Oa?e?anueeee Aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Aae?a Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 389.14:53.088.7

Iaoiaee oa caniae eiio?ieth iioeaie

aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a aaoiiaoeciaaieo

nenoai EIIO?IETH OA EA?OAAIIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.11.15 — iao?ieia?y oa iao?ieia?/ia caaacia/aiiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Eiiae?aoia Na?a?e ?aaiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee

oi?aa?neoao, aeioeaio eaoaae?e

aei??thaaeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eii? oaoi?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eeaeiai Ieaenaiae? Naio?eiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee

?inoeooo iao?ieia??, ia/aeueiee eaai?aoi???

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

*a?aiauoe A?eai??e Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Aea?aeaaiee aa?ieini?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. I.A.AEoeianueeiai «OA?», aeioeaio eaoaae?e iao?ieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Oe?a?ie «EI?», I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aaoiiaoecaoe??
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 2 aa?aciy 2000?. i 1430 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae64.050.09 o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iie?oao-i?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 61002, Oe?a?ia, i. Oa?e?a,
aoe. O?oica, 21.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 29.01.2000?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ai?eoiia A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aaeeea neeaaei?noue no/anieo oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a, aenie? oaeaeeino? i?io?eaiiy i?ioean?a, iaiao?aei?noue
eiio?ieth aaaaoueio ia?aiao??a oa ae?iaee iiiaeeie ea?oth/eo ae?e
i?eaiaeeoue aei ia’?aeiaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano (OI) oa
aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie eiio?ieth oa ea?oaaiiy (ANEE), noai?thth/e
?aeeiee aaoiiaoeciaaiee oaoiieia?/iee eiiieaen. Oa?aeoa?enoeee oeueiai
eiiieaeno aecia/athoue ye?noue e?ioeaaiai i?iaeoeoo.

I?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? ANEE o i?ioean? aeioneo ae?ia?a caaeaiiai ??aiy yeino?
i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy aeiia aei oe??? nenoaie. A?aoiaoth/e oea,
caaea/a i?aeo?eiee iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee ANEE ia caaeaiiio ??ai? ?
aeooaeueiith. Iaeiae ??oaiiy oe??? caaea/? iaooiaoo?oueny ia aaeee?
o?oaeiiu?. Oea iaoiiaeaii aeiaaioa?i?iiaei oa aacia?a?aiei oa?aeoa?ii
aenieoaoaoe?? no/anieo ANEE, cia/ieie aeiiii?/ieie aeo?aoaie i?ae /an
coieiee ae?iaieoeoaa, aacia?a?aiei ca’yceii ANEE oa OI, i?inoi?iaith
?iciiae?euei?noth ANEE ? aieeaii ciai?oi?o oiia.

Iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith aoaeoeaii? ?iaioe ANEE ? i?aeo?eiea
noaa?eueiino? iao?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee (IO) aei??thaaeueii?
i?aenenoaie ANEE. I/aaeaeii, ui i?e ii?ooaii? oe??? aeiiae ANEE iiaea
i?eaanoe OI aei iaia?aaeaa/aieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oea aecia/a?
iaiao?aei?noue aaaaeaiiy aei neeaaeo ANEE, ye? iathoue aeiaaioa?i?iia?,
aacia?a?ai? oeeeee ?iaioe, i?aenenoai naiieiio?ieth, ye? a iiaee
caaacia/eoe caaeai? IO ANEE.

Aeiiae aei noaa?eueiino? IO ?inoooue iano?eueee no??iei, ui aeey
caaacia/aiiy oeeo aeiia iaiao?aeia ?ic?iaea, ye iiaeo iao?ieia?/ieo
eiioeaioe?e, oae ? iiai? aia?aoo?e, ui aeicaieeoue ?aae?coaaoe eiio?ieue
oa a?aeiiaeaiiy IO aei??thaaeueii? i?aenenoaie ANEE o ??cieo ae?iaie/eo
oiiaao. Caaea/? iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy (IC) ANEE iino?eii
i?eaa?oathoue oaaao a/aieo Oe?a?ie, ?in?? oa ?ioeo e?a?i.

I?e i?iaeooaaii? ?, iniaeeai, i?e aenieoaoaoe?? aaoiiaoeciaaieo nenoai
aeieeathoue iia? «nenoaii?» i?iaeaie iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy, ye?
iiee ui aeaeae? a?ae naiai ??oaiiy. Caniae aaoaeiaaiiai eiio?ieth IO
aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a (AE), ia oeae /an, ni?eeiathoueny ye uinue ia
iniiaia, a?ae??aaia a?ae naii? ANEE. Caaea/? IC AE ?icaeeaeythoueny ye
ae?oai?yaei?. Oea iiynith? a?aenooi?noue iaoiae?a eiio?ieth IO AE ia
ae?th/eo ia’?eoao, o ?aaeueieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??, ui o naith /a?ao
aecia/a? neaaeee ?icaeoie a?aeiia?aeieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a.

Caaea/a ?ic?iaee iiaiai nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ieoaiue IC AE ANEE,
?ic?iaee a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiae?a eiio?ieth oa a?aeiiaeaiiy IO AE ia
ia’?eo?, aac aeaiiioaaeo AE, ae??oaiiy ieoaiue iao?ieia?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy oaeiai eiio?ieth ? noai?aiiy oaoi?/ieo cania?a eiio?ieth ?
neeaaeiith ? aeooaeueiith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith caaea/ath.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie ?iaioa aeeiiaia o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiai — aeine?aeieo ?ia?o OAeIO ia eaoaae??
aei??thaaeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eia oaoi?ea o iaaeao aeeiiaiiy ?ia?o ii
aea?aeathaeaeaoiei oaiai I6101 «Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeo a?aeiiaeaiiy
oi/iinieo oa?aeoa?enoee aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a ANE OI ? ?ic?iaea
i?e?ii?ioeani?iiai aeieo eiio?ieth oi/iinieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a ANE OI ia aac? cania?a I?e?iAeAO» ? I6103
«?ic?iaea aeaaa/?a ? iiaeoeueieo aeie?a eiii’thoa?ieo cania?a eiio?ieth
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a c aaoaeiaaieie nenoaiaie ae?aaiinooaaiiy ?
a?aeiiaeaiiy oi/iinieo oa?aeoa?enoee» ca iai?yieii aeine?aeaeaiue
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie «Ia?niaeoeai? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??,
i?eeaaee eiiieaenii? aaoiiaoecaoe??, nenoaie ca’yceo» oa ?i?oe?aoeaii?
oaiaoeee OAeIO o 1988-1996 ?ieao, a oaeiae o ainiaeiaia??ieo ?iaioao
??61353, 61564, 61756, 61979 aeeiiaieo noi?nii c IAI NAO (i. Oa?e?a).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea
iaoiae?a oa cania?a eiio?ieth iioeaie aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a
aei??thaaeueieo i?aenenoai 1-ai (ieaeiueiai) ??aiy ???a?o?/ieo ANEE.
Eiio?ieue ia?aiao??a AE iiaeiai i?iaiaeeoenue ia ia’?eoao aac
aeaiiioaaeo AE, o ?aaeueieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ?yae neeaaeieo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo caaea/ o iaeano? oai??? oa i?aeoeee iao?ieia?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy aaoiiaoe/ieo nenoai i?ae /an ?o aenieoaoaoe??:

ia iniia? aiae?oe/iiai iaeyaeo no/anieo ANEE OI aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? ?o
iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy;

i?iaanoe aiae?c iaoiae?a oa cania?a caaacia/aiiy iao?ieia?/ii?
iaae?eiino? ANEE;

?icaeyiooe iaiao?aei?noue aaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueii? i?aenenoaie
naiieiio?ieth ANEE — iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a;

aecia/eoe caaea/? ? ooieoe?? iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a ia?oiai ??aiy
ANEE;

?ic?iaeoe aeai?eoi ooieoe?iioaaiiy iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a ia?oiai
??aiy ANEE;

?ic?iaeoe iiaeaeue AE ANEE ? a?aeiia?aeio iiaeaeue iioeaie AE;

