2

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

E?na?iei Ieaia Aanee?aia

316.722:316.752

Iaioae?oao: nooi?noue oa iniaeeaino? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iya?a

22.00.06. — Cioe?ieia?y eoeueoo?e, iaoee oa ina?oe

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiii?iiao?ianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoaoi

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee: Aeieoi? inoi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ai?iaeyiaiei Aieoi? Aai?aieiae/,

Aeiii?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee
oiiaa?neoao,

caaiaeoth/ee eaoaae?ith nioeiieiai?.

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: Aeieoi? oieinionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

EICIAIE Aieoi? Ieaenieiae/,
caaiaeoth/ee

eaoaae?ith eoeueoo?ieiai?
Iaoeiiiaeueii?

TH?eaee/ii? Aeaaeaii? Oe?a?ie ii.
ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai

Eaiaeeaeao nioeiieiai/ieo iaoe,

IIUOEIIA Ieueaa Ieeiea?aia,

noa?oee aeeeaaea/ eaoaae?e nioe?ieia??

Oa?eianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oiiaa?neoaoo

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa: Iaoeiiiaeueiee oiiaa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

eaoaae?a aaeocaai? nioe?ieia??.

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny “9” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 13 aiaeeii ia
caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 02.02.06. i?e Oa?eianueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoaoi ca aae?anith: 310002, i. Oa?eia, aoe.
Ie?iiineoeueea, 1, aoae. 2-29.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
310077, i. Oa?e?a, iaeaeai Naiaiaee, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee “9” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ?.I.
Oa?aiao.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia, ia?o ca
ana, oei, ui a ?acoeueoao? e?aoo noa?i? aea?aeaaii? ?aeaieia?? oa a
oiiaao a?aenooiino? iiaeo caaaeueiiaeciaieo nioe?aeueieo i???ioe??a
?nio? aino?a iaiao?aei?noue caa?iaiiy aei aea/aiiy aeooiaieo i?aeaaeei
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa oa aeyaeaiiy eiai iaioaeueiino? a neeaaeieo
oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.

Nueiaiaei? aoaeue-ye? ni?iae cae?enieoe ci?ie a Oe?a?i?, yeui iaoooaaoe
iaioae?oaoii a?iiaaeyi, i?e?a/ai? ia iaaaea/o, oiio ui aeey ?aai?iaoe??
oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo iniaenoino?, yeee eaaeeoue a iniia? ?noi?e/iiai
i?ia?ano, eii/a iaiao?aeii aea/aiiy iaeiiai c iaea?eueo cia/oueo ? ia
nueiaiaei? iaei aeine?aeaeaieo eiai neeaaeiaeo /anoei — iaioae?oaoo.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a inoaii? ?iee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aei
aeine?aeaeaiue oe??? i?iaeaie ia ciaioo?oueny, iaiao?aeii aeciaoe, ui
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeue, ye? ?ice?eaathoue nooi?noue iaioae?oaoo
acaaae? e iaioae?oaoo oe?a?ioe?a cie?aia, eiai ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iya?a,
cayce?a c ineoieia??th oa ?aeaieia??th a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie, iiee ui iaia?.

A?eueoa oiai, naiee aaciaee ci?no aoooy oe?a?inueei? nioe?aeueiino?
neeaaeathoue ??ci? eiiiiiaioe, ci?noe, oe?iiino?, nenoaiia ?aei?noue
yeeo iiee ui ia ciaeoea oe?e?niiai iaoeiaiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy. Oey
ianoaaeia aeaiaeeoue aeaio i?iaeaiaoeeo aei ?ic?yaeo nioe?aeueii
cia/oueo ? eii/a aeooaeueieo o oai?aoe/iiio nain? caaaeaiue. O oe?eiio
aeine?aeaeaiiy ??cieo i?iya?a aeooiaiino? caaaeaee aoei
ooiaeaiaioaeueiith oaiith a nioe?aeueiiio i?ciaii?, ? oiio
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaioaeueiino? ye aeooiaiiai ooai?aiiy, ?? niaoeeo?/ieo
i?iya?a, oi?i, aeae?a, oei?a ?inoeooae?caoe?? ? aeooaeueiei o oaeeo
aniaeoao.

O oai?aoe/iiio ieai?:

Ii-ia?oa, iaiao?aei?noue iaoeiaiai inieneaiiy cie?aia oe?a?inueeiai
iaioae?oaoo oa eiai ie?aieo no?oeoo?ieo iaeeieoeue aeiaaa? iiooeo iiaeo
oa ?anoaa?aoe?? o?aaeeoe?eieo eaoaai??e, oaeeo, ye “iaoe?iiaeueia
?aeay”, “ia?iaeia aiey”, “noni?eueiee aeoo”, “eieaeoeaia iana?aeiia”,
“aeooa ia?iaeo” oa ?i. Oe? eaoaai??? a?aeia?aaeathoue neeaaeio ?aei?noue
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo, ia?acieo, iiiyo?eieo, aeooiaieo,
?ioaeaeooaeueieo oa ?ioeo oaiiiai?a, ye? iiee ui ia neeaeeny iiai?noth ?
oiio aaaeei aecia/athoueny. Aaaaeaiiy a aeeneo?neaiee eiioaeno oa?i?ia
“iaioae?oao” aeayeith i??ith aeiiiaith? eaoaai??aeueio eaeoio i?e
aiae?c? oa aecia/aii? iacaaieo nioe?aeueieo yaeu.

Ii-ae?oaa, iiaeaeueoa inieneaiiy i?iaeai ?icaeoeo ?noi??? oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeooy caoaeeei ?ioaineaiee iiooe iiaeo ne?a,
iiiyoue, eaoaai??e, eaoaai??aeueieo aeie?a, neiaie?a, ca aeiiiiiaith
yeeo iienai niaoeeo?/ieo ?en nioe?aeueiiai aeooo iiaeia iaaeaoe ci?noo,
iaea?eueo a?aeiia?aeiiai i?e?iae? ia?eoa. Oeei “iaoa??aeii” a
nioe?ieia?? noaei iiiyooy iaioae?oaoo.

O iaoiaeieia?/iiio ieai? aeooaeuei?noue oaie iiaycaia ?c ni?iaaie
?aeaioeo?eoaaoe iniaeeaino? eiie?aoieo iaoe?iiaeueieo oa
aoiinioe?aeueieo oei?a. Aeieeea iio?aaa aeae?eeoe aeaye? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene
aeooiaiino?, na?aeiiino?, aeooo, nioe?aeuei? onoaiiaee, i???ioaoe??,
oe?iiino? oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, aeayeith i??ith “a?aeiiaeoe a i?aaao”
oe?a?inueeo niaoeeo?eo oa c?noaaeoe ?? c ?ioeie iaoe?iiaeueieie
ni?eueiinoyie a iaaeao neiayinueeiai noia?aoiino, ui neeaany ?noi?e/ii,
oa ca eiai iaaeaie.

Eaoaai??y “iaioae?oao” i?noeoue o nia? i?oeiee iaoiaeieia?/iee
iioaioe?ae, yeee aeicaiey? aeeaoa aeine?aeeoe aeooiai? i?aeaaeeie
no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, yea ia?aaoaa? ia oeyoo
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aei aeaiie?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

O nioe?aeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eiiio ieai? aaaeeeai c?a?aoe, nenoaiaoecoaaoe
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeo, caaaeueiinioe?ieia?/io,
eiie?aoii-nioe?ieia?/io ?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei yaeu, oaiiiai?a nioe?aeueiiai
na?oo o noa?? aeooiaiino?, eiie?aoieo iaioaeueieo no?oeoo?, ?o oei?a
oiui.

