IaoeIiiaeueiee aa?a?iee oiIaa?neoao

Aaeaiianueea Oaoyia ?aai?aia

OAeE 631.158:658.3

iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo a aie oe?a?ie

08.06.02 — i?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

Caaaaenueeee Einei Noai?neaaiae/ —

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo oa ia?eaoeiao

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

Oaiioueei Ethaeieea Ieaenaiae??aia —

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo

nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo naea

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

A?a/ei Aiaoie?e I?ieiiiae/ —

Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee

?inoeooo, aeioeaio eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo oa i?aaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee

oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

eaoaae?a aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 18 eenoiiaaea 1999?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

E 26.004.01 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:
03041, Ee?a — 41, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 15, ei?ion 3, aoaeeoi??y 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: i.Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 11,
iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ “ aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.A. AEaaea

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?icaeoie ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? iaoiiaeth?
ci?ie a oi?aae?ii? ia?niiaeii a AIE, aeiaaa? ?icaeyaeo ethaeae ye
aaaaonoaa i?aei?e?inoa, a aeo?aoe ia oi?ioaaiiy, iioeaaoe?th, ?icaeoie
ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a — ye iniaeeaee aeae ?iaanoeoe?e, ye? noathoue
aeiaaino?ieiaei /eiieeii i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? oa
aeaeeaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa. Aeeaaeaiiy a ia?niiae aenooiathoue
iaia’yceiaith oiiaith aoaeoeaiiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? oni?oiiai
?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai AIE.

I?aeaioiaea eiiiaoaioiiai ia?niiaeo, caeaoiiai aei i?iaeoeoeaii? ?iaioe
a ?eieiaeo oiiaao, eiai ?aoe?iiaeueia i?inoi?iaa e no?oeoo?ia ?ici?uaiiy
caeaaeeoue o ia?oo /a?ao a?ae aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie
?ano?naie.

I?iaeaiai iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo i?enay/aii /eiaei i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo
oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo: E.N.Aeyoiaia, I.A.Aoaooeueeiai, A.I.A?a/ea,
I.Ae.Aoaeceinueeiai, A.Aeannea?a, A.A.Aeieo?aiea, A.I.?ai?oeia,
E.N.Caaaaenueeiai, O.A.C?iia’?aa, A.I.Cayoey, A.ss.Eeaaiiaa,
A.?.Eoiaeiai?, A.I.Eo?ioaai?, ?.Ia??a, TH.A.Iae?aiaa, A.I.Noeeoeueeiai,
A.E.Oa?auaiea, E.I.Oaiioueei, A.Oi?aeoa, A.A.Uie?ia, A.A.TH?/eoeia oa
?ioeo. I?ioa oe?eee ?yae ieoaiue ?aoe?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo
ia ciaeoia ae??oaiiy noiniaii aei oiia ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

No/ania i?aeoeea ?iaioe c ia?niiaeii a AIE, iaaoaeoeai?noue yei? noaea
oe?eeii i/aaeaeiith, ia cacia? ?aaeeeaeueieo ci?i, oi/a ?nioth/a nenoaia
oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie ia a?aeiia?aea? iiaei aeiiaai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Iaia? ?aaeueii? ioe?iee iio?aae a ia?niiae?. Cia/ia
e?euee?noue ea??aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa oa niaoe?ae?no?a eaae?iaeo neoaea
iathoue iaaeinoaoi? i?ioan?ei? ciaiiy oa ai?iiy c ieoaiue oi?aae?iiy
ia?niiaeii. Ia?niiae, ye iaeei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo no?aoaa?/ieo ?ano?n?a,
aeei?enoiao?oueny ia caaaeaee ?aoe?iiaeueii. A?aenooi?noue iaeaaeii?
oaaae aei ?ic?iaee oa ?aae?caoe?? aoaeoeaii? eaae?iai? iie?oeee, iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo oi?i ? iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii iaaaoeaii
iicia/athoueny ia ?acoeueoaoao ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa ? anueiai
aa?ii?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa a e?a?i?.