?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee aecia/aiiy iao?ieia?/iei niinoa??aa/ai noaoe/ieo ?
aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a AE i?ae /an ?o aenieoaoaoe?? c iaoith ioe?iee
iioeaie AE;

ioe?ieoe ye?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a ca
aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?iiai ? o?ce/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy;

?ic?iaeoe i?aeoe/i? noaie iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a ye
i?e?ii?ioeani?ii? i?aenenoaie o neeaae? ANEE ??ciia?/iiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui:

io?eiaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie eiioeaioe?y «iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a»
???a?o?/ieo ANEE aeiaaioa?i?iiai? aacia?a?aii? ae??. Iniiaieie
ooieoe?yie iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a, ia ia?oiio ??ai? ANEE, ?
eiio?ieue ? a?aeiiaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo IO aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a
aei??thaaeueii? i?aenenoaie ANEE, a oaeiae i?iaiicoaaiiy ci?i IO, c
o?aooaaiiyi ae?? ??cieo aieeaiaeo oaeoi??a (naciii?noue, ci?ii?noue,
noa??iiy ? o.?.).

ae??oaia caaea/a iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy eiio?ieth IO AE c
aeei?enoaiiyi oanoiaeo neaiae?a;

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee oa caniae, ui aeicaieythoue i?iaiaeeoe eiio?ieue
noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo IO AE aac aeaiiioaaeo AE c ae?th/iai
iaeaaeiaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

aaaaeaiiy aei neeaaeo ANEE iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a caaacia/o? ??
iao?ieia?/io iaae?ei?noue o caaeaiiio /aniaiio ?ioa?aae?;

?ic?iaeaii aia?aoi? caniae ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?e aacia?a?aiiai eiio?ieth
oa a?aeiiaeaiiy IO AE, ui aeicaiey? ai?iaaaeeoe iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
eiioeaioe?? iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a ANEE o ae?iaieoeoa?;

ciaioothoueny aeo?aoe ia aenieoaoaoe?th ANEE ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? i?iaeoeoe?? ui aeaioiaey?oueny oa aeeeth/aiiy iia?aoe?e
aeaiiioaaeo iaeaaeiaiiy c iaoith eiio?ieth.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

aecia/ai? caaea/? iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a ia ia?oiio ??ai? ANEE;

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee oa caniae eiio?ieth AE aac aeaiiioaaeo c ae?th/iai
iaeaaeiaiiy;

?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue aiaeiaiai? /anoeie AE c oi?o?eiaaiei oieiaei
neaiaeii;

?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi eiio?ieth ia?aiao??a AE ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aa??aio?a oanoiaeo aei?iaoaaiue;

?ic?iaeaii aaia?aoi? niaoe?aeueieo neaiae?a;

aecia/ai? aeiiae aei iniiaieo ia?aiao??a nenoaie eiio?ieth;

i?iaaaeaii ?i?oaoe?eia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e eiio?ieth.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia IIOE microCAD «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee:
iaoea, oaoie-ea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea» (Oa?e?a, 1995?,
1996?., 1997?., 1998?) , IOE «Aei??thaaeueia oa ia/enethaaeueia oaoi?ea
a oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeanao oa eiiaa?n?? ae?iaieoeoaa», (Oiaeueieoeueeee,
1995?.), IIOE «Eiio?ieue e oi?aaeaiea a oaoie/aneeo nenoaiao» (A?iieoey,
1995a.) IIOE «Iao?ieiaey a yeaeo?iieea» (Oa?e?a, 1997?.), «Actual
problem of measuring technique», (Ee?a, 1998?.).

Ioae?eaoe?? Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? o 5
noaooyo, 9 oacao aeiiia?aeae ? iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 95 iaeiaioaaiue oa
aeiaeaoe?a, aeeeaaeaieo ia 216 noi??ieao. ?iaioa i?i?ethno?iaaia 63
?enoieaie (29 noi?.) oa 11 oaaeeoeyie (8 noi?.) ? aeiaeaoeaie ia 30
noi??ieao.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? cacia/aia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiue, iieacaii ca’ycie
?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa oa iniiai? caaea/?
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aecia/ai? iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooa eeaneo?eaoe?y aaoiiaoeciaaieo nenoai
eiio?ieth oa ea?oaaiiy ui aeei?enoiaothoueny o i?iieneiaino?, aeyaeaii
oaiaeaioe?th aei oneeaaeiaiiy no/anieo OI, c?inoaiiy «?ioaeaeooaeueiiai»
??aiy ANEE, i?aeaeuaiiy ia’?io aei??thaaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui
ia?iaey?oueny o ANEE, iineeaiiy aeiia aei a??ia?aeiino? aei??thaaeueii?
?ioi?iaoe??.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c noaio IC ANEE aeicaieea aecia/eoe aea? aieiai?
caaea/? IC ANEE. Ia?oa caaea/a — caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy aeai?eoio
eiio?ieth oa ea?oaaiiy OI ca ?aooiie aeinyaiaiiy iaiao?aeii? oi/iino?
aei??thaaiue oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a a?aeiia?aeieie i?aenenoaiaie ANEE.
Oey caaea/a ae??oo?oueny aeey cania?a aei??thaaeueii? oaoi?ee oeyoii ?o
ia??iaee/ii? iia??ee, eae?a?iaee oa a?aaeothaaiiy. Ae?oaa caaea/a
iaaaaaoi neeaaei?oa. Aiia coiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noth caaacia/aiiy
iao?ieia?/ii? iaae?eiino? AE oa aeinoia??iino? aei??thaaeueii?
?ioi?iaoe??, ui iaiao?aeii aeey i?eeiyooy ??oaiue, ye? caaacia/othoue
?aoe?iiaeueia ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanaie aenieoaoaoe?? ANEE.

Eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei ae??oaiiy aeaio iniiaieo aeacaieo caaea/ i?ea?a
aei ?aea? aaaaeaiiy aei neeaaeo ANEE niaoe?aeueii? i?aenenoaie —
«iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a» (IN) — aaaaoi??aiaai? ???a?o?/ii?
i?aenenoaie, ui caaacia/o? aacia?a?aiee eiio?ieue IO i?aenenoai ANEE ?,
a ia?oo /a?ao, aei??thaaeueii? i?aenenoaie, yea aeeth/a? aei??thaaeuei?
eaiaee.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a iio?aao? ae??oaiiy ?yaeo
oai?aoe/ieo oa oaoi?/ieo caaea/, ni?yiiaaieo ia caaacia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiy
eiio?ieth oa?aeoa?enoee aei??thaaeueii? i?aenenoaie ANEE aaciina?aaeiuei
ia ia’?eo?, aac ?? aeaiiioaaeo, a?aeiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee, a oaeiae
ei?ioei- ? aeiaaioa?i?iiaiai i?iaiicoaaiiy ci?i oa?aeoa?enoee c iaoith
a?eueo iaa?oioiaa-iiai aeai?o i?aeiia??i/ieo ?ioa?aae?a. I?e oeueiio
eiio?ieue ia? aeeiioaaoenue oaoi?/ieie caniaaie a?eueo aeniei? oi/iino?,
ii??aiyii c ooaoiith nenoaiith.

A ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny caaea/a IN ia?oiai ??aiy ANEE, ui a?aeiia?aea?
aacia?a?aiiio eiio?ieth oa /anoeiaiio a?aeiiaeaiith IO AE.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi ae??, ui i?iaiaeyoueny ia on?o noaae?yo
aeeooy ANEE, ni?yiiaai? ia caaacia/aiiy ??cieo neeaaeiaeo iaae?eiino?.
Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith caaaeueiiai iiiyooy iaae?eiino? nenoaie ?
iao?ieia?/ia iaae?ei?noue, yea aecia/a? caeaoi?noue nenoaie oa ??
eiiiiiaio?a caa??aaoe iao?ieia?/i? oa?aeoa?en-oeee i?eeaae?a,
aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a o caaeaieo iaaeao i?ae /an ?o aenieoaoaoe??.

