IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO I?IAEAI I?OeIINO?

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

?OAeIEOeUeEEE Ieeiea Iao?iae/

OAeE 620.171:620.172.25

IAOIAeE AEI?IAOAAIUe ? I?OeI?NOUe

IAOAE?*IEO EIIIICEOe?EIEO IAOA??AE?A

I?E AENIEEO OAIIA?AOO?AO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.02.09 aeeiai?ea oa i?oei?noue iaoei

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

EE?A 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai i?oeiino? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?enaiei A.I.,
?inoeooo i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaeno?aiei A.E.,
?inoeooo iaaeoaa?aeeo iaoa??ae?a IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe Caioeia I.I., ?inoeooo i?iaeai i?oeiino?
IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie
“EI?”

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 30 aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 9 aiaeei? 30 oa.

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.241.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252014, i. Ee?a-14, aoe.
O?i??yc?anueea, 2

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo i?iaeai
i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 15 /a?aiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe
O.O. A?a?iye

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. ?icaeoie aa?aoe?eii? ? ?aeaoii-eini?/ii?
oaoi?ee iia’ycaiee c ?ic?iaeaiiyi ? aeei?enoaiiyi iaoae?/ieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a (IEI), caeaoieo caaacia/eoe i?oei?noue
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo /anoei iaoei ? aia?ao?a c? cieaeaiiyi ?o aaae, ye?
i?aoeththoue a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??, oaeeo ye
aenieioaiia?aoo?ia iaa??aaiiy ? a?aie/i? iaoai?/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy.
Aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aea/aiiy iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae IEI aeey iaieiiie, aeeth/ath/e e?eueoeaa? eiino?oeoeai?
aeaiaioe, ui i?aoeththoue a oeeo oiiaao ? no?eiothoueny a?aenooi?noth
iaiao?aeii? aei?iaoaaeueii? oaoi?ee oa iaoiaeee.

Ua iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo caaaeaiue ? ?ic?iaeaiiy iaoiae?a ioe?iee ?
aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae IEI ia iniia? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?o
eiiiiiaioe: a?ioth/? aieieia, iaoa??aee iao?eoeue ? ie?ai? oa?e, ui
aeicaieythoue ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy iioei?coaaoe neeaae ? no?oeoo?o
iaoa??aeo, a oaeiae cae?enithaaoe eiio?ieue yeino? ye eiiiiiaio?a, oae ?
iaoa??aeo aai eiino?oeoeaiiai aeaiaioo a i?ioean? aeaioiaeaiiy.

Ia iaio aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? noaiaea?oecaoe?y iaoiae?a aei?iaoaaiue, ui
aeicaiey? oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o o ??cieo aaeocyo ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia:

ca oaiith “Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaeo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao”,
ui caoaa?aeaeaia iinoaiiaith I?aceae?? AI O?N? ? 487 a?ae 17.11.82 ?. a
?aieao i?iaeaie AI N?N? ?icae?e 1.10.2.12 Oa?iia’yceii?oaei?noue,
iaoai?ea eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a;

ca Aea?aeaaiith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith i?ia?aiith “Ia?niaeoeai? iaoa??aee”
AeEIO N?N?; ca caaaeaiiyi aee?aeoeaieo i?aai?a ? AeE ?I N?N? ? 91 a?ae
19.03.86 ?. ? ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi I?aceae?? AI O?N? ? 00727 a?ae 11.04.86
?.;

ca oaiith 1.3.4.2 “Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ?
e?iaoeee ?oeioaaiiy iaoae?/ieo oa iaiaoae?/ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a
c o?aooaaiiyi ae?? oaoiieia?/ieo oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a”, ui
caoaa?aeaeaia iinoaiiaith Ath?i a?aeae?eaiiy iaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie ? 6
a?ae 07.12.95 ?.

Iaoa ?iaioe. anoaiiaeaiiy ? aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae ci?ie aeanoeainoae
noaoe/ii? i?oeiino? iaoae?/ieo a?ioth/eo aeaiaio?a, iaoa??ae?a
iao?eoeue, iaoae?/ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a oa eiino?oeoeaieo
aeaiaio?a c ieo a oiiaao aenieeo oaiia?aoo?.

Iinoaaeaia oe?eue aeinyaa?oueny ae??oaiiyi ianooiieo caaaeaiue:

?ic?iaeaiiy iiaeo iaoiaeee ? a?aeiia?aeieo aei?iaoaaeueieo cania?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icoyaoaaiiyi ia i?e?ic?aceao iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae IEI
? ?o eiiiiiaio?a, a oaeiae aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e c ieo a oiiaao
iaa??aaiiy;

aenia?eiaioaeueia aea/aiiy i?oeiino? IEI ? ?o neeaaeiaeo c o?aooaaiiyi
ae?? oaoiieia?/ieo oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a;

anoaiiaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeiiii??iinoae ci?ie i?oeiino? aea/aieo
iaoa??ae?a, aeyaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a aeaoi?iaoe?? aeey iioei?caoe?? ia ?o
iniia? neeaaeo iaoa??aeo oa eiai iae?ino?oeoo?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Noai?ai? i?ea?iaeuei? aei?iaoaaeuei? caniae ?
?yae i?eno?i?a aeey aea/aiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoae?/ieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a (no??/ie, aieieii, n?oie,
iao?eoeue), a oiio /ene? e?eueoeaaeo eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a, ia iniia?
ooaiieaaeeo iaoa??ae?a a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? oa oaeaeeinoae
aeaoi?ioaaiiy. Iiaecia oa ei?eni?noue aeeiiaieo ?ic?iaie i?aeoaa?aeaeai?
o?ueiia aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie ia aeiaoiaee.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee aeey aeine?aeaeaiue ?icoyaoaaiiyi oa?aeoa?enoee
i?oeiino? a?ioth/eo aieieii i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 290…2500 E oa oaeaeeinoae
aeaoi?ioaaiiy 10-5…1 n-1 ? i?oeiino? e?eueoeaaeo c?ace?a a ae?aiacii?
290…2100 E, a oaeiae i?aeoa?iaiai cnoao aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 290…1900 E. Iiaecia ? ei?eni?noue
iaoiaeee i?aeoaa?aeaeai? aaoi?nueeei na?aeioeoaii ? ?ic?iaeaiei
aea?aeaaiei noaiaea?oii Oe?a?ie.

Anoaiiaeai? ? aea/ai? oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
a?ioth/eo aieieii ?c nieaa?a aieueo?aio oa iie?aaeaio ? aaaaoioa?iaeo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a nenoaie Ti Nb.

I?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia eiino?oeoe?eio i?oei?noue oa
ieanoe/i?noue o?eueo?oth/eo iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? i?eaeaaeo n?oie ?
aeenia?nieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a nenoaie i?eaeue neioaoe/i? aeiace
aeey a?aei?aoethaaiiy oaoiieia?? ?o iaea?aeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. Canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeeee ? caoaaoieo
i?eno?i?a aeey aei?iaoaaiiy ia ?icoya i?ae /an aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoae?/ieo a?ioth/eo aieieii
aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe oaiia?aoo?o aei?iaoaaiue aei 2500 E, io?eiaoe
a?aenooi? ?ai?oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?oeiino? ye aeei?enoiaoaaieo,
oae ? iiaeo i?ia?aneaieo iaoa??ae?a oa ia?aaeaoe ??ciei iaai?caoe?yi
aeey ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Aeei?enoaiiy o i?aeoeoe? aeine?aeaeaiue niiniao aei?iaoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a
?icoyaoaaiiyi ca aenieeo oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?ioaaiiy aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe
oi/i?noue io?eioaaieo aaee/ei iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeiaaii??ieo
i?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a (ieoie, aieieii, ae?io?a, oieuea, n?oie, no??/ie
oiui) a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?.