Aeooaeuei?noue ? iaaeinoaoiy iaoeiaa ?ic?iaea iacaaieo i?iaeai coiiaeee
aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa ? neeaaeiaith iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ii aeeiiaiith eiiieaenieo oai: «?ic?iaea ieoaiue
iaiaaeaeiaioo ? ia?eaoeiao ia ??cieo ??aiyo AIE a oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee» oa «?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo i?eioeei?a ? iaoiaeieia?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy AIE a?aeiia?aeii aei eiioeaioe?? eiai ?icaeoeo»
(iiia?e aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0193U 022571 oa 0196U 001975).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aiae?c
?nioth/i? nenoaie iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo, iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
uiaei ?? oaeineiiaeaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo AIE. ?aae?caoe?y iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a?
ae??oaiiy oaeeo iniiaieo caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiiy:

ocaaaeueieoe oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo ca oiia
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa aeine?aeeoe
oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo iaoee i?i oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie a iao?e
e?a?i? ? ca ?oaaaeai;

?ice?eoe iiiyooy «iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo» ye oi?aae?inueeo eaoaai??th,
aecia/eoe niaoeeo?eo nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii ? ?? a?aeiia?aei?noue
eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo AIE;

cae?enieoe aiae?c e?euee?niiai ? ye?niiai neeaaeo oi?aae?inueeeo
i?aoe?aiee?a aaeoc?, ?o i?ioan?eii? i?eaeaoiino? aei ?iaioe a ?eieiaeo
oiiaao oa ioe?ieoe ??aaiue ?iaioe c ia?niiaeii o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao;

?ic?iaeoe a?ciania? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? no?aoaa?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy
oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii a AIE Oe?a?ie;

cai?iiiioaaoe no/ani? iaoeia? i?aeoiaee aeey aecia/aiiy iio?aae a
i?aeaioiaoe?, ia?ai?aeaioiaoe?, i?aeaeuaii? eaae?o?eaoe?? oa ?icaeoeo
ea?’??e oi?aae?inueeiai ia?niiaeo.

I?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
noeoii?noue oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue oi?aae?iiy
ia?niiaeii a AIE. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean iaiaaeaeiaioo
ia?niiaeo ia iae?i- oa i?e?iaeiiii?/iiio ??aiyo aa?a?ii? noa?e.
Iiaeeaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eniai? ia iaoa??aeao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa Aa?eo?anueeiai, Ai?eni?euenueeiai
oa Ia?ayneaa-Oiaeueieoeueeiai ?aeii?a Ee?anueei? iaeano?.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith oa iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeia? i?aoe? e ?ic?iaee a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo
a/aieo c i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii, eiioeaioe?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeai? aeoe
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee, I?aceaeaioa oa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoaii nenoaiiee ? iiiia?ao?/iee
i?aeo?ae, iaoiaee eiie?aoieo nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
?ic?aooieiai-eiino?oeoeaiee, a?oioaaiiy, ii??aiyiiy, aiaeia??,
aeno?aiieyoe??, iiaeaethaaiiy, aenia?oieo ioe?iie oa ?io?.
?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy iineoaeeee iaoa??aee Aea?aeaaiiai
eii?oaoo noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa AIE Oe?a?ie, iia?aoeai? aeai?
Oi?aae?iiy aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno a Ee?anuee?e iaeano?, ca?oi? aeai?
ie?aieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, aeai? eiie?aoieo
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe, ye?
a?aeia?aaeathoue iaoeiao iiaecio aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno, iieyaathoue a ianooiiiio:

noi?ioeueiaaii oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo, eiai
iniaeeaino? a AIE Oe?a?ie ? aeine?aeaeaii aaiethoe?th ooieoe??
oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie;

ooi/iaii ci?no iiiyooy «iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo» ye oi?aae?inueei?
eaoaai???, aecia/aii eiai i?noea na?aae ?ioeo nii??aeiaieo c iei
iiiyoue;

