia? ne?ae/?
aa?n??. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ia ?icaeyaeaeiny ? eiiieaenia ae??oaiiy
iniiaieo caaaeaiue ?icne?aeoaaiiy aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia ca
aeiiiiiaith oaeoe/ieo iia?aoe?e.

Aiae?c caeiiiaeaanoaa, e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae oa noaeiai-ne?ae/i?
i?aeoeee aeicaiey? ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui aaeanoaa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia
aeiaaathoue ye?nii iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei ?o ?icne?aeoaaiiy, a ioaea, e
aei oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oe??? aaaeeeai? i?iaeaie.

Iaoiaeeea ?icne?aeoaaiiy aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia ia? nai?
?noioi? iniaeeaino?, iaoiiaeai? oei, ui oe? aaeanoaa a/eiththoueny a
oiiaao iai/aaeaeiino? c canoinoaaiiyi niaoeeo?/ieo i?eeii?a i?eoiaoaaiiy
cei/eio, c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?ea aea?oae. Niiniae ?o nei?iiy ?
i?eoiaoaaiiy aeineoue ??ciiiai?oi?, oiio ?o aea/aiiy, eeaneo?eaoe?y ?
aeyaeaiiy /eiiee?a ia’?eoeaiiai ? noa’?eoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o, ui
aieeaathoue ia ieo, yaeythoue niaith aaaeeeao i?iaeaio.

Aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy noaeiai-ne?ae/i? e aenia?oii? i?aeoeee
aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe ?ene, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue i?ioean ?icne?aeoaaiiy
oeeo cei/ei?a, ? ?ic?iaeoe eiiieaen i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e,
ni?eyth/eo iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiiio ?o ?icne?aeoaaiith.

Ona iaaaaeaia aeua ? coiiaeei aea?? oaie e iniiai? iai?yiee ??
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Ia?aiee iai?yiie aeena?oaoe?? aaco?oueny ia ieaiao iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie
Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai ?
eaoaae?e e?ei?iae?noeee ca?aeii c oe?eueiaith eiiieaeniith i?ia?aiith
“I?iaeaie aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ? ae?yeueiino? noaeo oa
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? i?aaiai?
aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae” (iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0186.0.099031).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??. Iiaeaia aei caoenoo iiiia?ao?/ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? ca iaoo ia i?aenoaa? caaaeueieo iieiaeaiue iaoee
e?ei?iae?noeee ? oai?aoe/ieo canaae iaoiaeeee ?icne?aeoaaiiy ie?aieo
aeae?a cei/ei?a, aea/aiiy, aiae?co e ocaaaeueiaiiy noaeiai-ne?ae/i?
i?aeoeee ?ic?iaeoe e?ei?iae?noe/io iaoiaeeeo ?icne?aeoaaiiy aaeanoa c
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia. Aeey ?? aeinyaiaiiy aeena?oaioii aoee iinoaaeai?
oae? aca?iiiia’ycai? caaaeaiiy:

1. Noi?ioethaaoe iiiyooy “aaeanoai c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia” ?
eeaneo?eoaaoe aeaee cei/eio a?aeiia?aeii aei iniaeeainoae iaoai?cio ?o
o/eiaiiy.

2. ?ic?iaeoe e?ei?iae?noe/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo aaeanoa c
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia, aeyaeoe ei?aeyoe?eio aca?iicaeaaei?noue i?ae ??
aeaiaioaie.

3. Nenoaiaoecoaaoe ? aeine?aeeoe oeiia? niiniae i?eaiooaaiiy,
a/eiaiiy ? i?eoiaoaaiiy oeeo cei/ei?a.

4. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy e?ei?iae?noe/ii?, e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai?,
e?ei?iieia?/ii?, noaeiai-ineo?ao?e/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, ui noino?oueny
i?iaeaiaoeee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ic?iaeoe aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th (oei?caoe?th)
iioa?i?eeo ? cei/eioe?a, ui a/eiththoue iiae?ai? aaeanoaa, c o?aooaaiiyi
?o e?ei?iae?noe/ieo iniaeeainoae.

5. Ie?aneeoe oaeoe/i? iniaeeaino? i?iaaaeaiiy ia?a?nieo ne?ae/eo
ae?e o ni?aaao aeaii? eaoaai??? ? cai?iiiioaaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye?
ni?eyee a ?o aoaeoeaiino?.

6. Ae??cieoe ? ?icaeyiooe ne?ae/? neooaoe??, ui aeieeathoue ia
ii/aoeiaiio aoai? ?icne?aeoaaiiy iacaaii? eaoaai??? aaeanoa ? aecia/eoe
iniiai? eiai iai?yiee. Ii?aoethaaoe eiiieaen oeiiaeo ne?ae/eo aa?n?e ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?o eiino?othaaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae ne?ae/i?
neooaoe??, ui neeaeany.

7. Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy noaeiai-ne?ae/i? i?aeoeee, aeaieo
?ioa?a’thaaiiy e aieaooaaiiy i?aeoe/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a aecia/eoe ?
?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeai?eoie ae??oaiiy oeiiaeo ne?ae/eo neooaoe?e oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy iaea?eueo iioeiaeueieo eiiieaen?a (oaeoe/ieo iia?aoe?e) aai
ie?aieo ne?ae/eo ae?e oa iia?aoeaii–?icooeiaeo caoiae?a.

8. ?icaeyiooe iniaeeaino? oaeoeee iiaeaeueoeo ne?ae/eo ae?e ?
aianoe i?iiiceoe?? c iaoith ?o aoaeoeaiiai i?iaaaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aca?iia?aeiineie, ui
neeaaeathoueny a ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a (iiia?aaeiueiai
ne?aenoaa e iia?aoeaii-?icooeiaeo) ii ?icne?aeoaaiith aaeanoa c
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia, a oaeiae i?aeoeea ?o ae?yeueiino?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? niin?a a/eiaiiy aaeanoa c
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia ? oi?ioaaiiy ia oe?e iniia? e?ei?iae?noe/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee e iniaeeainoae ?ice?eooy ? ?icne?aeoaaiiy aeaii?
eaoaai??? cei/ei?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ? caaaeueiiiaoe? oa ?io? oi?aa?naeuei?
iaoiaee — eia?/iee, noaoenoe/iee, aieaooaaiiy oa ?ioa?a’thaaiiy. Ia??ai?
c cacia/aieie canoiniaoaaeeny ? iaoiaee eiie?aoii-nioe?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue — aea/aiiy e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa, niinoa?aaeaiiy, aiae?c
aeniiae?a noaeiai-iaaee/ieo aenia?o?a.

Caaaeueiioai?aoe/io aaco aeaiiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
caaacia/eee o?oaee a/aieo o aaeoc? e?ei?iae?noeee ? noi?aeieo iaoe,
i?aoe? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a.

I?aaiaith aacith noaee: Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, e?ei?iaeueia ?
e?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai Oe?a?ie, caeiie ? iinoaiiae
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, Oeace I?aceaeaioa, aeae?aoe ? iinoaiiae
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, ye? ?aaoeththoue noni?euei? a?aeiineie o
noa?? ?ice?eooy ? ?icne?aeoaaiiy cei/ei?a, a oaeiae ii?iaoeai? aeoe e
?ino?oeoeai? aeieoiaioe I?ieo?aoo?e ? IAN Oe?a?ie, ui ?aaoeththoue
i?aai?caoe?th ae?yeueiino? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a i?e ?icne?aeoaaii?
aaeanoa.