Noaiaea?oeciaaii iaoiae noaoe/ieo aei?iaoaaiue ?icoyaoaaiiyi e?eueoeaaeo
c?ace?a c aioo??oi?i ae?aiao?ii a?ae 10 aei 100 ii c iaoae?a, a oaeiae
oa?oaaoeo ? aieieienoeo iaoaei-eiiiiceo?a i?e oaiia?aoo?? aei 2000 E a
Aea?aeaaiiio noaiaea?o? Oe?a?ie (AeNOO 2528-94).

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaiooa?iaeo o?eueo?oth/eo
iaoa??ae?a ia iniia? i?eaeaai? n?oee c i?eaeaaei iie?eooyi
?aeiiaiaeiaaii iaoa??ae c aenieith oaoiieia?/iith ieanoe/i?noth aeey
ae?iaieoeoaa o?eueo??a a?ae?inenoai e?oae?a ?E-76 oa ?E-86.

I?iaaaeaii aea/aiiy aieeao ia i?oei?noue aeenia?niiai eiiiiceoe?eiiai
iaoa??aeo nenoaie i?eaeaaa iao?eoey neioaoe/i? aeiace ? iao?eoe?
?ici??o /anoeiie, ui aaiaeyoueny, niiniao inaaeaeoaaiiy aeenia?nii? oace
oa u?eueiino? no?oio inaaeaeoaaiiy iao?e/iiai iaoa??aeo c iaoith
oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy.

Aia?oa a oaiia?aoo?iiio ae?aiacii? 290…1700 E anoaiiaeai? oaiia?aoo?i?
caeaaeiino? i?oeiino? ? aeaoi?iaoeaiino? iaoa??ae?a aeey iaieiiie oeio
aaaaoioa?iaeo IEI nenoaie Ti Nb c ??ciith e?euee?noth oa??a,
nooiaiai iaoeneo. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue aea?ai? iaoa??aee c
iioeiaeueieie iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie.

?aae?caoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoiaeeee oa ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoai?: a A?AI? (i. Iineaa); ia Aeenoinueeiio
iaoaeo?a?eiiio caaiae?; ia IAI “Eiiiiceo” (OeIAe?IC, i?aei?e?inoai i/y
A-1147 i. Eae?i?ia?aae Iineianueei? iae.) oa a ?inoeooo? iaaeoaa?aeeo
iaoa??ae?a IAI Oe?a?ie. *anoeiaee noia?iee iaeii?aciaee aeiiii?/iee
aoaeo aeena?oaioa a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeeo ?acoeueoao?a noaiiaeoue 577
oen. e?a. a oe?iao aei 1988 ?.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Aaoi?ii aeeiiaii /anoeio eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ?
iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie oa ?o iaa?oiooaaiiy, io?eiaii ia?aaaaeio
a?eueo?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a, i?iaaaeaii ?o aiae?c,
noi?ioeueiaaii aeniiaee, i?eeiaeanue aeoeaia o/anoue o ai?iaaaeaeaii?
?acoeueoao?a ?ic?iaie ? aeine?aeaeaiue o ae?iaieoeoai.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
V Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? c eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a (Iineaa, 1981);
eiioa?aioe?? “Eiino?oe?iaaiea e i?iecaiaenoai ecaeaeee ec iieeia?iuo e
iaoaeee/aneeo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia” (?aiaoi??y, 1993);
i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eiiiiceoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu. Oaoiieiaey e
i?iecaiaenoai” (n. I?uaia, E?ei, 1994); ? i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi?
“Ia?aaeiaua oa?ie/aneea oaoiieiaee e iaoa?eaeu” (n. Eaoeeaae?, E?ei,
1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 11 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o,
?ic?iaeaii Aea?aeaaiee noaiaea?o Oe?a?ie ? iaea?aeaii /ioe?e aaoi?nuee?
na?aeioeoaa ia aeiaoiaee.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 152 iaeiaioaaiue oa
aeiaeaoeo. Aeena?oaoe?y ia? iiaiee ianya 205 noi??iie, aeeth/ath/e 54
?enoiee oa 20 oaaeeoeue. Aei ?iaioe aeiaea?oueny o?e aeoe i?i
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ?ic?iaeaii? a aeena?oaoe??
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeaie, aeaii ei?ioeo oa?aeoa?eoeeo caaaeueiiai
noaio ? iaoiae?a ?? ae??oaiiy. Oi?ioeth?oueny iinoaiiaea caaea/? oa iaoa
?iaioe, iaa?oioiao?oueny ?? aaaeeeaa iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.
Ei?ioei aeeeaaeaii ci?no aeena?oaoe?? ii ?icae?eao, aecia/aii iaoeiao
iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a, ui iaea?aeai? a ?iaio?.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?icaeyaeo iaaaaeaieo a e?oa?aoo?? aeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae
aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoaeieiiiiceo?a. Iaaiaeeoueny iaeyae ? aiae?c ?nioth/eo
iaoiaeee, iaeaaeiaiiy ? i?eno?i?a aeey aei?iaoaaiiy a?ioth/eo aieieii,
iao?eoeue ? eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a IEI. Iaa?oioiao?oueny
iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaeaiiy aeey oeueiai
iaoiaeee oa iaeaaeiaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi noaiaea?oieo aei?iaoaaeueieo
iaoei, ui aeioneathoueny i?iieneia?noth. Ia iniia? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue:

?ic?iaea aei?iaoaaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icoyaoaaiiyi
ia i?e?ic?aceao iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoae?/ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a, a oiio /ene? e?eueoeaaeo eiino?oeoeaieo
aeaiaio?a, ia iniia? iaoaeaaeo iaoa??ae?a a oe?ieeo ae?aiaciiao
oaiia?aoo? oa oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?ioaaiiy;

noai?aiiy iaoiaeee aeey aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?oeiino?
a?ioth/eo aieieii c ??cieie oaeaeeinoyie aeaoi?ioaaiiy, i?aeoa?iaiai
cnoao aeey aaaaoioa?iaeo IEI, e?eueoeaaeo c?ace?a, a oaeiae aieeao
aei?noeino? aei?iaoaaeueieo iaoei ia ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue;

aenia?eiaioaeueia io?eiaiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy
oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino? oa aeaoi?iaoeaiino?
aieieii, aaaaoioa?iaeo IEI, i?eaeaaeo n?oie oa eiiiiceo?a c i?eaeaaith
iao?eoeath, aeaea/a ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienaii noai?aia onoaoeoaaiiy ? i?eno?i?:

a). Onoaoeiaaiiy I?e?i-8 aeey aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
iaoa??ae?a ?icoyaoaaiiyi a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 290…3000 E ?
oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?ioaaiiy 0,0005…500 ii/oa. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy
neoaeaoue ye oeee?iae?e/i? aai ieine? i?e?ic?acee, oae ? c?acee ?c
aieieii, ae?io?a, oieuea, n?oie oa no??/ie ia?a??cii a?ae 0,01 aei 7
ii2.

Onoaoeiaaiiy noai?aii ia aac? a?aeiii? aei?iaoaaeueii? iaoeie I?e?i-6.
?ic?iaeai? iia? aeao/eee neee ? aeaoi?iaoe?? c aaoaeiaaieie nenoaiaie
ioieiaeaeaiiy, ui aeicaieeei caanoe aei i?i?ioio aieea oaieiaeo
aeanoaa?e?coth/eo oaeoi??a ia ?oi? iao?ieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee.

a). I?eno??e aeey aei??thaaiiy a?nueiaeo ? e?ooeeueieo coneeue a
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio onoaoeoaaii? (a. n. ? 1268977). Ia?aoai?thaa/? neee
i?eno?ith i?noyoue eiiiainaoi?e aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ? oeneo
ioieiaeaeoaa/a, a oaeiae aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iaeii/anii aei??thaaoe ye
a?nueia? neee, oae ? e?ooy/? iiiaioe, iai?eeeaae, i?e aea/aii?
aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? i?oeiino? iaoa??ae?a a oiiaao neeaaeii-iai?oaeaiiai
noaio.

a). Caoaaoi? i?eno?i? aeey aei?iaoaaiiy aieieii ? ae?io?a c ieanoe/ieo
iaoa??ae?a. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee
i?oeiino?, a oaeiae ca?eueoaiiy no?ieo neoaeae caoenea/?a, a eiaeiiio c
ieo i?ae i?aeii?ith ? oeee?iae?e/iei iaeueoeai aeiaeaoeiai anoaiiaeaiee
ceiiiee aeeaaeaiue, ui neoaeeoue aeey iaae?eii? o?enaoe?? ia?iai/eo
e?ioe?a c?acea o aoce? e??ieaiiy.

