IAOe?IIAEUeIA IOCE*IA AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE ?i. I.?.*AEEIANUeEIAI

Ae’ss*EIAA IEAIA AIAOIE??AIA

OAeE 781.5

IAOAOI?A ssE OAEOI? OOAeIAEIUeI? AEOEAIINO?

IOCE*IIAI OAI?O

niaoe?aeuei?noue 17.00.03 – ioce/ia ienoaoeoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa

EE?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? ioceee aoiin?a Oe?a?ie oa ioce/ii?
e?eoeee

Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai,

I?i?noa?noai eoeueoo?e oa ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i?ioani?

C?iueeaae/ Ieaia Na?a??aia,

caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith ?noi??? ioceee aoiin?a Oe?a?ie oa ioce/ii?
e?eoeee Iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i?ioani?

Iyneianueeee ?ai? Aieaneaaiae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueia ioce/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai, eaoaae?a
oai??? ioceee (Ee?a)

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, aeioeaio

Eica?aiei Ieaenaiae? Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Aeuee aea?aeaaiee ioce/iee ?inoeooo ?i. I.A.Eenaiea,

eaoaae?a eiiiiceoe?? (Euea?a)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo ienoaoeoa

?i. ?.I.Eioey?aanueeiai, eaoaae?a ?noi??? ioceee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 15 aiae. 30 oa. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii?

?aaee Ae 26.005.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe o Iaoe?iiaeuei?e ioce/i?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i.
I.?.*aeeianueeiai, ca aae?anith: i.Ee?a-1, aoe. Ai?iaeaoeueeiai, 1/3,
2-e iiaa?o, aoae. 36.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? IIAO ?i.
I.?.*aeeianueeiai,

i. Ee?a, aoe. Ai?iaeaoeueeiai, 1/3

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “26” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, aeioeaio Eioaiee ?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?? aeieeaa? ?c no/aniiai noaio ioce/ii?
i?aeoeee oa oai???. O ioceeiciaanoa? aeieeea aa?iaiaaoe/ii-i?iaeaiia
neooaoe?y: aa?aaeueiee ia?aeac ioceee ca aeiiiiiaith iaoaoi? ii/aee
ioioiaeithaaoe c iaoaoi?aie ioce/ieo oai??a. Iiaeyae ia ioceeo ye ia
aaeeeo iaoaoi?o no?eioaaa ii?aoeueiaoaaiiy oai, iia’ycaieo c
aeine?aeaeaiiyi iaoaoi? ye ?aae?e ioce/ieo aeneiaethaaiue. Aiaeii/an,
iioe?ai?noue oa?i?io “iaoaoi?a” o i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiio aeeneo?n?
aeooae?coaaei ?ic?iaeo oai??? iaoaoi?e a ioceeiciaanoa?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaii niaeo?ii eoeueoo?ieia?/ii i???ioiaaieo oai, ui
?ic?iaeythoueny eaoaae?ith ?noi??? ioceee aoiin?a Oe?a?ie oa ioce/ii?
e?eoeee IIAO ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ooai?aiiy ii/aoeiai? eaiee o ?ic?iaoe?
ioceeiciaa/i? oai??? ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e a ioceoe?. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe a ?iaio? ae??oothoueny caaea/? uiaei aecia/aiiy
iaoaoi?e a ioceeiciaanoa?, eiie?aoecaoe?? oeueiai iiiyooy oa ie?aneaiiy
eiai ianyao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O ?iaio? aia?oa: a)
nenoaiaoeciaaii ?nioth/? oai??? iaoaoi?e o ?aeo?n? ?o iioaioe?eii?
niaoeeo?eaoe?? noiniaii ioceeiciaanoaa; a) aeaii aeao?i?oe?? iiiyooyi:
ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a; iiaia iaoaoi?a; iaoaoi?a ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo; a)
aeyaeaii nenoaiiee oa?aeoa? ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e; a) i?aee?aneaii
aeeiai?/iee aniaeo ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e ye aieiaio oiiao ??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy o ioce/iiio oai??; ae) aeaii aecia/aiiy ooaeiaeiuei?
iaoaoi?e o ioce/iiio oai??; ?) i?iiii?iiaaii ? ?icaeyiooi ??ciiaeaee
ooaeiaei?o iaoaoi? o ioceoe?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ?o iiaeeeaiio
aeei?enoaii? o iaa/aeueieo eo?nao aiae?co ioce/ieo oai??a, ?noi???
ioceee ? ioce/ii? e?eoeee; o iaoeia?e i?aeoeoe? i?e aeine?aeaeaii?
oai??? oa ?noi??? noeeth, ioce/ii? naiaioeee, ?noi???
ioce/ii-naiaioe/ieo eiioeaioe?e aoiin?a; o ?ic?iaoe? oai??? naiaioe/iiai
neioaeneno a ioceoe?, a oaeiae o ?ic?iaoe? oai??? ooaeiaeiueiai ia?aco
na?oo a ioceoe?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ?noi??? ioceee aoiin?a Oe?a?ie oa ioce/ii? e?eoeee
IIAO ?i. I.?.*aeeianueeiai. Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aoei ii?eethaeiaii
ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo: “Ioce/iee na?o Ai?ena Eyoioeinueeiai” (IIAO
?i. I.*aeeianueeiai, 1995); “Neiai ? ioceea” (IAeE ?i. I.*aeeianueeiai,
1996); O??? neiiic?oi iieiaeeo ioceeiciaaoe?a ca oaiith “Aieaeueia
ioceea” (A?aoeneaaa, Neiaa//eia, 1996); “Ia?ac na?oo a ioceoe?” (IAeI?
?i. I.Aiaiey, 1996); I’yoa i?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y “?a?aenueea
?noi??y ? eoeueoo?a o e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie” (Ee?a,
1997); “A?ae?y ? ioceea” (IIAO ?i. I.*aeeianueeiai, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e, oa niaoe?ae?ciaaieo aeo?iaeao.

Aeena?oaoe?y ianyaii 120 n. ia? aea? aeaae, anooi, aeniiaee, nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (192 iaeiaioaaiiy) oa o?e aeiaeaoee ianyaii 70
n.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeINE?AeAEAIIss

O ANOOI? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/athoueny
iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai iaoeiaa iiaecia.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “OOAeIAEIss IAOAOI?A A IOCEOe?: IANssA OA CI?NO
IIIssOOss” i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? aecia/aiiy ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e oa eiai
niaoeeo?caoe?? a ioceeiciaanoa?.

1.1.Iiiyo?eia ianoaa?euei?noue oa?i?io “iaoaoi?a” ye iaoiaeieia?/ia
i?iaeaia. A aii??e/ieo caoaaaeaiiyo ioceeiciaaoe?a iaoaoi?a iinoa? ye:
caaaeueiee anoaoe/iee i?eioeei ioce/iiai ienoaoeoaa (?.Iacaee?inueeee);
oaiiiai ia?a?ioiioaaiiy (I.Ai?tho?ia, I.Ae?one?i); iniaeeaa oi?ia
ae?aeiao ieooey c? na?oii; ??ae i?ia?aiiino? a ioceoe? (I.Eiaaiiaa)
iie?naiaioe/ia ooai?aiiy, ui ?ai?acaioo?oueny iie?oii?/ieie no?oeoo?aie
(I.Eiaaiiaa, I.C?iueeaae/); “iio?aeia ye?noue ioce/ii? ia?aciino?, ui
aeieea? o neooaoe?? aca?iii?iieeiaiiy cia/aiue eiio?anoieo
ciaeiai-ae?aaeaieo naiaioe/ieo ieai?a (A.Iineaeaiei);
ia?aaeienaeuei?noue o ioceoe? (?.Iacaee?inueeee); naiaioe/iee aeeniiain,
ui aeieea? o ?ac? ?ieiia?oaioiiai aeei?enoaiiy aeai?iaeo oa noee?noe/ieo
ciae?a (A.Iaaeooaanueeee); oeeooaaiiy (A.A?a/ia); caeaoi?noue oaiaoecio
cae??iethaaoe ca niaith naiaioeeo oiai aa?aaeueiiai ?yaeo, c yeei a?i
aoa ia?a?nii iieacaiee, (I.Oieiaeiaa); “iaeeaiaeaeiaia” aeei?enoaiiy
?eoi?e/ieo o?ao?, ineoieia?caoe?y noaei? iicainiaeno?nii? neiaie?ee
(I.Ai?tho?ia, I.Oieiaeiaa, I.Ae?one?i); caoei?i?ooaaiiy (?.Eaioei,
I.?o/’?anueea).

Niaeo? ioceeiciaa/eo iiaeyae?a ia iaoaoi?o a?aeaeca?eaeth? neooaoe?th,
ui neeaeany o i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iiio aeeneo?n? a oe?eiio: ?icoe?aiiy
iiiyo?eieo iaae oa?i?io “iaoaoi?a” i?ecaaei aei iinooiiaiai ?oeioaaiiy
eiai ci?noo, oa?i?i ii/aa ao?a/aoe naith niaoeeo?eo, aoei noai?aii
iaaiee “ocaaaeueiaiee ia?ac” iaoaoi?e, ia i?eaeaoiee aeey aaeaioaoe?? a
ienoaoeoaiciaanoa?. O neooaoe??, ui neeaeany, aeioe?eueii caa?iooeny aei
e?iaa?noe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoaoi?e aeey c’ynoaaiiy niaoeeo?ee oeueiai
o?iio.

1.2. E?iaa?noe/i? oai??? iaoaoi?e c iiaeyaeo ?o iaoiaeieia?/iiai
iioaioe?aeo a ioceeiciaanoa?. O e?iaa?noeoe? aecia/athoueny aea?
i?ia?aei? oai??? iaoaoi?e. Iaeia – “oai??y ii??aiyiiy” – aaco?oueny ia
?icoi?ii? iaoaoi?e ye aiaeia??. A iniia? ?ioi? – “oai??? eiio?iaa?ce” –
eaaeeoue iiaeyae ia iaoaoi?o ye ia i?ioe??//y, ui aeieea? i?e
aoeaaeueiiio ?icoi?ii? aeneiaethaaiiy. Uiaei iiaeeeai? aaeaioaoe?? o
ioceeiciaanoa? iaeaea? oai??? iathoue ??ciee iioaioe?ae.

Niaoeeo?ea i?aeoiaeo aei iaoaoi?e a “oai??? ii??aiyiiy” iieyaa? o
noieoniaaiino? ia noai?aiiio iaoaoi?ith aca?iica’yceo ia’?eo?a, ui a
?aaeueiino? iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo aeaeiaeo oa?oiiaaiue. Iane?aeeii
oaeiai i?aeoiaeo ? aa?aae?caoe?y ioce/iiai ci?noo ? noaaeaiiy aei
ioce/ii? iiae ye iine?aeiaiino? iiiyoue. Cie?aia, aeineoue /anoi
cono??/athoueny iaoiaeieia?/ii iiieeeia? “ia’?eoii-iienia?” aecia/aiiy
iaoaoi?e, ui aacothoueny naia ia e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeiueiio ia?aeac?
ioce/ieo iiae?e (iai?eeeaae, aecia/aiiy iaoaoi?e N.Iaeueoeaaei).

O oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee ieoaiiy i?i iayai?noue ioce/ii? iaoaoi?e
ae??oo?oueny ia i?aenoaa? eeoa e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeiuei? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
ioce/iiai oai?o, ?aii?o?oueny ?iaeiaa niaoeeo?ea oeueiai o?iio –
yne?aa?noue, caeaoi?noue noai?thaaoe aoaeo ?aioiaino? iacaeaaeii a?ae
ia?aeaco ci?noo ioce/iiai aeneiaethaaiiy. Aeey ioceeiciaanoaa ae naia
oey niaoeeo?ea aeyaey?oueny iaoiaeieia?/ii aaaeeeaith. Ioce/iee oaeno ia
ia? iiiyo?eiiai iaiiaiaiiy, oiio naia naiaioe/ia aeni?an?y,
“iii?oi?noue” noathoue oeie iciaeaie, ca yeeie ne?ae a?ae??ciyoe
oaenoiao iaoaoi?o a ioceoe? a?ae iaoaoi?e – iane?aeeo
e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeiuei? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??. Niaoeeo?/iei i???ioe?ii
iaoaoi?e a ioce/iiio oai?? iiaea aooe a?ae/ooia naiaioe/ia i?ioe??//y.
Iaoaoi?o a aniaeo? ?? ?eoi?e/ii? aeni?an?? ?icaeyaea? “oai??y
eiio?iaa?ce”. Ia?niaeoeai?noue oe??? oai??? aeey ioceeiciaanoaa iieyaa?
a oiio, ui i?e aeine?aeaeaii? iaoaoi?e a ioceoe? cae?enith?oueny iii?a
ianaiia?aae ia neooia? a?aaeaiiy, a ia ia ?o aa?aaeueio ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th.

Caaaeyee aeoeaioo ia naiaioe/iiio i?ioe??//?, o “oai??? eiio?iaa?ce”
iineeth?oueny iiiyo?eia ?iciaaeoaaiiy iaoaoi?e c ?ioeie o?ao?aie
?iaeiiiaiino? – aeaai???th, iaoii?i??th oa neiaieii, ui a iaoeiaiio
aeeneo?n? ?iiae? ooieoe?iiothoue ye neiii?ie iaoaoi?e.

1.3. Iaoaoi?a a ?yaeo nii??aeiaieo iiiyoue A?aei?ii?noue iaoaoi?e a?ae
aeaai???, iaoii?i??, neiaieo aecia/a?oueny iniaeeaith oi?iith
noaiiaeaiiy oa ae?? naiaioe/ii? ?ia?oe?? a ioce/iiio aeneiaethaaii?.

Aeaai??y ia?aaeaa/a? iiia?aaei? iaieioaiiy i?aaee naiaioe/iiai /eoaiiy.
O ?ac? ?o caaoaaiiy aeaai??y ye naiaioe/ia oi?ia i?eieiy? nai?
?nioaaiiy, a caaaeueia naiaioe/ia eiiiiceoe?y aeneiaethaaiiy
ia?ainieneth?oueny c aeinooiieo aeey ?ioi/aniaiai ni?eeiyooy iiceoe?e.
Iai?eeeaae, o ?in?enueeiiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aaeao-aeaai??y
“Iioe?eoiie oa?” ?.No?aaeinueeiai iiieeeiai iia’yco?oueny c eaceith
A.Aiaea?naia “Ni?aiaa ei?ieaaa”. Aiane?aeie iaoaaaeiiai ia?aeeaaeo
“eiae” aaeaoo-aeaai??? – ?ioa eacea Aiaea?naia “E?eaeaia ae?aa” – aoei
ao?a/aii, a aac iueiai ci?no aaeaoo o?aeooaaany ye ae?ae oiiaiee iaoye
ia oeyo oai?/i? ethaeeie.

Iaoii?i?y iiaoi?th? i?eioeei aeaai???, aea ia a ianooaa? eoeueoo?e, a o
ianooaa? eiie?aoiiai oaenoo: naiaioe/ia ?ia?oe?y, ui aeicaiey? /eoaoe
iaoii?i?th, i?ia?aio?oueny iiia?aaei?i o?aaiaioii. Iai?eeeaae, aeaye?
oaie aaeaoo “Iioe?eoiie oa?” ? eiiiiceoe?eieie iaoii?i?yie: i?enayoa
aaeaoo, ?i?oaoe?y noeeth, oeeooaaiiy iaeiae?e I.*aeeianueeiai
noai?ththoue iaiao?aei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey aeieeiaiiy ?ia?oe?? ni?eeiyooy
ioce/ieo oai, ui ia ? oeeoaoaie, ye oeeoao. Aeine?aeieee, eio?? a?ae/oee
ia nia? ae?th no?oeoo?ieo iaoii?i?e aaeaoo, iaiaeii?aciai iaiaaaeeny
neeanoe “iiaiee” ia?ae?e on?o “caaooeo” oeeoao oeueiai oai?o.

Neiaieo i?eoaiaii? yeino? ? aeaai???, ? iaoii?i??. C iaeiiai aieo, a?i
aeiaaa? noaeiai naiaioe/iiai eiaeo, iaaiiai eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai
eiioaenoo, c ?ioiai – neiaie ye “ia?niiaae” iia’ycaiee c eiie?aoieie
naiaioe/ieie neooaoe?yie. I?eeeaae oaie-neiaieo i?noeoue ai?eia
“Iioe?eoieo oa?” ?.No?aaeinueeiai. Ai?eia “Eieeneiaa e?a?ie iica /anii e
i?inoi?ii” iiaoaeiaaii ia oai? I?ieiao — oeeoao? “Eieeneiai? a ao?th”
I.*aeeianueeiai. A ai?eic? c oaie-oeeoaoe aeie?aieth?oueny iini?aea, ui
? ii noo? ?ioiiaoe?eiei “a?oaoeiii” eieeneiaeo. Aiia iaaoaa?
?ioiiaoe?eii? naiino?eiino?, ia?aoai?th?oueny ia eaieo inoeiaoiiai ?ooo,
i?iieea? o “iaeaeeaoee” oa? oaeoo?e. Uii?aaaea, a ai?eic? o iiaiiio
ianyc? cao/eoue oaeiae ? oaia *aeeianueeiai, aea aiia naiaioe/ii
ia?ainieneth?oueny e ni?eeia?oueny ye iniaeno?nii-eiiiiceoi?nueeee
aa??aio ?ioiiaoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo iiiaaeiniaeno?niiai ?ioiiaoe?eiiai
ia?inoea-a?oaoeio.

Iaoaoi?a, ia a?aei?io a?ae iaoii?i??, aeaai??? oa neiaieo, ii?oooth/e
?ia?oe?th eiioaenoo, ni?eeia?oueny ye ?aioiaee naiaioe/iee aeaoo:
“Ca??aaeoa aea? ?oeaie aieeie/ oaiaeoa oaeeth na?oiao…” (I.Naiaiei). O
aaeao? “Iioe?eoiie oa?” oaia, ui iia’ycaia c ia?acii Oa?, ?acth/a
ae??ciy?oueny ?c caaaeueiiai eiioaenoo caaaeyee naiaioe/iei i?ioe??//yi.
Ooaeiaei? a?aee?eooy ia ??ai? oe??? oaie iieyaa? o ia?aaeienaeueiiio
ii?aeiaii? ?ioiiaoe?eieo cai?io?a, eia?ee ?ioiiaoe?eiiai noaiiaeaiiy, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue oai?e I.*aeeianueeiai, c ?ioiiaoe?eieie cai?ioaie aeiae
aa?iei oa i?eioeeaith ?eoi?eith naiiai ?.No?aaeinueeiai.

Aeaai??y, iaoii?i?y, neiaie ? iaoaoi?a a ioceoe? ia?aaeaa/athoue ??cio
aeoeai?noue neooa/?a oa ??cio i??o ?oiuei? oai?/i? ni?ao/ano? o
oi?ioaaii? naiaioeee oai?o. C oeueiai iiaeyaeo, aeaai??y ?
ianeaii-oiiaiei nieneini?eeiyooyi, iaoii?i?y – “?anoaa?aoe?eiei”
nieneini?eeiyooyi, neiaie – aeoeaii-oiiaiei nieneii?eeiyooyi, a iaoaoi?a
– nieneiooai?aiiyi, ui aeiea? naiaioe/io iai?oao.

1.4. Ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a – eiie?aoecaoe?y i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy. A
?iaioao e?iaa?no?a iaoiaeieia?/ii cia/oueie ? caoaaaeaiiy i?i
iaiao?aei?noue a?ae??ciyoe iaoaoi?e, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae eiioaenoo
(ooaeiaei? aai anoaoe/i? iaoaoi?e), a?ae iaoaoi?, ui ? eiioaenooaeueii
iacaeaaeieie (iiai? iaoaoi?e). Aea a oai??? e?oa?aoo?e niaoeeo?eo
ooaeiaei?o ? iiaieo iaoaoi? c’yniaaii iaaeinoaoiuei. Ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a
oi?eaeueia, aoaeue-yea ?? iiaoi?aiiy ni?eeia?oueny ye ieaa?ao. Iiaia
iaoaoi?a iiaea iiaoi?thaaoenue o ??cieo oaenoao, iinooiiai
ia?aoai?thth/enue ia ia?acia ee?oa. Ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a iica iaaeaie
oai?o ?nioaaoe ia iiaea, aiia ci?noiaii ?ic?ieiooa ?, iacaaaeath/e ia
naiaioe/io aeaooia?noue, “c?inoa?oueny” c? nai?i eiioaenoii. O iiaii?
iaoaoi?e ca’ycee c eiioaenoii iineaaeai?, aiia naiaioe/ii caieiaia, ??
iiyaa a oaeno? ia? neooaoeaiee oa?aeoa?. Ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a /ooo?ai
ia?aeiieeaa, aiia ni?eeia?oueny ye ooaeiaei? a?aee?eooy, ?ic?aoiaaia
ianaiia?aae ia aiioe?eiee a?aeaoe. O iiaii? iaoaoi?e aoaeo
ianiiae?aaiino? i?i?iaeueiee, aiia ooieoe?iio? ye eiioi?eaoeaia
iaeeieoey. A iniia? iaaaaeaieo a?aei?iiinoae noiyoue ??ci? i?eioeeie
naiaioe/ii? oi?ie ooaeiaeiuei? oa iiaii? iaoaoi?. Ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a
aaco?oueny ia i?eioeei? eiioi?eaoeaii? aeia??iino? – oeeooaaii?
naiaioe/ii eiio?anoieo ciae?a, ui iaeaaeaoue ??ciei oa?ai eoeueoo?e.
Naiaioe/ia oi?ia iiaii? iaoaoi?e aaco?oueny ia i?eioeei? eiioi?eaoeaii?
oioiaeiino? – ii?aeiaii? aai cai?uaii? ?iai ia iniia? i?eioeeio
caaaeueiiai oiiae?aithaaiiy.

Aeey ioceeiciaanoaa aecia/ai? a?aei?iiino? iaoiaeieia?/ii aaaeeea?, oiio
ui i?iyniththoue i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy e ci?iathoue ieoaiiy i?i
caaaeueio iaoaoi?e/i?noue ioceee.