aecia/aii aca?iica’ycie oa aca?iicoiiaeai?noue i?ae ye?nieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oi?aae?inueeiai ia?niiaeo oa aoaeoeai?noth ae?yeueiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa;

a?aoiaioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iieacieea yeino? ?icnoaiiaee
eaae??a ca iinaaeaie ? cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue ?iciiae?eo eiiiaoaioe?e o
noa?? iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo i?ae oi?aae?inueeeie i?aoe?aieeaie;

iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano no?aoaa?/iiai
ieaioaaiiy iio?aae a ia?niiae?, i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aecia/aiiy i?noey
aeioneiee?a-iaiaaeaea??a aa?a?ieo aoc?a ? cai?iiiiiaaii iia? i?aeoiaee
aei aecia/aiiy iio?aae a ia?niiae? ??cieo oei?a i?aei?e?inoa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo a AIE
a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, ye? i?eeiyo? aei
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy I?i?noa?noaii aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny Oi?aae?iiyi
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Eoaeinueeiai ?aeiio AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?,
eieaeoeaiei n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei i?aei?e?inoaii »A?iie//eia»
I?ao?anueeiai ?aeiio A?iieoeueei? iaeano?, a oaeiae a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? ia eaoaae?? iaiaaeaeiaioo oa ia?eaoeiao Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?no «Iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo».

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

ocaaaeueiaii no/ani? iaoeia? iiaeyaee ia iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo oa
noi?ioeueiaaii eiai iniaeeaino? a AIE Oe?a?ie;

aecia/aii i?noea iiiyooy «iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo» ye oi?aae?inueei?
eaoaai??? na?aae nii??aeiaieo c iei iiiyoue;

i?iaiae?ciaaii aieea ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee ea??aiee?a ia aoaeoeai?noue
ae?yeueiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa;

a?aoiaioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iieacieea yeino? ?icnoaiiaee
eaae??a ? ?ic?iaeaii iao?eoeth ?iciiae?eo ooieoe?e iaiaaeaeiaioo
ia?niiaeo i?ae oi?aae?inueeeie i?aoe?aieeaie;

?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy
iio?aae a ia?niiae? ? aecia/aiiy i?noey aeioneiee?a-iaiaaeaea??a
aa?a?ieo aoc?a a ???a?o?/i?e nenoai? oi?aae?iiy AIE;

cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aeey aecia/aiiy iio?aae a
i?aeaioiaoe?, ia?ai?aeaioiaoe?, i?aeaeuaii? eaae?o?eaoe?? oa
i?iaeooaaiiy ea?’??e oi?aae?inueeiai ia?niiaeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa ani??aio?a ?inoeoooo aa?a?iiai
a?ciano i?e Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? (i.Ee?a,
1995-1999??.), ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Iie?auaiiy i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a aeey AIE oa ?icaeoie iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue c iaiaaeaeiaioo ? ia?eaoeiao» (i.Ee?a, 24-25 a?oaeiy
1998?.). Iiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaany ia
?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo oa ia?eaoeiao IAO (
aa?acaiue 1999?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii a 5
iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,2 ae.a.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 167 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?c 224
iaeiaioaaiue, i?noeoue 25 oaaeeoeue, 17 ?enoie?a oa 23 aeiaeaoee.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

Anooi

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo. 1.1.No/ani?
iiaeyaee ia oai??th oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii. 1.2.Nooue ? i?noea eaoaai???
“ia?niiae” a iiiyo?eiiio aia?ao? iaiaaeaeiaioo. 1.3.?icaeoie
aeine?aeaeaiue c iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo a iao?e e?a?i? ? ca ?oaaaeai.

?icae?e 2. Iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee.
2.1.Iniaeeaino? iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo a AIE Oe?a?ie. 2.2.Eaae?iaa
caaacia/aiiy oa ye?niee neeaae ia?niiaeo a i?aei?e?inoaao oa
ia’?aeiaiiyo. 2.3.I?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe c ia?niiaeii a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao.