Ua iaei? caoaaoi? i?eno?i? aeey aecia/aiiy i?oeiino? ieoeiiiae?aieo
iaoa??ae?a, a oiio /ene? e?eoeeo, a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?, a
yeeo iaa??aaiiy c?acea cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith eiioaeooth/eo c
iei ii an?e aeiaaeei? oaieiia?aaeath/eo aeaiaio?a caoaaoieo i?eno?i?a.
Oea iie?aueei oa?aeoa?enoeee oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey acaeiaae ?iai/i?
/anoeie c?acea.

a). Onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino? ? ieanoe/iino?
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?
290…2000 E ? oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?ioaaiiy 0,035…1000 ii/oa. Ia aac?
aei?iaoaaeueii? iaoeie OIOe 10/1 (IAe?) noai?aii aenieioaiia?aoo?ia
aei?iaoaaeueia onoaoeoaaiiy I-12 c iia?aoeaiith ia?iaeith aeaieo. C
iaoith caa?aaeaiiy oaoi?/ieo iiaeeeainoae aaciai? iaoeie
neeiaei??thaaeueiee aeao/ee ?ici?uo?oueny a na?aaeei? aei?iaoaaeueii?
eaia?e c nenoaiith eiai aaeooiiiai caoenoo. Nenoaie onoaoeoaaiiy
aeeiiai? o aeaeyae? aaoiiiiieo ooieoe?iiaeueii cae?i/aieo aoce?a, ye?
eaaei ia?aiaeaaiaeaeothoueny ia iio??aiee aeae aei?iaoaaiue. Ia’?eoaie
aeine?aeaeaiue ? oeee?iae?e/i? aai ieine? i?e?ic?acee ia?a??cii aei 8
ii2, a oaeiae oieueae, no??/ee, ae?ioe, aieieia ? n?oee.

ae). Onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aei?iaoaaiiy ieanoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a ?icoyaoaaiiyi
(a. n. ? 1522073). Aiii onoaa? ci?uaiiy a i?ioean?
aeaoi?ioaaiiy c?acea na?aaeeie eiai ?iai/i? /anoeie a?aeiinii
oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey ia?ooiii anoaiiaeaiiai iaa??aa/a, caaacia/o? caaeaio
oaeaee?noue aeaoi?ioaaiiy c?acea i?ae /an ?oeioaaiiy, a oaeiae i?aeaeuo?
oi/i?noue.

a). Onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aei?iaoaaiiy ?icoyaoaaiiyi e?eueoeaaeo c?ace?a
aeaiia iai?aaeeneaie (a. n. ? 1749763). Aiii ?icoe?eei oaiia?aoo?iee
ae?aiacii aei?iaoaaiue aei 2100 E ? iaeii/anii i?aeaeueei oi/i?noue
iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaoa??ae?a, ui aeine?aeaeothoueny. Oea
aeinyaiooi ca ?aooiie ci?oeiaiiy iai?aaeene?a ? aeiaeaiiyi ua iaeiiai
iaa??aa/a c iacaeaaeiei aeaea?aeii aeeaeaiiy aeey aeiaeaoeiaiai
?aaoethaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?noeoue iien iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeaiue iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae eiiiiceo?a oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a ?icoyaoaaiiyi:

a). Niin?a aei?iaoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ?icoyaoaaiiyi aai e?o/aiiyi i?e
aenieeo oaeaeeinoyo aeaoi?ioaaiiy a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? (a.
n. ? 1089475). Ca?eueoaiiy oi/iino? io?eioaaieo aaee/ei aeinyaa?oueny ca
?aooiie oiai, ui aeoeaio oyao ? ?ooiiee caoaao ?icaaiythoue aei caaeaii?
oaeaeeino? aei?iaoaaiiy ua aei i?eeeaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia c?acie ?,
oei naiei, aeeeth/athoue aieea noie ?ia?oe?eieo nee nenoaie ia
caienoaaio ae?aa?aio aeaoi?ioaaiiy. Niin?a iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiee i?ae /an
i?iaaaeaiiy aei?iaoaaiue aeiaaii??ieo i?oaeieo iaoa??ae?a (ieoie,
aieieii, ae?io?a, oieuea, n?oie ? no??/ie) ia ?icoya ? e?o/aiiy.

a). Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy aieieii ia ei?ioei/anio i?oei?noue i?e
aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao. Aiia noai?aia aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?ioyieo
c?ace?a ae?aiao?ii a?ae 0,1 aei 0,3 ii ? aeiaaeeiith 100 ii o aaeooi? a
ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 290…2500 E ia onoaoeoaaii? I?e?i-8. Ae??oai?
i?iaeaie e??ieaiiy c?ace?a, aecia/aiiy ?o i?oeiino? ? ieanoe/iino? oa
aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e. Oaiia?aoo?a aei??th?oueny ia ianeaiiio
aeaiaio?, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a aaciina?aaeiueiio eiioaeo? c? c?aceii ?
iaa??aa/ai. Oeae aeaiaio ia? ii??aiyii aaeeeo oaiei?ie?noue, ui ciaioo?
aieea oaieia?aeaiaeo aeaeo?iae?a oa?iiia?e ia oi/i?noue aei??thaaiue.

a). Iaoiaeeea aei?iaoaaiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ia cnoa a oiiaao
iaa??aaiiy. Aeey aecia/aiiy i?aeoa?iai? i?oeiino? iaoae?/ieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa eiino?oeoe?y neiao?e/ieo
c?ace?a. ?oiueith iniaeea?noth ? oa, ui aiie eiino?othaaeeny ia noaae??
aeaioiaeaiiy oa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a. Oea aeicaieeei iiai?noth
onoiooe caei a i?ioean? aeaoi?ioaaiiy.

a). Iaoiae aei?iaoaaiiy e?eueoeaaeo c?ace?a a ae?aiacii? aenieeo
oaiia?aoo?, yeee noaiaea?oeciaaii (AeNOO 2528-94). A?i onoaiiaeth?
noaoe/i? aei?iaoaaiiy ?icoyaoaaiiyi e?eueoeaaeo c?ace?a c aioo??oi?i
ae?aiao?ii a?ae 10 aei 100 ii c iaoae?a, a oaeiae oa?oaaoeo ?
aieieienoeo iaoaeieiiiiceo?a i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aei 2000 E. I?ecia/aiee
aeey ii??aiyeueieo ? eiio?ieueieo aei?iaoaaiue.