1.5.Iiiyooy “ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a” oa ioceeiciaa/? oai???. Ine?eueee
ioce/ia ienoaoeoai ?icai?oa?oueny o /an? (i?ioeanoaeueii) ?
inieneth?oueny ?acoeueoaoeaii (ye aeai?noue), a?eueo?noue ioceeiciaa/eo
oai??e, cie?aia, oai??? noeeth, aeai?o, oai?o, oaie ?icaeyaeathoue nai?
ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith iiiceoe?? “i?ioean – aeai?noue”.

I?iyae noeeth, aeai?o, oaie ye aeaiinoae iaeaaeaoue iaoaiia? ioce/ii?
eoeueoo?e. Aiie eoeueoo?ieia?/ii i???ioiaai? ? oiio nai?ioe/i? ca nai?th
noooth. sseui ?noi?e/ii onoaeai? noee?, aeai?e, a oaeiae oaiaoeci oai??a
??cieo /an?a ? iioaioe?eiei iaoa??aeii aeey ooaeiaei?o iaoaoi?, noeeue,
aeai? ? oaia ye ??ai? ioce/iiai noaiiaeaiiy noai?ththoue naiaioe/i?
oiiae, eiioaeno ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e a ioceoe?.

Ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a a ioce/iiio oai?? caaaeaee ? iii?iaoe??th. ??
naiaioe/i? ooieoe?? iiaeia aei??aiyoe aei aeniiceoe?? oaiaoecio a
ioceoe?. Aea oaia-iaoaoi?a ia aeeth/a?oueny aaciina?aaeiuei a ioce/ia
noaiiaeaiiy, a iaaiei /eiii c iei ni?aa?aeiineoueny, ca?aene niaoeeo?ea
neioaeneno ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e a ioceoe? – iiioaae, oeeooaaiiy,
eiio?anoia iie?oii?y oa ?i.

Ooaeiaeith iaoaoi?o iaiiaeeeai a?aeie?aieoe a?ae ioce/iiai oai?o ia
aoaeue-ye?e noaae?? eiai aeeooy: 1) aiia iaiiaeeeaa iica eoeueoo?iith
o?aaeeoe??th; 2) aiia ?iiae? iiaea aooe “cai?iooith”
i?ia?aiith-caaeoiii, ooieoe?iioaaoe ye ia?ac iaeaooiueiai oai?o; 3) ??
a?aeaeaa? iioiee caien oai?o a i?ea?iae?. Ia ianooiieo aoaiao iaoaoi?o,
noai?aio eiiiiceoi?ii, ia?ainieneth? aeeiiaaaoeue, ?, ia?aoo?, ni?eeia?
neooa/. I?i iaaecae/aeio ooaeiaeith aeoeai?noue iaoaoi?e a ioceoe?
iiaeooue na?ae/eoe ni?euei? ai?oaoe a iacaeaaeieo e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaei?o
?ioa?i?aoaoe?yo ia oae?e noaae?? aeeooy ioce/iiai oai?o ye aeeooy o
neia?.

1.6. Aei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy “ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a” a ioceoe?. O
iiia?aaei?o ?icae?eao iaoaoi?o aoei ?icaeyiooi ye yaeua i?eioeeiiai
aeene?aoia e aaaaoineeaaeiaa. Aiaeii/an a?aecia/aeiny, ui iaoaoi?a
ooieoe?iio? o oaeno? ye oe?e?nia iaeeieoey ci?noo – “?i’y”,
“iii?iaoe?y”, “iie?oaiaoe/ia ooai?aiiy”. Oaeei /eiii, o aecia/aii?
iaoaoi?e aeoeaiooaaiiy ?? aeene?aoiino? aoaea caia?a/oaaoe ?? oi?io ye
oe?e?nia ooai?aiiy ? iaaiaee.

Ocaiaeaeaiiy i?ae aeene?aoi?noth no?oeoo?e iaoaoi?e ? aiaeii/an ??
oe?e?ni?noth iiaeia aeinyaoe ca aeiiiiiaith iiiyooy naiaioe/ii? iaae?.
Ca iiiyo?eiei ci?noii, ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a ? ?ai?acaioaoe??th iaae?
eiio?anoieo nai?ioe/ieo i?inoi??a. I?ae nai?ioe/ieie i?inoi?aie o
aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ?icoi?thoueny oe?e?ni? oi?ie i?iya?a eoeueoo?e –
aioo??oi?e na?o ethaeeie, ono??e nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy o??? /e ?ioi?
aeiae, eaiiie, iiae, noee?noe/i? ? aeai?ia? nenoaie, cie?aia, a
ienoaoeoa?, ooaeiaei? oai?e.

Ii?aeiaiiy eiio?anoieo nai?ioe/ieo i?inoi??a o iaoaoi?? iai?yiei /eiii
oa?aeoa?eco? na?oiaa/aiiy aaoi?a oai?o. Ca nai?th noooth, ooaeiaeiy
iaoaoi?a ? iaea?eueo iniaeno?niith eaieith o aeneiaethaaii?, yea
aiaeii/an no?oeoo?o? naiaioeeo oa iaoiiaeth? caniae ae?aciino?
eiie?aoiiai oaenoo.

I?aenoio?ii: Ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a a ioceoe? ? oi?iith naiaioeei-oaiaoe/ii?
i?aai?caoe??, ui ?ai?acaioo? oeyoii oeeooaaiiy ?noi?e/ieo,
iaoe?iiaeueieo aai ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo noee?a, aeai??a aai oai ?ioeo
oai??a iaaeo eiio?anoieo nai?ioe/ieo i?inoi??a, o?enoth/e ia?ao?ae
noa’?eoeaii? aaoi?nueei? a?iioace i?i na?oiaoaeiao a oi?eaeueio nenoaio
ae?aaeaeueieo cania?a eiie?aoiiai ioce/iiai oai?o.

1.7. Aei ieoaiiy ianyao iiiyooy “ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a” a ioceoe?.
Eeaneo?eaoe?y ooaeiaei?o iaoaoi? ? iaei??th c iaea?eueo i?iaeaiaoe/ieo
cii o e?iaa?noe/ieo eiioeaioe?yo iaoaoi?e. Iaoiaee eeaneo?eaoe??
oaenoiaeo i?iya?a o?ii?a ii noo? ua ia ?ic?iaeai? ? aeiaaathoue
niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue C on??? iaoa-aeeneon?? i?i iaoaoi?o aeey
ioceeiciaanoaa ? iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei i?eeiyoee o eeane/i?e
e?iaa?noeoe? ?iciiae?e ooaeiaei?o iaoaoi? ia i?ino? oa ?icai?ioo?.
Oi?aa?naeuei?noue oeueiai ?iciiae?eo iaoiiaeaii aaeaei ciaeaeaiei
iaa?oiooaaiiyi – ca eiiiiceoe?eiith ooieoe??th ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e a
oaeno?. O aeao?i?oe?? “i?ino? oa ?icai?ioo? iaoaoi?e” aecia/a?oueny
aa??aio aeaio aeae?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e a oaeno?: 1)
iaoaoi?a iiaea ae?yoe ye “ia?niiaae” naiaioe/ii? oaaoee; 2) iaoaoi?a
iiaea aooe nai???aeiith naiaioe/iith i?ia?aiith, ui oi?io? naiaioeeo
oaenoo ca nai?ie i?eioeeiaie. ?c oeueiai aeieeaa? iiae?e ooaeiaei?o
iaoaoi? o ioceoe? ia: 1) oiioaaoeuei? – ui c’yaeythoueny o ioce/iiio
oai?? o aeaeyae? eiie?aoieo no?oeoo? oa 2) iaoaoi?e-“?aaeena?e”, ui
iathoue aeniiceoe?th “ca eaae?ii” oai?o, aea naia aiie iaoiiaeththoue
i?eioeeie noaiiaeaiiy naiaioeee oai?o.

Aeey aiae?co naiaioe/ii? oi?ie ioce/ieo oai??a, aea i?enooi? ?io? aeaee
ienoaoeoaa, iaiao?aeia oaea aeao?i?oe?y ye “cono??/i? iaoaoi?e”, oiaoi
iaoaoi?e, ui ooai?aii ??cieie ca iaoa??aeii ieaiaie oai?o. Ne?ae oaeiae
a?aoiaoaaoe, ui ooaeiaei? iaoaoi?e a ioce/ieo oai?ao iiaeooue c’yaeyoeny
ye iiiaeeioe?, oae ? a eiiieaen?. A inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo aeieea?
neooaoe?y iie?iaoaoi?e/iino?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “I?IssAE OOAeIAEIUeI? IIE?IAOAOI?E*IINO? A IOCEOe?”
?icaeyaeathoueny i?eeeaaee ae?? eiiieaen?a ooaeiaei?o iaoaoi? ia ??ai?
aeai?iai-oaiaoe/ii? iiaoaeiae oai?o (oeeee “Ieoo?aino?” N.I?ieio’?aa),
ia ??ai? aca?iia?aeiinei ioce/ii? oa aa?aaeueii? iia (oeeee
A.Eyoioeinueeiai “I?ny/i? o?i?”) oa ia ??ai? ae?aiaoo?a?? (iia?a
I.*aeeianueeiai “I?eiaa aeaia”).

2.1. Oiioaaoeueia iie?iaoaoi?e/i?noue o oeeee? N.I?ieio’?aa
“Ieoo?aino?”. O no/ani?e aeeiiaanuee?e i?aeoeoe? i’?ne i?ieio’?anueeiai
oeeeeo ooieoe?iiothoue ia?aaaaeii ye naiino?ei? i?i?aoth?e. I?ioa, nai
N.I?ieio’?a cacia/aa, ui iine?aeiai?noue i’?n o eiai ca??oe?
anoaiiaeaii naia c “ooaeiaei?o i??eoaaiue”. Neiaa eiiiiceoi?a aeathoue
i?aenoaao o?aeooaaoe “Ieoo?aino?” ia ye ca??eo naiino?eieo i?i?aoth?, a
naia ye oeeee?/iee oa??, o yeiio a?aeoai?aii oe?e?niee ooaeiaei?e
i?ino??.

sse a?aeiii, iacao oai?o N.I?ieio’?a caiice/ea c ?yaee?a E.Aaeueiiioa:
“A eaaeaeie ieiieaoiinoe aeaeo y ie?u, // Iieiua eciai/eaie, ?aaeoaeiie
ea?u…” Aaeueiiio?anueea neiai “ieiieaoiinoe” o N.I?ieio’?aa caa?aaei
naith oii?/io oi?io, aea ci?ieei iaeieio ia iiiaeeio. Iii?ae iacaith oa
ai?a?aoii “Ieoo?ainoae” N.I?ieio’?aa aeieeea a?a ne?a, yea neiaie?co?
?aeath iiiaeeiiino? a iaeiiio. Iaea?eueo iiaiee a?aeaeoie oe??? ?aea?
i?ine?aeeiao?oueny o oiioaaoe? oeeeeo.

Aaea ia?oa i’?na oeeeeo i?noeoue aeniiceoe?th iniiaieo ia?acieo noa?
“Ieoo?ainoae”. A naia: o ia?oiio ?a/aii? aeniiio?oueny noa?a
“ethaenueeiai”, naiaioe/iee neioaenen ?a/aiiy yaey? niaith iiioaae
o?ueio aeai?iai-ia?acieo oeeoao – eaioeeaie, caaaaeeiaino? oa aaeueno; o
ae?oaiio ?a/aii? c’yaey?oueny ia?aciee eiei?eo “iaethaenueeiai”,
iiioothoueny iieoth?i, oaioanoeea oa aaeuen (aea oeueiai ?aco
eyeueeiaee), caaa?oo? i?i?aoth?o ?acthia (iaeei oaeo).