Aii??e/io aaco neeaee: ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ca
niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith iiiaae 100 e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i
aaeanoaa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia, ui ?icaeyioo? noaeaie Oe?a?ie ca
1976-1998 ?iee ? ciaoiaeyoueny o i?iaaaeaeaii?; iaoa??aee
noaeiai-ne?ae/i? i?aeoeee; iioae?eiaai? ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co ?noi??e
oai?ia in?a, ye? a/eieee na??ei? naenoaeueii-naaeenonuee? aaeanoaa (ca
iaoa??aeaie noaeiai-ineo?ao?e/ii? aenia?oece Aea?aeaaiiai iaoeiaiai
oeaio?a nioe?aeueii? ? noaeiai? ineo?ao??? ?i. A.I.Na?anueeiai ca
ia??iae c 1972 ii 1993 ?iee); ?acoeueoaoe aieaooaaiiy e ?ioa?a’thaaiiy
iiiaae 200 i?aeoe/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a ??cieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie, 70-oe
noaeiai-iaaee/ieo aenia?o?a, a oaeiae iniaenoee aeina?ae aaoi?a ye
iii?/ieea ne?ae/iai o ?icne?aeoaaii? e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa, ii?ooaieo
i?ieo?aoo?aie i. Oa?eiaa ca oaeoaie aeyaeaiiy /anoei o?oi?a o ia??iae
1996-1998 ?ie?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iiaeaii? aei caoenoo iaoeiai? ?iaioe iieyaa? a
oiio, ui aiia ? ia?oei a Oe?a?i? ia iiiia?ao?/iiio ??ai?
aeine?aeaeaiiyi, o yeiio ia aac? iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oai???
e?ei?iae?noeee ? iaoiaeeee ?icne?aeoaaiiy, aiae?co no/anii? i?aeoeee
?icne?aeoaaiiy aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia cae?eniaii eiiieaeniee
i?aeo?ae aei ?ic?iaee oe??? eaoaai??? cei/ei?a. ?icaeyiooee o
aeena?oaoe?? eiiieaen ieoaiue aeeth/a?:

1) aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “aaeanoai c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia” ? ?ic?iaeo
eeaneo?eaoe?? oaeeo oaeanoa c o?aooaaiiyi no/anii? a?o/eciyii? ?
i?aeia?iaeii? i?aeoeee ?o ?icne?aeoaaiiy;

2) ie?aneaiiy iniiaieo aeaiaio?a e?ei?iae?noe/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee;

3) aeine?aeaeaiiy ei?aeyoe?eieo aca?iica’yce?a i?ae aeaiaioaie
e?ei?iae?noe/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee;

4) ?icaeyae oaeoe/ieo iniaeeainoae i?iaaaeaiiy ia?a?nieo ne?ae/eo
ae?e, i?iiiceoe?? ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia ?o aoaeoeai?noue;

5) aiae?c oeiiaeo ne?ae/eo neooaoe?e ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai?
?icne?aeoaaiiy;

6) aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae eiino?othaaiiy oeiiaeo ne?ae/eo aa?n?e o
iacaaieo ne?ae/eo neooaoe?yo;

7) ii?aoethaaiiy aeai?eoi?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy i?iaeaiieo neooaoe?e
oeyoii i?aai?caoe?? ? i?iaaaeaiiy oaeoe/ieo iia?aoe?e aai ie?aieo
ne?ae/eo ae?e a iioeiaeuei?e iine?aeiaiino?;

8) ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? a?aeiinii uiaei i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo ne?ae/eo
ae?e caeaaeii a?ae ne?ae/i? neooaoe??;

9) ae??ciaiiy oeiiaeo a?oi na?aee?a ? cai?iiiioaaiiy eiiieaeno
oaeoe/ieo i?eeii?a aeiieoo eiaeii? c ieo.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c i?iaeaiith ?icne?aeoaaiiy

aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia.

2. Eiioeaioe?y oaeoeee ?ice?eooy ? ?icne?aeoaaiiy aaeanoa c
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia.

Iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
aecia/a?oueny oei, ui noi?ioeueiaai? ? aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??
oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee noai?ththoue i?aea?oioy aeey
iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee ie?aieo iaoiaeee ?icne?aeoaaiiy aaeanoa ?
ni?yiiaai? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy caaaeueii? oai??? e?ei?iae?noeee.
Oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa i?iiiceoe??, ui i?noyoueny a
?iaio?, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? ne?ae/eo oa
aenia?oieo i?aai?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? ? ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean th?eaee/ieo aoc?a
Oe?a?ie i?ae /an aea/aiiy iaoiaeeee ?icne?aeoaaiiy ie?aieo aeae?a
cei/ei?a, i?aeaioiaee a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?e?a i?ae?o/iee?a ? iaa/aeueieo
iin?aiee?a c eo?no ? niaoeeo?n?a e?ei?iae?noeee, a oaeiae
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a oiio, ui noi?ioeueiaai? a
?iaio? iieiaeaiiy ? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe iaea?aeai? o i?ioean?
aaciina?aaeiueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? e?eoe/iiai inieneaiiy iiiaae 300
iaoeiaeo ? ii?iaoeaieo aeaea?ae, ocaaaeueiaiiy e aiae?co ca niaoe?aeueii
?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith iaoa??ae?a noaeiai-ne?ae/i? oa aenia?oii?
i?aeoeee. Iaei? ieoaiiy iinoaaeai? aia?oa (e?ei?iae?noe/ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea ? eeaneo?eaoeey aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia; ne?ae/?
neooaoe?? e iniaeeaino? eiino?othaaiiy oeiiaeo ne?ae/eo aa?n?e), ?io?
?icaeyiooi ii-iiaiio, c o?aooaaiiyi no/anii? i?aeoeee ?icne?aeoaaiiy
cacia/aieo cei/ei?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy,
noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe??, aeeeaaeai? a iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo
aeena?oaioa. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeieeaaeaeeny ia i?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo o/aieo “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy aaeineiiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaanoaa ? i?aaicanoinia/i? ae?yeueiino?” (i. Oa?e?a, 1996 ?.),
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiaiue iaoee ?
oaoi?ee o ai?iouea? c? cei/eii?noth”, i?aai?ciaai?e IAe? aea/aiiy
i?iaeai cei/eiiino? Aeaaeai?? I?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie ? Iaoe?iiaeueiith
th?eaee/iith aeaaeai??th Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai (i. Oa?e?a,
1997 ?.), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (i. Eoaainuee, 1998 ?.).

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
i?ae /an aea/aiiy eo?no e?ei?iae?noeee a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e th?eaee/i?e
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii /ioe?e iaoeiaeo
noaoo? o i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny ?? iaoith ? caaaeaiiyie
aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioa aeeth/a? a naaa anooi, /ioe?e ?icae?ee, ui
ioiieththoue 13 i?ae?icae?e?a ? aeniiaee. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue
180 noi??iie, e?euee?noue aeiaeaoe?a – 4, aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae – 326 iaeiaioaaiue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ? iiaecia oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny eiai caaaeaiiy ? oe?e?,
a?aoiaioo?oueny iaoiaeieia?/ia ? aii??e/ia aaca aeaii? iaoeiai? ?iaioe,
aeaco?oueny ?? oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue, aeeeaaeathoueny
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

?icae?e 1 “E?ei?iae?noe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi
o?oia” neeaaea?oueny c i’yoe i?ae?icae?e?a.

C o?aoiaaiiyi ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai cia/aiiy e?ei?iae?noe/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee cei/ei?a i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiiai eiiieaeno
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey ?o ?icne?aeoaaiiy, aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaii
e?ei?iae?noe/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaii? eaoaai??? aaeanoa ? ia iniia?
?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aii??e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeae?eaii ??
iaeoeiia?o? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe, ?ice?eoi ei?aeyoe?eio
aca?iicaeaaei?noue i?ae ieie.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy, ui noinothoueny
iiiyooy ? eeaneo?eaoe?? aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia, iaoai?cio ?o
o/eiaiiy.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aecia/aiiy iaea?eueo iiaii? e?ei?iae?noe/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aoaeue-yeiai aeaeo aaeanoa iiaeeeaa eeoa c iiceoe?e
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo, ui ia?aaeaa/a? iaiao?aei?noue
e?ei?iae?noe/ii? eeaneo?eaoe?? aeaiiai ??ciiaeaeo cei/ei?a. I?aenoaaith
oaei? eeaneo?eaoe?? ia?aii iaoo, yeo cei/eiaoeue ia?ane?aeo? i?e
?ic/eaioaaii? o?ea aea?oae ? yea, ?aaoethth/e na?aeii?noue aeai?o
a?aeiia?aeieo cania?a aeey ?? aeinyaiaiiy, aenooia? nenoaiiooai?thth/ei
/eiieeii on?o eiiiiiaio?a ae??.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe ?iaioe a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo o/aieo —
e?ei?iae?no?a, e?ei?iieia?a, ineo?ao??a oa oao?aoe?a o aaeoc? noaeiai?
iaaeeoeeie, nie?ath/enue ia aeani? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeena?oaio i?iiiio?
oaeo eeaneo?eaoe?th aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia: 1) iiaooia?
aaeanoaa; 2) naenoaeuei? aaeanoaa: a) iia’ycai? ?c caaaeooaaiiyi
aea?oae; a) naenoaeueii-naaeenonuee?; 3) aaeanoaa c iaoith
o?ainieaioaoe?? ethaenueeeo i?aai?a (oeaiei); 4) ?eooaeuei? aaeanoaa.
Iaaieioo?oueny oie oaeo, ui ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue cei/ei?a, ui
?icaeyaeathoueny, ia nueiaiaei? noaiiaeyoue iiaooia? aaeanoaa (78%).