ae). Aecia/aiiy aieeao aei?noeino? aei?iaoaaeueii? iaoeie ia i?oei?noue
? ieanoe/i?noue iaoa??ae?a. Iienaii iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy aei?noeino?
aei?iaoaaeueieo iaoei I?e?ao-4 ? I?e?i-6 oa iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
oaioaeo ? i?eaeth a ae?aiaciiao oaiia?aoo? 293…1873 E.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyioo? aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/ai?
caeiiii??iino? aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ia iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoae?/ieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a. Ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue
aoee:

a). A?ioth/? aieieia ?c nieaa?a aieueo?aio ? iie?aaeaio c ?ai??i.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia ae?ioyieo c?aceao ae?aiao?aie 200 ? 275 iei
c aeeeoiai nieaao aieueo?aio a?aeiia?aeii ia?ie A?IE ? A?IEI, ui
i?noyoue ca ianith: 4…5% Re; 4…5% Mo; 0,1% HfC; 0,02% C (nieaa A?IEI
ai?uo? ua e i?o?eaee), ? ae?aiao?aie 115 ? 200 iei c iie?aaeai-?ai?eiaeo
nieaa?a ia?ie I?-10 (10 % Re ca ianith) oa I?-47 CAI (47 % Re ca ianith)
a?aeiia?aeii, ciiii? aaeooiii? ieaaee a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? a?ae 290
aei 1900 E. Aieieia aei?iaoaai? a aeaoi?iiaaiiio noai?. Oaiia?aoo?i?
caeaaeiino? a?aieoe? i?oeiino? aieieii nieaa?a aieueo?aio i?aaenoaaeai?
ia ?en. 1.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino? nieaa?a
aieueo?aio ? iie?aaeaio c ?ai??i i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny
aeniiiaioe?aeueiiio caeiio, iathoue aeae?eueea iaeanoae ? iienothoueny,
ca aeeeth/aiiyi ciie ae?? aeeiai?/iiai aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai noa??iiy
(iie?aaeai-?ai?eia? nieaae), iaeiei oa?iiaeoeaaoe?eiei ??aiyiiyi c
oa?iiaeeiai?/ieie oa no?oeoo?ieie ia?aiao?aie, ui aeene?aoii
ci?iththoueny.

Ca aeiiiiiaith oa?iiaeoeaaoe?eiiai aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo
caeaaeiinoae oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino? aieueo?aiiaeo ? iie?aaeai-?ai?eiaeo
nieaa?a a ae?aiacii? 0,09…0,6 Oie aecia/ai? oa?iiaeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e o
aeaeyae? niaeo??a aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? (aioaeuei??) ieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe??, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue iaoai?cie, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ca
i?oei?noue a aeaiiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?.

a). Iaoa??aee aeey iaieiiie oeio aaaaoioa?iaiai IEI nenoaie Ti Nb.
Aeine?aeaeai? o?e ia?o?? eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo, io?eiaiiai oeyoii
i?ieaooaaiiy, ui neeaaea?oueny c oa??a nieaa?a oeoaio AO6N ? i?ia?th
AI2AY a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 290…1700 E. Aea? ia?o?? aeeiiai?
o?eiaaeoeyoeoa?iaeie (7 oa??a nieaao oeoaio ? 6 oa??a nieaao i?ia?th), a
o?aoy ia?o?y aeaa’yoeoa?iaith (5 oa??a nieaao Ti ? 4 nieaao Nb).
I?e/iio ia?o? aea? ia?o?? a?ae??ciyeeny o?eueee nooiaiai iaoeneo, oiaoi
oiaueiith oa??a. O c?aceao ae?oai? ia?o?? noia?ia oiaueia oa??a a
na?aaeiueiio ia 0,5 ii a?eueoa ? a?aeiia?aeii nooi?iue iaoeneo iaioa. O
an?o ia?o?yo ia’?iiee ai?no aeaio eiiiiiaio?a iaeiaeiaee. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en. 2.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo i?oeiei aeyaeany iaoa??ae c a?eueoith
e?euee?noth oa??a, a na?aae iaoa??ae?a c ??aiith e?euee?noth oa??a
iaoa??ae ia?o??, o eio?iai caaaeueia oiaueia oa??a iaioa, oiaoi iaoa??ae
c a?eueoei nooiaiai iaoeneo. Oea niinoa??aaeiny a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?
290…900 E, a c iiaeaeueoei i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e i?oei?noue i?eaeecii
iaeiaeiaa. Iaea?eueo ieanoe/iei a aei?iaoaaiiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? ?
aeaa’yoeoa?iaee iaoa??ae. Ieanoe/i?noue 13-oe oa?iaiai iaoa??aeo
i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaa ? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaith iaoeneo. Aeeeth/aiiy
neeaaea? a?aeiinia caoaeaiiy, yea ca?eueoo?oueny c? ca?eueoaiiyi
nooiaith iaoeneo. Cia/aiiy aaee/ei a?aieoe? i?oeiino? aeia?a
ocaiaeaeothoueny c ??aiyiiyi aaeeoeaiino? (“i?aaeei noi?oae”) ca
aeeeth/aiiyi iaeano? ae?? aeeiai?/iiai aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai noa??iiy.

a). Aaaaoioa?iaee eiiiiceoe?eiee iaoa??ae nenoaie Ti Nb, a?aeiaeaiee ca
??cieie ?aaeeiaie, yeee aei?iaiaoaaee ia i?aeoa?iao i?oei?noue. Iaoa??ae
io?eiaiee oeyoii caa?thaaiiy 17 oa??a i?ia??aiai nieaao 10AIOe /a?ac
i?ioa?ee oeoaio. Caaaeueia oiaueia eenoa 2 ii. O an?o ia?o?yo ia’?iiee
ai?no aeaio eiiiiiaio?a ??aiee. Aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeee i?e oaiia?aoo??
1870 E ia neiao?e/ieo c?aceao, ceiino?oeiaaieo ia noaae?? aeaioiaeaiiy.

Aei?iaoaaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee i?aaeeuei?noue eiino?oeoe?? neiao?e/ieo
c?ace?a, ui aeicaieeee onoiooe caei a i?ioean? aeaoi?ioaaiiy.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aei?iaoaaiue iaea?eueoo i?aeoa?iao i?oei?noue ?
a?aieoeth i?oeiino? iathoue iaoa??aee c ?aaeeiii oa?iiia?iaee:
a?aeiaethaaiiy i?e 1770 E i?ioyaii 5 aiaeei.

a). Aeaiooa?ia? o?eueo?oth/? iaoa??aee ia iniia? i?eaeaai? n?oee c
i?eaeaaei iie?eooyi. Iaoa??aee iaea?aeai? oeyoii iaieeaiiy ia n?oeo c
i?eaeaaiai ae?ioo ia?ee II-2 ii?ioeo i?eaeth. C iaoith caaacia/aiiy
iaiao?aeieo iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? oa?aeoa?enoee ii?enoino? c?acee
oa?iiia?iaeyee ca ??cieie ?aaeeiaie.

C?acee o aeaeyae? no??/ee aeiaaeeiith 100 ? oe?eiith 5 ii i?e oiauei?
0,15 ii ae??caee ii a?aeiioaiith aei ooea a naie ??cieo iai?yieao /a?ac
15 a?aaeon?a. A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii 14 iaoa??ae?a ? oeaia n?oea aac
iaieeaiiy. C?acee iaoa??ae?a ?? 11…15 ae??caee ? aei?iaoaaee o?eueee
acaeiaae ooea ? iniiae.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue (?en. 3) iaeneiaeueia ieanoe/i?noue
iaoa??ae?a n?oie aeyaeaia a iai?yieao 30…45 a?aaeon?a ii a?aeiioaiith
aei ooea, i?i?iaeueia ieanoe/i?noue acaeiaae iniiae. Iaea?eueoa
i?oei?noue aei?iaoaaieo iaoa??ae?a niinoa??aaeany acaeiaae ooea,
i?i?iaeueia a iaaeao 60…75 a?aaeon?a ii a?aeiioaiith aei ieoee ooea.
I?ae /an aeaoi?ioaaiiy i?e iai?oc? > 0,7a a iaoa??aeao, ui
oa?iiia?iaeai? o aiaei?, a oa?? ii?ioeo iaieeaiiai ia n?oeo
niinoa??aaeeny o??ueie. A iaoa??aeao, ye? oa?iiia?iaeai? o aaeooi?,
o??uei ia niinoa??aaeiny.