Ia?acia eiino?oeoe?y ia?oi? “Ieoo?aino?” o oii-oaaoe? oeeeeo ooieoe?iio?
ye iiaeaeue-ia?aaeeaia eiai aeai?iai? ae?aiaoo?a??. “Ieoo?aino?” iiaeia
iiae?eeoe ia noa-oeeeee, ye? neioaaiaoe/ii a?aeoai?ththoue
aeai?iai-naiaioe/io no?oeoo?o ia?oi? i?i?aoth?e. Oaeei /eiii, ia?oa
i?i?aoth?a oaeoe/ii ? iaoaoi?ith-i?ia?aiith oeeeeo a oe?eiio, naiaioeea
yei? iaoiiaeth? eia?eo noaiiaeaiiy ooaeiaeiueiai i?inoi?o “Ieoo?ainoae”.

Aiae?c eiiiiceoe?? “Ieoo?ainoae” aeyaea aeineoue ianiiae?aaio
ni?euei?noue oeeeeo N.I?ieio’?aa c oai?/?noth E.Aaeueiiioa. Iiaa eaea
i?i aeeaiaeaeio noiae?noue eiiiiceoe?eieo caaeoi?a oi?oai?aiiiai oeeeeo
N.I?ieio’?aa oa iiaoe/iiai oeeeeo E.Aaeueiiioa “Ieoo?aa” (“Ieiieaoiia”).
Oe?eaai, ui aaeueiiio?anueeee oeeee ia i?noeoue ?yaee?a, ye? noaee
ai?a?aoii i?ieio’?anueeiai oai?o.

Oae naii ye ? ia?oa i?i?aoth?a i?ieio’?anueeiai oeeeeo, ia?oee a??o
“E?nia? o?aae” oeeeeo E.Aaeueiiioa ii a?aeiioaiith aei oe?eiai ?
iaoaoi?ith – naiaioe/iei aeoieii. Eiaeai ?yaeie aaeueiiio?anueeiai a??oa
? “i?ia?aiith” aei ianooiieo /anoei iiaoe/iiai oeeeeo. O a??o?
i?ine?aeeiao?oueny iaeaea “aeine?aia” iine?aeiai?noue ia?acieo noa?
ia?oi? Ieoo?aino? N.I?ieio’?aa. Aei oiai ae e?euee?noue oaeo?a o o?acao
ia?oi? Ieoo?aino? ca?aa?oueny c e?euee?noth neeaa o ?yaeeao “E?niaeo
o?aa”.

2.2.Cono??/ia iie?iaoaoi?e/i?noue o oeeee? A.Eyoioeinueeiai “I?ny/i?
o?i?”. A?ae?a?aaoe aeey iaeaooiueiai oai?o a??o? oa ia?aeeaaee
E.Aaeueiiioa, A.A?thniaa, ?.Iioueiie?ia, ?.Naaa?yi?ia, A.Eyoioeinueeee o
“I?ny/ieo o?iyo”, ii noo?, noai?ea na?e iiaoe/iee oaeno. Naiino?ei?
iiaoe/i? oai?e o oaeno? A.Eyoioeinueeiai ooai?eee oe?e?nio nthaeaoio
e?i?th, yea a?aeoai?th? oace I?nyoey: Noa?ee I?nyoeue – Ia?ao?ae ia
iiaee I?nyoeue – Iieiaeee. I?e/iio A.Eyoioeinueeee i?aee?aneth? naia
iiiaio o?ainoi?iaoe?? I?nyoey, ia?ao?ae eiai nia?o? a iiaa aeeooy,
e?ioey o ii/aoie (o oeeee? iiya? “Iieiaeeea” ia?aaeo? “I?aethae?y”,
oaeei /eiii aeniiceoe?y iieiy?oueny o oeaio?? eiiiiceoe??).

A?ae/oooy iniaeeai? ?aeiino? iiaoe/iiai ?yaeo a oeeee? A.Eyoioeinueeiai
aeieea? caaaeyee ??ciiiai?oiei ia?aciei iiaoi?ai o oaenoao i?i?aoth?.
sseui oe? iiaoi?e aeie?aieoe ? ii?aeiaoe iaeei c iaeiei, aeieeia
naiino?eiee a??o – ocaaaeueiaiee neiaie?nonueeee iaecaae (“Eoia/ Ii/ue/
Iie?uaaei/ Oeoeia”), yeee ? ? ?aaeenoth/ith iaoaoi?ith iiaoe/iiai ?yaeo
“I?ny/ieo o?iae”.

?ino?oiaioaeueia ia?o?y ?aaeeno?oueny iaoaoi?ith /ano oa i?inoi?o, yea
ia? ?ioa, i?ae “neiaie?nonueeee iaecaae”, naiaioe/ia ni?yioaaiiy. O
ia?o?e ? ae?oa?e i?i?aoth?ao ?ai?acaioo?oueny i?ino??: aei?aee ye
i?ioean (o?ao?aoe?y) oa ye e?enoae, ui ? a?aeiia?aeiei ai?eciioae? oa
aa?oeeae?. O?aoy ? /aoaa?oa i?i?aoth?e ?ai?acaioothoue /an: inoeiaoi ye
neiaie a?/iiai ?ooo. A iaio i?aeoeeeeao oie naiee i?eioeei iiaoaeiae:
iie??eoi?/i? i?i?aoth?e /a?aothoueny c ?eoi?/ii ae?acieie. Oaea
eiio?anoia c?noaaeaiiy iie??eoi?? oa ?eoi?/ii? ae?aciino? iiaeia
o?aeooaaoe ye i?ioenoaaeaiiy iiiaae/aniaiai, ocaaaeueiaiiai (iie??eoi ii
noo? ? noeoii?noth ??ciiiai?oieo “?eoii-/an?a”) oa ethaenueeiai,
iniaeno?niiai, e?ioeaaiai (?eoi?/ia ae?aci?noue iineeth?
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?th ia?aco) .

Aieaeueia ia?o?y naiaioe/ii aeeiio? ooieoe?? “iina?aaeieea” i?ae
iaoaoi?aie iiaoe/iiai oaenoo oa oi?oai?aiii? ia?o??. ?? ?eoi?ea iia’yco?
ioce/i? iioeae c iiaoe/ieie neiaieaie. Iai?eeeaae, o??ie?
a?aeiia?aeathoue ia?acai I?nyoey oa ?ooo; aeoie? iia’ycaii c? ceaiaie
?ia?oe?? ?ooo; caoaeo (aai oieeiaiiy neeueii? aeie?) — ?c noa?ith
ethaenueeeo ii/ooo?a; ioieoe?iee ?eoi c’yaey?oueny o cii? eaaeainoaaiiy,
nieneiaeo caaa?oaiue.

Cono??/i? iaoaoi?e iiaoe/iiai oa ioce/iiai ieai?a iaaeathoue naiaioe/i?e
oi?i? “I?ny/ieo o?iae” eiioeioaeueii? yeino?. Oeeee, yeee neeaaeaii c
/ioe?ueio i?i?aoth?, i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny aeae?eueeii oeeee?/iei
aeai?eoiai. Iai?eeeaae, ?eoi?/ia ae?aiaoo?a?y aieaeueii? ia?o??
?icai?oa?oueny ca i?eioeeiii /ioe?ueio/anoeiiiai niiaoii-neioii?/iiai
oeeeeo, a oaeoo?ia ae?aiaoo?a?y oi?oai?aiii? ia?o?? iiae?ey? oeeee ia
aeaa i?aeoeeeee – a iaeiiio i?iaeoeaioiaaii ai?eciioaeue, a ?ioiio —
aa?oeeaeue. Oaeei /eiii, o oai?? A.Eyoioeinueeiai aeieea? neooaoe?y
iiiaeeiiino? i?e?ioeeee?a o i?inoi?? iaeiiai iae?ioeeeeo. Ia ia?aoei?
cono??/ieo iaoaoi? o “I?ny/ieo o?iyo” aeieea? iiaeaeue i?e?ieiniino.

2.3. ?icai?iooa iie?iaoaoi?e/i?noue a iia?? I.*aeeianueeiai “I?eiaa
aeaia”. O “I?eia?e aeai?” i?inoaaeothoueny ye iaoaoi?e-“ia?niiaae?”,
ae?y yeeo eieaeueia ? iiaea iaiaaeoaaoenue iaei??th noeaiith, oae ?
iaoaoi?e-“?aaeena?e”, ye? iaoiiaeththoue a iia?? iai?yiee ?icai?oaiiy
naiaioe/iiai nthaeaoo. Naiaioeea iai/ieo iaoaoi? o “I?eia?e aeai?”
ia?aoeia?oueny c naiaioeeith “i?eoiaaieo” iaoaoi?, ye? a oaeno? iaiia ae
ia c’yaeythoueny, aea i?eioneathoueny. Oaeei /eiii, a iia??
I.*aeeianueeiai aeieea? neooaoe?y ?icai?iooi? iie?iaoaoi?e/iino?.

Oiioaaoeuei? iaoaoi?e. Oaiiiai iie?iiaiino?. Ia?oeoo?a ? e?a?aoi
“I?eiai? aeaie” iaiiaiai? oeeoaoaie e aethc?yie. A iia?? c’yaeythoueny
“iineeaiiy” ia A.-A.Iioea?oa, A.Y?ao??, AE.A?ca, E.E?aa, A.?oa?iooaeia,
I.Aaothoeiaa, A.Aea?aeaa?ia, I.Ea?aic?ia, A.Eiceianueeiai, I.Ea?aaaiiaa.
Aacoiiaii, ia on? oeeoaoe e aethc?? a iia?? ? ooaeiaei?ie iaoaoi?aie.
Aeaye? c oeeoao aoei aaaaeaii aei oaenoo ye ?ethno?aoe?? aiioe
nthaeaoii? ae?? (iai?eeeaae, i?naiueea Oiinueeiai ia neiaa
“AEa?o?aeeaiai aeciaiiy” A.Aea?aeaa?ia). ?io? oeeoaoe e aethc??
ni?eeiathoueny ye iineeaiiy ia aaoi?eoaoe, o oiio /ene?, ia oai?e
oethaeaieo aaoi??a I.*aeeianueeiai – A.-A.Iioea?oa, AE.A?ca,
A.?oa?iooaeia.