Caaacia/aiiy iao?ieia?/ii? iaae?eiino? iia’ycaii ye ?c niaoeeo?/iei
aiae?cii ANEE, oae ? c ?ic?iaeith niaoe?aeueieo iaoiae?a oa oaoi?/ieo
cania?a, aeey ?? caaacia/aiiy i?ae /an ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie.
Iao?ieia?/ia iaae?ei?noue aecia-/a?oueny oa?aeoa?ii ci?ie iioeaie
i?eno?i?a, aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a aai nenoai.

A ?iaio? ?icaeyiooa caaea/a caaacia/aiiy iao?ieia?/ii? iaae?eiino?
aiaeiaiaeo aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a aaiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?? a nenoaio, ui
aeei?enoiaothoue oi?o?eiaaiee neaiae iino?eiiai no?oio. Aeey aiaeiaiaeo
aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a oa?aeoa?i? ieaai? ci?ie iioeaie o /an?,
aeeeeeai? ye aioo??oi?ie i?e/eiaie (iai?eeeaae, noa??iiy aeaiaio?a), oae
? a?ae ci?i ciai?oi?o oiia. Iaeiie/oaaiiy aieeaiaeo oaeoi??a
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iia?eueiiai ae?aeoo IO, i?e/iio iai?yiie oeueiai
ae?aeoo aeaeaei ia caaaeaee ia?aaeaa/oaaiee. Iiiaio /ano, a yeee iioeaea
aeoiaeeoue ca aeiionoei? iaae?, aecia/a? iiiaio ianooio iao?ieia?/ii?
a?aeiiae. Neeaaei?noue caaea/? aeyao iao?ieia?/ii? a?aeiiae iieyaa? a
oiio, ui cao?enoaaoe oi/iee /an ?? iiyae i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai,
aeei?enoiaoth/e eeoa ?nioth/? iaoiaee ia??iaee/ieo iia??ie
aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a. Caaea/a aeyaeaiiy iao?ieia?/ieo a?aeiia nooo?ai
oneeaaeiaia niaoeeo?eith aenieoaoaoe?? aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a ANEE o
i?iieneiaeo oiiaao.

Aeei?enoaiiy a ANEE eiiooaoi??a aeey io?eiaiiy iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe??
a?ae a?aeiia?aeiiai aei??thaaeueiiai eaiaeo ca i?i?iaeueiee /an
iia’ycaii c ia?ao?aeieie i?ioeanaie o eaiaeao oa aeieeiaiiyi aeeiai?/ieo
iioeaie. Oe? ianoaaeie i?eaaee aei iaiao?aeiino? ?ic?iaee aeey ANEE
iiaeaeae aei??thaaiue ye? a?aoiaothoue aeeiai?/i? iioeaee i?ae /an
eiio?ieth IO AE.

Ia ia?oiio ??ai? ???a?o?/ieo ANEE IN ae??oo? caaea/? caaacia/aiiy
iao?ieia?/ii? iaae?eiino? aiaeiaiaeo AE ANEE, ca?aeii aeai?eoio
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, a yeiio aeae?eai? iniiai? aoaie:

i?iaaaeaiiy eiio?ieueii-aei??thaaeueieo iia?aoe?e ii io?eiaiith
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai iao?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee AE ANEE;

ia?iaea eiio?ieueii-aei??thaaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? — aecia/aiiy ioe?iie
iao?ieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee AE;

i?eeiyooy ??oaiue i?i iaiao?aei?noue ei?aaoaaiiy (a?aeiiaeaiiy)
oa?aeoa?enoee AE ca ?acoeueoaoaie ii??aiyiiy io?eiaieo ioe?iie c
ii?iiaaieie cia/aiiyie;

ae?iaea ei?ioei- ? aeiaaioa?i?iiaeo i?iaiic?a ci?ie oa?aeoa?enoee AE c
iaoith aecia/aiiy ianooiiiai iiiaioo i?iaaaeaiiy eiio?ieth ? ioe?iee
iao?ieia?/iiai noaio aei??thaaeueii? i?aenenoaie ANEE.

?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ioe?iee ia?aiao??a AE, io?eiaia i?ae /an eiio?ieth,
caiineoueny aei niaoe?aeueiiai «a?o?ao» iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a ? a
iiaeaeueoiio aeei?enoiao?oueny i?e ?ic?iaoe? ei?ioei- ? aeiaaioa?i?iiaeo
i?iaiic?a ci?ie ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee AE, oae ?
aei??thaaeueii? i?aenenoaie a oe?eiio.

Ia ia?oiio ??ai? ANEE aieiaiith caaea/ath IN ? caaacia/aiiy
aeinoia??iino? ?ioi?iaoe??, ui iaaeoiaeeoue a?ae aei??thaaeueii?
i?aenenoaie. Iniiaieie aeiiaaie aei iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a ia?oiai
??aiy ANEE ?:

Iiaeeea?noue ?aae?caoe?? eiai iniiaieo ooieoe?e i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe??
ANEE aac aeaiiioaaeo iaeaaeiaiiy ui i?aeeyaa? eiio?ieth;

I?i?iaeueia a?aeaie?eaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy ANEE a?ae aeeiiaiiy iniiaieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo caaea/ iia’ycaieo c ea?oaaiiyi OI;

A?eueo aeniea oi/i?noue aei??thaaeueieo cania?a IN ii??aiyii c ?iai/ith
(iniiaiith) nenoaiith. Iiaeeea?noue iao?ieia?/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy IN
ca?aeii aeiia o aaeoc? iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy c?aceiaeo cania?a
aei??thaaiiy.

O aniaeo? iao?ieia?/ieo caaea/ IN, noi?ioeueiaai? eiai iniiai? ooieoe??
ia ia?oiio ??ai? ANEE:

aecia/aiiy iao?ieia?/iiai noaio aei??thaaeueii? i?aenenoaie ia?oiai
??aiy ANEE;

i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy i?i i?eaeaoi?noue aeaiaio?a aei??thaaeueii?
i?aenenoaie aei aeeiiaiiy nai?o ooieoe?e;

i?aae’yaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoeee iao?ieia?/iiai noaio aei??thaaeueii?
i?aenenoaie ? aeeiai?ee ?? ?icaeoeo ianeoaiaoth/iio ia?niiaeo aeey
i?eeiyooy ??oaiue;

eieae?caoe?y iao?ieia?/ieo a?aeiia oa i?e/ei ?o aeieeiaiiy;

io?eiaiiy aeaieo aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy iao?ieia?/iiai noaio aei??thaaeueii?
i?aenenoaie ANEE.

Ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaea/ iio?aao? ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoiae?a eiio?ieth
ia?aiao??a AE oa ioe?iee ?o iioeaie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae eiio?ieth iao?ieia?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee AE ANEE i?ae /an ?o aenieoaoaoe??.

No?oeoo?a oeiiaiai AE ANEE iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia noaiith, iaaaaeaiith
ia ?en.1. Aeo?aeiee neaiae ia?aeiiiai aei??thaaeueiiai ia?aoai?thaa/a
(IAI) iine?aeiaii i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac ii?ioth/ee ia?aoai?thaa/ (II),
e?i?th ca’yceo (EC), eiiooaoi? (EI) ? aiaeiai-oeeo?iaee ia?aoai?thaa/
(AOeI) iinooiath/e aei oeeo?iai? /anoeie nenoaie.

Ia ?en.2 iaaaaeaia aea?aaeaioia noaia AE c cacia/aiiyi aeaea?ae
aeieeiaiiy iioeaie. Aei??thaaia o?ce/ia aaee/eia oa(t) iinooia? ia IAI,
aieea yeiai o?aoiaaii iioeaeith a(t). Ia ao?ae aiaeiaiai? /anoeie AE
(A*AE) iinooia? neaiae o(t). Iioeaea z(t) o?aoiao? ooie aiaeiaiai?
/anoeie AE. I?ae aiaeiaiaith /anoeiith AE, ooo ? aeae?, ?icoi??ii
c’?aeiaiiy ianooaaiiai (ii?ioth/iai) ia?aoai?thaa/a ? e?i?? ca’yceo aei
aoiaeo AOeI. Iioeaea k(t) ia’?aeio? ooie eiiooaoe?eieo aeaiaio?a,
ca?yaeii? ?iiino? (o AOeI ?c caiai’yoiaoaaiiyi), ae?aeoo, iae?i?eiino?
ao?aeieo aiaeiaiaeo eaioetha?a AOeI, a oaeiae iioeaee ui aeieeathoue
i?ae /an aeene?aoecaoe?? ? eaaiooaaiiy aacia?a?aiiai aiaeiaiaiai
neaiaeo.