Ai?cio?ii?y oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino? iaea?eueo aeecueea oaiiiaiieia?/iiio
e?eoa??th i?oeiino? Aoeaiac? o oi?i? iie?iiio /aoaa?oiai noaiaiy, ui
iieno? iaaeiao e?eao ci?ie a?aieoe? i?oeiino? a caeaaeiino? a?ae eooa
ae??cee n?oee aeey ? ieoaioa a eii?aeeiaoao o o;

Iaea?eueo iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeanoeainoae ieanoe/iino? ?
i?oeiino? iathoue iaoa??aee a?aeiaeai? o aaeooi?, a iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeaiei iaoa??ae oa?iiia?iaeaiee o aiaei? i?e 1073 E i?ioyaii 60
oa. c ianooiiei a?aeiaethaaiiyi o aaeooi? i?e 1173 E i?ioyaii 60 oa.

ae). Aeenia?ni? eiiiiceoe?ei? iaoa??aee nenoaie i?eaeue neioaoe/i?
aeiace. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy ae??ooaaee ianooii? caaaeaiiy: aieea
?ici??o /anoeiie, ui aaiaeyoueny, ia i?oei?noue eiiiiceoe??; aea/aiiy
ci?ie aeanoeainoae i?oeiino? eiiiiceoo nenoaie i?eaeaaa iao?eoey
neioaoe/i? aeiace ?ici??ii 315…400 iei ca aaaaeaiiy a?eueo
ae??aiiaeenia?nii? oace; aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai cia/aiiy u?eueiino?
no?oio inaaeaeoaaiiy iao?e/iiai iaoa??aeo; aieea niiniao inaaeaeoaaiiy
aeenia?nii? oace ia i?oei?noue eiiiiceoe?eiiai iaoa??aeo.

Ia iniia? aiae?co i?aaenoaaeaieo caeaaeiinoae iiaeia cacia/eoe, ui
i?oei?noue inaaeaeoaaiiai i?ae /an aeaeo?io?i?/iiai i?ioeano i?eaeth c
aaaaeaiiyi ca?ai aeiac?a, ui ia c/aieththoueny, cieaeo?oueny. C?
ca?eueoaiiyi ?ici??o ca?ia a?ae 1 aei 800 iei i?oei?noue eiiiiceoe??
ciaioo?oueny a?ae 750 aei 50 I/ii2 (?en. 4). Aeiaeaaaiiy 15 ia’?iieo %
ae??aiiaeenia?nii? oace aei eiiiiceoii? nenoaie i?eaeaaa iao?eoey
neioaoe/i? aeiace ?ici??ii 315…400 iei ia aeanoeaino? i?oeiino?
i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa?.

Iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiei, c oi/ee ci?o i?oeiino?, ? ?aaeei inaaeaeoaaiiy
i?eaeth c? u?euei?noth no?oio 2 A/aei2, a a?eueo aoaeoeaiith iaoiaeeea
aaaaeaiiy ca?ai c aeoeaiei ia?ai?ooaaiiyi aeaeo?ie?oo.

AENIIAEE

1. Noai?ai? aei?iaoaaeuei? caniae:

onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aea/aiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a ia
?icoyaoaaiiy a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? 290…3000 E ? oaeaeeinoae
aeaoi?ioaaiiy a?ae 10-5 aei 1 n-1;

onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oeiino? eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a oa
?o eiiiiiaio?a ia i?e?ic?aceao, a oaeiae oieuea, no??/ie, ae?io?a,
aieieii ? n?oie a oiiaao iaa??aaiiy (290…2000 E), oeiiieaeoiaaia
nenoaiith ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ia aac?
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aei??thaaeueiiai eiiieaeno;

onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aei?iaoaaiiy ieanoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a ia ?icoyaoaaiiy
i?e iaa??aaii?, ui onoaa? ci?uaiiy a i?ioean? aeaoi?iaoe?? c?acea
na?aaeeie eiai ?iai/i? /anoeie a?aeiinii oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey ia?ooiii
anoaiiaeaiiai iaa??aa/a ? i?aeaeuo? oi/i?noue ?acoeueoao?a (a. n. ?
1522073);

onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoa??ae?a ? aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e, a
oiio /ene? e?eueoeaaeo c?ace?a, ?icoyaoaaiiyi a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?
a?ae 290 aei 2100 E (a. n. ? 1749763);

i?eno??e aeey aei??thaaiiy a?nueiaeo oa e?ooeeueieo coneeue o yeiio
ia?aoai?thaa/? neee i?noyoue eiiiainaoi?e aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ? oeneo
ioieiaeaeoaa/a (a. n. ? 1268977);

i?eno?i? aeey e??ieaiiy c?ace?a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo aecia/athoueny
aeanoeaino? i?oeiino? ieoeiiiae?aieo iaoa??ae?a, a oiio /ene? e?eoeeo, a
oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?.

2. Aeey aea/aiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee:

aei?iaoaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ?icoyaoaaiiyi aai e?o/aiiyi i?e aenieeo
oaeaeeinoyo aeaoi?ioaaiiy a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?. Niin?a
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a. n. ? 1089475;

aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoae?/ieo a?ioth/eo aieieii ia ei?ioei/anio i?oei?noue
a ?ioa?aae? 290…2500 E, e??ieaiiy ? aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e ae?ioyieo
c?ace?a;

aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoa?iaiai cnoao aaaaoioa?iaeo
iaoae?/ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a;

aei?iaoaaiue ?icoyaoaaiiyi e?eueoeaaeo c?ace?a c aioo??oi?i ae?aiao?ii
a?ae 10 aei 100 ii c iaoae?a, a oaeiae oa?oaaoeo ? aieieienoeo
iaoaeieiiiiceo?a i?e oaiia?aoo?? aei 2000 E, yeo noaiaea?oeciaaii
(AeNOO 2528);

aeine?aeaeaiiy aei?noeino? aei?iaoaaeueieo iaoei i?ae /an
aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoa??ae?a.

3. Aia?oa anoaiiaeai? ? aeine?aeaeai? oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? i?oeiino?
a?ioth/eo aieieii ?c aeeeoiai nieaao aieueo?aio ia?ie A?IE (ae?aiao?ii
200 iei) oa A?IEI (ae?aiao?ii 275 iei) ? iie?aaeai-?ai?eiaeo nieaa?a
I?-10 (ae?aiao?ii 115 iei) oa I?-47 CAI (ae?aiao?ii 200 iei)
ciiii-aaeooiii? ieaaee a ?ioa?aaeao oaiia?aoo? 290…1900 E. Anoaiiaeaii,
ui oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino?
i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny aeniiiaioe?aeueiiio caeiio, iathoue aeae?eueea
iaeanoae ? iienothoueny, ca aeeeth/aiiyi ciie ae?? aeeiai?/iiai
aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai noa??iiy, iaeiei oa?iiaeoeaaoe?eiei ??aiyiiyi c
oa?iiaeeiai?/ieie oa no?oeoo?ieie ia?aiao?aie, ui aeene?aoii
ci?iththoueny ? a?aeiia?aeathoue ca i?oei?noue o a?aeiia?aeieo
?ioa?aaeao oaiia?aoo?.