Caaaeueiia?aeiii, ui iaioae?oao ?icaeyaea?oueny ye aeineoue neeaaeia oa
aaaaoi??aiaaa yaeua. Iaeiae aieiai? eiiiiiaioe, ye? neeaaeathoue eiai
no?oeoo?o, aein? iaa?oue ia iacaai?. A no/ani?e neooaoe?? a?aenooiino?
oaeiai ?iaeo ?ioi?iaoe?? a iaoeiaiio i?ciaii? iaiiaeeeai aeaoe ie?aeii?,
ci?noiaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee yaeua a oe?eiio.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie. Iiiyooy “iaioae?oao” cao?aeiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy ? cono??/a?oueny aaea a i?aoeyo ?.Aia?niia (1856 ?.).
Iaeiae ii/aoie nenoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co ie?aeiiai oa aaaaoiieaiiaiai
oa?i?ia “iaioae?oao” aoei iieeaaeaii a 20 ?. OO no. O o?aieiiiai?e
aoiai?oa?enoeoe? — oaeeie aeine?aeieeaie, ye I.I?ono, E.Eaa?-A?theue,
AE.Eaoaa?. I?ci?oa o?aioeocuee? aeine?aeieee oeiee “Aiiae?a” ii/aee, ye
a?aeiii, ?icaeyaeaoe ?noi?e/io iaoeo, aeoiaey/e, a ia?oo /a?ao, ia c
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo aca?iei, a c oi/ee ci?o no?oeoo? aeooiaiiai
aeeooy nioe?oio, cie?aia, aeine?aeaeoaaeeny aeoaea aaaeeea? oe?ii?ni?
iii?e eiai na?aeiiino? (I.Aeie, E.Oaa?, A.Aa?ao oa ?i.).

Eeane/ieie c?aceaie ?aeiino?oeoe?? iaioae?oaoo ??cieo aiio ? i?aoe?
iiaiai iieie?iiy oeiee “Aiiae?a”: AE.Ea Aioa, ?.Iaiaeo, AE.Aetha? oa
?ioeo ?noi?ee?a, a oiio /ene? ?noi?ee?a eoeueoo?e, iaoee, ienoaoeoaa —
E.Oaeceiae, AE.-I.Aa?iaia, I.O?aieanoaiy, A.Iaiionuee?.

Ie?aii iio??aii aeacaoe i?aoe? i?aaenoaaiee?a aoi?/ii? ineoieia??:
Ooaeioaey, Eaoea?ona, Aoiaeoa. ?o ?iaioe ni?yiiaai? ia aiae?c aaiace oa
neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a ia?iaeiiai aeooo. Aaaeeeaei aoaiii o ?ic?iaoe?
i?iaeaie noaee i?aoe? A.O?iia (cie?aia “Aaanoai io naiaiaeu”), yeee aa?a
o iaoeiaee ia?a iiiyooy “nioe?aeueiee oa?aeoa?”, yea ca nai?th nooi?noth
? eiino?oeoe??th eieaeoeaii? iaioaeueiino?. C ii/aoeo 50-o ??. aea/aiiy
“nioe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o” i?iaeiaaeea aia?eeainueeee nioe?ieia
Ae.??niai. Iiiyooy iaioae?oaoo /a?ac caa?iaiiy aei a?eueo caaaeueieo
no?oeoo? nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? na?aeiiino? ?icaeyaeaeiny a i?aoeyo I.Aaaa?a,
A.Aaeea?a, O.Ia?niina. Aia?eeainuee? nioe?ieiae, aeine?aeaeoth/e
aeooiai? caeiiii??iino? caaaeueiinioe?aeueieo i???ioaoe?e ethaeae,
?icaeyaeath/e aioo??oi?, aeeaeii? oaiaeaioe?? ?o aaiethoe?? a cayceo c
?icaeoeii noni?eueieo nenoai, ?ic?iaeee niaoe?aeuei? eiioeaiooaeuei?
noaie aiae?co nioe?aeueieo nenoai. I?iaeai? iaioaeueiino? i?eae?eyee
aaeeeo oaaao E.THia oa A.Eaaii, ye? iniaeeai aeeaiei aeine?aeaeoaaee
noa?o iana?aeiiiai ? ?ic?iaeee aaaeeeaa aeey ?icoi?iiy iaioaeueiino?
a/aiiy i?i ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue.

Iniaeeaee aoai o aea/aii? iaioaeueiino? iiaycaiee c aeine?aeaeaiiyi
eoeueoo?ieo iaaenenoai I.Ni?ie?iei, yeee aaaaeaa, ui eiaeia noni?euenoai
iiaeia iienaoe oa c?icoi?oe o?eueee /a?ac i?ecio i?eoaiaiii? eiio
nenoaie “cia/aiue, ii?i, oe?iiinoae”.

O a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e aeoioe? niaoe?aeueia aea/aiiy iaioae?oaoo ye
naiino?eiiai yaeua ia ciaeoei oaeiai oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy, ye ca
ei?aeiiii. Oea, iaeiae, ia icia/a?, ui a?o/eciyi? a/ai? ?iaeeoa?aioi? ?
aei naii? i?iaeaiaoeee, ? aei oaiaeaioe?e na?oiai? iaoee, iiaycaieo c
oe??th i?iaeaiaoeeith.Oae? a/ai?, ye I.ss.Aeaieeaanueeee o i?aoe?
“?inney e Aa?iia”, I.?.Einoiia?ia a ?iaio? “Aeaa ?onneea ia?iaeiinoe”,
E.I.Ea?naa?i o “Aaaaeaiee a enoi?eth”, I.I.Einueeee a “Oa?aeoa?a
?onneiai ia?iaea”, aeine?aeaeoaaee iniaeeaino? oa?aeoa?o oe?a?ioe?a,
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, oeyoe ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo iaioaeueieo
oe?iiinoae.

Cia/iee aianie o aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaee ? nooiino? iaioaeueiino?
c?iaeee ?aaeyinuee? a/ai? E.E.Ieaoiiia ? A.E.Oeaaeia, ye? aea/aee
i?iaeaie noni?eueii? na?aeiiino? oa ineoieia?? iniaenoino?, iniiai?
aioo??oi? iaoai?cie iioeaaoe?? oe?iiinoae ? ii?i.

Iaeaeeae/a aei aea/aiiy aen?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae iaioaeueiino?
i?ae?eoea a?oia i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e. Oae?
aeine?aeieee, ye A.Eoeue/eoeueeee, I.Eooi??, Ae.*eaeaanueeee, I.
Oeaieaae/, A.Oeeiaaeenoee, A.ssi?a, aiae?coaaee nooi?noue aeooiaieo
i?aeaaeei nioe?oio, ieoaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy na?aeiiiai oa iana?aeiiiai,
oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaioaeueiino?. A no/anieo oiiaao ?yae
oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo — I.Aeii/aiei, A.O?aiiaa, ?.Eenee, I.Aiaoaiei,
I.I?uaiei oa ?io? — aeoeaii ? ie?aeii ?ic?iaeythoue i?iaeaie nooiino? ?
ooieoe?? iaioae?oaoo.

O no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e nioe?ieia?/i?e iaooe? c i?iaeai iaioae?oaoo ye
iaoeiai? eaoaai??? oa ye ia?eoa aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeyoueny na?eici?
aeeneon??. “E?oaeee no?e”, i?enay/aiee aiae?co iiiyooy “iaioaeuei?noue”
a noni?eueieo iaoeao, i?ioiaeea ia noi??ieao aeo?iaeo “Aaiaca.
O?einio?y. ?noi??y. Iie?oieia?y” (1995 ?.). Aeine?aeaeaiiy ??cieo
aniaeo?a iaioae?oaoo aoei i?iaaaeaii ia noi??ieao oaeeo aeo?iae?a, ye
“Iieeoeea e aeanoue”, “O?einionueea ? nioe?ieia?/ia aeoiea”, “A?/a”,
“Aeca?i”.

I?ae?aa?iiaeuei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? eiioa?aioe?? “Iaioae?oao oa
i?ioe??//y no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa: iie?oieia?/i?,
nioe?ieia?/i?, eoeueoo?ieia?/i? aniaeoe” (Caii??aeaey, 1993-1994),
“Iieeoeea e aeanoue” (Caii??aeaey, 1993), “Iiaeieaiiy oia?i?cio oa
aeno?ai?cio — iaeaaaeeea?oa ia?aaeoiiaa i?aeiaoe?iiaeueii? ceaaiaee ?
a?iiaaeyinueeiai ie?o a Oe?a?i?” (Ee?a, 1993), “Iaoeeiiaeueiay
ineoieiaey e aeooiaiua oeaiiinoe ia?iaea” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1995),
“Oa?ueeianeea nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey” (Oa?ueeia, 1995) aoee i?enay/ai?
aiae?co oaeoi??a oi?ioaaiiy iaioae?oaoo, iniaeeainoyi aeyao iaioae?oaoo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa,
aeine?aeaeaiith ?noi?e/iiai ? no/aniiai ei??iiy oe?a?inueeiai
iaioae?oaoo.