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy ?nioth/eo o e?ei?iae?noe/i?e e?oa?aoo??
aecia/aiue oa?i?ia “?ic/eaioaaiiy o?oia” (A.O.*a?aaeia, ?.N.A?ee?i),
aeine?aeiee oi?ioeth? iiiyooy “aaeanoai c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia” i?ae
yeei ?icoi?? i?ioei?aaia iicaaaeaiiy aeeooy ethaeeie c iaaieniei
a?aeae?eaiiyi /anoei (/anoeie) a?ae ?? o?ea a cei/eiieo oe?eyo, ui
i?ecaaei aei ii?ooaiiy eiai aiaoii?/ii? oe?e?niino?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? aaoi? nenoaiaoeco? aeneiaethaaiiy, ui
i?noyoueny a e?ei?iae?noe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? uiaei nieneo ? ci?noo niiniao
a/eiaiiy cei/eio ? ?icaeyaea? niin?a a/eiaiiy aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi
o?oia.

Aiae?c caaaeueiiai iiiyooy niiniao cei/eio aeicaiey? c’ynoaaoe
ni?euei? e iaea?eueo ?noioi? iciaee, ye? aeanoea? niiniao a/eiaiiy
aoaeue-yeiai cei/eio, aea ia ?ice?eaathoue iniaeeainoae niiniao ie?aieo
cei/ei?a, cie?aia, niiniao a/eiaiiy aaeanoaa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia.
Oiio c iaoith anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy e?ei?iae?noe/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aaeanoa c ianooiiei ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia, a oaeiae a?aoiaoth/e
niaoeeo?eo aeaii? eaoaai??? cei/ei?a, aaoi? aaaaea? aeioe?eueiei: 1)
uiaei aeaii? eaoaai??? ni?aa canoiniaoaaoe ?ioaa?aeueia iiiyooy “niin?a
a/eiaiiy aaeanoaa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia” aeey iicia/aiiy
aca?iiiia’ycaii? ? oe?eani?yiiaaii? nenoaie ae?e ii i?aeaioiaoe?,
a/eiaiith, i?eoiaoaaiith aaeanoaa oa ?ic/eaioaaiith o?oia; 2) noiniaii
aoai?a cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eoa, iia?oth/e aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei
iiiyooyi “niin?a a/eiaiiy aaeanoaa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia”, aeae?eyoe
/ioe?e naiino?eieo, ? a oie aea /an aca?iiiia’ycaieo no?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaioe a)niin?a i?eaiooaaiiy; a)niin?a a/eiaiiy; a)niin?a
?ic/eaioaaiiy; a)niin?a i?eoiaoaaiiy. ?icaeyae aeuaiacaaieo no?oeoo?ieo
aeaiaio?a a iiae?aiiio aniaeo?, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, ni?ey?
aeaoaeueiiio c’ynoaaiith onueiai neeaaeiiai oiaeo cei/eio.

O i?ae?icae?e? aea?oueny eeaneo?eaoe?y oeiiaeo niinia?a
i?eaiooaaiiy, a/eiaiiy ? i?eoiaoaaiiy aaeanoaa, niinia?a ?ic/eaioaaiiy
o?oia, aeaoaeueii aea/aii iaoai?ci eiaeiiai c aeuaia?ae?/aieo niinia?a ?
?icaeyiooi ?o iaoiiaeai?noue eiie?aoiith noeoii?noth /eiiee?a.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy niinia?a i?eaiooaaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui 38,2%
iiaooiaeo oaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia, a/eiaii a iniiaiiio niiioaiii.
Ia a?aei?io a?ae oeacaiiai ??ciiaeaeo, i?aeaioia/? ae?? i?eoaiaiii
na??eiei naenoaeueii-naaeenonueeei aaeanoaai, ui noi?iaiaeyoueny
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?ea aea?oae; naia aiie caaaeaee a/eiththoueny iaaienii,
? aeineoue ?aoaeueii i?iaeoiothoueny.

Aiae?c e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa i?i aaeanoaa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia
aeicaieea aeae?eeoe iaea?eueo iioe?ai? niiniae ?o o/eiaiiy (niiniae
iicaaaeaiiy aeeooy). Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue iaoai?/i? (o?ce/i?) niiniae
a/eiaiiy aaeanoa: iaianaiiy iioa?i?eiio iioeiaeaeaiue ooieie, oaa?aeeie,
eieth/i-??aeo/eie, ?oaey/eie i?aaeiaoaie, caaeooaiiy iaoeath aai oeyoii
cae?eooy i’yeei i?aaeiaoii aeeoath/eo i?aai?a (?ioa ? iina). *ano?oa
cia?yaeaeyie aaeanoaa aoee eieth/i-??aeo/? cia?yaeaey — a iniiaiiio,
??ciiiai?oi? iiae?; ia ae?oaiio i?noe? — ooi? i?aaeiaoe: iieioee,
oeaaeeie, i?aaeiaoe iiaooiaiai i?ecia/aiiy; ?ieiee oae? aaeanoaa
neithaaeeny oeyoii iaianaiiy iioeiaeaeaiue ?oeaie ? iiaaie; iaio
iioe?aieie ? o?i?/i? niiniae a/eiaiiy aaeanoa (i?e aaeanoaao c
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia, oea, ye i?aaeei, io?oei? ?a/iaeie). Aeiaaeee
canoinoaaiiy aiaiaiaeueii? ca?i? iiiaeeiie?. Iathoue i?noea ? oa?i?/i?
niiniae a/eiaiiy aaeanoa (aeei?enoaiiy i?e aaeanoa? ai?th/eo ? aeaooiaeo
?a/iaei). Oaeanoai oeyoii canoinoaaiiy aeaooiaeo ?a/iaei iaeii/anii ?
iaei??th c oi?i ?ic/eaioaaiiy ? inoaii?i /anii ia??aeei canoiniao?oueny
cei/eioeyie i?e cae?eniaii? aaeanoa ia caiiaeaiiy. Iac??aeea
aeuaia?ae?/ai? ae?? a/eiththoueny a eiiieaen?. I?e
naenoaeueii-naaeenonueeeo oaeanoaao aeii?io? caaeooaiiy aea?oae, yea
/anoi ii?aeio?oueny ?c canoinoaaiiyi eieth/i-??aeo/eo i?aaeiao?a.

Aeine?aeaeo?oueny ? i?iaeaia aeaoa?ieiaoe?? niiniao i?eoiaoaaiiy
eiie?aoiith noeoii?noth /eiee?a, ui coiiaeththoue niaoeeo?eo
ne?aeiooai?aiiy. Aecia/aeueio ?ieue o aeai?? cei/eioeai niiniao
i?eoiaoaaiiy i?e aaeanoaao c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia a?ae?a?athoue oae?
ia’?eoeai? /eiieee, ye: a)aca?iica’ycie cei/eioey c iioa?i?eei; a)oiiae
i?noey e ianoaiiaee a/eiaiiy cei/eio; a) iayai?noue ?cieueiaaiiai
i?ei?uaiiy; a) iayai?noue o cei/eioey cia?yaeue, i?eaeaoieo aeey
?ic/eaioaaiiy o?oia; ae)iiaeeea?noue iaiii?oii aeey ioi/oth/eo
caa??aaoe, a iio?i o?ainii?ooaaoe /anoeie o?oia; a) iayai?noue
iaeoaaeueieo cania?a. Na?aae noa’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a aeii?iothoue:
nioe?aeuei?, ineoieia?/i?, ineo?/i?, o?ce/i? iniaeeaino? ? ?ene
(aeanoeaino?) cei/eioey, iayai?noue o iueiai “iniaeeaeo ciaiue”, ui
aeicaieythoue ?ic/eaioaaoe o?oi, ciaiiy i?noeaaino? aeey i?eoiaoaaiiy
/anoei o?oia. O ?iaio? aea?oueny eiiieaen iciae, ui aeacothoue ia
iayai?noue (aai a?aenooi?noue) aca?iica’yceo “aea?oaa -cei/eiaoeue”.