4. Anoaiiaeai? ? aeine?aeaeai? oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? (290…1700 E)
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae i?e ?icoyaoaaii? 9-oe ? 13-oe oa?iaeo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a nenoaie Ti Nb c ??aiei ia’?iiei ai?noii
eiiiiiaio?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?eueo i?oeiei ? iaoa??ae c a?eueoith
e?euee?noth oa??a, a na?aae iaoa??ae?a c iaeiaeiaith e?euee?noth oa??a
iaoa??ae c a?eueoei nooiaiai iaoeneo. I?e/iio oey ia?aaaaa
niinoa??aa?oueny a oaiia?aoo?iiio ae?aiacii? aei 900 E, a c iiaeaeueoei
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e i?oei?noue iaoa??ae?a i?eaeecii ??aia.
Iaea?eueo ieanoe/iei a aei?iaoaaiiio ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? ?
aeaa’yoeoa?iaee iaoa??ae. Ieanoe/i?noue 13-oe oa?iaiai iaoa??aeo iaeaea
iaeiaeiaa ? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaith iaoeneo. Aeeeth/aiiy neeaaea?
a?aeiinia caoaeaiiy, yea ca?eueoo?oueny c? ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaith
iaoeneo. Cia/aiiy aaee/ei a?aieoe? i?oeiino? aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c
??aiyiiyi aaeeoeaiino? (“i?aaeei noi?oae”) ca aeeeth/aiiyi iaeano? ae??
aeeiai?/iiai aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai noa??iiy.

5. Aea/aii i?oei?noue aaaaoioa?iaeo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a nenoaie
TiNb ia cnoa i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey
aeine?aeaeaiue ia cnoa iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe neiao?e/i? c?acee, ye?
eiino?oththoueny ia noaae?? aeaioiaeaiiy oa?iaiai iaoa??aeo ? onoaathoue
caei a i?ioean? aeaoi?ioaaiiy. C ?acoeueoao?a aeaeii, ui iaea?eueoo
i?aeoa?iao i?oei?noue ? a?aieoeth i?oeiino? iathoue iaoa??aee a?aeiaeai?
i?e 1770 E i?ioyaii 5 aiaeei.

6. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?eii? i?oeiino? ? ieanoe/iino?
i?eaeaaeo n?oie ?icoyaoaaiiyi anoaiiaeaii, ui:

iaeneiaeueia ieanoe/i?noue iaoa??ae?a n?oie aeyaeaia a iai?yieao 30…45
a?aaeon?a ii a?aeiioaiith aei ooea, i?i?iaeueia ieanoe/i?noue acaeiaae
iniiae;

iaeneioi i?oeiino? ?icaeyiooeo iaoa??ae?a niinoa??aa?oueny acaeiaae
ooea, i?i?ioi a iaaeao 60…75 a?aaeon?a ii a?aeiioaiith aei ieoee ooea;

a iaoa??aeao, ye? oa?iiia?iaeai? o aiaei?, i?ae /an aeaoi?ioaaiiy i?e
iai?oc? > 0,7 a a oa?? ii?ioeo iaieeaiiai ia n?oeo niinoa??aaeeny
o??ueie. A iaoa??aeao, ye? oa?iiia?iaeai? o aaeooi?, o??uei a i?ioean?
aeaoi?ioaaiiy ia niinoa??aaeiny;

ai?cio?ii?y oa?aeoa?enoee i?oeiino? iaea?eueo aeecueea
oaiiiaiieia?/iiio e?eoa??th i?oeiino? Aoeaiac? o oi?i? iie?iiio
/aoaa?oiai noaiaiy, ui iieno? a?aie/io e?eao ci?ie a?aieoe? i?oeiino? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae eooa ae??cee n?oee aeey ? ieoaioa a eii?aeeiaoao o o;

iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeanoeainoae ieanoe/iino? ? i?oeiino?
iathoue iaoa??aee, ui a?aeiaeai? o aaeooi?.

7. Aeeiiaii aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aeenia?nieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a nenoaie i?eaeue neioaoe/i? aeiace aeey
a?aei?aoethaaiiy oaoiieia?? ?oiueiai iaea?aeaiiy.

I?oei?noue inaaeaeoaaiiai i?ae /an aeaeo?io?i?/iiai i?ioeano i?eaeth c
aaaaeaiiyi ca?ai aeiac?a, ui ia c/aieththoueny, cieaeo?oueny. C?
ca?eueoaiiyi ?ici??o ca?ia a?ae 1 aei 800 iei i?oei?noue eiiiiceoe??
ciaioo?oueny a?ae 750 aei 50 I/ii2. Aeiaeaaaiiy 15 ia’?iieo %
ae??aiiaeenia?nii? oace aei eiiiiceoii? nenoaie i?eaeaaa iao?eoey
neioaoe/i? aeiace ?ici??ii 315…400 iei ia aeanoeaino? i?oeiino?
i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa?.

Iieacaii, ui iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiei, c oi/ee ci?o i?oeiino?, ? ?aaeei
inaaeaeoaaiiy i?eaeth c? u?euei?noth no?oio 2 A/aei2, a a?eueo
aoaeoeaiith iaoiaeeea aaaaeaiiy ca?ai c aeoeaiei ia?ai?ooaaiiyi
aeaeo?ie?oo.

8. Iaoiaeeee oa ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ai?iaaaeaeai? a A?AI? (i. Iineaa), ia Aeenoinueeiio
iaoaeo?a?eiiio caaiae?, IAI “Eiiiiceo” (OeIAe?IC i?aei?e?inoai i/y
A-1147 i. Eae?i?ia?aae Iineianueei? iae.) oa a ?inoeooo? iaaeoaa?aeeo
iaoa??ae?a IAI Oe?a?ie c /anoeiaei noia?iei iaeii?aciaei aeiiii?/iei
aoaeoii aeena?oaioa o ?ici??? 577 oen. e?a. a oe?iao aei 1988 ?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a ianooiieo ?iaioao:

1.E?auaiei A.I., ?oaeieoeeee I.I. Enneaaeiaaiea eiino?oeoeeiiiie
i?i/iinoe e ieanoe/iinoe ieeaeaauo naoie // I?iae. i?i/iinoe. 1983. ?
1. N. 77 80.2.E?auaiei A.I., Noaoeaiei A.A., ?oaeieoeeee I.I.
Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey aeanoeinoe eniuoaoaeueiuo iaoei ia iieo/aaiua
oaiia?aoo?iua caaeneiinoe oa?aeoa?enoee i?i/iinoe e ieanoe/iinoe //
I?iae. i?i/iinoe. 1984. ? 9. N. 81 85.3.E?auaiei A.I., Eanoiaaoe
TH.I., ?oaeieoeeee I.I. Neeiecia?eoaeueiia ono?ienoai aeey
aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo eniuoaoaeueiuo onoaiiaie // I?iae. i?i/iinoe. 1987.
? 2. N. 110 111.4.E?auaiei A.I., Eanoiaaoe TH.I., ?oaeieoeeee I.I.
Onoaiiaea aeey eco/aiey iaoaie/aneeo naienoa iaoa?eaeia a oe?ieii
aeeaiaciia oaiia?aoo? e nei?inoae aeaoi?ie?iaaiey // I?iae. i?i/iinoe.
1987. ? 2. N. 112 114.5.E?auaiei A.I., ?oaeieoeeee I.I. Onoaiiaea
aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iaoaie/aneeo oa?aeoa-?enoee ooaiieaaeeo iaoa?eaeia //
I?iae. i?i/iinoe. 1990. ? 10. N. 110 112.6.E?auaiei A.I., I?oaeieeia
A.E., ?oaeieoeeee I.I. Aeeyiea aeenia?niinoe neioaoe/aneeo aeiacia ia
iaoaie/aneea naienoaa eiiiiceoeeiiiiai iaoa?eaea n ieeaeaaie iao?eoeae
// I?iae. i?i/iinoe. 1991. ? 4. N. 87 89.7.E?auaiei A.I.,
?oaeieoeeee I.I. I?eaiu e eniuoaoaeueiua n?aaenoaa aeey eco/aiey
iaoaie/aneeo naienoa eiiiiceoia a aeeaiaciia oaiia?aoo? io 290 aei 3300
E // Caaiae. eaa. 1993. ? 6. N. 47 50.8.AeNOO 2528-94. ?ic?aooiee oa
aei?iaoaaiiy ia i?oei?noue. Iaoiae aei?iaoaaiiy ?icoyaoaaiiyi
e?eueoeaaeo c?ace?a a oiiaao iaa??aaiiy / A.I. Ai?enaiei, TH.I.
Eanoi-aaoeue, I.I. ?oaeieoeueeee. *eiiee c 01.07.95. Ee?a: Oe?IAe?NN?,
1994. 10 n.9.A. n. 1089475 NNN?, IEE G 01 N 3/30. Niinia aeeiaie/aneiai
aeaoi?ie?iaaiey ia?acoea i?e ?anoyaeaiee eee e?o/aiee / A.I. E?auaiei,
A.A. Ai?enaiei, I.I. ?oaeieoe-eee (NNN?). ? 3541350/25-28; Cayaeaii
13.01.83; Iioae. 30.04.84, Athe. ? 16. 2 n.10.A. n. 1268977 NNN?, IEE G
01 L 1/22, 5/16. Ono?ienoai aeey ecia?aiey neeu e iiiaioia, i?eeiaeaiiuo
e eniuooaiiio ia?acoeo / A.I. E?auaiei, TH.I. Eanoiaaoe, I.I.
?oaeieoeeee (NNN?). ? 3865601/24-10; Cayaeaii 11.03.85; Iioae.
07.11.86, Athe. ? 41. 3 n. ee.11.A. n. 1522073 NNN?, IEE G 01 N
3/18. Onoaiiaea aeey eniuoaiey iaoa?eaeia ia ?an-oyaeaiea i?e iaa?aaa /
A.I. E?auaiei, I.I. ?oaeieoeeee (NNN?). ? 4054240/25-28; Cayaeaii
14.04.86; Iioae. 15.11.89, Athe. ? 42. 3 n. ee.12.A. n. 1749763 NNN?,
IEE G 01 N 3/18. Onoaiiaea aeey eniuoaiey ia ?anoyaeaiea eieaoe i?e
iaa?aaa / A.I. E?auaiei, I.I. ?oaeieoeeee (NNN?). ? 4843204/28;
Cayaeaii 28.06.90; Iioae. 23.07.92, Athe. ? 27. 5 n. ee.13.Ai?enaiei
A.A., E?auaiei A.I., Neeaaa A.O., Aeaieeiaa I.I., ?oaeieoeeee I.I.
Iaoaie/aneea naienoaa eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa naoie ec
ieeaey // Oac. aeiee. V Ananithciie eiioa?aioeee ii eiiiiceoeeiiiui
iaoa?eaeai (auione I) (13-15 ieoya?y 1981 a., Iineaa). I.: IAO. 1981.
N. 180181.14.Ai?enaiei A.A., Eanoiaaoe TH.I., ?oaeieoeeee I.I.
I?i/iinoue iaoaeee/aneeo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia e eo eiiiiiaioia i?e
aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao // Oac. aeiee. eiio. “Eiino?oe?iaaiea e
i?iecaiaenoai ecaeaeee ec iieeia?iuo e iaoaeee/aneeo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo
iaoa?eaeia” (18-20 iay 1993 a., a. Aaiaoi?ey). Eeaa: Iauanoai «Ciaiea».
1993. N. 64 65.15.Ai?enaiei A.A., Eanoiaaoe TH.I., ?oaeieoeeee I.I.
Iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey i?i/iino-iuo naienoa iaoaeee/aneeo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo
iaoa?eaeia e eo eiiiiiaioia i?e aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao // Oac. aeiee.
Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Eiiiiceiiiua iaoa?eaeu. Oaoiieiaey e i?iecaiaenoai”
(11-13 ieoya?y 1994 a., i. Ian/aiia, E?ui). Eeaa: Iauanoai «Ciaiea»
Oe?aeiu. 1994. N. 59.16.Ai?enaiei A.A., A?a/aaa E.E., Ieoeei A.I.,
Aiaiiieia A.A., Aooaiianeee A.A., ?oaeieoeeee I.I. Iaoiaeeee e
yenia?eiaioaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea aeey enneaaeiaaiey oeceei-iaoaie/aneeo
naienoa eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia a aeeaiaciia oaiia?aoo? 290…3300 E //
Na. aiiio. aeiee. I Iaaeaeoia?. neii. “Ia?aaeiaua oa?ie/aneea oaoiieiaee
e iaoa?eaeu” (22-26 naioya?y 1997 a., i. Eaoeeaaee, E?ui). I.: IAOO
ei. I.Y. Aaoiaia. 1997. N. 157.

AIIOAOe??

?oaeieoeueeee I.I. Iaoiaee aei?iaoaaiue ? i?oei?noue iaoae?/ieo
eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.09 aeeiai?ea oa i?oei?noue iaoei. ?inoeooo
i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Caoeua?oueny 11 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, 4 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa oa Aea?aeaaiee
noaiaea?o Oe?a?ie. ?ic?iaeaii aei?iaoaaeueia iaeaaeiaiiy aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoae?/ieo eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a (IEI) oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a, a oiio /ene? e?eueoeaaeo
eiino?oeoeaieo aeaiaio?a, ia iniia? ooaiieaaeeo iaoa??ae?a a oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo? oa oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?ioaaiiy. Noai?ai? iaoiaeeee
aeey aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?icoyaoaaiiyi i?oeiino?
a?ioth/eo aieieii ca onoaiiaeaieo ? aenieeo oaeaeeinoae aeaoi?ioaaiiy,
i?aeoa?iaiai cnoao aeey aaaaoioa?iaeo IEI, e?eueoeaaeo c?ace?a, a oaeiae
aei?noeino? aei?iaoaaeueieo iaoei. Anoaiiaeaii ? ocaaaeueiaii iia?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? aeine?aeaeaiue aeanoeainoae i?oeiino? aieieii,
aaaaoioa?iaeo IEI, i?eaeaaeo n?oie oa eiiiiceo?a c i?eaeaaith
iao?eoeath. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? ai?iaaaeaeai? o ae?iaieoeoai.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aei?iaoaaeueia iaeaaeiaiiy, iaoiaeeee, oaiia?aoo?a,
i?oei?noue, aeaoi?iaoeai?noue, a?ioth/? aieieia, iaoae?/i? eiiiiceoe?ei?
iaoa??aee, e?eueoey, aei?noe?noue, i?aeoa?iaee cnoa

?oaeieoeeee I.I. Iaoiaeu eniuoaiee e i?i/iinoue iaoaeee/aneeo
eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia i?e aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.09 aeeiaieea e i?i/iinoue iaoei. Einoeooo
i?iaeai i?i/iinoe IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Caueuaaony 11 iao/iuo ?aaio, 4 aaoi?neeo naeaeaoaeuenoaa e
Ainoaea?noaaiiue noaiaea?o Oe?aeiu, a eioi?uo niaea?aeaony iniiaiua
?acoeueoaou ?aaiou.

Oeaeue ?aaiou onoaiiaeaiea e eco/aiea caeiiiia?iinoae eciaiaiey naienoa
noaoe/aneie i?i/iinoe iaoaeee/aneeo a?ie?othueo yeaiaioia, iaoa?eaeia
iao?eoe, iaoaeee/aneeo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia (IEI) e eiino?oeoeaiuo
yeaiaioia ec ieo a oneiaeyo aunieeo oaiia?aoo?.

Aeenca?oaoeey ninoieo ec anooieaiey, /aou?ao ?acaeaeia, auaiaeia, nienea
eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u e i?eeiaeaiey. Ia?aue ?acaeae iinayuai
?anniio?aieth iaaaaeaiiuo a eeoa?aoo?a aeaiiuo ia enneaaeiaaieyo
iaoaie/aneeo naienoa e iaueo caeiiiia?iinoae aeaoi?ie?iaaiey
iaoaeeieiiiiceoia. Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea iienaiu nicaeaiiua onoaiiaee e
ono?ienoaa. O?aoee ?acaeae niaea?aeeo iienaiea iaoiaeee enneaaeiaaiee
iaoaie/aneeo naienoa eiiiiceoia e eo eiiiiiaioia ?anoyaeaieai. A
/aoaa?oii ?acaeaea ?anniio?aiu yenia?eiaioaeueii ii?aaeaeaiu
caeiiiia?iinoe aeeyiey oaiia?aoo?u ia iaoaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee (IEI)
e eo eiiiiiaioia.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou.