Ie??i ?ethno?aoeaieo oa noa’?eoeaii-aeooaeueieo oeeoao ? aethc?e o
“I?eia?e aeai?” i?enooi? e oae?, ui ni?eeiathoueny o oaeno? ye
naiaioe/iee ia?aaeien. Iai?eeeaae, oeeoaoa ??iino “Iieeoao i?ie?th ei
Ainiiaeo” (i’yoa ea?oeia) ca nai?ie naiaioe/ieie ooieoe?yie ?
ooaeiaeiueith iaoaoi?ith. C iaeiiai aieo, noeeue oeeoaoe (oea?eiaiee
ni?a) noia?a/eoue eiioaenoo (oiiae eaca?ie). C ?ioiai, nthaeao ea?oeie –
caaaeoaaiiy Aa?iaiii iioi?iio A?aoei? – ?iaeoue iaoaoi?o i?e?iaeiith.
Aeey noeaie o eaca?i? I.*aeeianueeee ia?aa naia “Iieeoao i?ie?th ei
Ainiiaeo”, ci?no yei? neeaaeathoue i?ioaiiy i?i a?aeiouaiiy a??o?a.
Aioo??oiy oi?ia ia?aoai?th? oeth oeeoaoo-iaoaoi?o ia aaoi?nueeee
eiiaioa?, yeee noino?oueny ianaiia?aae noaio Aa?iaia, a ia A?aoei?. O
oaeiio ?aeo?n? iiyaa i?eaeaeo A?aoei? o eaca?i? /eoa?oueny ye i?iaa/aiiy
Aa?iaia oa iaaeaiiy eiio oaino niieoooaaoe nai? a??oe. Oaeei /eiii,
iaoaoi?a-oeeoaoa ?aaeeno? i?aeoe/ii aanue o?iae iia?e.

C iiaeyaeo “?aaeena?nueeeo iiaeeeainoae” iaea?eueo aeoeaiith caea?oueny
iaoaoi?a-oeeoaoa a???oe c iia?e Y?ao?? “??/a?ae Eaaiaa na?oea” (/aoaa?oa
ea?oeia). Oey oeeoaoa aiineoue o “I?eiao aeaio” i?ioe??//y /an?a: ca
nthaeaoii A?aoeiy caaaeo? naith iieiae?noue, ioaea, /an iieiaeino?
A?aoei? ni?aiaaea? c i?ai’??ith iia?e Y?ao??. I?ioa, iia?a Y?ao?? aoea
iinoaaeaia o 1784 (ca ?ioeie aa?n?yie o 1785 ?.), oiaoi a /an iiae?e
“I?eiai? aeaie” I.*aeeianueeiai. Oaeei /eiii, ia?ac A?aoei? iieiy?oueny
iaiia ae iica /anii. Caaaeyee oeeoao?-iaoaoi??, /an iieiaeino? A?aoei?
aei??aith?oueny /ano ?? noa?ino?.

Iaoaoi?a “??ciini?yiiaaiiai /ano” ii?aeio? on? oeeoaoe iia?e a ?aeeio
naiaioe/io no?oeoo?o. Ia iaeiiio ?? iiethn? iieiy?oueny XVIII noi??//y,
“?aeaaeueiee” Iioea?o oa ethaia, c? nai?ie ia?oeyieaie uanoy. Ia ?ioiio
– XIX noi??//y, AE.A?ca, A.?oa?iooaei oa eioaiiy, yea iaa?oa?oueny ia
o?aaaae?th. ?oo o ??cieo /aniaeo iai?yieao ii/eia?oueny c aeiae e?ioey
XVIII – ii/aoeo XIX noie?oue. Naia ia oeueiio /aniaiio ia?aoei?
?icoaoiaaii e ??ciiiai?oi? eiiaioa?? noeai?/ieo iiae?e (a?ae aaoi?a oa
ae?oai?yaeieo aa?i?a).

?icai?iooa iaoaoi?a “aeeooy-a?a” o noeai?/i?e ae?? iia?e. Noeai?/ia ae?y
a iia?? I.*aeeianueeiai oaeiae iane/aia oeeoaoaie. Oea caeaa?eueoiai
iiaooia? iiia?e, ui i?iaieoaaee aeayeeo ?aaeena??a ?iaeoe eoith?e.
Ia?aaeienaeuei?noue noeai?/ii? aeie? iia?e I.*aeeianueeiai e?e?oueny
naia a iani?eeiyoo? eiai “I?eiai? aeaie” ye oe?e?nii? naiaioe/ii?
nenoaie. Cie?aia, A.Iae??oieueae, TH.Etha?iia, A.Oi?oea iaiaaaeeny
ca?eueieoe iia?o I.*aeeianueeiai a?ae “iiaooiaeo iiae?iaeoeue”.

I?ioa, i?e aiae?oe/iiio iiaeyae? ia eiiiiceoe?th iia?e noathoue
i/aaeaeieie naiaioe/ia iaoiiaeai?noue oa ae?aiaoo?a?/iee aca?iica’ycie
on?o noeai “I?eiai? aeaie”. Oiio iaiiaeeeai nei?ioeoe iia?o oaeei /eiii,
uia a?ae oeueiai ia iino?aaeaeaea ?? naiaioe/ia oi?ia a oe?eiio.

Ni?eueiith eaieith i?ae oeeoaoaie iiaooo a iia?? ? ciae a?e: a?a ae?oae
(ia?oa ea?oeia); a?a ia ioce/ieo ?ino?oiaioao (ae?oaa ea?oeia, Aeoao
Iie?ie oa E?ce, ?iiain Iie?ie); a?a ae?a/ao, iiae?oa E?ce (ae?oaa
ea?oeia, “?in?enueea i?niy”); a?a o aeoiaaiiy (ae?oaa ea?oeia, noeaia oa
a??ici aoaa?iaioee); a?a aei?ineeo o ianea?aae (o?aoy ea?oeia); a?a
aeoi??a (?ioa?iaae?y “Ue?ina?aei?noue ianoooee”); a?a o oaoaeueio neeo
(“ae?aaeieeea” *aeae?inueeiai, No??ia), a?a-aaee/aiiy (/aoaa?oa ea?oeia,
Oi? iaoe?aieoeue), a?a a iiaa/aiiy (/aoaa?oa ea?oeia), a?a o eayooy
(oinoa ea?oeia), a?a o caeioai?noue (i?naiueea Oiinueeiai, nueiia
ea?oeia) ?, ia?aoo?, a?a a ea?oe.

Ii noo?, o “I?eia?e aeai?” a?aeoai?aii eaoaeia ?ai?, ye?
noi?iaiaeaeothoue ethaeeio c iiiaioo ?? ia?iaeaeaiiy aei iiiaioo nia?o?.
Oaeei /eiii, eiiiiceoe?th “I?eiai? aeaie” noai?th? iinooiiaa ?icai?oaiiy
iaoaoi?e “aeeooy-a?a”.

Iiaeae? ?ai? o “I?eia?e aeai?” iia’ycai? c iiaeaeyie iiaaae?iee ethaeae
XVIII oa XIX noie?oue. Eeth/iaeie iiiaioaie o iiaeaethaaii? ethaenueei?
iiaaae?iee a iia?? ?: a) noaaeaiiy aei aeeoeinoaa; a) noaaeaiiy aei
oaao?o; a) noaaeaiiy aei Aeie?; a) o?iii-oei iiaaae?iee Aa?iaia.

O ia?o?e ea?oei? cia?aaeaii aeaa oeie ?ai? ae?oae. Iaeia a?a iia’ycaia c
aiioe?eiith iaaeiooai?noth, ?iceoo?noth ae?oae. Ia oiioaaoeueiiio ??ai?
iia?e oeth a?o noi?iaiaeaeothoue ?ioiiaoe?? na?oo aeeoeinoaa –
caaaaeyiee, eieeneia?, caoeicia?aaeaiiy oea???iueeaiiy ioao?a. ?ioa a?a
– ia?o thieo caoeniee?a a?o/ecie, yeee a iia?? ? iia’ycaiei c? na?oii
aei?ineeo, ?aaeaiaioiaaiith anoaoeeith ia?aae?a. Ia?o iiaoaeiaaii ia
?ioiiaoe?yo a?aaoieo eaio?a, ?i?oaoe?? a?enueeiaeo o?oa oa aa?aaai?a.
Oaeei /eiii, a ?io?iaeoeoe?? ?ai?acaioothoueny aeaa oeie noaaeaiiy aei
na?oo aeeoeinoaa: oei aeiae ia iaae? XVIII – XIX noie?oue, eiee
aeeoeinoai aeciaaaeinue noni?euenoaii ye oi?eaeueiee, oe?iiee aoai o
aeeoo? ethaeeie, ? oei na?aaeeie XVIII noie?ooy, eiee noni?euenoai
noaaeeinue aei ae?oae ye aei iaeaiueeeo aei?ineeo.

Iie?o?ii?ci, aeniiiiaaiee a ?a?ao ae?oae, i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ia Ianea?aae?
o aaeueiiae? (o?aoy ea?oeia). Ooo ? an? ao?eaooe aaeo e?ioey XVIII
noie?ooy – ianoi?aeue, i?enooi?noue ?iia?ao?eoe?, oi? ni?aae?a.
Aiaeii/an, ia aaeo, iaio? naiaiaea a?ae ?aaeaiaio?a, yea aoea i?eoaiaiia
aaeai XIX noie?ooy. Caaaeyee ?e Eiycue ia? iiaeeea?noue ina?ae/eoenue
E?c?, Aa?iai caeeoa?oueny nai ia nai c? nai?ie aeoieaie, *aeae?inueeee,
No??i, Oiinueeee iiaeooue aeicaieeoe nia? ?icaaaeaoenue oa
“ae?aaeieoeny” o ianeao.

Ianoi?aeue “Ue?ina?aei?noue ianoooee”, yea aeeiio?oueny i?ae /an
ianea?aaeo, iii?ae ?ioei, oe?eaaa ye iiaeaeue oaao?o a oaao??. Naia
ianoi?aeue ? nai???aeiei oanoii aeey aa?i?a “I?eiai? aeaie”, yeee
aeeaco? o?iii-oeie ae?eiaeo in?a iia?e.

E?ca oa Aa?iai ia aa?ooue o/anoue o ianoi?ae?. Aeey ieo, ye ? aeey
ethaeeie na?aaeeie XVIII-ai aai XIX-ai noie?ooy, iiaeeea?noue
ia?aieooaoe na?o oaao?o c? nai?i aeeooyi i?aeoe/ii aeeeth/aia. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae ieo, o/anieee ianoi?ae? – Oiinueeee e Iie?ia –
ni?eeiathoue oaao? ye ethaee iaae? XVIII-XIX noie?oue. Aeey ieo
ienoaoeoai ? aeaea?aeii aeeoo?aeo i?ia?ai oa i?eeeaae?a iiaaae?iee.
Iie?ia ? Oiinueeee ia?aiaeyaathoueny, uia c?a?aoe uaneeaeo caeioaieo a
?ioa?iaae??, aea ?a?iaee aniaeo ?oi?o ia?ac?a ia iaiaaeo?oueny o?eueee
o/anoth a ianoi?ae?. Noeai?/ia iiaa Iie?ie e Oiinueeiai iiaoaeiaaia ca
c?aceaie e?oa?aoo?e iaae? noie?oue ? i?noeoue /eneaii? oeeoaoe. Ii noo?,
oe? ae?eia? iniae aeeiiothoue a iia?? ooieoe?? iaae?oi?a i?ae na?oii
oaao?o ? ?aaeueiei na?oii. Ia?ace Oiinueeiai ? Iie?ie iia’ycaii c
naiaioeeith Aeie?: Oiinueeee ?iciia?aea? Aa?iaiia? aaeaaeo, Iie?ia
ni?aa? aeey E?ce ?iiain-i?ia?uaiiy.