Niaoeeo?/iith iniaeea?noth niiniao a/eiaiiy aaeanoaa c
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia ? oa, ui e??i ae?e ii i?eaiooaaiith, a/eiaiith ?
i?eoiaoaaiith a eiai ci?no aoiaeeoue oaeee no?oeoo?iee aeaiaio, ye
niin?a ?ic/eaioaaiiy, i?ae yeei aaoi? ?icoi?? aca?iiiia’ycaiee eiiieaen
ae?e cei/eioey, ni?yiiaaiee ia a?aeae?eaiiy /anoei (/anoeie) o?ea a?ae
aeeai? aai aaeoi? ethaeeie. ?icaeaath/e iaoeiao eiioeaioe?th
A.I.Eieiaeiaa i?i oae? aeaee ?ic/eaioaaiiy, ye aeaoaiceaia (cei/eiaoeue
oaea?oueny aei ?ic/eaioaaiiy aeeeth/ii c iaoith i?eoiaaiiy aaeanoaa) ?
ioaiceaia (?ic/eaioaaiiy aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey caaeiaieaiiy
naenoaeueieo /e ?ioeo iio?aa cei/eioey), aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth? ??
nueiaiaei?oi? aeooaeueia cia/aiiy aeey ?icne?aeoaaiiy.

I?e ?icaeyae? iniaeeainoae iaoai?cio niiniao ?ic/eaioaaiiy aaoi?
ae??ciy? e aiae?co? aea? oa?aeoa?i? oeiia? neooaoe??: 1) ?ic/eaioaaiiy
ia aenooia? niiniaii i?eoiaoaaiiy cei/eio (ioaiceaia ?ic/eaioaaiiy); 2)
?ic/eaioaaiiy aenooia? ye niin?a i?eoiaoaaiiy cei/eio (aeaoaiceaiee aeae
?ic/eaioaaiiy).

O?ao?e i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aii oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ne?ae?a, iaea?eueo
oeiiaeo aeey aeaiiai aeaeo cei/ei?a.

Aeena?oaio aeae?ey? oeiia? i?noey eieae?caoe?? iaoa??aeueieo
ne?ae?a oaeanoaa ? ?ic/eaioaaiiy o?oia: a) aeyaeai? /anoeie ooia; a)
i?noea ?o aeyaeaiiy ? i?eeaaea oa?eoi??y c ia’?eoaie, ui ciaoiaeyoueny
ia i?e; a) cei/eiaoeue; a) i?noea aaeanoaa (?ic/eaioaaiiy); ae)
cia?yaeaey ? caniae aaeanoaa (?ic/eaioaaiiy); ?) iaeoaaeueiee iaoa??ae.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa aeoeaioo?oueny ia ne?aeao ?ic/eaioaaiiy o?oia —
ne?aeao ?ic?oao, ?icieeo, ?ic??co oa ?ic?eao. Cacia/a?oueny, ui ia??ai?
c? anoaiiaeaiiyi ianoaaei ni?aae, oiia, o yeeo i?iaaaeeeiny
?ic/eaioaaiiy, ie?aieo iciae (?en) iniae aaeaoe? (ineoio?c?ieia?/ieo,
o?ce/ieo, i?ioan?eieo oiui), ?acoeueoaoe aenia?oiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeacaieo ne?ae?a cia??aeea aeicaieythoue ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe cia?yaeaey,
yeei cae?enithaaeiny ?ic/eaioaaiiy. Noeoii?noue oeiiaeo ne?ae?a
aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iaeaaei?noue ?icaeyaeoaaii? eaoaai??? aaeanoa aei
eiie?aoiiai aeaeo, ui iaea?eueo yne?aai a?aeaeaa?oueny a “ne?aeia?e
ea?oei?” naenoaeueii-naaeenonueeeo ? iiaooiaeo oaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi
o?ea aea?oae.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui i?e ?icne?aeoaaii? oaeeo oaeanoa iio??aii
caa?oaoe oaaao ia oa?aeoa? ae?e i?aeic?thaaieo in?a, ci?io a ?o
iiaaae?ioe? (“aeieace iiaaae?iee”), ye? ca /anii iiaeooue aooe iia’ycai?
c o/eiaiei cei/eiii.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aeaoaeueii aeine?aeaeo?oueny iniaa
iioa?i?eiai.

Eeth/iaith eaieith, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ? a?eoeiia iiaaae?iea aea?oa.
E?eoa??e iiaaae?iee inoaii?o aea? iiaeeea?noue iiae?eyoe ?o ia: aea?oae
aeiaaeeia? ? aea?oae, i?iaieoth/? aaeanoaa. Cai?iiiiiaaia
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ??ciiaeaeo aaeanoa aeicaiey?
aeae?eeoe ? oeiia? a?oie iioa?i?eeo: 1)aea?oae “iiaooiaeo” oaeanoa ? 2)
aea?oae naenoaeueieo, o oiio /ene? ? naenoaeueii-naaeenonueeeo oaeanoa.
Aea/aiiy nooiaiy aeyao a?eoeiiino? iioa?i?eiai iieacaei oeiia?noue aeey
aeaiiai aeaeo aaeanoa iaeo?aeueii? ? i?iaieoth/i? iiaaae?iee aea?oae
uiaei aaeaoe?.

Oae, na?aae aea?oa naenoaeueii-naaeenonueeeo oaeanoa, ui
noi?iaiaeyoueny ?ic/eaioaaiiyi, o /ene? aeiaaeeiaeo iiaeia aeae?eeoe
iioa?i?eeo, ye? aiane?aeie a?eiaeo aai ineo?/ieo iniaeeainoae ia iiaee
?aaeueii ioe?ieoe a?eoeiiaaiio neooaoe?th, ui neeaeany. Oea ae?oe e
iniae c ineo?/ieie ?iceaaeaie (oecio?ai?y oa ?i.), a oaeiae aea?oae,
aea?? yeeo cae?enithaaany cei/eioeai a?aeiia?aeii aei iaaieo
noa’?eoeaieo ia?aiao??a, ui iaee oaoeoaao ni?yiiaai?noue (iai?eeeaae,
noaoue, a?e, iaia?a iaeyaaoeny oiui). Aei eaoaai??? aea?oa, ye?
i?iaieoaaee iiae?ai? aaeanoaa, a?aeianai? iniae, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei oae
caaieo a?oi ?eceeo: iia??, ia?eiiaie, ae?iee-aeeiaie?ee, iniae aac
iaaiiai i?noey i?iaeeaaiiy.

O iiaaae?ioe? iioa?i?eeo i?e iiaooiaeo oaeanoaao, iacaaaeath/e ia
ia?aaaaei?noue a?eoeiieia?/iiai aniaeoo, oaeiae aeae?eaia a?oia
“aeiaaeeiaeo” aea?oa: iaeie?oi? ae?oe; iniae, ye? noaee aea?oaaie
ineo?/ii oai?eo oaeaoeue; noa?? ethaee (ca a?aenooiino? aeyao c aieo
inoaii?o aoaeue-yei? oi?ie i?iaieoth/i? iiaaae?iee).

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue
oa?aeoa?o ca’yceo “aea?oaa — cei/eiaoeue” iaoai?ciii o/eiaiiy aaeanoaa,
ui aeicaiey? aecia/aoe oeyoe ?icne?aeoaaiiy ? aenoaaoe iiooeia? aa?n??
uiaei aaeaoe?. A?aoiaoth/e, ui a caaaeueiiio /ene? aeine?aeaeoaaieo
oaeanoa aeii?iothoue iiaooia?, iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiaothoue aeai?
aiae?co, ye? aeicaieeee eiinoaooaaoe, ui o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a ?nio? caeiiii??i?noue: aea?oaith oaeeo cei/ei?a ? iniae, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny a o?niiio ca’yceo c? cei/eioeai. Na?aae ieo: 42% aea?oa
ia?aaoaaee o aeecueeeo ?iaeeiieo a?aeiineiao c iei; 31% — aoee
ae?oaeeiith (aai /ieia?eii) oaeaoe?; 9% — a ?ioeiieo; 13% iioa?i?eeo
aeia?a ciaee aeiiiai, i?e oeueiio /anoi ?o ia’?aeioaaei i?iaaaeaiiy
aeica?eey ia a?oio? noi?niiai aaeeaaiiy nie?oiiai; 5% — aoee aeiaaeeia?
ciaeii?. Aeaiee no?oeoo?iee aeaiaio e?ei?iae?noe/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
?icaeyiooi ? ca ?ioeie e?ei?iae?noe/ii cia/oueie e?eoa??yie — a?eii,
niiniaii aeeooy, iiaaae?ieith o iiaoo? oiui.

O i’yoiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi aeaiaio e?ei?iae?noe/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaiiai aeaeo aaeanoa – iniao cei/eioey.