?icae?e 3. Oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii a AIE.
3.1.Eaae?iaa iie?oeea ? ieaioaaiiy iio?aae a eaae?ao. 3.2.?icaeoie
ia?niiaeo a aa?a?i?e noa?? 3.3.Iiaeyae ia iaeaooi? iaiaaeaeiaioo
ia?niiaeo.

Aeniiaee

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae

Aeiaeaoee

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iiaeaii ei?ioeee aiae?c noaio
i?iaeaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo, caaea/?, i?aaeiao oa ia’?eo
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aeia?aaeaii iaoeiao iiaecio , i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo”
i?iaiae?ciaai? ??ciiiai?oi? a?o/eciyi? oa ca?oa?aei? aeaea?aea, ye? a
o?e /e ?io?e i??? ?ice?eaathoue nooue iiiyooy “iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo”,
eiai i?noea ? ?ieue na?aae ?ioeo oi?aae?inueeeo eaoaai??e, oe?e? oa
ooieoe?? iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo. ?icaeyiooi aaiethoe?th iaoeiaeo
iiaeyae?a c oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii a iao?e e?a?i? oa ca ?oaaaeai.

A aeena?oaoe?? a?aei?/a?oueny, ui ?niothoue ??ci? i?aeoiaee uiaei
aecia/aiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae iiiyooyie “oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie
?ano?naie”, “iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo”, “eaae?iaee iaiaaeaeiaio”. Ia
iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co ??cieo iiaeyae?a, iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo a
?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?aenenoaia oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie,
yea caaacia/o? i?ioeane ?o oi?ioaaiiy, ?icaeoeo oa ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy a eiie?aoiiio i?aei?e?inoa?, ia’?aeiaii?, aaeoc?.

I?ae ia?niiaeii ?icoi??oueny aanue iniaiaee neeaae onoaiiae,
i?aei?e?inoaa, o??ie, aai /anoeia oeueiai neeaaeo, aeae?eaia ca iciaeith
oa?aeoa?o aeeiioaaii? ?iaioe. Noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui iiiyooy “ia?niiae”
oe?oa, i?ae “eaae?e”. I?ae eaae?aie ?icoi??oueny iniiaiee (ooaoiee)
neeaae i?aeaioiaeaieo, eaae?o?eiaaieo i?aoe?aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa,
onoaiia, i?ioni?eeiaeo ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e o??? /e ?ioi? aaeoc?
ae?yeueiino?, oiaoi an? iino?ei? i?aoe?aieee. Oiio iiaeia neacaoe, ui
oi?aae?iiy eaae?aie caaacia/o? an? o? ae i?ioeane, ui ? iaiaaeaeiaio
ia?niiaeo, aea eeoa noiniaii iino?eiiai eaae?o?eiaaiiai neeaaeo
i?aoe?aiee?a.

Iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo cae?enith?oueny oeyoii aeeiiaiiy
oe?eani?yiiaaieo ae?e ? ia?aaeaa/a? aecia/aiiy oe?eae ? iniiaieo
iai?yie?a ?iaioe c ia?niiaeii. Aei iniiaieo oe?eae oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii
a?aeiinyoueny: caaeiaieaiiy e?euee?nii? oa ye?nii? iio?aae i?aei?e?inoaa
(ia’?aeiaiiy, aaeoc?) a ia?niiae?; caaacia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii?
?icnoaiiaee, i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai oa iinaaeiaiai i?inoaaiiy
i?aoe?aiee?a; aoaeoeaia ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui a oai??? oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii aeae?eythoue a?n?i
iniiaieo ooieoe?e, ?aae?coth/e ye? aeinyaathoue iinoaaeaieo oe?eae:
ieaioaaiiy iio?aae, a?aea??, iaei, ?icaeoie, i???ioaoe?y, i?inoaaiiy ii
neoaea?, ioe?iea, aeiaai?iaea. Aiie o?nii iia’ycai? i?ae niaith ?
noai?ththoue iaaio nenoaio ?iaioe c ia?niiaeii. Ooieoe?? eiaeii?
i?aenenoaie aeeiiothoue ??ci? no?oeoo?i? i?ae?icae?ee ii ?iaio? c
ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie, i?e/iio o aaeeeeo i?aai?caoe?yo ooieoe?? eiaeii?
i?aenenoaie, ye i?aaeei, aeeiio? ie?aiee i?ae?icae?e, a a ae??aieo
i?aai?caoe?yo iaeei i?ae?icae?e iiaea aeeiioaaoe ooieoe?? aeae?eueeio
i?aenenoai.