Caneoaiao? ia oaaao aeine?aeaeaiiy I.A.Oeoiiiai? oa I.I.Aeaaeaeiai?
“?onneee yoiin: ?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe iaioaeeoaoa”, i?enay/aia
aeoaea neeaaei?e, aaaaoianiaeoi?e i?iaeai? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iya?a ?
niaoeeo?ee ?in?enueeiai iaioae?oaoo. Iaeiae iaiao?aeii iniaeeai
i?aee?aneeoe, ui i?iaeaia ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae iaioae?oaoo
oe?a?ioe?a iiee ui ?ic?iaeaia iaaeinoaoiuei. Oe?e?niiai, iiiia?ao?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/aiiai ia?ai?e aeena?oaioii oai?, iaia?, ? oiio
aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aaoi?a ? ia?oith ni?iaith caiiaieoe oeth eaeoio o
aea/aii? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iya?a oe?a?inueeiai iaioae?oaoo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiee c aea?aeathaeaeaoieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie eaoaae?e nioe?ieia?? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, a ani??aioo?? yei? i?ioiaeeea iaa/aiiy caeiaoaa/ea:
1.“I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? iieiae?
Oe?a?ie”(1993- 1995??.).2.“Aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae oa
nioe?aeueieo i???ioaoe?e iieiae? I?eaei?i?ia’y” (1996 – 1997 ??.). An?
oaie caoaa?aeaeai? I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae oa nooo?aeo oa?aeoa?enoee
iiiyooy “iaioae?oao” o eaoaai??aeuei?e nenoai? nioe?ieia?/ieo ciaiue,
no?oeoo?e ? niaoeeo?ee iaioae?oaoo ye oaeoi?a nioe?aeueiiai aoooy oa
aeyaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iya?a iaioae?oaoo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe?? iinoaaeai? oae?
iaoiaeieia?/i? oa i?eeeaaei? caaaeaiiy:

— aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?noo iiiyooy “iaioae?oao” ? aecia/aiiy eiai i?noey
oa cia/aiiy a eaoaai??aeuei?e nenoai? nioe?ieia?/ii? iaoee;

— a?aeae?eaiiy ? aiae?c iniiaieo aeaiaio?a, ye? neeaaeathoue no?oeoo?o
iaioae?oaoo ye nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai oaiiiaia;

— aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iiiyoue, ui ? iaiao?aeieie aeey aiae?co
iaioae?oaoo ye oaiiiaia nioe?aeueiiai na?oo a noa?? aeooiaiino?, a
oaeiae ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c iiiyooyi “iaioae?oao”;

— aiae?c ?aeeieo ia?eoeaieo aeaoa?i?iaio oi?ioaaiiy
caaaeueiioe?a?inueei? oa eiie?aoii-?aa?iiaeueii? iaioaeueii? niaoeeo?ee;

— aeyaeaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae i?iya?a aeayeeo ?en iaioae?oaoo
oe?a?ioe?a ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa.

Iaoiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. O aeai?e ?iaio? aeei?enoaiee
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee i?aeo?ae aiae?co iiiyooy “iaioae?oao”. Aaoi?
aeine?aeaeaiiy nie?a?oueny ia ?ic?iaeai? a aoiai?oa?ieo iaoeao
iieiaeaiiy, ui noinothoueny cia/aiiy oa nioe?aeueieo ooieoe?e
iaioae?oaoo a noni?eueiiio aooo?, aca?iicayceo ??cieo oi?i ? cania?a
ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy c iaioaeueieie no?oeoo?aie.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? caaaeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieo aniaeo?a iaioaeueiino?: iaoiae ?noi?e/iiai ?
eia?/iiai aiae?co, eiino?oeoeaii-oeiieia?/iee iaoiae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
caaaeueiiai oa ie?aiiai.

Ia?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue iaioae?oao ye neeaaeia
nioe?ieoeueoo?ia yaeua oa oaeoi? noni?eueiiai aoooy.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ci?no ? no?oeoo?a iaioae?oaoo oa iniaeeaino?
eiai ?aa?iiaeueieo i?iya?a.

Aii??e/iith aacith aeena?oaoe?? ? nioe?ieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy “I?iaeaie
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? iieiae? Oe?a?ie”, yea
i?iaiaeeeinue eaoaae?ith nioe?ieia?? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo a 1994-95 ??. (ca o/anoth aaoi?a), ?acoeueoaoe
nioe?ieia?/ieo iieooaaiue ?inoeoooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie oa o??ie
“Nioeen-Aaeai” (ca 1992-96??.)

sse ?ioi?iaoe?eia aaca aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oaeiae ?noi?e/i?,
aoiia?ao?/i?, noaoenoe/i? aeaea?aea; aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/ai?
aenie?eaoe?? iiiyooy “iaioae?oao” a ?noi?e/i?e, o?einionuee?e,
nioe?ieia?/i?e iaooe?, eoeueoo?ieia?? oa ?ioeo aaeocyo ciaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaoiiaeaia ia?aiith oaiith, yea ia ia? nenoaiaoeciaaiiai
eiioeaiooaeueiiai aiae?co o a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, a oaeiae
oa?aeoa?ii iaoe oa aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

— ?ice?eoa i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy iiiyooy “iaioae?oao” a eaoaai??aeuei?e
nenoai? nioe?ieia?/iiai ciaiiy oa iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
nioe?aeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo oeueiai iiiyooy a eiie?aoiiio
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii?;

— /?oei ?iciaaeiaothoueny iiiyooy “iaioaeuei?noue” oa “iaioae?oao”;

— aeaia oe?e?nia ioe?iea eiioeaioe?? iaioae?oaoo o a?o/eciyieo oa
ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, ?o aianeo a ?ic?iaeo oai??? iaioae?oaoo;

— cae?eniaii nenoaiaoeciaaiee aiae?c iaioae?oaoo ye oaeoi?a
nioe?aeueiiai aoooy, eiai no?oeoo?e oa nioe?aeueieo ooieoe?e ye
nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai oaiiiaia;

— iieacaia ?ieue oa cia/aiiy aieeao ?aa?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae
(nioe?aeueieo, aeiiii?/ieo, aaia?ao?/ieo, aoi?/ieo, ?noi?e/ieo oiia) ia
oi?ioaaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo iaioaeueieo iniaeeainoae;

— aia?oa iaioae?oao ?icaeyaea?oueny e??cue i?ecio o?ueio ao?eaooeaieo
aeaiaio?a eiai no?oeoo?e: ieneaiiy, oe?iiino?, ii/oooy;

— ia iniia? aii??e/ieo aeaieo anoaiiaeaii ?aa?iiaeuei? i?iyae
iaioae?oaoo a aai- aoii- iie?oe/iiio i?inoi?? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui a iueiio
c?iaeaia /?oea aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iiiyoue “iaioae?oao” ? “iaioaeuei?noue”,
aecia/aia ?o ?ieue, i?noea, no?oeoo?a ? ooieoe?? a eaoaai??aeuei?e
nenoai? nioe?ieia??. Ia?aiee eiioeaiooaeueiee i?aeo?ae caaacia/o?
iiaeaeueoa iiaeeaeaiiy nioe?ieia?/ieo ciaiue i?i oaiiiai iaioae?oaoo ?
ni?ey? eiai aii??e/iiio aea/aiith.

Iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe??, iniaeeai uiaei iniaeeainoae
iaioae?oaoo ianaeaiiy ??cieo ?aa?ii?a e?a?ie, iiaeooue ni?eyoe a?eueo
i?iaeoiaiei iie?oeei-i?aeoe/iei caoiaeai ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo a
?icaeoeo aea?aeaae.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o aeeeaaeaii?
iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a aeey nooaeaio?a nioe?ieia?/ieo oaeoeueoao?a, o aaeoc?
nioe?ieia?? eoeueoo?e, eo?nao eoeueoo?ieia??, iie?oieia?? oiui. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a 5 ioae?eaoe?yo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeaoaaeany
oeyoii iaaiai?aiiy aeiiia?aeae, i?aaenoaaaeieo aaoi?eith, ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo: I?aeia?iaeiee iaoeiaee eiia?an nooaeaio?a oa iieiaeeo
o/aieo (i. Iineaa, 1995?., aeeieii 1 nooiaiy), ?anioae?eainueea
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “Iaioae?oao oa i?ioe??//y no/aniiai
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa: iie?oe/i?, nioe?ieia?/i?, eoeueoo?ieia?/i?
aniaeoe” (Caii??aeaey, 1994), i?ae?aa?iiaeueia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia
eiioa?aioe?y “Aeooiai? oe?iiino? oa aca?iicaaaa/aiiy eoeueoo?”
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,1995), “Oa?e?anuee? nioe?ieia?/i? /eoaiiy — 97”
(Oa?e?a, 1997), oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? nai?ia?e eaoaae?e nioe?ieia??
Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1994-1998).

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? i?e
aeeeaaeaii? iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a “Nioe?ieia?y”, “Nioe?ieia?y eoeueoo?e”.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eee eia?eo ? no?oeoo?o ?iaioe, yea neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (107
iaeiaioaaiue) oa aeiaeaoea (oaaeeoe?). Ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 148
ae?oea?nueeeo noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iiaeaia caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe, yea aeeth/a? iien: (1)
aeooaeueiino? oaie; (2) nooiaiy ?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee; (3) ia?eoa ?
i?aaeiaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy; (4) iniiaii? iaoe ? caaaeaiue; (5)
iaoiaeieia?/ii? ? aii??e/ii? aace aeine?aeaeaiiy; (6) iaoeiai? iiaecie
?acoeueoao?a, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno; (7) iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai
cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy; (8) ai?iaaoe?? ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Iaioae?oao ye ia?eo nioe?ieia?/iiai aiae?co”
?icaeyaea?oueny aaiacen iiiyooy “iaioae?oao”, aena?oeththoueny aieiai?
no/ani? i?aeoiaee aei eiai aiae?co, aecia/a?oueny noaoon iiiyooy
“iaioae?oao” o eaoaai??aeuei?e nenoai? nioe?ieia?/iiai ciaiiy. Cia/io
oaaao aeena?oaio i?eae?ey? “?icaaaeaiith” iiiyoue “iaioae?oao” ?
“iaioaeuei?noue”, ?ice?eaa?oueny ?icoi?iiy iaioae?oaoo ye
nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai oaiiiaio.

Iiiyooy “iaioae?oao” aeoaea aaaaoa oa iane/aia ca nai?i ci?noii. *anoa
aaeeaaiiy oeueiai oa?i?ia a no/ani?e iaooe? ? caaa?oaiiyi aeineoue
aeiaaiai oeyoo, i?ioyaii yeiai eaoaai??y “iaioae?oao” iaaoea oaeiai
ci?noo, ui a?aeia?aaea? iaaiee niin?a ieneaiiy, caaaeueiee aeooiaiee
iano??e ?iaeea?aea aai a?oie ni?eeiaoe na?o iaaiei /eiii oa ca?aeii c
oeei ae?yoe a iueiio.

Aiae?c aaiace iiiyoue “iaioae?oao” ? “iaioaeuei?noue”, c iaeiiai aieo,
oa aaiethoe?y oeeo iiiyoue — c ae?oaiai, na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui oe?
iiiyooy ia ? ?aeaioe/ieie ? iathoue aooe aeeoa?aioe?eiaai?. C oi/ee ci?o
aaoi?a, iaioaeuei?noue — oea ?noi?e/ii ? nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii
iaoiiaeaiee can?a oa oei ieneaiiy, aeeaeiia aeaea?aei oa ??aaiue
eieaeoeaii? na?aeiiino?, aeeth/ath/e ? iana?aeiia. Noni?euenoai ye
noeoii?noue ? aca?iiae?y ?iaeea?ae?a, aaciina?aaeiuei aai
iiina?aaeeiaaii iiaycaieo c aaeeeith (a iaaeao aea?aeaae) oa?eoi???th, ?
iin??i iaaieo aeanoeainoae iaioaeueiino?.

Iaeiae aeaye? (ie?ai? /e oi?aa?naeueii-ao?eaooeai?) i?iyae iaioaeueiino?
iathoue naith niaoeeo?eo, ui a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aecia/ai?
ye “iaioae?oao”. Iaioae?oao — oea aeineoue noaeee,
caaaeueii?iciianthaeaeaiee a o?e /e ?io?e a?oi? ethaeae iniaeeaee
ieneaiee ia?ac (ocaaaeueiaia oyaeaiiy) uiaei iaaieo aeaiaio?a
nioe?aeueii? ?aaeueiino?. A?i na?ae/eoue i?i niaoeeo?/i? ?ene
nioe?ae?caoe?? ?iaeea?aea, eiai aaoiiiiiino? oa naiiaooiino? ?icaeoeo,
noaa?aiiino? eiai ye noa?eoa nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy. Iaioae?oao ia?
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee oa?aeoa?, a?aeiia?aea? iaaiei ia??iaeai ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa, aecia/a? noa?aioeiia noaaeaiiy aei iaaeieeoiueiai na?oo oa
caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue aaeaioaoe?? aei iueiai ethaeeie.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui eaoaai??y “iaioae?oao” ia ?
aeineiiaei aea/aiith, noaeith oa caaaeueiiaeciaiith a nioe?ieia?/i?e
iaooe?. Eaoaai??y “iaioae?oao” aeeiio? aeineoue aecia/aio ooieoe?th a
iaooe? i?i noni?euenoai, aea, aeath/e iiaeeea?noue iiynieoe (oa a
aeaye?e i??? i?iaiicoaaoe) oie /e ?ioee oei iiaaae?iee ye ie?aiiai
?iaeea?aea, oae ? iaaii? nioe?aeueii? a?oie aai ia?iaeo a oe?eiio, aei
oeueiai /ano aeineoue iaiine?aeiaii aaeeaa?oueny a nioe?ieia?/i?e iaooe?
? iaaeinoaoiuei iaoiiaeaia iaoiaeieia?/ii. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, oea
iiynith?oueny aieiaiei /eiii oei, ui noiniaii aiae?ciaaiiai oaiiiaia a
nioe?ieia?/i?e iaooe? caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iiiyooyie ? “oe?ii?noue” oa
“?aeaioe/i?noue”. Oea ?aeue?oii i?inoaaeo?oueny a i?aoeyo A.Aaeaai?/eea,
A.Ni?oa, E.Eai?ea?e, A.I.ssaeiaa oa ?i. Iaeiae, nioe?ieia?/i? iiiyooy
“oe?ii?noue” oa “?aeaioe/i?noue” ia aeathoue oi/iiai oeoia/aiiy ? ia
ae/a?iothoue oaeiai neeaaeiiai oaiiiaio, ye iaioae?oao.

Iiiyooy “iaioae?oao”, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aeicaiey? aeeaoa aeine?aeeoe
aeaye? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene aeooo, na?aeiiino?, nioe?aeueieo ianoaiia,
i???ioaoe?e, oe?iiinoae oe?a?inueei? oa ?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueieo
noni?eueiinoae. Aaaaeaiiy a aeeneo?neaiee eiioaeno iiiyooy “iaioae?oao”
oa iaaeaiiy eiio eaoaai??aeueiiai noaoono aea? ciiao e?ea?aeoaaoe
“eaoaai??aeueio eaeoio” a i?ioean? aiae?co oa aecia/aii? aaaeei
o?eniaaieo ?en aeooiaiino? caaaeueieo aeey an??? nioe?aeueii?
ni?eueiino?. Ca aeiiiiiaith iiiyooy “iaioae?oao” aeine?aeaeaiith
aeanoeainoae nioe?aeueiiai aeooo iiaeia iaaeaoe iaea?eueo a?aeiia?aeiiai
i?e?iae? ia?eoa ci?noo.

Aeena?oaioii i?iaaaeaii aiae?c oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa
?ioi?iaoe?eii-nioe?ieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo iiiyooy “iaioae?oao”.