Aeena?oaio oei?co? cei/eioe?a, ye? a/eiythoue iiaooia? ?
naenoaeueii-naaeenonuee? aaeanoaa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia. O eiaei?e c
ae??ciaieo i?aea?oi iaaiaeyoueny iaea?eueo oeiia? niiniae i?eaiooaaiiy,
a/eiaiiy ? i?eoiaoaaiiy aaeanoaa, a oaeiae oa?aeoa?i? niiniae
?ic/eaioaaiiy o?oia. Aaoi? i?inoaaeo? iaaio aca?iicaeaaei?noue i?ae
niiniaii ?ic/eaioaaiiy o?oia ? aeae?eaieie eaoaai??yie cei/eioe?a,
cie?aia, i?ae oi?iith (ci?aa/aiiy o?oia; ?ic/eaioaaiiy aac eiai
niioai?aiiy; ?ic/eaioaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaooiaeo i?eno?i?a ?
aeaooiaeo ?a/iaei) ? ianyaii ?ic/eaioaaiiy o?oia (/anoeiaa, iiaia
?ic/eaioaaiiy o?oia, a?ae/eaioaaiiy aieiae oa ?i.).

C o?aooaaiiyi aeaieo, ui iathoue cia/aiiy aeey i?aaeeueiiai
aenoiaiiy ne?ae/eo aa?n?e, ? ia iniia? aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo
iaaiaeyoueny noaoenoe/i? aeai?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue iniao cei/eioey ca
??cieie ia?aiao?aie, ui iathoue cia/aiiy aeey eiai ?icooeo. Oaeeie
e?eoa??yie aeena?oaio aaaaea?: i?ioan?ei? iaae/ee cei/eioe?a, noaoaa?,
a?eia? e iniaeno? oa?aeoa?enoeee, aeaiia?ao?/i? ? ineoio?c?ieia?/i? ?ene
(aeanoeaino?), aeai? i?i ?o iiaaae?ieo a ieioeiio, a oaeiae aei, o /an ?
i?ney a/eiaiiy aaeanoaa.

Iiaoi?thaai?noue niinia?a a/eiaiiy ? i?eoiaoaaiiy aaeanoaa, iioea?a
inoaii?o coiiaeth? ?o oeiia?noue aeey eiaeii? c ?icaeyiooeo a?oi, ui, a
naith /a?ao, aeicaieeei anoaiiaeoe eaioetha ei?aeyoe?eii?
aca?iicaeaaeiino?: “niin?a a/eiaiiy — iniaa cei/eioey”, “aea?oaa —
cei/eiaoeue”, “iioeae — iniaa cei/eioey”. Ia ia?aeiiaiiy aaoi?a,
eiaeiiio oeio iniae cei/eioey a?aeiia?aea? iaaiee iioea.

?icae?e 2 “I?aai?caoe?y ia?a?nieo ne?ae/eo ae?e” neeaaea?oueny c
o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aena?oeth?oueny niaoeeo?ea i?aai?caoe?? ?
oaeoeea i?iaaaeaiiy iaeyaeo i?noey iiae?? ? /anoei (/anoeie) o?oia.

Iaeyae i?noey iiae?? o ni?aaao i?i aaeanoaa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia
ia? naith niaoeeo?eo. Iiiyooy “iaeyae i?noey iiae??” ia? iai?aeeia?iee
oa?aeoa?, ui iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?noeue iiae?? i?e oeueiio cei/ei? iiaea
aooe aeae?eueea: i?noea aaeanoaa, i?noea ?ic/eaioaaiiy (?iiae? aiie ia
ni?aiaaeathoue) ? i?noea aeyaeaiiy /anoei o?oia.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy noaeiai-ne?ae/i? i?aeoeee aeicaieeei aaoi?ia?
aeae?eeoe o?e iaea?eueo oeiia? neooaoe??, aeieeath/? aei iiiaioo
iaeyaeo: a)i?noea iiae?? ? i?noeai cei/eio; a)i?noea iiae?? ia ? i?noeai
cei/eio (iiae?aia iaa?aeiia?aei?noue aeyaeaia o 81% aeiaaeeao); a)i?noea
iiae?? ia ? i? i?noeai cei/eio, i? i?noeai, aea cei/eiaoeue caeeoea
?ic/eaiiaai? /anoeie (/anoeio) o?oia. Aeena?oaio aeaoae?co? /eiieee, ui
aieeaathoue ia aeieeiaiiy aeacaieo neooaoe?e, a oaeiae oaeoe/i? i?eeiie
e iniaeeaino? i?iaaaeaiiy iaeyaeo i?noey iiae?? a o?e /e ?io?e
neooaoe??.

Aei /enea iniiaieo e?ei?iae?noe/ii cia/oueo ia’?eo?a i?e iaeyae?
i?noey iiae?? o ni?aaao i?i aaeanoaa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi aaoi? a?aeiineoue:
a) ae?eyieo i?noeaaino? aai i?ei?uaiiy, aea eieae?ciaaii iiae?th; a)
/anoeie (/anoeio) ?ic/eaiiaaiiai o?oia; a) ne?aee a/eiaiiy aaeanoaa ?
?ic/eaioaaiiy o?ea; a) ne?aee ia?aaoaaiiy ia i?noe? iiae?? cei/eioey /e
?ioeo in?a; ae) ne?aee aaoio?ainii?oieo /e ?ioeo cania?a, ui
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny cei/eioeai aeey o?ainii?ooaaiiy /anoei o?oia; ?) ?a/?
? i?aaeiaoe, caeeoai? aai aeiaaeeiai caaoo? cei/eioeai; ae) iaeoaaeueiee
iaoa??ae; c) i?e?iia’?eoe, ui iiaee iiianoe ia i?aaeiaoe ianoaiiaee,
oiaeiaeo ? /anoeie o?oia.

Aeoeaioiaaii oaaao ia iaiao?aeiino? ?aoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaeoaaeueiiai (iaa’ycoaaeueiiai) iaoa??aeo, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny
cei/eioeai aeey o?ainii?ooaaiiy ?ic/eaiiaaieo /anoei o?oia. Iniaeeao
oaaao ne?ae cina?aaeeoe ia niinia? caa’ycoaaiiy aoce?a, yeee aaaaoi a
/iio caeaaeeoue a?ae cae/ee ethaeeie, coiiaeaiith ?? i?ioan?eieie
iaae/eaie.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ieoaiiyi i?ecia/aiiy ?
i?iaaaeaiiy noaeiai-iaaee/ii? aenia?oece.

Ia’?eoii noaeiai-iaaee/ii? aenia?oece iiaeooue aooe ye ie?ai?
/anoeie o?oia, oae ? ?ic/eaiiaaiee o?oi. A?aoiaoth/e niaoeeo?eo ?
neeaaei?noue ia’?eoa noaeiai-iaaee/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e ?ica’ycaii?
?aeaioeo?eaoe?eieo caaaeaiue, aaoi? ?iaeoue iaaiein ia aeioe?eueiino?
caeo/aiiy aei oeueiai ??cieo oao?aoe?a — noiiaoieia?a, a?iaeieia?a,
aiaoii?a.

I?e oneeaaeiaiiyo, aeieeath/eo o i?ioean? anoaiiaeaiiy iniae
caaeaeiai o i?iaeaiieo neooaoe?yo (cie?aia, i?e iiaiiio ?ic/eaioaaii?
o?oia), iaa?oioiao?oueny aeniiaie i?i aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy
aaiioeiiai? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? (ca iieaeoeaie AeIE).

Ia??ai? c iiaeeeainoyie noaeiai-iaaee/ii? aenia?oece ?ic/eaiiaaieo
/anoei o?oia aeine?aeaeaii ieoaiiy i?ecia/aiiy ? i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaenii?
iaaeeei-o?anieia?/ii? aenia?oece, cie?aia, aeey ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
cia?yaeue aaeanoaa ? ?ic/eaioaaiiy ca ne?aeaie ia o?e?, aioo??oi?o
i?aaiao, e?noeia?e oa o?yuia?e oeaieiao caaeaeiai.

Iniaeeai aeena?oaio iaaieioo? ia iaiao?aeiino? aenia?oece ?a/iaeo
aeieac?a i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ??cieo oeaiei aai aeae?eaiue i?aai?cio
ethaeeie: e?ia?, nia?ie, aieinny, neeie, i’yeeo oeaiei, aioo??oi?o
i?aai?a, e?noie ? ee?oie i?aai?cio.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? ?ic?iaeaii ieoaiiy, ui noinothoueny
niaoeeo?ee i?aae’yaeaiiy o?oia aeey ai?ciaiiy.