Aeey iiaoaeiae nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii i?aai?caoe??
aeei?enoiaothoueny ??ci? i?eioeeie (aeiiii?/iino?, eiiieaeniino?,
iioeiaeueiino?, i?inoioe, iaoeiaino? oa ?i.) ? iaoiaee (aiae?co,
oi?ioaaiiy, iaa?oiooaaiiy, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa ?i.), ye? ?aae?cothoueny o
eiiieaen?, ? ii?aeiaiiy yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae eiie?aoieo oiia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoaa.

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeyaeaii, ui oai??y ? i?aeoeea iaiaaeaeiaioo
ia?niiaeo ne?aeii ca aeiiii?/ieie ? nioe?aeueieie ci?iaie i?ieoee
aeae?eueea aca?iiiia’ycaieo noaae?e ?icaeoeo, ui aeaco? ia iino?eiee
iiooe iiaeo oi?i ? iaoiae?a ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie
?ano?naie. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui c ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o
iao?e e?a?i? ii/aee a?aeaiaeeoe aaaeeea?oa i?noea iaiaaeaeiaioo, cie?aia
oi?aae?iith ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie, ui ni?e/eieei iiaeeaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue c oe??? i?iaeaie. A e?a?i? noai?ai? aea?aeaai? neoaeae
caeiyoino? ia ??cieo ??aiyo aeiiii?ee, ye? ?ic?iaeythoue oa ?aae?cothoue
caoiaee uiaei caaacia/aiiy caeiyoino? i?aoeacaeaoiiai ianaeaiiy, oa
iaaea?aeaai? no?oeoo?e caeiyoino? i?eaaoiiai oa?aeoa?o, ye? ni?eythoue
caaeiaieaiith iio?aae i?aei?e?inoa a niaoe?ae?noao ? aeiiiiaaathoue
i?aoe?aieeai i?ae?a?aoe a?aeiia?aeio ?iaioo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo a aa?a?iiio naeoi??
aeiiii?ee” aecia/aii iniaeeaino? i?ioeano iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo a
aa?ii?iieneiaiio eiiieaen? Oe?a?ie, aeyaeaii e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? ci?ie
oi?aae?inueeeo i?aoe?aiee?a o aeeiai?oe?, i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?th/i? i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao nenoaie AIE Oe?a?ie. Ia
i?aenoaa? aea??eiaiai ianoaaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
oa nioe?ieia?/iiai aieaooaaiiy ?oi?o i?aoe?aiee?a c?iaeaii a?aeiia?aei?
aeniiaee.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?niiae i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie i?e ia?aoiae? aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei oi?io?oueny a oiiaao neeaaeii? aeaiia?ao?/ii?
ianoaiiaee. Iniaeeai o?eaiaeiith ? neooaoe?y a AIE. Ca aeaieie i?aai?a
noaoenoeee n?euenueea ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ia ii/aoie 1998 ?ieo noaiiaeei
16,2 iei. /ieia?e, aai 32,1% a?ae anueiai ianaeaiiy, a oiio /ene? a?ey 8
iei. /ieia?e i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo. Aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y a
n?euenueeeo ianaeaieo ioieoao e?a?ie ui??/ii iia??oo?oueny ?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aino?ith aeaiiioeyoe??th, oaeoe/ii — aeie?aiiyi naea.
Iei? a Oe?a?i? caeeoeeanue o?eueee iaeia iaeanoue — Caea?iaonueea, — aea
caa??any i?e?iaeiee i?e??no n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy. Aeaiiioeyoe?y
ni?aaey? iaaaoeaiee aieea ia a?eiao no?oeoo?o ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a,
niinoa??aa?oueny yaia noa??iiy ianaeaiiy (?en.1), ui aieeaa? ia oa?aeoa?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a, i?ecaiaeeoue aei ia?a?iciiae?eo
noni?eueieo oiiae?a oa aei ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao ia oo?eiaiiy c?inoath/i?
iane iai?aoeacaeaoieo ca a?eii ethaeae. Iiee ui neaai ea?iaaiei c aieo
aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo? caeeoa?oueny i?ioean nei?i/aiiy n?euenueeiai
ianaeaiiy, ui iineeth? ia??aiii??i?noue o caaacia/aii? ?iai/ith neeith
iaaieo ?aa?ii?a, i?a?aoe?y ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a /anoi ia? noeo?eiee
oa?aeoa?. A inoaii? ?iee iaaoa iioe?aiiy i?ioean i?a?aoe?? iaea?eueo
aeoeaieo ethaeae ca ei?aeii. I?e/iio aaeeea /anoeia i?a?aio?a ?c
naea — ethaee iieiaeiai a?eo, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii?ooaiiy
iaiao?aeiiai noaoaai-a?eiaiai neeaaeo n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy oa
iia??oaiiy ye?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo.