Iiiyooy “iaioae?oao” a?aeia?aaea? neeaaeio cenoaio iniiaieo oyaeaiue
ethaeae, caeeaaeaieo o ?o na?aeii?noue eoeueoo?ith, iiaith, ?ae?a??th,
iaoeith, aoiinii, noni?eueiei ni?eeoaaiiyi. Neioac on?o oeeo eiiiiiaio?a
cae/aeii cae?enith?oueny ia ??ai? i?aena?aeiieo ia?aaeaa/aiue,
?ioo?oeaieo “a?aee?eoo?a”, aea a?i ia caaaeaee ? ia iiai?noth
ona?aeiieth?oueny ethaeeiith. O ?acoeueoao? aeieea? noeoii?noue
ianoaiia, ye? noinothoueny iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo ? caaaeueieo iiiaio?a
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?iaeea?aea.

Iaioae?oao ia? aeayeo oe?e?ni?noue, a iueiio ? iaaia ye?nia yae?i. An?
aeaiaioe, ye? neeaaeathoue iaioae?oao ?iaeea?aea aai a?oie,
aeeeaathoueny a iaaio no?oeoo?o, yea iaoiiaeth? noeeuei?noue ieneeoe,
a?ae/oaaoe oa ni?eeiaoe na?o iaaiei /eiii. Iaioae?oao aenooia? ye iaaia
iniiaa oe?e?niiai niiniao aeeooy ethaeeie, yea iaoiiaeth? (ye na?aeiii,
oae ? iana?aeiii) iai?yi aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?iaeea?aea.

O aeine?aeaeaii? iniaeeai a?aecia/a?oueny, ui iaioae?oao ethaeeie
(a?oie) ia? aeeaeiii-no?eeee oa?aeoa?. Ia?aaoaath/e a ??ciiiai?oieo
oiiaao ?nioaaiiy, ethaeeia i?enoiniao?oueny ? ci?ith? nai? oe?ii?ni?
i???ioaoe??. Iaioae?oao ?iaeea?aea oa?aeoa?eco? ia o?eueee oeth
iane?i/aiio aa??aoeai?noue ethaenueeeo noaaeaiue, aea aeaui a?eueo
aeeaeiia. Eiai (iaioae?oao) iiaeia aecia/eoe ye oaeo noaoe?iia?io
aeooiaio i?aeaaeeio ethaeeie, yea a iaai?e i??? aeicaiey? eiio aaci??ii
ci?ithaaoe nai? oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeai? i???ioaoe??, caeeoath/enue i?e
oeueiio iaeiei ? oei aea.

Aaoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiae?ey? aeoieo aeayeeo o/aieo i?i oa, ui
iaioae?oao a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae na?aeiiino?, aea /a?ac eiiieaen
eiai?oeaieo oa aoaeoeaieo no?oeoo? aeeth/a? ?? a na?e neeaae. A?i
i?noeoue o nia? aeaiaioe noni?eueii? ineoieia??, ?noi?e/io iaiyoue,
nioe?aeuei? aiioe??, aaaeaiiy, iano?i?, ?aaeoe?th ia ci?io ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, ye i?e?iaeiiai, oae ? nioe?aeueiiai.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiiy i?i ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiiyoue “iaioae?oao” ?
“iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?” na?ae/eoue, ui i?ioenoaaeyoe /e ioioiaeithaaoe
oe? ieoaiiy oeaii ye a iaoiaeieia?/iiio oae ? a oai?aoe/iiio ieaiao.
Iaioae?oao ? iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?, iath/e aaaaoi ni?eueiiai (?aeeio
na?oiaeyaeii-iiaaae?ieiao nooi?noue, caaaeuei?noue oaeoi??a oi?ioaaiiy,
iciaeia? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe-ianoaiiae oa noa?aioeie), iaeiae ia ?
oioiaeieie. Oea ae?aeaeoe/ia ?aei?noue, yea aaco?oueny ia ??cieoe?
ianyao ci?noo ? eiai oi?ie. Aaaeeeaa a?aei?ii?noue iaioae?oaoo a?ae
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o iieyaa? a oiio, ui a iaioae?oao? cia/i?oo
?ieue a?ae?a?a? aiioe?eiee aniaeo. A?aei?ii?noue ca oi?iith iieyaa? a
oiio, ui iaioae?oao i?iyaey?oueny ye ia ??ai? ?iaeea?aea (o aeaeyae?
iaaiiai oeio iaioae?oaoo), oae ? ia ??ai? iaoe??, a oie /an, ye
iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? — o?eueee (ye i?aaeei) ia ??ai? iaoe??.

Aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui caaaeaiiyi nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaioae?oaoo ? aeie?aieaiiy aieiaieo aeaiaio?a ye?niiai yae?a oaiiiaia,
ye? i?aeeyaathoue eiie?aoii-aii??e/iiio aea/aiith i?e canoinoaaii?
aaeaeaaoieo iaoiae?a nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Na?aae aeinooiieo ia?eo?a nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaioae?oaoo
iiaeooue aenooiaoe noaaeaiiy ?iaeea?aea aei eoeueoo?e ia?iaeo, cae/a?a,
o?aaeeoe?e; ciaiiy ? oyaeaiiy i?i nai? i?e?iaeia ? nioe?aeueia ioi/aiiy;
nenoaia cania?a ioe?ithaaiiy yaeu ? i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny. A oie
aea /an iaioae?oao iiaeia iienaoe oa iiynieoe a iaaeao ianooiieo
i?aeoiae?a: noe??ioenonueeiai, eiai?oea?nonueeiai, nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai oa
ineoiaiae?oe/iiai.

Ia?ai? iaoiaeieia?/i? oa eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee aeicaieeee i?iaanoe a
ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aiae?c no?oeoo?e ?
ooieoe?e iaioae?oaoo ye nioe?aeueiiai ? eoeueoo?iiai yaeua.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “No?oeoo?a ? ooieoe?? iaioae?oaoo ye
nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai oaiiiaia” i?iaiae?ciaaii iaioae?oao ye neeaaeia,
aaaaoi??aiaaa nioe?ieoeueoo?ia yaeua, ui i?noeoue noeoii?noue
??ciiiai?oieo eiiiiiaio?a oa eiai ooieoe?e.

O ?iaio? aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea ??cieo oai?aoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a uiaei
ci?noiaiiai iaiiaiaiiy no?oeoo?e iaioae?oaoo (cie?aia,
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee, ?ic?iaeai? A.I?/ea, I.Onaiei,
I.Aooaiei, TH.Eieani?/aiei). Iaea?eueo iiaia, aeeaiea ? eiie?aoia, ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ii? a?o?oaeoii?ee iaioae?oaoo
i?ia?a I.Onaiei, aeie?aiethth/e oae? aieiai? i?ioa?ee: “ia?aaeeaia
na?aeiiino?”, “eiaeaen iiaaae?iee”, “ia?ac na?oo”, “noeeue ieneaiiy”.

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, eaae?o?eaoe?eia aeeniiceoe?y iaioae?oaoo aeeth/a?
a naaa ??ciiiai?oi? aeaiaioe ? ieanoe, iaeiae oi?aa?naeueia, ao?eaooeaia
cia/aiiy a no?oeoo?? iaioae?oaoo iathoue, i?eiaeii?, o?e iniiaieo,
aecia/aeueieo aeaiaioe. Oea — ieneaiiy, oe?iiino? oa ii/oooy. C?icoi?ei,
iaiao?aeii a?aoe aei oaaae, ui eiaeiee c oeeo “aeaiaio?a” ia? ??ci?
iiaeeo?eaoe?? oa ??ci? i?iyae oa aeaee.

Iica anyeei noii?aii, oe? o?e neeaaeia? nioe?aeueiiai na?oo iniaenoino?
a iaaiiio nain? a?aeiia?aeathoue ca oi?ioaaiiy iaioae?oaoo, a ?o
aeie?aieaiiy (iaa?oue o oaeiio noaiaoe/iiio aeaeyae?), aeicaiey?
iia?aoe?iiae?coaaoe oea iiiyooy ? aeiiiiiaoe — oi/ ae e ia ??ai?
“?ica?aeee” — aii??e/iiio aea/aiith iaioae?oaoo eiie?aoii? ni?eueiioe
aai ?aa?iio.