Nicaeaiu i?eaeiaeueiua eniuoaoaeueiua n?aaenoaa e ?yae i?eniiniaeaiee
aeey eco/aiey iaoaie/aneeo naienoa iaoaeee/aneeo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo
iaoa?eaeia e eo eiiiiiaioia (eaio, aieieii, naoie, iao?eoe), a oii /enea
eieueoeaauo eiino?oeoeaiuo yeaiaioia, ia iniiaa ooaiieaaeeo iaoa?eaeia a
oe?ieii aeeaiaciia oaiia?aoo? e nei?inoae aeaoi?ie?iaaiey. Iiaecia e
iieaciinoue auiieiaiiuo ?ac?aaioie iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu o?aiy aaoi?neeie
naeaeaoaeuenoaaie ia ecia?aoaiey.

?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeeee aeey enneaaeiaaiee ?anoyaeaieai oa?aeoa?enoee
i?i/iinoe a?ie?othueo aieieii i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 290…2500 E e nei?inoyo
aeaoi?ie?iaaiey 10-5…1 n-1 e i?i/iinoe eieueoeaauo ia?acoeia a
aeeaiaciia 290…2100 E, a oaeaea iaaeneiaaiai naeaeaa neienouo
eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia a eioa?aaea oaiia?aoo? 290…1900 E. Iiaecia e
iieaciinoue iaoiaeee iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu aaoi?neei naeaeaoaeuenoaii e
?ac?aaioaiiui ainoaea?noaaiiui noaiaea?oii Oe?aeiu.

Aia?aua onoaiiaeaiu e enneaaeiaaiu oaiia?aoo?iua caaeneiinoe i?i/iinoe
a?ie?othueo aieieii ec nieaaa aieueo?aia ia?ie A?IE e A?IEI (aeeaiao?ii
200 e 275 ii) e iieeaaeai-?aieaauo nieaaia ia?ie I?-10 e I?-47
CAI (aeeaiao?ii 115 e 200 ii) a eioa?aaeao oaiia?aoo? 290…1900 E.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oaiia?aoo?iua caaeneiinoe oa?aeoa?enoee i?i/iinoe
iiae/eiythony yeniiiaioeeaeueiiio caeiio, eiatho ianeieueei o/anoeia e
iienuaathony, ca eneeth/aieai ciiu aeaenoaey aeeiaie/aneiai
aeaoi?iaoeeiiiiai noa?aiey, iaeiei e oai aea oa?iiaeoeaaoeeiiiui
o?aaiaieai n oa?iiaeeiaie/aneeie e no?oeoo?iuie ia?aiao?aie, /oi
eciaiythony aeene?aoii e ioaa/atho ca i?i/iinoue a niioaaonoaothueo
eioa?aaeao oaiia?aoo?.

Onoaiiaeaiu e enneaaeiaaiu oaiia?aoo?iua caaeneiinoe (290…1700 E)
iaoaie/aneeo naienoa 9-oe e 13-oe neieiuo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia
nenoaiu Ti Nb n ?aaiui iauaiiui niaea?aeaieai eiiiiiaioia. Onoaiiaeaii,
/oi aieaa i?i/iui yaeyaony iaoa?eae n aieueoei eiee/anoaii neiaa, a
n?aaee iaoa?eaeia n iaeeiaeiaui eiee/anoaii neiaa iaoa?eae n aieueoae
noaiaiueth iaaeaoey. Cia/aiey i?aaeaea i?i/iinoe oi?ioi niaeanothony n
o?aaiaieai aaeaeeoeaiinoe (“i?aaeei nianae”) ca eneeth/aieai iaeanoe
aeaenoaey aeeiaie/aneiai aeaoi?iaoeeiiiiai noa?aiey.

A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaeiaaiey eiino?oeoeeiiiie i?i/iinoe e ieanoe/iinoe
oeeueo?othueo iaoa?eaeia ia iniiaa ieeaeaauo naoie ?anoyaeaieai
onoaiiaeaii, /oi: aiecio?iiey oa?aeoa?enoee i?i/iinoe iaeaieaa aeecea
oaiiiaiieiae/aneiio e?eoa?eth i?i/iinoe Aoeaiace; iioeiaeueiia
niioiioaiea naienoa ieanoe/iinoe e i?i/iinoe eiatho iaoa?eaeu,
ioiaeaeaiiua a aaeooia.

Auiieiaii enneaaeiaaiea iaoaie/aneeo naienoa aeenia?niuo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo
iaoa?eaeia nenoaiu ieeaeue neioaoe/aneea aeiacu aeey io?aaioee
oaoiieiaee eo iieo/aiey. N oaaee/aieai ?acia?a ca?ia io 1 aei 800 iei
i?i/iinoue eiiiiceoeee oiaiueoaaony io 750 aei 50 I/ii2. Aeiaaaea 15 ia.
% iaeeiaeenia?niie oacu a eiiiiceoioth nenoaio ieeaeaaay iao?eoea
neioaoe/aneea aeiacu ?acia?ii 315…400 iei ia i?i/iinoiua naienoaa
iineaaeiae i?aeoe/anee ia aeeyao.

Aia?aua eco/aia i?i/iinoue iiiaineieiuo eiiiiceoeeiiiuo iaoa?eaeia
nenoaiu Ti Nb ia naeaea i?e aunieeo oaiia?aoo?ao. Onoaiiaeaii, ui aeey
enneaaeiaaiee ia naeaea iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue neiiao?e/aneea
ia?acoeu, eioi?ua eiino?oe?othony ia noaaeee ecaioiaeaiey neienoiai
iaoa?eaea e ono?aiytho ecaea a i?ioeanna aeaoi?ie?iaaiey.

Iaoiaeeee e ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee aiaae?aiu a
AEAIa, ia Auenoineii iaoaeeo?ae/aneii caaiaea, a III “Eiiiiceo” e
Einoeoooa naa?ooaa?aeuo iaoa?eaeia n noiia?iui iaeii?aciaui aeieaaui
yeiiiie/aneei yooaeoii aeenna?oaioa a ?acia?a 577 oun. ?oa. a oeaiao aei
1988 a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eniuoaoaeueiia iai?oaeiaaiea, iaoiaeeee, oaiia?aoo?a,
i?i/iinoue, aeaoi?iaoeaiinoue, a?ie?othuea aieieia, iaoaeee/aneea
eiiiiceoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu, eieueoea, aeanoeinoue, iaaeneiaaie naeaea.

Rudnitsky N. P. Test methods and strength of metallic composite
materials at high temperatures. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree in speciality 05.02.09 – dynamics and
strength of machines — Institute for Problems of Strength of the
National academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

11 scientific publications, 4 author’s certificates and the State
standard of Ukraine are defended. The testing equipment has been
developed for investigating the mechanical properties of metallic
composite materials (MCM) and their components, including ring-shaped
structural elements on the basis of refractory materials, in a wide
range of temperatures and strain rates. The procedures have been
developed for high-temperature strength tests of reinforcing fibers in
tension at predetermined and high strain rates, for the investigations
of interlayer shift for laminated MCMs, circular specimens, and testing
machine rigidity. New experimental data have been obtained and
generalized on the investigation of the strength properties of fibers,
laminated MCMs, nickel screens and nickel matrix composites. The main
results of the work have been introduced into production.

Key words: testing equipment, procedures, temperature, strength,
stress-strain behaviour, reinforcing fibers, metallic composite
materials, rings, rigidity, interlayer shift.

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