Ioieoe?iith e?i??th ia ?en.2 i?aaenoaaeaii ?aeaaeueiee aei??thaaeueiee
eaiae, yeee neeaaea?oueny c ?aeaaeueiiai aiaeiaiaiai ia?aoai?thaa/a
(AI?) oa ?aeaaeueiiai aiaeiai-oeeo?iaiai ia?aoai?thaa/a (AOeI?). Iioeaee
aiaeiaiaiai ? aiaeiai-oeeo?iaiai ia?aoai?thaaiiy iiaeooue aooe iiaeai?
ye ??cieoey ia?aoai?thaaiue o ?aeaaeueiiio oa ?aaeueiiio AE ? iathoue
aeaeyae:

Iaaaaeai? iiaeae? iioeaie AE aeicaieeee aecia/eoe aieiai? aeaea?aea
iioeaie ? cai?iiiioaaoe iaoiaee ia?aaea/? ?ici??o o?ce/ieo aaee/ei i?ae
/an eiio?ieth AE. Aeey aecia/aiiy iioeaie AE, iaoiiaeaieo a?aeoeeaiiyi
?aaeueii? ooieoe?? ia?aoai?aiiy a?ae iii?iaeueii? aoei ia?aii iaoiae
oanoiaeo neaiae?a, ca yeei ia ao?ae AE, ?acii c aei??thaaiith aaee/eiith
o iiaea?oueny iaeei aai aeae?eueea oanoiaeo neaiae?a, iia’ycaieo c o
a?aeiiith ooieoe?iiaeueiith caeaaei?noth.

Ia ?en.3 iaaaaeaia aeie noaia eiio?ieth ia?aiao??a A*AE c aeei?enoaiiyi
aaeeoeaiiai oanoiaiai neaiaeo A1=x+Q, aea Q — iaci?iia aaee/eia, yea ia
caeaaeeoue a?ae o ? oi?io?oueny aeieii aaeeoeaieo oano?a (AAO);
ioeueoeieeeaoeaiiai oanoiaiai neaiaeo A2=o(E+1), aea E — iacaeaaeiee
a?ae o eiao?oe??io ia?aoai?aiiy, yeee oi?io?oueny aeieii
ioeueoeieeeaoeaieo oano?a (AIO).

??ci? niieo/aiiy noai?a eeth/?a Ee1 ? Ee2 i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy eiio?ieth
a noaoe/iiio ?aaeei? aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe nenoaio e?i?eieo ??aiyiue,
ca oiiae yeui ooieoe?y ia?aoai?aiiy A*AE iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi y=a1+a2
x:

(1)

?acoeueoaoe aei??thaaiue, io?eiai? i?ae /an eiio?ieth,
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aecia/aiiy cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a ooieoe??
ia?aoai?aiiy a1, a2 ca aeiiiiiaith ianooiieo ??aiyiue:

(2)

Io?eiai? eiao?oe??ioe a1, a2 ia?aaeathoueny aei ANEE aeey aecia/aiiy
cia/aiue ao?aeieo neaiae?a AE ca ?acoeueoaoaie aei??thaaiiy i?ae /an
i?iaaaeaiiy ooaoieo aei??thaaiue:

Caaaeueia e?euee?noue oanoiaeo neaiae?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny i?ae
/an eiio?ieth, caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaeyaeo ai?aeneioth/iai iie?iiio
ooieoe?? ia?aoai?aiiy AE. Oaeei /eiii eiio?ieue c aeei?enoaiiyi oanoiaeo
neaiae?a, aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ?aaeuei? IO A*AE.

Eiio?ieue iioeaie oeeo?iai? /anoeie AE cae?enith?oueny oeyoii
iaeii/aniiai aei??thaaiiy neaiaeo y(t), aeo?aeiiai neaiaeo A*AE, ?iai/ei
AOeI? ? c?aceiaei AOeIC, oaeei /eiii ?aae?ciaaii a?aeiiee iaoiae
c?aceiaiai caniao aei??thaaiiy.

I?e aeeiai?/iiio ?aaeei? i?iaaaeaiiy oanoiaiai eiio?ieth, aeey
aecia/aiiy ?aaeoe?? A*AE ia oanoia? neaiaee aac aeieeaiiy ao?aeiiai
neaiaeo, A*AE iiaeaethaaeanue ?ia?oe?eiei caaiii ia?oiai ??aiy c
ia?aaeaoi/iith ooieoe??th

(3)

aea EI — iii?iaeueiee noaoe/iee eiao?oe??io ia?aoai?aiiy; O- noaea /ano.

Ca iiaeaeue ao?aeiiai neaiaeo ia?aii iiaeaeue e?i?eii ci?iiiai neaiaeo:

x(t)=at+b (4)

aea a — oaeaee?noue ci?ie ao?aeiiai neaiaeo; b — ii/aoeiaa cia/aiiy
ao?aeiiai neaiaeo i?e t=0.

Ao?aeiee neaiae A*AE, i?e eiio?ie? c aeei?enoaiiyi oanoiaeo neaiae?a o
aeeiai?/iiio ?aaeei?, iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaiee ianooiieie ??aiyiiyie,
?en.4:

(5)

Cia?aaeaiiy ao?aeiiai neaiaeo A*AE o iia?aoi?iiio aeaeyae? i?aaenoaaeii:

(6)

Aeo?aeiee neaiae A*AE aecia/eii ye aeiaooie ao?aeiiai neaiaeo ia
ia?aaeaoi/io ooieoe?th, ?en.5:

(7)

Oiae? cia?aaeaiiy aeo?aeiiai neaiaeo A*AE

(8)

I?ea?iae ooieoe?? (8) o /ania?e iaeano? caieoaii o aeaeyae?:

(9)

aea O( SYMBOL 183 \f «Symbol» \s 14 · ) — ooieoe?y Oaa?naeaea, yea
i?eeia? iaeeie/ia cia/aiiy aeey on?o aeiaeaoieo a?aoiaio?a oa
iaa?oa?oueny o ioeue aeey ?ioeo cia/aiue a?aoiaioo.

Na?aaei? cia/aiiy aeo?aeieo neaiae?a ia on?o ?ioa?aaeao eiio?ieth i?e
i?iaaaeaii? aaaaoi?aciaeo aei??thaaiue, ca oiiae, ui on? ?ioa?aaee
eiio?ieth Ok ??ai? iii?ae naaa ? ia eiaeiiio ?ioa?aae? ai?uo?oueny
n=Ok/T1, a?aee?e?a iathoue aeaeyae:

O caieno na?aaei?o cia/aiue, io?eiaieo ia eiaeiiio ?ioa?aae? eiio?ieth,
aeae?eai? o?e neeaaeia?: ae?enia cia/aiiy aei??thaaii? aaee/eie,
aeeiai?/ia neeaaeiaa iioeaee, yea aecia/a?oueny aeeiai?/ieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie A*AE ? oaeaee?noth ci?ie ao?aeiiai neaiaeo i?ae /an
i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e eiio?ieth, ? noaoe/ia neeaaeiaa iioeaee, yea
iaoiiaeaia oi/i?noth AOeI, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny i?ae /an eiio?ieth.

?acoeueoaoe iai?yieo aei??thaaiue a1 ? a2 iiaeaii aecia/eoe ca?aeii (2)
ye

(11)

Ia oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a ooieoe?? ia?aoai?aiiy nooo?ai
aieeaathoue iioeaee, ui aeieeathoue i?e i?iaaaeaii? i?ioeaaeo?e
eiio?ieth. I?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a ooieoe??
ia?aoai?aiiy iiaeeeai ca oiiae aaaaeaiiy iii?aaie ia aeeiai?/io oa
noaoe/io neeaaeia? iioeaee.