Aaoi? i?aee?aneth?, ui aieiaia iieiaeaiiy na?aae aecia/aieo aeaiaio?a a
no?oeoo?? iaioae?oaoo caeiathoue oe?iiino?. Iaeiae, aeena?oaio ia
iiae?ey? aeineoue noaeiai ? ?iciianthaeaeaiiai a e?oa?aoo?? oyaeaiiy, ui
eeoa oe?iiino? aeathoue ae/a?iio oa?aeoa?enoeeo no?oeoo?e iaioae?oaoo.
Aiae?coth/e no?oeoo?o oe?iiinoae (ye iaeiiai c aeaiaio?a iaioae?oaoo),
aeena?oaio caa?oa? oaaao ia?aaeon?i ia oaea.

O iaioae?oao? eiaeii? iniaenoino? ?nio? naiy aeania ???a?o?y oe?iiinoae.
???a?o?/ii i?aai?ciaai? oyaeaiiy noiniaii oe?iiinoae eaaeaoue a iniia?
??oaiue, ye? i?eeia? iniaa a iane?i/aiieo neooaoe?yo nioe?aeueiiai
aeai?o; aiie aa?ooue aeoeaio o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? aioo??oiuei? i?ia?aie
?? ae?e, ye o iianyeaeaiieo, oae ? a e?eoe/ieo neooaoe?yo aeeooy, iaaiei
/eiii “aaoaeiaothoue” ?iaeea?aea a nioe?aeueia aoooy.

Oi?eath/enue i?iaeaie no?oeoo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a iaioae?oaoo, aeena?oaio
?icaeyaea? oae? iiiyooy, ye “ii?ia”, “onoaiiaea”, “?aeaae”, “noa?aioei”,
ui, ye a?aeiii, caeiathoue aeineoue noaa?eueiee i?ino?? a no?oeoo??
iaioae?oaoo.

Iniaeeai i?aee?aneth?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aaaaeaiiy iiiyooy “iaioaeueia
onoaiiaea”.Iaioaeuei? onoaiiaee — oea nioe?iineoieia?/i? ooai?aiiy, ye?
aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe i?ino?? noaa?eueieo caeaaeiinoae, onoaiiaie oa
oe?iiinoae, iiaycaieo c ?nioaaiiyi iaaii? nioe?aeueii? ni?eueiioe /e
?iaeea?aea. Aiie aaiaoe/ii ia?aaeothoue noa?aioeio ? aaeeeith i??ith
aecia/athoue ci?no oa nooo?a? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiai.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, i?e aea/aii? no?oeoo?e iaioae?oaoo, iaiao?aeii
iia?oaaoe oaeeie aeaeaie nioe?aeueieo ii?i, ye ii?ie eoeueoo?e.
I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ii?ie eoeueoo?e ? a?aeiinii naiino?eiei aeaeii
nioe?aeueieo ii?i, oiio ui aiie a?ae??ciythoueny: a) ca ci?noii; a)
noa?ith ae?yeueiino?; a) oi?iith canoinoaaiiy naieoe?e; a) iaoai?ciii
?iciianthaeaeaiiy a ni?eueiio?; ae) nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iei iaoai?ciii
ae??. Iiiyooy eoeueoo?ieo ii?i ?icoi??oueny ye ii?iaoeaia a?aeoai?aiiy a
iaaeao cae/a?a, aaea/ oa ?ioeo oi?i ?aaoeyoe?? nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee
/eai?a ni?eueiioe aai a?oie ye iin??a aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e noni?euenoaa,
? iiaea aooe c?noaaeaia c ?aaoethaaiiyi niiniao aeeooy, oeeaaeo oa ?i.
Eoeueoo?i? ii?ie, a?eueoa i?ae ?io? aeaee ii?i, ?ic?iaeythoueny o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c oa?aeoa?ii oa oeiii ni?eeoaaiiy /eai?a aeaii?
ni?eueiioe aai a?oie.

O aeine?aeaeaii? caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaio nooi?noue
iaioae?oaoo, oiio ui ?ino?oiaioaeueia ?aaoeyoe?y iaioae?oaoo
cae?enith?oueny caniaaie eiio?ieth, na?aae yeeo aieiaia i?noea
caeiathoue oe?iiino? oa ii?ie.

Oaeei /eiii, iaioae?oao aenooia? niaoeeo?/iei iieai aeai?o noa?eoii
nai?? e?i?? iiaaae?iee, aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, aeyaeaii? a iaaieo
oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaieo ia?aiao?ao. Iaioaeueiee ?aaoeyoi? — ?icoi —
iaeaaaeeea?oee can?a, ui iaoiiaeth? i?eeiyooy oe?iiinoae ? ii?i
?iaeea?aeii. Nioe?ieoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie iino?eii oaeineiiaeth? oeth
caeaoi?noue ethaenueei? na?aeiiino? ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiyae ??ciiai
?iaeo ineoieia?/ieo, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo, iianyeaeaiieo,
?aeaieia?/ieo, ia?aoo? — iaoeiaeo oyaeaiue, ia aac? yeeo oi?iothoueny
oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeai? ?aeaaee.

Aiae?c ?aeaae?a ye iaei??? c no?oeoo?ieo iaeeieoeue iaioae?oaoo
na?ae/eoue, ui iaioae?oao iiaea aooe oaeiae ioa?aeoa?eciaaiee nenoaiith
ii?aeueieo ?aeaae?a, oiaoi nenoaiith neeaaeieo noaeeo ianiaeo aeooiaieo
no?oeoo?, ye? iaiothoue a oie /e ?ioee iiiaio /ano a noni?euenoa?.
Iaeiae iaioae?oao, ye a?eueo noaeee, “iaeiithieoo?iee” aeooiaiee
oaiiiai, ia oioiaeiee nenoai? ii?aeueieo ?aeaae?a, ui ?noi?e/ii
ci?iththoueny.

Na?aae nioe?aeueieo ooieoe?e iaioae?oaoo ?iaeea?aea /e a?oie aaoi?
?icaeyaea? oae?: 1) o?ainethth/a; 2) oe?ii?nii-i???ioaoe?eia; 3)
eiioi?eaoeaia; 4) ?aaoeyoeaia; 5) ?ioaa?aoeaia; 6) ?iiaaoe?eia; 7)
?aeaieia?/ia.

Iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ooieoe?e iaioae?oaoo ? o?ainethth/a. A
i?ioean? ?noi??? aoee ae?iaeai? niaoe?aeuei? iaoai?cie o?aineyoe??
iaioae?oaoo ye oe?e?nii? nenoaie a?ae iaeiiai iieie?iiy aei ?ioiai. Oae?
iaoai?cie ciaoiaeeee ?aae?caoe?th ye ia aa?aaeueiiio, oae ? ia
iaaa?aaeueiiio ??aiyo o ??cieo noa?ao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

?acii c oei, iaioae?oao o an?o nai?o no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaioao aeicaiey?
c?icoi?oe nai???aei?noue ni?eeiyooy oa ioe?iee ??cieie nioe?aeueieie
a?oiaie oiai /e ?ioiai noni?eueiiai yaeua aai i?ioeano. A iueiio
a?aeia?aaeaii ye ?aoe?iiaeueia, oe?ii?nia, oae ? /ooo?aa, iana?aeiia
noaaeaiiy ethaeae aei iaaieo aeaiaio?a noni?eueii? ?aaeueiino?. Caaaeyee
oeueiio iaioae?oao aeeiio? oe?ii?nii-i???ioaoe?eio ooieoe?th.

?ice?eaath/e caeiiii??iino? oa caniae nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee ethaeae,
ye? aeaoa?i?iiaai? ?o ieneaieie e aiioe?eieie onoaiiaeaie, iaioae?oao
aeeiio? eiioi?eaoeaio oa ?aaoeyoeaio ooieoe??.

sse oi?ia aeyaeaiiy a?oiiai? na?aeiiino? iaioae?oao a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao
?ieue a caaacia/aii? ?aeiino? oa oe?e?niino? a?aeiia?aeii? nioe?aeueii?
a?oie o cayceo ?c cae??ieaieie a i?e oe?iiinoyie, ii?iaie iiaaae?iee.
Iaioae?oao oi?io? ii/oooy i?eiaeaaeiino? aei iaaiiai ia?iaeo, iaoe??,
?ae?a?? oiui. A oeueiio ieai? a?i caaacia/o? oe?e?ni?noue noni?euenoaa,
ni?eueiio ? aeeiio? ooieoe?? ?ioaa?aoe?? oa aeeoa?aioe?aoe??
noni?euenoaa. Iaeiae, ia?aeioth/e iaei? ni?eueiioe oa a?oie, iaioae?oao
i?ioenoaaey? ?o ?ioei, oiaoi iiaea a?ae?a?aaaoe ?ieue ? aooe aeaea?aeii
aeac?ioaa?aoe??.