Aei Aeie? ye ? aei oaao?o noaaeaiiy ethaeae o ??ci? /ane aoei ??ciei. O
XVIII -io noie?oo? Aeiey aei??aithaaeanue Aeiaaeeo, o XIX – Oaooio.
Eiee Aa?iai io?eiaa ia ianea?aae? caieneo E?ce, a?i iinoaaeany aei
oeueiai oaeoo, naia ye aei Aeiaaeeo XVIII noi??//y. A ca ?ai?iei noieii
Aa?iai aaea caeeoeany nai ia nai c “aeaiii?/iei” Oaooiii XIX noie?ooy.

Iacaaaeath/e ia caoeiaee aioo?aae e?ioey XVIII noie?ooy, a?a o ea?oe a
iia?? iia’ycaia c naiaioeeith XIX noie?ooy. A?a Aa?iaia oa ?eaoeueeiai
oaeoe/ii ia?aoai?th?oueny ia ea?oy?nueeo aeoaeue, aeieea? aethc?y aei
ea?iiioianueeiai “Ianea?aaeo”.

O I.*aeeianueeiai Aa?iai – ethaeeia XIX noie?ooy. Ianaiia?aae, oea
ethaeeia ae??. sse oea aoei o XIX noi??//?, ?? a/eiee noiyoue iaae
ii/oooyie. Ethaeeia XIX noie?ooy eoeueoeao? na?eici?noue ye ii?io
iiaaae?iee. Iieaciai, ui Aa?iai na?eicii iinoaaeany aei aaeaaee, yeo
eiio ?iciia?ee ye aea?o, a “ae?aaeieeea” *aeae?inueeiai ? No??ia acaaae?
aoea aeey Aa?iaia “c aaeoc? ?ioa?iaeueiiai”.

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith aeai?yieia XIX noie?ooy aoea ?aei?noue noeeth a
iiaaae?ioe?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ia?o?e ?ioeo ae?eiaeo in?a iia?e, o ia?o??
Aa?iaia i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? aoaeue-ye? oeeoaoe, aa?iai?anuee?
aeneiaethaaiiy noee?noe/ii oe?e?ni?. ? ia?aoo?, a ia?ac? Aa?iaia
I.*aeeianueeee ao?eea iaea?eueo niaoeeo?/i? ?ene iiaaae?iee aeai?yieia
XIX noie?ooy, ye? iaoiiaeththoueny anoaoeeith aa?aae?caoe?? aeeooy.
sseui o cae/aeiiio aeeoo? neiai ni?e/eiy? ae?th, o iiaaae?ioe? ethaeeie
XIX noie?ooy – iaaiaee: ae?y i?aenoiiao?oueny neiaii. Neiai
ia?aoai?th?oueny ia i?aenoiie a/eieo, eiai ioe?ieo, noa? aeoii
i?iaieioaiiy eiai neiaie?/iiai ci?noo. O?iaeueia a??y Aa?iaia
i?i/eoo?oueny naia a oaeiio eeth/? – ye oi?ioethaaiiy ea?aeeiaeueieo
aeeoo?aeo iiceoe?e aa?iy.

Aaoia?ia?ao?/ia naiaioeea “I?eiai? aeaie”. Ia aeoieo A.Anao’?aa,
“ni/eiyy “Ieeiaoth aeaio”, ia aaaeay, /oi oai?eo, *aeeianeee a
niiinoaaeaiee Eecu e Aa?iaia auyaee iniiaiia iai?aaeaiea naiaai y:
ia?a/aiiinoue e eae neaaenoaea — ethaiiuonoai e nia?oe”. sseui
“aeaanoaaiiue eee Eecu” (A.Anao’?a) ? e??e/iith a?aiith iaaea?oaaiiy
I.*aeeianueeiai, oi Noa?a ? ao?eaiiyi i?noe/ieo aeao?a eiiiiceoi?a.
Oaeei /eiii, ia?ace E?ce — Aa?iaia — Noa?i? aeyaeythoueny iaoaoi?aie
iaeiiai naiaioe/iiai i?inoi?o – aioo??oiueiai, iniaenoiai na?oo naiiai
I.*aeeianueeiai.

A?aoeiy ? E?ca i?aoaiaeothoue ia iaeio e oo naio ?ieue o aeeoo? Aa?iaia
– ?ieue ia?a/aii?, eioaii?. Aiane?aeie oeueiai, a iia?? aeieeathoue
neooaoe??-aea?eieee, iai?eeeaae, ae?oaa oa /aoaa?oa ea?oeie. O ae?oa?e
ea?oei? Aa?iai ina?ae/o?oueny o eioaii? E?c?, a /aoaa?o?e – A?aoei?. A
iaio aeiaaeeao i?eionea?oueny “aoi?aiaiiy” i?ioeeaaeii? noi?iie: a
ae?oa?e ea?oei? c’yaey?oueny A?aoeiy, a /aoaa?o?e — E?ca. *aoaa?oa
ea?oeia naiaioe/ii i?iaeiaaeo? e?i?th ?iiaioe/iiai iiaa/aiiy,
caii/aoeiaaio a ae?oa?e ea?oei?. O oeueiio eiioaeno? ia?aiaeyaaiiy
A?aoei? o /aoaa?o?e ea?oei? iaaoaa? naino aan?eueiiai ia?aiaeyaaiiy. Oi?
iaoe?aieoeue “ini?ao?” a?iaeo “ia?a/aii?”. Aeieea? nieneiaa a?ea iii?ae
aeaiia ae?ai/ – aa/i?aie: oi?ii iaoe?aieoeue oa “a?ith ae?a/ao” c
ae?oai? ea?oeie (“?in?enueea i?niy”). “Ia?aiaeyaiaia ia?a/aia” ni?aa?
a???oo c iia?e Y?ao?? “??/a?ae Eaaiaa na?oea”. Aeieea? ineoieia?/ia
aeenoaioe?y: aoeiieia?/iee ci?no oeeoaoe (a iia?? Y?ao?? iieiaea
ae?a/eia /aea? ia eioaiiai) ia a?aeiia?aea? eiioaenoo, a naia – a?eo
A?aoei?.

Iiaea?ei?noue A?aoei? oa E?ce a iia?? I.*aeeianueeiai no?oeoo?iaaii ca
i?eioeeiii aea?eiee?a O.Aeinoiaanueeiai: E?ca oa Noa?a iathoue noiae?
iiene, ine?eueee ?oi? ooieoe?? o aoceao nthaeaoii? noaie ca?aathoueny.
Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui iaoye ia aea?eieeia?noue E?ce oa Noa?i? i?enooi?e
aaciina?aaeiuei o I.Iooe?ia. O neiaao iai?ee?ioe? iia?no? – “O Eecaaaou
ainieouaaaony aaaeiay ?iaenoaaiieoea” i?noeoueny iaoye ia
nii??aeiai?noue ae?ii/eo ia?niiaae?a. I?ioa, naia iineeaiiy
i?ioenoaaeaiiy E?ce oa Noa?i? A?aoei? aeeeeeaei a?ae/ooio
o?ainoi?iaoe?th iooe?inueei? iiaoeee a iia?? I.*aeeianueeiai.

Ae??oaeueiith aeey oai?o I.Iooe?ia ? i???ioaoe?y eiai “I?eiai? aeaie” ia
aeai? aiaeaeioo. O /ane iiaoa aiaeaeioii iaceaaee ei?ioeo ?iciia?aeue
i?i iacia/iee, aea oa?aeoa?iee aeiaaeie c aeeooy ?noi?e/ii? iniae. O
uiaeaiieeo I.Iooe?i ienaa, ui i?e aeai?? a?aei?oeee noiae?noue i?ae
noa?ith a?aoeiath oa eiyaeiath Iaoae??th Iao??aiith Aie?oeeiith, yea ia
oie /an aoea aieeaiaith o?ao?ith iaoa?ao?cueeiai i?eaeai?iiai na?oo.
Ie??i A?aoei?, ua iaeei ia?niiaae “I?eiai? aeaie” ? iin??i aeai?o
aiaeaeioo — oea i?iaoeue Aa?iaii.

Ia ii/aoeo O?O noie?ooy i?iaoeue aoa aieiaiith ia?niiith ia?iaeii?
ni?oiai? eoeueoo?e a ?in??. Eiai iaethaaee a ni?ii?oeueeeo iicao,
cia?aaeaee a eii?/ieo neooaoe?yo ia eoai/ieo iaethieao, i?i iueiai
ni?aaee aea?o?aeea? i?ni?, a?i aoa iaeiei c aieiaieo ia?niiaae?a
eyeueeiaiai oaao?o Iao?ooee. Oaeei /eiii, o “I?eia?e aeai?” I.Iooe?ia
eie?c?y “aiaeaeioo” ia?nii?o?eiaaia a ia?acao Aa?iaiia (i?ioey) oa
A?aoei? (?noi?e/ii? iniae). Aea e??i oe??? ciai?oiuei? e?i??, o iia?no?
a?aeoai?aii eiioe?eoia c?oeiaiiy ?iicaiiiai oa niieiia?/ii ?in?enueeiai,
Iaoa?ao?aa oa Iineae.

Iaoa?ao?a o “I?eia?e aeai?” I.Iooe?ia neiaie?co? ia?ac ?iicaioey. Aeey
Aa?iaiia Iaoa?ao?a – ??aeiee ae?i. I.Iooe?i ia caaaeo? i?i aeii?aeo
Aa?iaiia: aaeaeoaeee aei ni?ao e a?o?o, Aa?iaii aeoea? aoeeoeyie,
ia?aea? o o?aeoe?ao… Aa?iaii — Iaoa?ao?a.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae Aa?iaiia, E?caaaoa ?aai?aia – “?in?yiea”. I?enay/aio ?e
ae?oao aeaao iia?no? iiaoaeiaaii ia “iineianueeeo” iiaieo cai?ioao. E?ca
neaeeoue ca aeoeaeith a?ey “ieioea”, o Iooe?ia aiia ? “Eecaaaoa
Eaaiiaia”, oiaoi ?? ?i’y iiaeaii ia iao??a?oaeueiee iaia?, A?aoeiy
caa?oa?oueny aei ia? ii-iineianueee “iaoooea” aai “iaoue iiy”… E?ca —
Iineaa.

A iia?? I.*aeeianueeiai ia?ac Aa?iaia ci?iea naith naiaioeeo. C ia?aco
Aa?iaia cieeei ona, ui iaaaaeoaaei i?ioey c aiaeaeioo, aea caeeoeany
i?iaoeueeee eiei?eo. Aa?iai – i?aaenoaaiee “i?iaoeueeiai” Iaoa?ao?aa. A
iia?? “i?iaoeuee?noue” Aa?iaia aaaaoi /ei iaaaaeoaaea i?i “i?iaoeueeee”
noaoon naiiai I.*aeeianueeiai o ?in?enuee?e eoeueoo??.