Ia ia?a?niiio aoai? ?icne?aeoaaiiy aeaii? eaoaai??? aaeanoa iaeiei
c iaea?eueo neeaaeieo ? ?acii c oei ia?oi/a?aiaeo caaaeaiue, yea ia?
ae??oeoe ne?ae/ee, ? anoaiiaeaiiy iniae caaeaeiai. Iaeei c aoaeoeaieo
oeyo?a eiai ae??oaiiy – oea i?aae’yaeaiiy o?oia (eiai /anoei) aeey
ai?ciaiiy. Aeine?aeiee i?aee?aneth?, ui a?ae oiai, iane?eueee /?oei,
i?aaeeueii ? iiaii aoaeooue i?aai?ciaai? ? i?iaaaeai? iiia?aaei? ae??,
iacaai? a e?ei?iae?noe/i?e e?oa?aoo?? “ia?aae?aeaioeo?eaoe?eieie
caoiaeaie” (A.?.Oeeaiia), na?aae yeeo ia aeiaaeeiai aaaeeeao ?ieue
a?ae?a?a? “ooaeao” ? ?anoaa?aoe?y aieiae o?oia, a /eiae?e i???
caeaaeeoue ? oni?oia i?iaaaeaiiy i?aae’yaeaiiy aeey ai?ciaiiy.

?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? oaeoeee i?iaaaeaiiy oe??? ne?ae/i?
ae?? ? aeathoueny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?? aoaeoeaiiai i?iaaaeaiiy.

?icae?e 3 “Ieaioaaiiy ? i?aai?caoe?y ?icne?aeoaaiiy” neeaaea?oueny
c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia ieoaiiyo ieaioaaiiy
?icne?aeoaaiiy yea, ye aaaaea? aaoi?, iiaeiii i?noeoe: aiae?c ? ioe?ieo
ia?a?nii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a ne?ae/?e neooaoe??, ui neeaeany; ?ic?iaeo aa?n?e
? i?aai?caoe?th ?o ia?aa??ee; aecia/aiiy ianoaaei, ui i?aeeyaathoue
aeieacoaaiith.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ne?ae/i? i?aeoeee ? c o?aooaaiiyi ianyao
?nioth/i? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iniao ?ic/eaiiaaiiai o?oia ? i?i cei/eioey a
?iaio? aeae?eaii ? ?icaeyiooi iaea?eueo iioe?ai? ne?ae/? neooaoe??, ui
iathoue i?noea ia ia?a?niiio aoai? ?icne?aeoaaiiy:

1. Ia anoaiiaeaii iniao iioa?i?eiai ? a?aenooi? a?aeiiino? i?i
i?aeic?thaaiiai. O ?aieao aeaii? neooaoe?? aeae?eaii i?aeaeaee:

a) ?nioth/eo i???ioiaieo aeaieo iaaeinoaoiuei aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iniae
caaeaeiai;

a) iniaa o?oia iaa?aeiia, aea ? iaai? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?ei? iciaee —
iniaeea? i?eeiaoe, i?eaeaoi? aeey ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? caaeaeiai, iai?ey?i?
oci?e oiui.

2. Anoaiiaeaii iniao o?oia, aea a?aenooi? aeai? uiaei
i?aeic?thaaii? iniae.

3. Ne?ae/ee ia? a nai?io ?icii?yaeaeaii? aeai? i?i iniao, yea
a/eieea cei/ei, aea a?aenooiy ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i iioa?i?eiai (iniao
inoaiiueiai ia anoaiiaeaii).

4. Anoaiiaeaii iniao ?ic/eaiiaaiiai o?oia, ? ne?ae/ee ia? a nai?io
?icii?yaeaeaii? aeineoue iiai? aeai? i?i iniao, yea a/eieea aaeanoai.

I?ney aiae?co an??? io?eiaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aa?n??
i?i oa, ui iaei i?noea aaeanoai ? cei/eiia ?ic/eaioaaiiy o?oia, c
o?aooaaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaii? aaoi?ii ia e?ei?iae?noe/i?e iniia?
eeaneo?eaoe?? cei/ei?a aeaiiai aeaeo iiaeooue aenoaaoeny caaaeuei?
oeiia? aa?n?? noiniaii oa?aeoa?o a/eiaiiai cei/eiiiai ae?yiiy.

Aeey ia?aa??ee aenoiaieo aa?n?e ? a?aeiia?aeii aei aeacaieo
ne?ae/eo neooaoe?e ?ic?iaeaii iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiee eiiieaen ae?e,
iioeiaeueiee ia?ae?e ? iine?aeiai?noue i?iaaaeaiiy yeeo aeyaeaii aaoi?ii
ca aeiiiiiaith aiae?co noaeiai–ne?ae/i? i?aeoeee, aieaooaaiiy e
?ioa?a’thaaiiy ne?ae/eo i?ieo?aoo?e. Cia/io ?ieue aeena?oaio
a?aeaiaeeoue iniiaiei oaeoe/iei iia?aoe?yi o ?icne?aeoaaii? aeacaieo
cei/ei?a.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe ?nioth/? aecia/aiiy aeaii? e?ei?iae?noe/ii?
eaoaai???, aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui i?ae oaeoe/iith iia?aoe??th
ne?ae ?icoi?oe eiiieaen aca?iiiia’ycaieo ? aca?iiiaoiiaeaieo ne?ae/eo oa
?ioeo ae?e, ye? aeeiiothoueny ca ?aeeiei ieaiii c iaoith ?aae?caoe??
oaei? oaeoe/ii? caaea/?, yea ia iiaea aooe ae??oaia i?iaaaeaiiyi ie?aieo
ne?ae/eo ae?e. Aea/aiiy i?aeoeee aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i
iaiao?aei?noue ?o i?iaaaeaiiy a neeaaeieo (ooieeiaeo) ne?ae/eo
neooaoe?yo. Aeey eaoaai??? oeeo e?ei?iaeueieo ni?aa oeiiaeie oaeoe/ieie
iia?aoe?yie ?: “Ca?? ia?a?nii? ?ioi?iaoe??”; “Anoaiiaeaiiy iniae
iaai?ciaiiai o?oia”(“Ao?eaooe?y o?oia”); “Anoaiiaeaiiy i?noey a/eiaiiy
aaeanoaa ? ?ic/eaioaaiiy o?oia”; “Iiooe a?aenooi?o /anoei o?oia”;
“Ia?aa??ea ca’yce?a iioa?i?eiai”; “Iiooe cei/eioey”. O ?iaio?
?ice?eaathoueny niaoeeo?/i? ?ene eiaeii? c iacaaieo oaeoe/ieo iia?aoe?e,
?icaeyaeathoueny ?? aoaie e ie?aneth?oueny eiei o/aniee?a.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e ?ice?eaa? ci?no, oi?ie e iniaeeaino? aca?iiae??
ne?ae/iai i?ieo?aoo?e c i?aoe?aieeaie i?aai?a ae?ciaiiy noiniaii
niaoeeo?ee ?icaeyaeoaaii? eaoaai??? aaeanoa.

I?aai?caoe?y i?ioeano ?icne?aeoaaiiy ca?aeii c ?ic?iaeaiei ieaiii
iia’ycaia ?c caaacia/aiiyi ocaiaeaeaii? ?iaioe ne?ae/iai ? oao?aoe?a,
aenia?o?a, i?aoe?aiee?a i?aaio ae?ciaiiy. Iniaeeaino? aca?iiae??
iaeaaeaoue aei /enea neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a i?aai?caoe?? ?icne?aeoaaiiy.
Aaaaoi/eneaii?noue ? neeaaei?noue niinia?a i?eoiaoaaiiy (cie?aia,
ia?ai?uaiiy /anoei o?oia ia cia/io a?aenoaiue), ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny
cei/eioeyie coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue i?eae?eyoe ieoaiiyi aca?iiae??
ne?ae/iai c i?aaiaie ae?ciaiiy aeoaea na?eicii? oaaae.

I?aeoeea ?icne?aeoaaiiy oeeo aeae?a oaeanoa iieaco?, ui iaaaeueia
iio?aaa o aca?iiae?? ne?ae/iai c iia?aoeaieie i?aoe?aieeaie iae/ano?oa
aeieea? i?ae /an: a) i?iaaaeaiiy oaeoe/ieo iia?aoe?e; a) anoaiiaeaiiy ?
aea/aiiy iniae caaeaeiai; a) ?iaioe ii ?icoe?aiith iiaeeeaeo na?aee?a o
ni?aa?; a)ia?aa??ee aenoiaieo aa?n?e; ae) ?icooeo cei/eioey ? eiai
cao?eiaiiy.