Nei?i/aiiy /enaeueiino? iaoeaioe?a naea caaino?eei i?iaeaio
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a, aoaeoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy ieie. Inoaii? ia?aaeaa/a? a?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee naiiai
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa ? iniaeeainoae n?euenueei? i?aoe?, ye?
?icaeyioo? a ?iaio?.

O aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ?nioth/ee iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy ia
ioiieth? an?o aniaeo?a

?en. 1 Aeeiai?ea a?eiaiai neeaaeo n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy

iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo (?en.2). Iayai?noue aaeocaaiai ?
oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie ni?e/eiy?
ia?aeaeuei?noue ? aeoaethaaiiy aaaaoueio ooieoe?e ia?niiaeueiiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo, a aeaye? c ieo ia i?aeoeoe? acaaae? ia ?aae?cothoueny.
Iaa?oioiaaii, ui aoaeoeaia oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii aeiaaa? nenoaie
i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie, yea a caaacia/oaaea ?o
aca?iica’ycie ? aca?iiae?th ia an?o ??aiyo ???a?o??.

A?aei?/a?oueny, ui aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai
ainiiaea?thth/iai noa’?eoa a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae ye?niiai
neeaaeo oi?aae?inueeeo i?aoe?aiee?a, ?o iniaenoeo ? ae?eiaeo yeinoae,
caaaeueiiina?oiueiai ? eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai ??aiy.

Ia ii/aoie 1998 ?ieo aei neeaaeo ea??aiee?a ? niaoe?ae?no?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa nenoaie I?iaa?ii?iio Oe?a?ie
aoiaeeei 337 oen. /ieia?e, ui noaiiaeei 97,2% a?ae iio?aae ca ooaoii. O
aeeiai?oe? i?ine?aeaeo?oueny /?oea oaiaeaioe?y iia??oaiiy e?euee?nieo ?
ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a: ca?eueoo?oueny /anoea in?a
iain?eiiai oa ia?aaeiain?eiiai a?eo oa iaeii/anii ciaioo?oueny ieoiia
aaaa iieiae?, c?inoa? ieeii?noue ia?niiaeo, a?aeaoaa?oueny cieaeaiiy
ina?oiueiai ??aiy neoaeaiaoe?a.

Iei? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa iaea??oa caaacia/ai?
eaae?o?eiaaieie niaoe?ae?noaie c iae?eiaeo oa ?iaeaia?ieo
niaoe?aeueiinoae. Iecueeee ina?oi?e ??aaiue i?aoe?aiee?a a?aeae?e?a
eaae??a: eeoa eiaeai oinoee ia? aeeieii i?i aeuo ina?oo ? eiaeai nueiiee
— o?eueee oe?eueiee aoanoao. A?ey 70% eaae?iaee?a iathoue na?aaeith
niaoe?aeueio ina?oo. A a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ia

Oaaeeoey 1

Caeaaei?noue aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? ainiiaea?noa Ee?anueei? iaeano?*
a?ae a?eo ?o ea??aiee?a, 1997 ?.