Ca oiiae a?aenooiino? neeaaeiai? aeeiai?/ii? iioeaee a?ae ci?ie
ao?aeiiai neaiaeo i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy eiio?ieth, a=0, oa iaeiaeiaino?
noaoe/ieo iioeaie ia on?o ?ioa?aaeao eiio?ieth iiaeaii caienaoe

(12)

Iioeaea aecia/aiiy a2 aecia/a?oueny o?eueee aeeiai?/iith neeaaeiaith
iioeaee aei??thaaiiy ia ae?oaiio ?ioa?aae? eiio?ieth. O oi?ioaaii?
iioeaee aecia/aiiy a1 i?eeia? o/anoue ye noaoe/ia neeaaeiaa, yea aeieea?
ia ia?oiio ?ioa?aae? eiio?ieth, oae ? aeeiai?/ia neeaaeiaa iioeaee
aei??thaaiiy i?ae /an iiaea/? ia ao?ae A*AE ioeueoeieeeaoeaiiai
oanoiaiai neaiaeo.

Iioeaea aecia/aiiy a1 iiaea aooe ciaeaeaia ?c ni?aa?aeiioaiiy:

(13)

Aaniethoia iioeaea aecia/aiiy a1 caeaaeeoue ye a?ae noaoe/ii? oae ? a?ae
aeeiai?/ii? neeaaeiai? iioeaee. Aeeiai?/ia neeaaeiaa aecia/a?oueny, a
iniiaiiio, ??cieoeath aiie?ooae ioeueoeieeeaoeaiiai ? aaeeoeaiiai
oanoiaeo neaiae?a (Kb-Q) oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi /ano ?ioa?aaeo eiio?ieth
aei noaei? /ano A*AE. Aaaaeaiiy iii?aaie ia aeeiai?/io neeaaeiao iioeaee
aeicaiey? ciaioeoe iioeaeo aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa a1. ?ic?aooiie
iii?aaee ia aeeiai?/io neeaaeiao iioeaee iio?aao? ciaiiy noaei? /ano
A*AE.

Iioeaeo aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo a2 iiaeaii i?aaenoaaeoe o aeaeyae?

(14)

Aiae?c oi?ioee (14) iieacaa, ui aeeiai?/ia neeaaeiaa iioeaee aecia/aiiy
a2 aecia/a?oueny noaeith /ano A*AE, oaaii aeene?aoecaoe?? oa aeiaaeeiith
?ioa?aae?a eiio?ieth. Ciaioaiiy a?aeiinii? iioeaee aecia/aiiy a2
aia?aoieie caniaaie iiaea aooe io?eiaii oeyoii ca?eueoaiiy /ano
eiio?ieth Ok. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? o IN i?ia?aiiiai niiniao i?aeaeuaiiy
oi/iino? aecia/aiiy a2, oeyoii aaaaeaiiy iii?aaee oaeiae iaiao?aeia
ciaiiy noaei? /ano A*AE oa eiao?oe??ioa ia?aaea/?. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
oi/iino? iii?aaie i?ioeaaeo?? eiio?ieth noaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee AE
iiaeiia ia?aaeoaaoe i?ioeaaeo?a aecia/aiiy noaei? /ano A*AE.

sseui i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e eiio?ieth ao?aeiee neaiae
ci?ith?oueny, oi aeey aaaaeaiiy iii?aaie ia aeeiai?/io neeaaeiao iioeaee
ae?oaiai ?iaeo, iaiao?aeii aeiaeaoeiai aecia/eoe oaeaee?noue ci?ie
ao?aeiiai neaiaeo i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e eiio?ieth. Aeey
oeueiai iaiao?aeii aaanoe aeiaeaoeiaee ?ioa?aae eiio?ieth, ia yeiio
aoaea aei??thaaoenue cia/aiiy ao?aeiiai neaiaeo i?ney iiaea/? oanoiaeo
neaiae?a.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iaoiae eiio?ieth A*AE oeiiai?, oe?iei
?iciianthaeaeaii? ia i?aeoeoe? no?oeoo?e c noaoe/iei ia?aoai?thaa/ai
iai?oae ao?aeiiai neaiaeo a oi?o?eiaaiee neaiae iino?eiiai no?oio ia
aac? iia?aoe?eiiai i?aeneethaa/a. Iieacaii, ui A*AE, aieiaiei aeaiaioii
yeiai ? ia?aoai?thaa/ iai?oae a oi?o?eiaaiee neaiae iino?eiiai no?oio,
noaia yeiai iaaaaeaia ia ?en.6, iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia iiaeaeeth
?ia?oe?eiiai caaia ia?oiai ??aiy c eiao?oe??ioii ia?aaea/? E1 ? noaeith
/ano O. Aecia/aii, ui aieiaieie aeaiaioaie

A*AE, ye? aieeaathoue ia eiao?oe??io ia?aaea/? A*AE, ? ia?aeaeueia
c’?aeiaiiy iii?o iaaaioaaeaiiy RH oa ao?aeiiai iii?o AOeI RBX ? iii?
cai?ioiiai ca’yceo ROC. Noaea /ano A*AE, aieiaiei /eiii, aecia/a?oueny
noia?iith ?ii?noth e?i?? CE oa ao?aeii? ?iiino? AOeI NAO, a oaeiae
ia?aeaeueiei c’?aeiaiiyi iii?o iaaaioaaeaiiy oa ao?aeiiai iii?o AOeI.
Oaeei /eiii

I?inoi?iaa ?iciiae?eai?noue A*AE coiiaeth? iayai?noue ciai?oi?o
aieeaiaeo oaeoi??a, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei ae?aeoo ia?aiao??a aeaiaio?a
A*AE o /an?. Oea, a naith /a?ao, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie ia?aiao??a
iiaeae? A*AE. Ciaiiy ?aaeueieo ia?aiao??a A*AE aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe
ae??, ni?yiiaai? ia aaeaioaoe?th ANEE aei ci?i, ui aeieeathoue o
aei??thaaeuei?e i?aenenoai? ANEE.

Aeey aecia/aiiy noaei? /ano A*AE i?iaaaeaii oai?aoe/i? ?ic?aooiee
oa?aeoa?o ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a, ui aeieeathoue i?ae /an ae??
aei?iaoaaeueieo neaiae?a ia ia?aoai?thaa/ iai?oae a oi?o?eiaaiee neaiae
iino?eiiai no?oio. ?icaeyiooi iiaeeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy aei?iaoaaeueiiai
neaiaeo — iaeeie/ii? noiaeeiee — oeyoii eiiooaoe?? neaiaeo IAI.
Cai?iiiiiaaii i?iaiaeeoe aecia/aiiy noaei? /ano ca ia?ao?aeiei
i?ioeanii, io?eiaiei aiane?aeie eiiooaoe?? eaioethaa cai?ioiiai ca’yceo
ia?aoai?thaa/a. Oea aeicaiey? oieeiooe iaiao?aeiino? ?ici?uaiiy
eiiooaoi?a ia aoiae? II ? aeei?enoaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo e?i?e ca’yceo aeey
eiai ea?oaaiiy. A aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui oa?aeoa? ia?ao?aeieo
i?ioean?a i?e eiiooaoe?? eaioethaa cai?ioiiai ca’yceo, eiee eiiooaoi?
?icoaoiao?oueny a aaciina?aaei?e aeecueeino? a?ae iii?o iaaaioaaeaiiy,
aecia/a?oueny, aieiaiei /eiii, iii?ii iaaaioaaeaiiy ia?aoai?thaa/a RH,
ao?aeiei iii?ii AOeI RBX, ?ii?noth e?i?? CE oa ao?aeiith ?ii?noth AOeI
NAO. Cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a aeicaiey? aecia/eoe noaeo /ano A*AE.
?i?oaoe?eia eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeei io?eiai? oai?aoe/i?
?ic?aooiee.