A.Iacaee?inueeee aaaaea?, ui i?iaoeuee?noue o ioceoe? “I?eiai? aeaie”
aacia?a/ii ?nio?. ?? noai?aii naia ioce/ieie caniaaie ae?aciino?, ?,
ianaiia?aae, i?ioeeoiaaiei a iia?? aeai?ii. A.Iacaee?inueeee caa?oa?
oaaao ia oa, ui aaeaaea Oiinueeiai ia? ?ene, i?eoaiaii? i?iaoeuee?e
?iiaioe/i?e aaeaae?, a naia — eoieaoio aoaeiao, yeo oneeaaeiaii
aeaiaioaie ?icai?oaiiy, oa aaeaaeio no?ioo c oa?aeoa?iei ?eoiii.
Aeine?aeiee i?eionea?, ui o aaeaae? Oiinueeiai oeeoo?oueny aaeaaea
E.Eaaa ia neiaa A.I?oeeaae/a “Ai?aiaea”, yea c’yaeeany o 1835 ?ioe?.
Eeth/iaa ?ieue aaeaaee o ioce/i?e ae?aiaoo?a?? iia?e noa? aeey
A.Iacaee?inueeiai i?aenoaaith aeey o?aeooaaiiy “I?eiai? aeaie” ye
nai???aeii? iia?e-aaeaaee.

Iaia?a iiaaae?iee E?ce oa ?? ioi/aiiy a iia?? I.*aeeianueeiai aeo?eiaia
a iineianueeiio aeon?. O oeueiio I.*aeeianueeee iaaeeaea?oueny aei
I.Iooe?ia. Iai?eeeaae, “?in?enueea i?niy” ae?a/ao (ae?oaa ea?oeia)
aaniethoii ianoi?nia c oea?aiiii?noth iaoa?ao?cueeiai na?oo. Ne?ae
i?aee?aneeoe, ui aaea o OV??? noi??//? o aeuiio na?o? ia canoaeaeoaaeeny
i?ea?iaeuei?noue oa ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue ae?ii/iai oa?aeoa?o. Aea oae?
ae?iee aoee, ye i?aaeei, o Iinea?.

Ia ??ai? oii-oaaoee ?ioiiaoe?eio iiao E?ce iaiiaiaii cai?ioaie
?in?enueeeo “n?euenueeeo” i?naiue, naiaioeea yeeo iia’ycaia c
iineianueeei iiaooii. AEai?ia? aeoiee ia?o?? E?ce i?ioenoiyoue
“iaoa?ao?cueeei” aeai?ai – eoieaoai oa aaeaae?.

Iiiceoe?y Iaoa?ao?aa oa Iineae, yeo iiaeaii a ia?acao Aa?iaia oa E?ce,
aoea aeey I.*aeeianueeiai aaoia?ia?ao?/iith. Aei noai?aiiy “I?eiai?
aeaie” I.*aeeianueeee ia aeoaea aeia?ice/eeai noaaeany aei Iaoa?ao?aa ?
aoa i?eoeeueiei aei Iineae. I?ioa i?ney cae?i/aiiy iia?e eiiiiceoi?
iaiia ae iicaoany naiai “eiiieaeno Iaoa?ao?aa” oa inoaoi/ii i?eie?eany c
oeei i?noii.

Ie??i aeniiae?a, o CAEETH*IIIO ?ICAe?E? ie?aneaii ?noi?e/iee ?aeo?n
oai??? ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e a ioceoe?. Aeni?aneaia nooi?noue ioce/ii?
iaoaoi?e aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeeoue a?ae i?ioean?a noaiiaeaiiy oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ioce/ii? naiaioeee. Ii?yae c oeei, eoeueoo?ieiae
caa?oathoue oaaao ia ?nioaaiiy a ?noi??? eoeueoo?e ia??iae?a, eiee oie
/e ?ioee o?ii, ye iaaia naiaioe/ia oi?ia, ia?aoai?th?oueny ia
niaoeeo?/io iciaeo aoaeue-yeiai ooaeiaeiueiai aeneiaethaaiiy.
Aca?iica’ycie ?noi?e/ieo ae?a oa o?ii?a aea? i?aenoaae ?icaeyaeaoe oe?
o?ao?e ia?ainieneaiiy, e cie?aia iaoaoi?o, ye aeaea?aei ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
na?oini?eeiyooy, oi?ie na?aeiiino? o iaai? /ane, oiui.

AENIIAEE

Aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy noinothoueny a) oaiiiaia ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e a
oe?eiio, a) niaoeeo?ee i?iya?a ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e a ioceoe?.

Noiniaii ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e a oe?eiio, ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui
ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a ia? an? aeanoeaino? naiaioe/ii? nenoaie. ?icoi?iiy
ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e ye nenoaie coiiaeth? iiiaeeii?noue ?? oai?aoe/ieo
aecia/aiue. Ca’ycie aeaiaio?a o iaoaoi?? iaoiiaeaiee ia eia?eith
iiia?aaei?o iiae?e, a aeoieith-ia?acii, yeei aoei ii?iaeaeaii oaeno o
oe?eiio. C oeueiai aeieeaa? ?eoi?e/ia aeni?an?y iaoaoi?e, ?? iioaioe?ae
ye oaeoi?o ooaeiaeiuei? aeoeaiino? oai?o.

Ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a a ioceoe? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeiuei?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ioce/ieo aeneiaethaaiue. Oaiiiai ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e
caa??aa?oueny ia an?o noaae?yo aeeooy ioce/iiai oai?o: a?ae caaeoio –
/a?ac ao?eaiiy, aeeiiaiiy – aei iai’yo? neooa/a. Iayai?noue aaeaei?
iaoaoi?e a ioce/iiio oaeno? caeaoia cia/ii iineeeoe eiai ooaeiaei?
ia?aiao?e, a naia – /ooo?ai-aiioe?eio ia?aeiieea?noue, i?e?iaei?noue oa
ooaeiaei? a?aee?eooy.

Aeni?an?y ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e a ioceoe? coiiaeaia aeeoioii?/ieie
yeinoyie ?? naiaioe/ii? oi?ie: oiiaiino?-aeinoia??iino?,
oe?eueiino?-aeene?aoiino?, noaoe/iino?-aeoeaiino?. Aaaaeaiiy iaoaoi?e o
oaeno ia?aaeaa/a? iineeaia ooaeiaei? a?aoiaiooaaiiy oiai naiaioe/iiai
i?ioe??//y, yea ?ai?acaioo?oueny oeei o?iiii. Neioaenen ooaeiaeiueiai
a?aee?eooy o iaoaoi?? aaco?oueny ia ianiiae?aaiiio niieo/aii? oeeoao
?noi?e/ii onoaeaieo naiaioe/ieo nenoai – noee?a, aeai??a oa oaiaoecio
?ioeo oai??a.

Niaoeeo?/iith nooi?noth ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e ? ?ai?acaioaoe?y a?aieoe?
eiio?anoieo nai?ioe/ieo i?inoi??a. Iaoaoi?a ye aeae ooaeiaeiueiai
a?aee?eooy caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ioiiaoe?eii-naiaioe/ii? iai’yo? neooa/?a. O
neooaoe?yo naiaioe/iiai “caaoooy” iaoaoi?e iiaeooue cieeaoe c oaenoo aai
“a/eooaaoeny” aei iueiai.

Noiniaii ioce/iiai noaiiaeaiiy, iaoaoi?a iiaea caeiaoe ye
aioo??oiueioaenoiao, oae ? iaaeoaenoiao iiceoe??. O ia?oiio aeiaaeeo
iaoaoi?a aeyaey?oueny o oi?i? eiioeaio?iaaiiai oaiaoecio, o ae?oaiio –
oaiaoecio ?icina?aaeaeaiiai. O ianooaaieo neioaoe/ieo iieioiao –
iai?eeeaae, iia??, aaeao? – ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a, yea caeia? iaaeoaenoia?
iiceoe??, iiaea aeeiioaaoe ooieoe?? naiaioe/iiai “?aaeena?a”,
coiiaethth/e naiaioe/iee neioaenen ioce/iiai oai?o.

C oi/ee ci?o nioe?aeueiino?, ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a iaaea? oai?o oa?aeoa?
“y-aeneiaethaaiiy”. O iaoaoi?ao cao?eniaaii “anioe?aoeaiee neiaiee”
?oi?o aaoi??a.

Oai??y iaoaoi?e ? ?noi?e/ii i?ieeaith, a oiio ia? i?eioeeiiai
?ic?ieiooee oa?aeoa?.

Ia?ae?e iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??:

“Ieoo?aino?” N.I?ieio’?aa. Aeina?ae aeai?iaiai ao?eaoooaaiiy.// AEai?ia?
iiooee a ?in?enueeiio ioce/iiio ienoaoeoa? ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy oa
no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e ioce/ii-oaao?aeuei?e oai?/ino?. – Neia’yinuee:
NAeI?, 1993. – n. 26-30.

Aieaeueiee oeeee A.Eyoioeinueeiai “I?ny/i? o?i?” (aei ieoaiiy i?i
iiaoe/io i?aai?caoe?th)// Ioce/iee na?o Ai?ena Eyoioeinueeiai. – E.:
Oeaio?ioc?ioi?i, 1995. – N. 62 – 67.

“Ee?a. Ithc?e. Oano – 95”// Ioceea. – 1996. – ? 1. – N. 10 – 11.

A?a ca i?aaeeaie: ?ioa?a’th c eiiiiceoi?ii I.A??iaa?aii// Ioceea. –
1997. – ? 1. – N. 7.

Eiiiiceoi? iiaeiaai no?aiieeo: eioa?aueth n eiiiiceoi?ii Ae.Aoaie//
Iocueaeueiay aeaaeaiey. – 1998. – ? 2. – N. 40 – 41.

E aii?ino ii?aaeaeaiey oa?ieia “iaoaoi?a” a iocueiaaaeaiee. // Ee?anueea
ioceeiciaanoai: Ca. Noaoae. – Aei.1 – E.: EAeAIO ?i. ?.I.Ae???a, 1998. –
N. 142 – 47.

Noeoe Ieoaeea Aaiaeaeaaa: aaoi?neia eioiie?iaaiea// ?a?aenueea ?noi??y
oa eoeueoo?a a e?a?iao Oeaio?aeueii? oa No?aeii? ?a?iie: Ca. iaoe.
i?aoeue. – O.I. – E.: ?inoeooo THaea?ee, Iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?ioaea ?iai?
A.?.Aa?iaaenueeiai, 1998. – N. 353 — 356.

Tchaikovsky’s Liturgy as a directive for the world-outlook of the
Russian intelligentsia. //Musikgeschichte in Mittel- und Osteuropa.
Mitteilungen der internationalen Arbeitsgemeinschaft an der Technischen
Universit(t Chemnitz. Heft 2. – Gudrun Schr(der Verlag, Chemnitz 1998. –
P. 21-23.

Aiioaoe??:

Aeuey/eiaa A.A. Iaoaoi?a eae oaeoi? ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aeoeaiinoe
iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa eneonnoaiaaaeaiey
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 17.00.03 — iocueaeueiia eneonnoai. — Iaoeeiiaeueiay
iocueaeueiay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu ei. I.E.*aeeianeiai, Ieienoa?noai
eoeueoo?u e eneonnoa Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?ino ii?aaeaeaiey iiiyoey “iaoaoi?a” a
iocueiaaaeaiee. A ?aaioa aia?aua iaoaoi?a ?anniao?eaaaony eae oaeoi?
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aeoeaiinoe iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey. A nayce n yoei
nenoaiaoece?iaaiu nouanoaothuea oai?ee iaoaoi?u a ?aeo?na eo iioaioeeaea
a oneiaeyo iocueiaaaeaiey; aeeooa?aioee?iaaiu iiiyoey “ooaeiaeanoaaiiay
iaoaoi?a” e “ycueiaay iaoaoi?a”; auyaeai nenoaiiue oa?aeoa?
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie iaoaoi?u a iocueaeueiii i?iecaaaeaiee.