C o?aooaaiiyi i?ioeanoaeueieo ? i?aai?caoe?eii-oaeoe/ieo iniia
ie?aneaii iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?i? ? aoaeoeai? oi?ie aca?iiae?? ne?ae/eo ?
i?aai?a ae?ciaiiy i?e ?icne?aeoaaii? aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia.

?icae?e 4 “I?aai?caoe?y iiaeaeueoiai ?icne?aeoaaiiy” noaiiaeyoue
o?e i?ae?icae?ee.

Ia?oee i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aii iniaeeainoyi i?iaaaeaiiy iaooeo.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy noaeiai–ne?ae/i? i?aeoeee o ni?aaao aeine?aeaeoaaii?
eaoaai??? na?ae/eoue, ui iae/ano?oa iaooe i?iaaaeeoueny ca i?noeai
i?iaeeaaiiy iaaeioaa/aiiai, ui iiynith?oueny iioe?ai?noth a/eiaiiy
aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia o i?ei?uaiiyo. Aaoi? aeae?ey? iniiai?
e?ei?iae?noe/ii cia/ou? ia’?eoe, ui a?aeaeaathoue oeiia? iciaee a/eiaiiy
? i?eoiaaiiy aaeanoaa ? i?aeeyaathoue a?aeooeoaaiith.

Aeena?oaio aiae?co? ? i?iiiio? iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? oaeoe/i?
i?eeiie, ni?yiiaai? ia iiooe oaeeo ia’?eo?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
i?aai?caoe?eii-oaeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o ii i?iaaaeaiith iaooeo a caeaaeiino?
a?ae neooaoe??, ui aeieea?. Iaaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny no/aniei
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei caniaai, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny, c o?aooaaiiyi
niaoeeo?ee i?iaaaeaeaiiy iacaaii? ne?ae/i? ae?? i?e ?icne?aeoaaii?
aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ina?oeth?oueny oaeoeea aeiieoo na?aee?a
?icaeyaeoaaiiai cei/eio.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui i?e ?icne?aeoaaii? cei/ei?a aeaii? eaoaai???
na?aeeaie iiaeooue aenooiaoe: a) iniae, ye? cayaeee i?i cieeiaiiy
iioa?i?eiai; a) iniae, ye? ia?oeie aeyaeee /anoeie o?oia ? iia?aeiieee
i?i oea; a) a?iiaaeyie, ye? aa/eee iioa?i?eiai iacaaeiaai aei aaeanoaa;
a) i/aaeaeoe? a/aiaiiai aaeanoaa /e ?ic/eaioaaiiy o?oia; ae) ?iaee/?,
ae?oc?, non?aee, ciaeii?, oiaa?eo? ii neoaea? caaeaeiai. ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee aeena?oaioo aeae?eeoe aea?
iaea?eueo oeiia? neooaoe??, ui coiiaeththoue /a?aia?noue io?eiaiiy
iieacaiue cacia/aieo a?oi na?aee?a. Oea neooaoe??, i?e yeeo
?icne?aeoaaiiy ?icii/eia?oueny a?ae: a) cayae i?i cieeiaiiy iniae ? a)
aeyaeaiiy /anoei ?ic/eaiiaaiiai o?oia.

O aeena?oaoe?? oaeiae i?aaenoaaeaii ia?ae?e oeiiaeo ieoaiue, ye?
iaeaaeeoue c’ynoaaoe i?ae /an aeiieoo o iacaaieo in?a c o?aooaaiiyi
a?aei?iieo iniaeeainoae, ui i?iyaeythoueny o i?aaeiao?, caaaeaiiyo ?
oaeoeoe? aeiieoo. Aaoi? i?iiiio? oaeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui
noinothoueny i?iaaaeaiiy oe??? ne?ae/i? ae??.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy aeei?enoaiiy i?e
?icne?aeoaaii? aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia iiaeeeainoae noaeiaeo
aenia?oec.

Oaeanoaa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia ioiieththoue ??ci? aeaee cei/ei?a
ia i?aeaeaeiaiio ??ai?, oiio niaeo? aenia?oieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeineoue
oe?ieee. ?acii c oei na?aae noaeiaeo aenia?oec, ui i?ecia/athoueny ?
i?iaaaeyoueny i?e ?icne?aeoaaii? iacaaieo oaeanoa, iiaeia aeae?eeoe ?o
iaea?eueo oeiiaee eiiieaen (aeie), yeee aeicaiey? c’ynoaaoe niaoeeo?/i?
ianoaaeie oeueiai aeaeo cei/ei?a. Aei eiiieaeno aenia?oec aeine?aeiee
aeeth/a? ieceo e?ei?iae?noe/ieo aenia?oec: o?anieia?/i?
(aeaeoeeineii?/io aenia?oeco, aenia?oeco ne?ae?a i?a ? acoooy,
?aeaioeo?eaoe?th oe?eiai ca /anoeiaie, aenia?oeco aoce?a ? iaoaeue oa
?i.); noaeiai-ii?o?aoio (ii?o?aoii–e?ei?iae?noe/io). I?e ?icne?aeoaaii?
aeaii? eaoaai??? aaeanoa ia??aeei aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue o i?iaaaeaii?
oiaa?iciaa/i?, a?ieia?/ii? ? a?oioiciaa/i? aenia?oec; aenia?oece
iaoa??ae?a ? ?a/iaei. Iiaea i?ecia/aoeny ? aeaooiai–oaoi?/ia
(i??ioaoi?/ia) aenia?oeca. Aei /enea o?aaeeoe?eieo o ni?aaao aeaii?
eaoaai??? iaia’yceiai ne?ae a?aeianoe ? noaeiai–ineo?ao?e/io oa
noaeiai–ineoieia?/io aenia?oece.

O aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? i?iiiceoe??, ui
a?aeaeaathoue iniiai? oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? iieiaeaiiy i?iaaaeaiiai
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei:

— aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy e?ei?iae?noe/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee aaeanoa c
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia i?e ?icne?aeoaaii? cei/ei?a ?icaeyaeoaaii?
eaoaai???;

— oaeoeee i?iaaaeaiiy ie?aieo ne?ae/eo ae?e oa iia?aoeaii-?icooeiaeo
caoiae?a ia ia?a?niiio oa iine?aeoth/eo aoaiao ?icne?aeoaaiiy;

— iaiao?aeiino? o i?ioean? ?icne?aeoaaiiy cacia/aieo oaeanoa
iaeneiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo iiaeeeainoae noaeiaeo aenia?oec ?
oe?ieiai caeo/aiiy niaoe?ae?no?a;

— aecia/aiiy ne?ae/eo neooaoe?e ia ia?a?niiio aoai? ?icne?aeoaaiiy ?
eiino?othaaiiy oeiiaeo ne?ae/eo aa?n?e;

— i?aai?caoe?? ? i?iaaaeaiiy o iaea?eueo neeaaeieo ne?ae/eo neooaoe?yo
oaeoe/ieo iia?aoe?e, ni?eyth/eo iioeiaeueiiio ?icne?aeoaaiith.

IA?AE?E IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O:

1. Ai?enaiei E.A. Iiiyoea e eeanneoeeaoeey oaeenoa n ?an/eaiaieai

o?oia // I?iae. caeiiiino?: ?ani. i?aea?aeii. iaoe. ca. /A?aei. ?aae.
A.ss.Oaoe?e. — Aei. 35. — Oa?e?a: Iaoe. th?eae. aeaae. Oe?a?ie, 1998.-
N. 132-139.

2. Ai?enaiei ?.A. E?ei?iae?noe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea aaeanoa c
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia: niiniae nei?iiy oa niiniae i?eoiaoaaiiy //A?ni.
Eoaai. ?i-oo aioo?. ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie. — Aei. 2.- Eoaainuee, 1998.- N.
193-205.

3. Ai?enaiei E.A. Onoaiiaeaiea ee/iinoe ?an/eaiaiiiai o?oia // Aeooae.
i?iae. aea?aeaae oa i?aaa: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue Iaean.aea?ae. th?eae.
aeaaeai??. — Aei.5.- Iaeana: Ano?ii??io, 1998. — N.71-80.

4. Ai?enaiei ?.A. Iniaeeaino? iaeyaeo i?noey iiae?? o ni?aaao i?i
aaeanoaa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia // Aeooae. i?iae. no/ani. iaoee a
aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo a/aieo: Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue.- Aei.5.-Oa?e?a: Oi-o
aioo?.ni?aa, 1999.- N.7-13.