Iia?aoe?y ?ic?eao eaioethaa cai?ioiiai ca’yceo noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
iiyaith ia aeoiae? iia?aoe?eiiai i?aeneethaa/a ia?aoai?thaa/a
iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeai? iai?oae, iai?oae iane/aiiy. Oey iniaeea?noue
ia?aoai?thaa/a aoea aeei?enoaia aeey ea?oaaiiy aaia?aoi?ii oanoiaeo
neaiae?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia aaia?aoi?a ia? o nai?io neeaae? aeaoaeoi?
??aiy aeo?aeiiai neaiaeo iia?aoe?eiiai i?aeneethaa/a, yeee aecia/a?
iiyao oaeoo ?ic?eao eaioethaa cai?ioiiai ca’yceo ia?aoai?thaa/a oa
caaacia/o? caione noaie ea?oaaiiy aaia?aoi?a, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aeaea/? oanoiaeo neaiae?a o cacaeaeaa?aeue ia?ai?e oaii?. Oea caaacia/o?
?aeeiee a?aee?e /ano i?e i?iaaaeaii? i?ioeaaeo?e eiio?ieth.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iienaia no?oeoo?ia noaia iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a
ia?oiai ??aiy ANEE, ye i?e?ii?ioeani?ii? i?aenenoaie o neeaae? ANEE
??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy, iaaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c aeai?o aeaiaioii? aace.
Cai?iiiiiaai? aeaa aa??aioe ooieoe?iiaeueii? noaie aaia?aoi?o
niaoe?aeueieo neaiae?a, yeee caaacia/o? iiaea/o ia ao?ae AE oanoiaeo oa
aei?iaoaaeueieo neaiae?a.

I?iaaaeaia eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e eiio?ieth ia?aiao??a
AE aeicaieeei aecia/eoe aeiiae aei aia?aoii? /anoeie IN. Aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a iiaeaethaaiiy aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i aeinoaoi?noue
aeei?enoaiiy o IN 14 ?ic?yaeiiai AOeI c oaaii aeene?aoecaoe?? 10-20 ien
? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe 50 ?aciao i?ioeaaeo?o i?iaaaeaiiy aei??thaaiue i?ae /an
eiio?ieth aeey ciaioaiiy aeiaaeeiai? neeaaeiai? iioeaie ioe?iie IO AE.
Aaaaeaiiy iii?aaie ia aeeiai?/io neeaaeiao iioeaee i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy
ia?iaee eiio?ieueii-aei??thaaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeicaieeei nooo?ai
i?aeaeueoe oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioo ia?aaea/? E1.

Aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy IN aoei i?iaaaeaii eiii’thoa?ia
iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a ci?ie ia?aiao??a ia?aoai?thaa/a iai?oae a
oi?o?eiaaiee neaiae iino?eiiai no?oio ia i?ioyc? iaeiiai ?ieo.
Aeei?enoaiiy IN aeicaieeei aeyaeoe ci?ie ia?aiao??a ia?aoai?thaa/a.
Aecia/aia iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ci?iiiai eiao?oe??ioo ia?aaea/?
E1, yeee i?eeia? o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? iii?aaie. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeey
oeueiai aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiai cia/aiiy io?eiaia i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy
inoaiiueiai eiio?ieth.

Aeniiaee

Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei ae??oaiiy caaea/ IC ???a?o?/ieo ANEE
aeiaaioa?i?iiai? aacia?a?aii? ae?? aecia/ea iaiao?aei?noue
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aei neeaaeo ANEE niaoe?aeueii? i?aenenoaie —
iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a, iniiaiith caaea/ath yeiai ? ae??oaiiy
caaea/ iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy ANEE, caaacia/aiiy iao?ieia?/ii?
iaae?eiino? aei??thaaeueii? i?aenenoaie ANEE.

Aecia/aii, ui caaacia/aiiy iao?ieia?/ii? iaae?eiino? aiaeiaiai? /anoeie
AE ? iaei??th c aieiaieo caaea/ IN. ?? aaaeeea?noue iaoiiaeaia
iayai?noth ae?aeoo oa?aeoa?enoee A*AE o /an? oa aacoiiaiei c?inoaiiyi
iioeaie i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe?? AE. sse iniiai? aecia/ai? oae? ooieoe??
iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a ia ia?oiio ??ai? ANEE: eiio?ieue oa
a?aeiiaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo IO AE, ioe?iea noaio aei??thaaeueii?
nenoaie a oe?eiio, i?iaiicoaaiiy ci?i IO c o?aooaaiiyi aieeaiaeo
oaeoi??a.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiae eiio?ieth noaoe/ieo oa aeeiai?/ieo iao?ieia?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee A*AE o aeeiai?/iiio ?aaeei? aeey eaiae?a c
aeene?aoii-eaaioiaaieie neaiaeaie. Aecia/aii, ui i?ioeaaeo?a eiio?ieth
ia?aiao??a AE a aeeiai?/iiio ?aaeei?, c aeei?enoaiiyi oanoiaeo neaiae?a,
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeieeiaiiyi aeeiai?/ieo iioeaie, coiiaeaieo ci?iith
i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e eiio?ieth ?iai/iai neaiaeo oa
?ia?oe?eieie aeanoeainoyie A*AE. I?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? aecia/aiiy
noaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a AE iiaeeeai oeyoii aaaaeaiiy iii?aaie ia aeeiai?/io
neeaaeiao iioeaee, ui aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe nenoaio eiio?ieth ye i?ae
noaoe/io.

Aaaaeaiiy iii?aaie coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy eiio?ieth
aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee AE ? ?iai/iai neaiaeo ia ae?th/iio AE aac eiai
aeaiiioaaeo c ae?th/iai iaeaaeiaiiy. Aeey aecia/aiiy noaei? /ano AE c
oi?o?eiaaiei neaiaeii iino?eiiai no?oio cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee niin?a
noai?aiiy aei?iaoaaeueiiai neaiaeo oeyoii eiiooaoe?? eaioethaa
cai?ioiiai ca’yceo ia?aoai?thaa/a. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o
ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a o ia?aoai?thaa/? aeiaaee iiaeeea?noue
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? noaei? /ano A*AE.

Ae??oaiiy caaea/? aia?aoiiai caaacia/aiiy iaoiaeo eiio?ieth ia?aiao??a
AE aeicaieeei cai?iiiioaaoe noaio aaia?aoi?a niaoe?aeueieo neaiae?a, ui
ea?o?oueny aac aeei?enoaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo e?i?e ca’yceo oa caaacia/o?
oi?ioaaiiy oanoiaeo oa aei?iaoaaeueieo neaiae?a.

Ia i?eeeaae? AE c ia?aoai?thaa/ai ao?aeiiai neaiaeo iai?oae a
oi?o?eiaaiee neaiae iino?eiiai no?oio aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue
i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoiaeo eiio?ieth ia?aiao??a
A*AE, eiao?oe??ioa ia?aaea/? oa noaei? /ano.

Eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e eiio?ieth noaoe/ieo oa
aeeiai?/ieo ia?aiao??a AE iieacaei aenieo aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy
iii?aaie ia aeeiai?/io iioeaeo i?e aecia/aii? noaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a AE ?
aeicaieeei aecia/eoe aeiiae aei aia?aoii? /anoeie iao?ieia?/iiai
niinoa??aa/a (?ic?yaei?noue oa oaeaeeiae?th AOeI, /enei aei??thaaiue ?
o.?.). Eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy ae?aeoo ia?aiao??a AE ia i?ioyc?
iaeiiai ?ieo iieacaei aenieo aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy IN.

I?iaaaeaia o?ce/ia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e eiio?ieth ia?aiao??a A*AE
i?aeoaa?aeeei ?acoeueoaoe io?eiai? i?ae /an oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooie?a ?
i?e i?iaaaeaii? eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy. Oea aea? i?aenoaao
noaa?aeaeoaaoe i?i aaeaeaaoi?noue oai?aoe/ii? oa o?ce/ii? iiaeae? AE.

Ae??oaiiy caaea/? iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy oanoiaiai eiio?ieth A*AE o
aeeiai?/iiio ?aaeei? aeey eaiae?a c aeene?aoii-eaaioiaaiei
i?aaenoaaeaiiyi neaiae?a aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue iao?ieia?/ii?
iaae?eiino? aei??thaaeueii? i?aenenoaie ANEE oeyoii ia??iaee/iiai
eiio?ieth IO AE ia i?noe? aenieoaoaoe?? aac aeaiiioaaeo AE.