Caeeoath/enue caniaii nioe?aeueiiai aieeao, iaioae?oao, ui oi?io?oueny
caeaaeii a?ae o?aaeeoe?? oa eoeueoo?e, nioe?aeueieo no?oeoo? ? anueiai
na?aaeiaeua aeeooy ethaeeie, a naith /a?ao nai ?o oi?io?, aenooiath/e ye
ii?iaeaeoth/a na?aeii?noue ? caaacia/o? iiaioaaiiy oa ia?aoai?aiiy
na?oo, oiaoi aeeiio? ?iiaaoe?eio ooieoe?th.

O iaecaaaeuei?oiio ieai? iaioae?oao aeeiio? ?aeaieia?/io ooieoe?th. Oea
i?iyaey?oueny iiina?aaeeiaaii o oi?ioaaii? iaaieo noa?aioei?a
iiaaae?iee, noai?aiiy nenoaie oe?ii?nieo oa nioe?aeueieo ia?aaaa,
?nioaaiiy oei?a i???ioaoe?? na?aeiiino? ethaeeie.

Aeena?oaio, iaeiae, caa?oa? oaaao, ui a?aaeaoe?y ooieoe?e iaioae?oaoo oa
?o ie?aiee aiae?c ? nooi iaoiaeieia?/iei caniaii, ai a ae?eniino? on?
aiie ae?thoue iaeii/anii.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Iniiai? oaeoi?e oi?ioaaiiy oa iniaeeaino?
?aa?iiaeueiiai i?iyao iaioae?oaoo” ?icaeyioo? iniiai? /eiieee oi?ioaaiiy
iaioae?oaoo oa ?o aieea ia iniaeeaino? eiai i?iya?a, a oaeiae
aiae?cothoueny aeai? eiie?aoieo aii??e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo
i?iaeaiai aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae, nioe?aeueieo i???ioaoe?e oa iano?i?a
a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie.

Iaioae?oao oe?a?ioe?a oi?ioaaany i?ioyaii onueiai /ano ?nioaaiiy ?o ye
iaoe??. Aa?o/e aei oaaae ?noi?e/i?, ?ania?, aaia?ao?/i?,
eoeueoo?iiii?oieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ?o iaioae?oaoo, iiaeeeai ciaeoe
“aaiaoe/ia iiyniaiiy” niaoeeo?ee na?oini?eeiyooy oa iiaaae?iee ia?iaeo,
yeee iaoea? a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?.

Na?aae noeoiiino? ??ciiiai?oieo oiia, oaeoi??a, ianoaaei, ye?
aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaioae?oaoo, aeena?oaioii
a?aecia/athoueny oae? aeaoa?i?iaioe (a iaai?e ???a?o??):

a) noeoii?noue aaiiie?oe/ieo oaeoi??a;

a) aieea noeoiiino? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiae?e;

a) ae?y noanoaioe?eieo iniia oa noaeoeueoo?ieo i?aeaaeei;

a) ?aa?iiaeuei? aieeae.

E??i oeueiai, i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aieiaieo a?oi oaeoi??a, c yeeie o?nii
iiaycaia niaoeeo?ea oi?ioaaiiy iaioae?oaoo ia?iaeo ? ye?
?noi?eei-aaiaoe/ii oi?ioaaee oe?a?inueeee iaioae?oao a
aai-aoii-iie?oe/iiio i?inoi?? Oe?a?ie.

Aei oeeo oaeoi??a iaeaaeaoue:

a) ?ania? (aai niiaoiineo?/i?);

a) aaiineo?/i? (aaia?ao?/i?), iiaycai? c i?e?iaeiei na?aaeiaeuai oa
caniaaie aeaeeaaiiy a iueiio;

a) ?noi?e/i? (aaiiie?oe/i?);

a) nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? (noni?euei?), iiaycai? c nioe?aeueiith
no?oeoo?ith oa noni?eueiei eaaeii;

ae) eoeueoo?iiii?oieia?/i?, iiaycai? ?c aca?iiaieeaii aoiioeio oa
eoeueoo?e ia oi?ioaaiiy iaeia iaeiiai;

a) aeeaeiii-ineo?/i?, iiaycai? c oa?aeoa?ii ineo?/ieo i?ioean?a acaaae?,
ye? ioiieththoue aca?iiae?th i?ae na?aeiiei ? iana?aeiiei.

O aeine?aeaeaii? ie?aii cacia/aii, ui oe? oaeoi?e a iaaiee /an a?ae?eoee
ia ae?oaee ieai, oiio ui iaea?eueoee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy iaioae?oaoo
eiie?aoii? ni?eueiioe a?ae?a?a? oaeoi? ?aa?iiae?caoe??. Oea ia?eoeaiee
noni?eueii-?noi?e/iee oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee oaeoi? niaoeeo?/ii?
ye?nii? iaioaeueii? aecia/aiino?, a ye?e i?iyaeythoueny iniaeeaino?
nioe?aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, aeiiii?/ii? oa iie?oe/ii? oai?/ino?,
aeooiaii-eoeueoo?ieo, ?eooaeueieo, o?aaeeoe?eieo aeae?a aeoeaiino?.

Aaoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaea?, ui “?aa?ii iaoeaiiy” — oea aaaeeeaee
oaeoi?, yeee cacaeaeaa?aeue aecia/a? noeeue ieneaiiy, aiioe??,
iianyeaeaii? aa?aaeuei? oa ?aaeuei? ?aaeoe?? ?iaeea?ae?a ? yeee caeaoiee
cia/ii no?eioaaoe /e iaeo?ae?coaaoe aieea ?ioeo oaeoi??a.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaai? aeai? nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
“I?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? iieiae? Oe?a?ie”,
yea i?iaiaeeeinue eaoaae?ith nioe?ieia?? Aei?i?iiao?ianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo a 1994-1995 ??. Ia?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea
iieiaeue Cao?aeiiai, Oeaio?aeueiiai, No?aeiiai oa I?aaeaiiiai ?aa?ii?a,
ye aeiaeaoeia? aei iniiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy (1) aeei?enoai? aeai?
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? i?iaiaeeeenue ?inoeoooii nioe?ieia??
IAI Oe?a?ie oa o??iith “Nioeen-Aaeai” (2).

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ye?nii? aecia/aiino? iaioae?oaoo a?ae oaeoi?a
?aa?iiae?caoe??, i?iaiae?ciaaii niaoeeo?eo eiai i?iya?a e??cue i?ecio
icia/aieo ao?eaooeaieo aeaiaio?a no?oeoo?e iaioae?oaoo — ieneaiiy,
oe?iiinoae, ii/ooo?a. O iaaeao oeeo aeaiaio?a aecia/ai? ?o eiie?aoi?
aii??e/i? iieacieee.

?aa?iiaeuei? i?iyae iaioae?oaoo cao?eniaai? ca oaeeie eiai oi?iaeueieie
iieacieeaie, ye: a?aeiioaiiy aei eoeueoo?e ia?iaeo, ciaiiy oa oyaeaiiy
i?i o?aaeeoe?? oa cae/a?, niaoeeo?ea aa/aiiy na?oo i?ioan?e, aieiae?iiy
iiaith, a?aeiioaiiy aei i?ioeano a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
iiae oa eoeueoo?e, aiioe?eia ni?eeiyooy naiai i?noey a noni?euenoa?.