AIIOAOe??

Ai?enaiei ?ai? Aieiaeeie?iae/. Iaoiaeeea ?icne?aeoaaiiy aaeanoa c
?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeueinoth 12.00.09 – e?ei?iaeueiee i?ioean oa
e?eieiae?noeea; noaeiaa aenia?oeca. Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y
Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai. – Oa?e?a, 1999.

?oeiien yaey? niaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ia iiiia?ao?/iiio ??ai? ieoaiue
e?ei?iae?noe/ii? iaoiaeeee aaeanoa c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia.

Aeae?eaii ? ?icaeyiooi no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe e?ei?iae?noe/ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeo cei/ei?a. Ia i?aenoaa? ocaaaeueiaiiy
noaeiai-ne?ae/i? oa aenia?oii? i?aeoeee, aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
?ic?iaeaii oai?aoe/i? e i?aai?caoe?eii-oaeoe/i? aniaeoe ?icne?aeoaaiiy
iacaaiiai ??ciiaeaeo aaeanoa. Aiinyoueny eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? ?
i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino?
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a ii ?icne?aeoaaiith aeaii? eaoaai??? cei/ei?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaeanoai c ?ic/eaioaaiiyi o?oia, /anoeie o?oia,
e?ei?iae?noe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea, ?icne?aeoaaiiy aaeanoa.

Ai?enaiei Eai?ue Aeaaeeie?iae/. Iaoiaeeea ?anneaaeiaaiey oaeenoa n
?an/eaiaieai o?oia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.09 – oaieiaiue i?ioeann e e?eieiaeenoeea;
noaeaaiay yenia?oeca. Iaoeeiiaeueiay th?eaee/aneay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu
eiaie ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai. – Oa?ueeia, 1999.

?oeiienue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enneaaeiaaiea ia iiiia?aoe/aneii
o?iaia aii?inia e?eieiaeenoe/aneie iaoiaeeee oaeenoa n ?an/eaiaieai
o?oia.

Ia iniiaa iaiauaiey noaeaaii-neaaenoaaiiie e yenia?oiie i?aeoeee,
eco/aiey eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeia ?ac?aaioaiu oai?aoe/aneea e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaeoe/aneea aniaeou ?anneaaeiaaiey iacaaiiie eaoaai?ee
oaeenoa.

A ?aaioa ii?aaeaeaii iiiyoea oaeenoaa n ?an/eaiaieai o?oia e
i?eaaaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey aeaiiuo i?anooieaiee a niioaaonoaee n
iniaaiiinoyie iaoaiecia eo niaa?oaiey.

?ac?aaioaia e?eieiaeenoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea oaeenoa e ?anniio?aiu
aa yeaiaiou. I?eaaaeaia nenoaiaoecaoeey niiniaia i?eaioiaeaiey,
niaa?oaiey e nie?uoey oaeenoa e ?anniio?aiu oaeoi?u, eo
aeaoa?ieie?othuea e iaoneiaeeaathuea niaoeeoeeo neaaeiia?aciaaiey.
Oi?ioee?oaony iiiyoea “niinia ?an/eaiaiey o?oia” e eco/ai iaoaieci
oeie/iuo niiniaia, eniieuecoaiuo i?anooiieeaie i?e ?an/eaiaiee oaea
aea?oau.

Auaeaeaiu oeie/iua ianoa eieaeecaoeee iaoa?eaeueiuo neaaeia
oaeenoaa e ?an/eaiaiey o?oia. Iniaia aieiaiea aeoeaioe?oaony ia neaaeao
?an/eaiaiey o?oia, yenia?oiia enneaaeiaaiea eioi?uo iicaieyao
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue i?oaeea ?an/eaiaiey.

A ?aaioa aiaeece?othony ?aciiia?aciua e?eieiaeenoe/aneea aniaeou
ee/iinoe iioa?iaaoeo e i?anooiieeia.

I?ineaaeaiu e a?aoiaioe?othony ii?aaeaeaiiua caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo
yeaiaioaie e?eieiaeenoe/aneie oa?aeoa?enoeee, a /anoiinoe: “aea?oaa —
i?anooiiee”, “ee/iinoue i?anooiieea — oeie/iua neaaeu”, “niinia
niaa?oaiey — i?anooiiee” e ae?.

?anniio?aiu iniaaiiinoe oaeoeee i?iaaaeaiey ia?aiia/aeueiuo
neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee e ?ac?aaioaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee,
niinianoaothuea eo iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiio i?iaaaeaieth.

Aeenna?oaioii enneaaeiaaiu aii?inu iacia/aiey e i?iaaaeaiey
eiiieaeniie iaaeeei-o?anieiae/aneie yenia?oecu, a /anoiinoe, aeey
?aoaiey aii?inia ia eaeaioeoeeaoeee i?oaeee oaeenoaa e ?an/eaiaiey ii
neaaeai ia oaea, einoiie e o?yuaaie oeaiyo iiaeaoaai.

Ii?aaeaeaiu oeie/iua neaaenoaaiiua neooaoeee, oa?aeoa?iua aeey
ia?aiia/aeueiiai yoaia ?anneaaeiaaiey e oeacaiu iniaaiiinoe
eiino?oe?iaaiey neaaenoaaiiuo aa?nee. Aeey i?iaa?ee auaeaeioouo aa?nee a
niioaaonoaee n oeacaiiuie neaaenoaaiiuie neooaoeeyie ?ac?aaioaiu
aeai?eoiu eo ?ac?aoaiey iooai i?aaiecaoeee e i?iaaaeaiey oaeoe/aneeo
iia?aoeee e ioaeaeueiuo neaaenoaaiiuo aeaenoaee, i?aaeeiaeaiiuo aaoi?ii
a iioeiaeueiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe ia iniiaa aiaeeca
noaeaaii-neaaenoaaiiie i?aeoeee, aieaoe?iaaiey e eioa?auethe?iaaiey
?aaioieeia i?aaiio?aieoaeueiuo i?aaiia.

?ane?uou niaea?aeaiea, oi?iu e iniaaiiinoe acaeiiaeaenoaey
neaaeiaaoaey i?ieo?aoo?u e ?aaioieeia i?aaiia aeiciaiey i?eiaieoaeueii e
enneaaeoaiie eaoaai?ee oaeenoa.

Eco/aia neooaoeeiiiay iaoneiaeaiiinoue iineaaeothueo neaaenoaaiiuo
aeaenoaee.

A aeenna?oaoeee ii?aaeaeaiu oeie/iua a?oiiu eeoe, eioi?ua iiaoo
auoue aeii?ioaiu a ea/anoaa naeaeaoaeae, e i?aaeeiaeai eiiieaen
oaeoe/aneeo i?eaiia aeey aeii?ina eaaeaeie ec auaeaeaiiuo a?oii.

I?eaiaeeony oeie/iue aeey aeaiiiai aeaea oaeenoa eiiieaen noaeaaiuo
yenia?oec e i/a?/aiu aii?inu eniieueciaaiey eo aiciiaeiinoae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaeenoai n ?an/eaiaieai o?oia, /anoe o?oia,
e?eieiaeenoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea, ?anneaaeiaaiea oaeenoa.

Borisenko Igor Vladimirovich. The method of investigation of murders
with a of dead body.- Manuscript.

The dissertation for the competition of a scientific degree of the
Candidate of Sciences (Law) on a speciality 12.00.09 — criminal
procedure and criminalistics; judicial expertise. National Law Academy
of Ukraine named after Yaroslav Moudry. — Kharkov, 1999.

The manuscript represents research on a monographic level of
questions of criminalistics methods with partition of dead body. In the
Manuscript the author has selected and considered the structural
elements of the criminalistic characteristic of these crimes.

On the generalization basis of judicially-investigation and expert
practice, the study of sources worked up theoretical and
organizationally-tactical aspects of investigation of named category of
murders. The offer and practical recommendations are brought by the
author to increases of efficiency of activity of law-enforcement bodies
on investigation of the given category of crimes.

Key words: murder with a partition of a dead body, parts of a dead
body, criminalistic characteristic, investigation of murders.

A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione: e. th. i., aeioe. Aeoaei?eia A.E.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 21.04.99 ?.. Oi?iao 60O90/16. Iai?? ionaoiee.

A?ae?oeiaaii ia ?ecia?ao?. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e 0,6. Iae?e.- aeae. a?e.
1,0.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Cai. ? 508

___________________________________________________

Ae?oea?iy

Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?iai? ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai

310024, Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea, 77.

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