Nienie iniiaieo iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue

Aaeaa A.I. Iniaaiiinoe iao?ieiae/aneiai iaania/aiey aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo
nenoai eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey. //Aanoiee OAIO. — Aui.12. — 1998. — C.
89-91

Aaeaa A.I. Iino?iaiea iiaeaee eciaiaiey iia?aoiinoae ecia?eoaeueiuo
eaiaeia // Aanoiee OAIO. — Aui.42. — 1999. — C. 39-41

Aaeaa A.I. Ioeaiea iia?aoiinoae ii?aaeaeaiey ia?aiao?ia ecia?eoaeueiuo
ono?ienoa a aeeiaie/aneii ?aaeeia eiio?iey // Aanoiee OAIO. — Aui.64.

— 1999. — C. 128-131

Aaeaa A.I. Eiio?ieue aeeiaie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee i?aia?aciaaoaeae
iai?yaeaiea- oie. // Aanoiee OAIO. — Aui.56. — 1999. — C. 75-78

Ne?eiiee TH.A., Oeie/aaa A.E., Eiiae?aoia N.E., Aaeaa A.I. Nenoaia aeey
iiaa?ee oa?iiyeaeo?e/aneeo oa?iiiao?ia a aeeiaie/aneii ?aaeeia //
Aanoiee OIE. — ?14. — 1993. — C. 103-106

Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia no?oeoo?ia noaia nenoaie iia??ee oa?iiiao??a ia aac?
aeaiaio?a I?e?iAeAO

Aeeaeaiei E.E., Eiiae?aoia N.E., Aaeue N.N, Aaeaa A.I., Ne?eiiee TH.A,
I?iaoneee I.I. Eiioeaioeey ?anniio?aiey iao?ieiae/aneeo caaea/ a
nenoaiao eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie. //
Iaoa?eaeu IIOE «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey,
ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea». *.1. — Oa?ueeia. — 1995. — C.165

Aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae iao?ieia?/iiai caaacia/aiiy
nenoai eiio?ieth oa ea?oaaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a o?eaaei? ae??.

Aeeaeaiei E.E., Eiiae?aoia N.E., Aaeaa A.I., Naeuaaa C.N. Iiaeaeue
aeeiaie/aneeo iia?aoiinoae ecia?eoaeueiuo oeaiae nenoai eiio?iey e
oi?aaeaiey. // Oacenu aeieeaaeia ??? IIOE «Eiio?ieue e oi?aaeaiea a
oaoie/aneeo nenoaiao». — Aeiieoea. — 1995. — C. 172

Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaii a yeino? iiaeae? aiaeiaiai? /anoeie
aei??thaaeueiiai eaiaeo aeei?enoaoe iiaeaeue ?ia?oe?eiiai caaia.

Aeeaeaiei E.E., Eiiae?aoia N.E., Aaeaa A.I. I?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee
aeeiaie/aneiai eiio?iey nenoai // Nai?iee iaoa?eaeia III IOE
«Ecia?eoaeueiay e au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea a oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannao e
eiiaa?nee i?iecaiaenoaa». — Oiaeueieoeeee. — 1995. — C.155

Aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue ?aeay i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e eiio?ieth iao?ieia?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a o aeeiai?/iiio ?aaeei?

Aaeaa A.I., Naeuaaa C.N., A?iaeianeay E.I. Nenoaia aeeiaie/aneiai
eiio?iey iao?ieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee ecia?eoaeueiiai eaiaea //
Iaoa?eaeu IIOE «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey,
ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea». — *.2. — Oa?ueeia. — 1996. — C. 5

Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia no?oeoo?ia noaia nenoaie eiio?ieth oa?aeoa?enoee
aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a

Aaeaa A.I. Iee?ii?ioeanni?iay iiaenenoaia iao?ieiae/aneiai eiio?iey.

// O?oaeu IIOE «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey,
ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea». — *.5. — Oa?ueeia. — 1997. — C. 8-10

Aaeaa A.I. Ooieoeee iao?ieiae/aneiai iaaethaeaoaey ia?aiai o?iaiy
aaoiiaoe/aneeo nenoai eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey //O?oaeu IIOE
«Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea,
caei?iauea». — *.5. — Oa?ueeia. — 1997. — C. 11-13

Aaeaa A.I. Eiio?ieue e ainnoaiiaeaiea oi/iinoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
ecia?eoaeueiuo eaiaeia ANEO // O?oaeu eiioa?aioeee «Iao?ieiaey a
yeaeo?iieea — 97». — O.2, — Oa?ueeia, — 1997. — C. 181-183

Aeeaeaiei E.E., Eiiae?aoia N.E., Aaeaa A.I. Noaoe/aneay iao?ieiae/aneay
e neooaoeeiiiay iiaeaee ecia?eoaeueiiai eaiaea ANEO // Nai?iee iao/iuo
o?oaeia OAIO. — Aui.6. — *.1. — 1998. — C. 379-383

Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi ooieoe?iioaaiiy iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a
ia ia?oiio ??ai? ANEE.

Didenko K.I., Kondrashov S.I., Balev V.N. The conception of metrological
assurance of intellectual control systems // Actual problem of measuring
technique «Measurement-98» Proceeding of the international conference/ —
Kyiv: NTUU «KPI», AUS DAAD, 1998. -P.226-227

Aaoi?ii aecia/ai? iniiai? caaea/? iao?ieia?/iiai niinoa??aa/a ia ia?oiio
??ai? ???a?o?/ieo aaoiiaoeciaaieo nenoai eiio?ieth oa ea?oaaiiy.

Aiioaoe??

Aae?a A.I. Iaoiaee oa caniae eiio?ieth iioeaie aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a
aaoiiaoeciaaieo nenoai eiio?ieth oa ea?oaaiiy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.11.15 — iao?ieia?y oa iao?ieia?/ia caaacia/aiiy.
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a oa cania?a eiio?ieth
ia?aiao??a aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a nenoai eiio?ieth oa ea?oaaiiy aac
aeaiiioaaeo c ae?th/iai iaeaaeiaiiy. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy
ia?aiao??a aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi oanoiaeo neaiae?a ia
?iai/iio neaiae?. Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee ciaioaiiy aeeiai?/ii? neeaaeiai?
iioeaee aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a eaiae?a. Iaaeaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ii ?aae?caoe?? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? i?aenenoaie — iao?ieia?/iiai
niinoa??aa/a — yea a?aeiia?aea? ca eiio?ieue oa a?aeiiaeaiiy
oa?aeoa?enoee aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iao?ieia?/iiai
niinoa??aa/a aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe a??ia?aei?noue ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai
ia’?eoo ea?oaaiiy oa ye?noue i?iaeoeoe?? ui aeaioiaey?oueny. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe io?eiai? a aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeai? ia IAI NAO (i. Oa?e?a)
? a o/aiaiio i?ioean? ia eaoaae?? «Aei??thaaeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eia oaoi?ea»
OAeIO.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iao?ieia?/ia caaacia/aiiy, aei??thaaeueiee eaiae,
iao?ieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, iao?ieia?/iee niinoa??aa/, aeeiai?/ia
iioeaea.

Balev V.N. Methods and means of checking of measuring channels of
automated systems of control and handle. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 05.11.15 — metrology and
metrological assurance. The Kharkov State Polytechnic University,
Kharkov, 1999.

Thesis is devoted to developing of methods and means of control
parameters of measuring channels of automated systems of control and
handle. The method of definition control parameters of measuring
channels on working signals is developed. Methods of decreasing dynamic
errors of detecting channels parameters are proposed. Practical
recommendation for developing special subsystem metrological observer
are given. Its main task are control and repairing characteristics of
measuring channels.

Developing of metrological observer allows increase reliability of
gained information and quality of ejected products. The main results are
implanted at Scientific Production Corporation of Automated Control
System (Kharkov) and at the department of «Measuring and information
technique» of KSPU.

Key words: metrological assurance, measuring channel, metrological
characteristics, metrological observer, dynamic error.