A iniiaa anao aiaeeoe/aneeo caeeth/aiee aeenna?oaoeee eaaeeo iieiaeaiea
i oii, /oi aeaaiui i?eciaeii ooaeiaeanoaaiiie iaoaoi?u a iocuea yaeyaony
aa “?aniiciaaaaiinoue” ia neoo. Iaoaoi?a a iocueaeueiii oaenoa iino?iaia
ia naiaioe/aneii i?ioeai?a/ee, aa yeni?anneaiinoue naiii/aaeaeia e
aaoiiiiia io eeoa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo eioa?i?aoaoeee neooaoaeae e
enneaaeiaaoaeae. A ioee/ea io eiuo oeao? eiineacaiey – aeeaai?ee,
iaoiieiee, neiaiea – oieueei iaoaoi?a ia?ooaao aicieeathuoth a i?ioeanna
noaiiaeaiey iocueaeueiie oi?iu naiaioe/aneoth eia?oeeth, ac?uaay
eiioaeno i?iecaaaeaiey naiae iaiaeeaeaiiinoueth.

Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay iaoaoi?a a iocuea i?aaenoaao eae eiioeaio?e?iaaiiia
oaiiia?aciia n?aaeioi/ea ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ioe?uoee eiie?aoiiai oaenoa.
?acaeoea ?ai?acaioe?iaaiiuo iaoaoi?ie naiaioe/aneeo noa? ninoaaeyao
niune e oieeaeueiinoue iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey a oeaeii. Iaoa?eaeii
aeey iaoaoi? aunooiatho enoi?e/anee noaaeeueiua e iioiio
naiaioece?iaaiiua yaeaiey-aeaiiinoe: noeee, aeai?u, iocueaeueiue
oaiaoeci. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay iaoaoi?a ia aeeth/aaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii a
iocueaeueiia noaiiaeaiea, a ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii n iei niioiineony,
aeey yoiai o?iia niaoeeoe/aneeie yaeythony oaeea neioaene/aneea
no?oeoo?u eae iiioaae, oeeoe?iaaiea, niaiauaiea iaia?anaeathueony ieaiia
n ?aciui oa?aeoa?ii eioiiaoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey (iai?eia?,
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea noaiiaeaiey – ia-noaiiaeaieth a neooaoeeyo inoeiaoi)
e ae?.

Iniiaiua eiino?oeoeaiua eeiee a ?annoaeaeaieyo iicaieeee
i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ooaeiaeanoaaiiay iaoaoi?a a iocuea – yoi oi?ia
naiaioeei-oaiaoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ay ?ai?acaioe?oao iin?aaenoaii
oeeoe?iaaiey enoi?e/aneeo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo eee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo noeeae,
aeai?ia eee oai ae?oaeo ni/eiaiee a?aieoeo eiio?anoiuo naieioe/aneeo
i?ino?ainoa, oeene?oy oai naiui ia?aoiae noauaeoeaiie aaoi?neie aeiioacu
i ie?icaeaiee a oieeaeueioth nenoaio n?aaenoa au?aceoaeueiinoe
eiie?aoiiai iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey.

Enoiaey ec oiai, /oi iaoaoi?a iiaeao aoiaeeo a oaeno eae “ia?niiaae”
naiaioe/aneie oaaoeu e iiaeao aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa ii?aaeaeaiiie
naiaioe/aneie i?ia?aiiu, oi?ie?oy a oaenoa ii naiei i?eioeeiai
naiaioe/aneoth oi?io, a ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaii aeaeaiea ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
iaoaoi? ia oiioaaoeueiua (o/anoaothuea iaiin?aaenoaaiii a naiaioe/aneie
oi?ia iocueaeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey) e “?aaeenne?othuea” (iaoaoi?u,
naiaioe/aneay yeniiceoeey eioi?uo auianaia “ca eaae?” i?iecaaaeaiey).

Aeey aiaeeca naiaioe/aneie oi?iu iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee, a eioi?uo
caaeaenoaiaaiu eiua aeaeu eneonnoa, iaiaoiaeeia oaeay aeaoeieoeey eae
“ano?a/iua iaoaoi?u”, o.a. iaoaoi?u ia?aciaaiiua ?aciuie ii iaoa?eaeo
naiaioe/aneeie ieaiaie i?iecaaaeaiey. Neaaeoao oaeaea o/eouaaoue, /oi
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua iaoaoi?u a iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaieyo iiaoo auoue
i?aaenoaaeaiu eae aaeeie/ii, oae e a eiiieaena, a yoii neo/aa aicieeaao
neooaoeey iieeiaoaoi?e/iinoe.

Iniiaiua oai?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey aeenna?oaoeee eeethno?e?othony
i?eia?aie iaoaoi? oi?oaiueyiiiai oeeeea N.I?ieioueaaa “Ieiieaoiinoe”,
aieaeueiiai oeeeea A.Eyoioeineiai “Eoiiua oaie” e iia?u I.*aeeianeiai
“Ieeiaay aeaia”.

Ooaeiaeanoaaiiia i?ino?ainoai “Ieiieaoiinoae” N.I?ieioueaaa oi?ie?oao
iaoaoi?a, yeniiie?oaiay ia?aie iueanie oeeeea. Aa ia?aciay eiino?oeoeey
noaiiaeony iiaeaeueth-ia?aaeeaiie aeai?iaie ae?aiaoo?aee “Ieiieaoiinoae”
a oeaeii. Aiaeec aeai?iaie oi?iu “Ieiieaoiinoae” auyaee iaiaeeaeaiioth
iauiinoue oeeeea N.I?ieioueaaa n oeeeeii “Ieiieaoiia” E.Aaeueiiioa,
i?iecaaaeaieai, eioi?ia ia niaea?aeeo no?ie, acyouo eiiiiceoi?ii eae
yiea?ao aeey naiaai i?iecaaaeaiey.

A aieaeueiii oeeeea A.Eyoioeineiai aicieeaao neooaoeey ano?a/iiai
iieeiaoaoi?ecia. Iiyoe/aneee ?yae i?aaieciaai ?acaa?iooie iaoaoi?ie
/a?aaeiaaiey oac Eoiu, a iocueaeueiue – ia no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/aneii
o?iaia aini?iecaiaeeo iiaeaeue iee?ieiniina.

A “Ieeiaie aeaia” I.*aeeianeiai i?enoonoaotho eae iaoaoi?u-“ia?niiaaee”,
aeaenoaea eioi?uo eieaeueii e iiae/an ia?aie/eaaaony iaeiie noeaiie, oae
e iaoaoi?u-“?aaeenna?u”, eioi?ua a i?iecaaaeaiee iaoneaaeeaatho
iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey naiaioe/aneiai nthaeaoa. Iai?eia?, a iia?a
i?aaenoaaeai naiaia?aciue “eaoaeia” ea?, eioi?ua nii?iaiaeaeatho
/aeiaaea io aai ?iaeaeaiey e aei iiiaioa nia?oe, oaeei ia?acii
eiiiiceoeey “Ieeiaie aeaiu” i?aaieciaaia ?aaeecaoeeae a oaenoa
?aaeenne?othuae iaoaoi?u “aeeciue-ea?a”.

A caeeth/eoaeueiii ?acaeaea ?aaiou, e?iia auaiaeia, i/a?/eaaaony
enoi?e/aneee ?aeo?n oai?ee ooaeiaeanoaaiiie iaoaoi?u a iocuea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iia iiiyoea, oaeoi? ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
aeoeaiinoe, ooaeiaeanoaaiiay iaoaoi?a, naiaioe/aneia i?ioeai?a/ea,
a?aieoea naieioe/aneeo i?ino?ainoa, oeeoe?iaaiea, iieeiaoaoi?eci.

Ae’y/eiaa I.A. Iaoaoi?a ye oaeoi? ooaeiaeiuei? aeoeaiino? ioce/iiai
oai?o. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 17.00.03 — ioce/ia ienoaoeoai. —
Iaoe?iiaeueia ioce/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?i.I.?.*aeeianueeiai,
I?i?noa?noai eoeueoo?e oa ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi aecia/aiiy iiiyooy iaoaoi?e o
ioceeiciaanoa? oa aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai o?iio ye oaeoi?a ooaeiaeiuei?
aeoeaiino? ioce/iiai oai?o. O ?iaio? nenoaiaoeciaaii ?nioth/? oai???
iaoaoi?e o ?aeo?n? ?o iioaioe?aeo noiniaii ioceeiciaanoaa; aeaii
aeao?i?oe?? iiiyooyi “ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a”, “iiaia iaoaoi?a”, aeyaeaii
nenoaiiee oa?aeoa? ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e o ioce/iiio oai??. On?
aiae?oe/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy nie?athoueny ia oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui aaaeeeaith
iciaeith ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e a ioceoe? ? iiaeeea?noue ?? ?ici?ciaaaiiy
ia neoo. Iioaioe?ae ooaeiaeiuei? aeoeaiino? iaoaoi?e iia’ycaii ?c
naiaioe/ii eiio?anoiei aei eiioaenoo oeeooaaiiyi ?noi?e/ieo,
iaoe?iiaeueieo aai ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo noee?a, aeai??a aai oai ?ioeo
ioce/ieo oai??a. Aieiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? i?i?ethno?iaaii
i?eeeaaeaie iaoaoi? oi?oai?aiiiai oeeeeo N.I?ieio’?aa “Ieoo?aino?”,
aieaeueiiai oeeeeo A.Eyoioeinueeiai “I?ny/i? o?i?” oa iia?e
I.*aeeianueeiai “I?eiaa aeaia”.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ia iiiyooy, oaeoi? ooaeiaeiuei?
aeoeaiino?, ooaeiaeiy iaoaoi?a, naiaioe/ia i?ioe??//y, iaaea nai?ioe/ieo
i?inoi??a, oeeooaaiiy, iie?iaoaoi??ci.

Dyachkova O.A. Metaphor as a factor of the artistic activity of musical
work. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 17.00.03 — musical arts.-
P.I.Tchaikovsky National Musical Academy of Ukraine, Ministry of Culture
and Arts of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to the problems of the definition for the
concept of metaphor in musicology and consideration of this trope as a
factor of artistic activity of musical work. The existing theories of
metaphor are systematized in the aspect of their potential in
musicology; the concepts of “artistic metaphor” and “linguistic
metaphor” are differentiated; the system nature of the artistic metaphor
in the musical work is revealed. All the analytical conclusions are
based on the principle that the main sign of the artistic metaphor in
the musical work is its “recognizability” by ear. Potential of the
metaphor artistic activity is connected with the quotation of
historical, national or individual styles, genres or themes from other
musical works, that is semantically contrasting with context. The basic
principles of the dissertation are illustrated with the examples of
metaphor from the piano cycle Fleeting Moments by S.Prokofiev, vocal
cycle Moon Shadows by B.Liatoshynsky, and opera The Queen of Spades by
P.Tchaikovsky.

Key words: interdisciplinary concept, factor of artistic activity,
artistic metaphor, semantic contradiction, boundaries of semiotic
spaces, quotation, polymetaphorism.

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