Oea iiaycaii c oei, ui noa?eo — iin?e iaioae?oaoo — ianaeaiiy ?aa?iio ?
aoyaiooei o caaaeueio aoiinoa?o, iiaycaio c iaaiith nioe?ieoeueoo?iith,
ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/iith oa nioe?aeueii-no?aoeo?eaoe?eiith
niaoeeo?eith ?aa?iio.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy (1) aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaee a?aeiinii
oiai, ui oae? nioe?aeuei? aeiee ieneaiiy a no?oeoo?? iaioae?oaoo, ye
ciaiiy nai?? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi???, i?aoeue oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a,
oe?a?inueeeo ia?yae?a oa o?aaeeoe?e ia caeaaeaoue a?ae noaoaaeo oa
a?eiaeo iniaeeainoae ?aniiiaeaio?a, i?noey ia?iaeaeaiiy. O oie aea /an
iaea?eueo nooo?aee aieea iathoue oae? oaeoi?e, ye: iaoe?iiaeuei?noue,
ina?oa oa ?aa?ii iaoeaiiy.

Iiaeeaeaiee aiae?c aeaiiai aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
ia?ac ea?oeie na?oo, iaioae?oao, eaoaioii ?nioth/ee o na?aeiiino?
eiaeiiai iieooaaiiai ?iaeea?aea, o?eia? a nia? oyaeaiiy i?i cia/aiiy
oaeeo ae?ac?a, ye “ia?iae”, “iaoe?y”, “iaoe?iiaeueiee iao??ioeci”;
“oeea?eueia noni?euenoai”, oa ?io?, aeeoa?aioe?th?oueny ia no?eueee
caeaaeii a?ae iaoe?iiaeueiino? e ina?oe, ne?eueee a?ae ?aa?iiaeueii?
iaeaaeiino? ?iaeea?ae?a.

Cia/io oaaao a aeena?oaoe?? i?eae?eaii aiae?co (a no?oeoo?? iaioae?oaoo)
oe?iiino? iiae ye caniao ni?eeoaaiiy oa oaeoi?a iaa/aiiy. Aea/ath/e
niaoeeo?eo iiaii? neooaoe??, yea neeaeany a ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie,
aeena?oaio caa?oa?oueny aei anoaiiaeaieo aoiinioe?ieiaaie oaeoi??a, ye?
aieeaathoue ia iiai? i?ioeane. Oea aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae ?aa?ii?a,
ieoiia aaaa i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo oetha?a, niaoeeo?/iee oa?aeoa? i?a?aoe??.

Nenoaiaoecaoe?y oa aiae?c aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiiy (1) aeicaieeee c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui iaaeaiiy ?aniiiaeaioaie ia?aaaae oe?a?inuee?e / ?in?enuee?e
iia? i?e /eoaii?, ina?o?, ni?eeoaaii? caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aa?iio ?o
iaoeaiiy. O oe?eiio aeena?oaioii a?aecia/a?oueny, ui o an?o ?aa?iiao
Oe?a?ie neeaeany ?aaeueia eoeueoo?ii-iiaia ni?euei?noue oe?a?inueeiai oa
?in?enueeiai ia?iae?a, yea ii?iaeeea oaiiiai “?in?enueeiiiaii?”
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

Na?aae oi?iaeueieo iieaciee?a /ooo?aiai i?aena?aeiiiai noaaeaiiy ethaeae
aei iaaieo aeaiaio?a nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue
o?ao?e aeaiaio no?oeoo?e iaioae?oaoo — a?ae/oooy, a ?iaio?
?icaeyaeathoueny iaoe?iiaeueiee iao??ioeci, a?eue oa o?eaiaa ca iaoe?th.

?aa?iiaeuei? i?iyae iaioae?oaoo ca oeei iieacieeii aoee aeyaeai? c
iacia/ieie ?ica?aeiinoyie. A oe?eiio a?aecia/a?oueny, ui oe?eee ?yae
noiaeeo aiioe?eii-ioe?iieo oa?aeoa?enoee ianiai? na?aeiiino? ianaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie iiaycaiee ?c caaaeueiith nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iith aoiinoa?ith,
iaoiiaeaiith noni?eueieie i?ioeanaie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny no/aniiio
oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?.

I?aenoiie i?noeoue iniiai? aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui noinothoueny
?icaeyiooeo i?iaeai o iaaeao ia?aii? oaie iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Nioeeieoeueoo?iay aieiaoeey: caeiiiia?iinoue eee aacunoiaeiinoue? //
Iaioae?oao oa i?ioe??//y no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa:
iie?oieia?/i?, nioe?ieia?/i?, eoeueoo?ieia?/i? aniaeoe.
Caaaeueiioe?a?inueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y. — Caii??aeaey,1994.
— 0,2 ae?.a?e., o ni?aaaoi?noa?.

2. I?iaeaiu ?aaeoeoeee aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae a yeno?aiaeueiie
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie neooaoeee. // Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
eiia?anna iieiaeuo o/aiuo e nooaeaioia. — Iineaa, 1996. — 0,1 ae?.a?e.

3. I?iaeaia ?aaeoeoeee nioeeieoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae a oneiaeyo
o?ainoi?iaoeee iauanoaa. // Aanoiee Aeiai?iiao?ianeiai oieaa?neoaoa. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1995. — 0,3 ae?. a?e.

4. A?aaeaeaineia iauanoai: io oioaeeoa?iie iiaeaee e oe?aeineei
iaioaeueiui o?aaeeoeeyi. // I?eaeiai?ianeee iao/iue aanoiee. —
Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1996. — 0,2 ae?.a?e.

5. Nioeeieoeueoo?iue niune eaoaai?ee “iaioaeueiinoue”. // Oa?ueeianeea
nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey-97. — Oa?ueeia, 1997. — 0,2 ae?.a?e.

6. Iiiyoea “iaioaeeoao” a eaoaai?eaeueiie nenoaia nioeeieiae/aneiai
ciaiey. // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. — ? 22 (89), 1998. — 0,2
ae?.a?e.

Aiioaoe?y

E?na?iei I.A. Iaioae?oao: nooi?noue oa iniaeeaino? ?aa?iiaeueieo
i?iya?a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.06. — nioe?ieia?y eoeueoo?e, iaoee oa
ina?oe — Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeai? aea/aiiy iaioae?oaoo. Aecia/a?oueny
noaoon iiiyooy “iaioae?oao” a eaoaai??aeuei?e nenoai? nioe?ieia?/iiai
ciaiiy, eiai no?oeoo?a oa ooieoe??. sse iaoiae aea/aiiy iaioae?oaoo
cai?iiiiiaaii aiae?c ao?eaooeaieo aeaiaio?a eiai ye?niiai yae?a.
Aeyaeaii ?aa?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? i?iya?a iaioae?oaoo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/aa? neiaa: iaioae?oao, iaioaeuei?noue, oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaia
nooi?noue iaioae?oaoo, iniaeeaino? ?aa?iiaeueiiai i?iyao iaioae?oaoo.

Aiiioaoeey

Eenaaiei A.A. Iaioaeeoao: nouiinoue e iniaaiiinoe ?aaeiiaeueiuo
i?iyaeaiee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa nioeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.06. — nioeeieiaey eoeueoo?u, iaoee e
ia?aciaaiey.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia eco/aiey iaioaeeoaoa. Ii?aaeaeyaony
noaoon iiiyoey “iaioaeeoao” a eaoaai?eaeueiie nenoaia nioeeieiae/aneiai
ciaiey, aai no?oeoo?a e ooieoeee. A ea/anoaa iaoiaea eco/aiey
iaioaeeoaoa i?aaeeiaeai aiaeec ao?eaooeaiuo yeaiaioia aai ea/anoaaiiiai
yae?a. Auyaeaiu ?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe i?iyaeaiey iaioaeeoaoa
ianaeaiey Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaioaeeoao, iaioaeueiinoue, oeaiiinoii-ii?iaoeaiay
nouiinoue iaioaeeoaoa, iniaaiiinoe ?aaeiiaeueiuo i?iyaeaiee iaioaeeoaoa.

SUMMARY

Liseenko E.V. Mentality: the Essence and Peculiarities of the Regional
Varieties. — Manuscript.

The dissertation is submitted to the degree of candidate of Sociological
sciences on speciality 22.00.06 — Sociology of Culture, of Education and
Science.

The dissertation is devoted to the problem of studying mentality. The
status of the notion “mentality” in category system of the sociological
knowledge, its structure and functions are described in the thesis. As
the method of studying mentality, it was proposed the analysis of
attribute elements of its qualitative nucleus. The peculiarities of the
regional varieties of population mentlity of Ukraine has been
determined.

The key words: mentality, values and standards of the essence of
mentality, peculiarity of the regional variety of mentality.

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