Aaeaa A.I Iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa eiio?iey iia?aoiinoae ecia?eoaeueiuo
eaiaeia aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.11.15 — iao?ieiaey e iao?ieiae/aneia iaania/aiea.
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia e n?aaenoa eiio?iey
ia?aiao?ia ecia?eoaeueiuo eaiaeia aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai eiio?iey e
oi?aaeaiey aac aeaiiioaaea eaiaeia n aeaenoaothuaai iai?oaeiaaiey.
Aeeeoaeueiua, aac inoaiiaa, ?aaeaiaiou i?iaaaeaiey nia?aiaiiuo
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia o?aaotho iiauo iiaeoiaeia e ?aoaieth caaea/e
iaania/aiey iao?ieiae/aneie iaaeaaeiinoe ecia?eoaeueiuo n?aaenoa
aoiaeyueo a ninoaa aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey.
O?aaeeoeeiiiua iaoiaeu eiio?iey iao?ieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee ia
iicaieytho naiaa?aiaiii auyaeyoue e ono?aiyoue iao?ieiae/aneea ioeacu
aicieeathuea i?e yenieoaoaoeee n?aaenoa ecia?aiee.

Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oeaeaniia?aciinoe aaaaeaiey a ninoaa aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo
nenoai eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey (ANEO) niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie iiaenenoaiu —
iao?ieiae/aneiai iaaethaeaoaey, ia eioi?oth aoaeao aiceiaeaii ?aoaiea
caaea/e eiio?iey e /anoe/iiai ainnoaiiaeaiey iao?ieiae/aneie
iaaeaaeiinoe ANEO. Iao?ieiae/aneee iaaethaeaoaeue, aunooiaao enoi/ieeii
eioi?iaoeee, eniieuecoaiie aeey i?aaiecaoeee i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee
ANEO. I?e yoii eiio?ieue iao?ieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee ecia?eoaeueiuo
eaiaeia ANEO noaiiaeony iaeiie ec iniiaiuo caaea/ eioaeeaeooaeueiiai
iioaioeeaea iao?ieiae/aneiai iaaethaeaoaey. I?e/ai iauai yoie caaea/e
?anoao n iauei ?inoii ooieoeeiiaeueiuo caaea/ ANEO. I?ae?auaoue
eiio?ieue ia?aiao?ia ecia?eoaeueiuo eaiaeia oeaeaniia?acii eeoue ia
ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie, a oa/aiea eioi?uo, n aeinoaoi/iie
aeinoiaa?iinoueth, iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeaiiua, iaeiieaiiua
iao?ieiae/aneei iaaethaeaoaeai a i?aaeoanoaothuea iiiaiou a?aiaie e
aa?aioe?iaaoue ii?iaeueioth ?aaioo ecia?eoaeueiie iiaenenoaiu ANEO.

Aeaaiie caaea/ae iao?ieiae/aneiai iaaethaeaoaey ia ia?aii o?iaia ANEO
yaeyaony iaania/aiea aeinoiaa?iinoe eioi?iaoeee, iinooiathuae io
ecia?eoaeueiie iiaenenoaiu ANEO, iooai eiio?iey ia?aiao?ia
ecia?eoaeueiuo eaiaeia (EE), naycuaathueo ia?ae/iua ecia?eoaeueiua
i?aia?aciaaoaee, onoaiiaeaiiua ia iauaeoa, n oeeo?iauie ono?ienoaaie
ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee ia ia?aii o?iaia ANEO.

Ia yoaia eiio?iey ia?aiao?ia EE iao?ieiae/aneee iaaethaeaoaeue oi?ie?oao
oi?aaeythuea aicaeaenoaey ia aoiae aaia?aoi?a ia?acoeiauo neaiaeia aeey
iieo/aiey caaeaiiuo aiaeiaiauo neaiaeia ia aoiaeao eiio?iee?oaiiai EE, e
ii?aaeaeyao ?aaeoeeth EE ia oanoiaua neaiaeu. A ?aaioa ii?aaeaeaiu
i?ioeaaeo?u iieo/aiey ioeaiie ia?aiao?ia EE. Auyniaii, /oi a i?ioeanna
eiio?iey noaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee aac ioeeth/aiey neaiaeia io naini?ia
aicieeatho aeeiaie/aneea iia?aoiinoe, ii?aaeaeyaiua aeeiaie/aneeie
naienoaaie EE e aeeiaie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aoiaeiiai neaiaea ai
a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey i?ioeaaeo?u eiio?iey. I?iaaaeaiea eiio?iey a
aeeiaie/aneii ?aaeeia o?aaoao aaaaeaiey iii?aaie ia aeeiaie/aneoth
ninoaaeythuoth iia?aoiinoe.

Aeey ia?aaea/a ecia?eoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee a nia?aiaiiuo ANEO oe?iei
i?eiaiythony i?aia?aciaaoaee n auoiaeiui oieoeoee?iaaiiui oieiaui
neaiaeii. A ?aaioa ?ac?aaioaia iiaeaeue aiaeiaiaie /anoe EE,
aeeth/athuae ii?ie?othuee i?aia?aciaaoaeue, eeieth nayce e aoiaeioth
oeaiue AOeI. A niioaaonoaee n yoie iiaeaeueth, ii?aaeaeaia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiio?iey eiyooeoeeaioa ia?aaea/e E1 e iinoiyiiie a?aiaie
O.

I?iaaaeaiiue aiaeec oa?aeoa?a ia?aoiaeiuo i?ioeannia a oeaie iaa?ocee
i?aia?aciaaoaey iai?yaeaiea — oieiaue neaiae i?e eiiiooaoeee oeaie
io?eoeaoaeueiie ia?aoiie nayce (IIN) i?aia?aciaaoaey iicaieee naeaeaoue
auaiae ia eaeaioe/iinoe ia?aoiaeiiai i?ioeanna ia iaa?ocea i?e
eiiiooaoeee aoiaeiiai neaiaea e oeaie io?eoeaoaeueiie ia?aoiie nayce.
Yoi iicaieyao oi?ie?iaaoue nooiai/aoue eniuoaoaeueiue neaiae iooai
eiiiooaoeee oeaie IIN i?aia?aciaaoaey.

?ac?aaioaiiay i?ioeaaeo?a eiio?iey EE, n eniieueciaaieai aaia?aoi?a
niaoeeaeueiuo neaiaeia, ia o?aaoao aeiiieieoaeueiuo eeiee nayce iaaeaeo
aaia?aoi?ii e oeaio?aeueiie /anoueth iao?ieiae/aneiai iaaethaeaoaey.
I?ioeaaeo?a eiio?iey inouanoaeyaony iooai iiaea/e eniuoaoaeueiuo e
oanoiauo neaiaeia n aaia?aoi?a niaoeeaeueiuo neaiaeia ia aoiae
aiaeiaiaie /anoe eiio?iee?oaiiai eaiaea. Ciaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiuo
ia?aiao?ia iiaeaee aiaeiaiaie /anoe EE, noaoe/aneeo e aeeiaie/aneeo,
iicaieyao i?iecaanoe ainnoaiiaeaiea iao?ieiae/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee EE.
Eniieueciaaiea aeeiaie/aneeo ia?aiao?ia iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue aeeyiea
aeeiaie/aneie iia?aoiinoe ia oi/iinoue ii?aaeaeaiey eiio?iee?oaiiai
ia?aiao?a i?e i?iaaaeaiee ooaoiuo ecia?aiee.

A ?aaioa aeaiu i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii ?aaeecaoeee
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie iiaenenoaiu — iao?ieiae/aneiai iaaethaeaoaey —
ioaa/athuaai ca eiio?ieue e ainnoaiiaeaiea oa?aeoa?enoee ecia?eoaeueiuo
eaiaeia. Aiaae?aiea iao?ieiae/aneiai iaaethaeaoaey iicaieyao iiauneoue
aeinoiaa?iinoue iieo/aaiie eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiee iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey e
ea/anoai auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

?acoeueoaou iieo/aiiua a aeenna?oaoeee aiaae?aiu ia III NAO (a.Oa?ueeia)
e a o/aaiii i?ioeanna ia eaoaae?a «Ecia?eoaeueii-eioi?iaoeeiiiay
oaoieea» OAIO.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iao?ieiae/aneia iaania/aiea, ecia?eoaeueiue eaiae,
iao?ieiae/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, iao?ieiae/aneee iaaethaeaoaeue,
aeeiaie/aneay iia?aoiinoue.

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