Iieacieee A?oie ainiiaea?noa ca a?eii ?o ea??aiee?a, ?ie?a

A na?aae-

aei 35 36- 40 41- 45 46- 50 iiiaae 50 iueiio

E?euee?noue ainiiaea?noa 6 13 19 15 13 66

Na?aaei?e a?e ea??aieea, ?ie?a 34 38 42 47 57 45

Na?aaei?e noaae ?iaioe ea??aieea ia aeai?e iinaae?, ?ie?a

2,5

2,9

4,6

3,5

8,7

4,6

Aa?o?noue aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? (a ii??aiyiieo oe?iao 1996 ?ieo), oen.
a?i. :

ia 1 aa n.-a. oa?aeue 0,33 0,30 0,44 0,34 0,45 0,38

ia iaeiiai na?aaeiuei??/iiai i?aoe?aieea

3,77

4,00

5,27

3,76

4,15

4,26

ia iaeiiai i?aoe?aieea aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy

20,70

25,56

32,74

27,69

29,68

28,34

ia iaeia ainiiaea?noai 838,3 1004,6 1056,3 959,8 1356,2 1063,5

Aaeiaee aeioiae, oen. a?i.:

ia 1 aa n.-a. oa?aeue -0,08 -0,06 0,02 -0,04 0,01 -0,02

ia iaeiiai na?aaeiuei??/iiai i?aoe?aieea

-0,91

-0,78

0,27

-0,45

0,08

-0,25

ia iaeiiai i?aoe?aieea aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy

-4,98

-5,02

1,67

-3,28

0,58

-1,66

ia iaeia ainiiaea?noai -201,7 -197,3 54,0 -113,9 26,2 -62,4

* Aa?eo?anueeee, Ai?eni?euenueeee oa Ia?ayneaa- Oiaeueieoeueeee ?aeiie

a?aeiia?aeaeuei? ?ie? eaae?iaeo ea??aiee?a noathoue iniae aac
a?aeiia?aeii? ina?oe ? iaiao?aeieo cae?aiinoae. Ua a??oa neooaoe?y oai,
aea acaaae? iaia? a?aeae?e?a eaae??a.

Aeey aecia/aiiy aca?iica’yceo i?ae ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
oi?aae?inueeiai ia?niiaeo oa aoaeoeai?noth ae?yeueiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aeine?aeaeaiiyie aoei ioiieaii
ainiiaea?noaa Aa?eo?anueeiai, Ai?eni?euenueeiai oa Ia?ayneaa-
Oiaeueieoeueeiai ?aeii?a Ee?anueei? iaeano?, ye? iathoue iiae?ai?
i?e?iaei? e aeiiii?/i? oiiae ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
iae?aoe?iiaeuei?oei aeey ?iaioe ia iinaae? ea??aieea i?aei?e?inoaa ? a?e
a?ae 41 aei 45 ?ie?a (oaae.1). C oeueiai aeieeaa?, ui aeioe?eueii
noai?thaaoe eaae?iaee ?aca?a c iieiaeeo cae?aieo i?aoe?aiee?a oa
caeo/aoe ?o aei oi?aae?inueei? ?iaioe a a?eueo ?aiiueiio a?oe?.

Anoaiiaeaii oaeiae, ui i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? ?aae?cothoue aeuee
eaae?o?eaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae i?aoe?aiee?a aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy, iathoue
e?au? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? iieacieee ainiiaea?thaaiiy.
A?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?ioyaii aaaaoueio ?ie?a o iao?e e?a?i?
anoaiiaeeanue i?aeoeea caeiyooy iinaae ea??aiee?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa iniaaie c oaoiieia?/iith oa
oaoi?/iith ina?oith. Oae, ca iaoa??aeaie Oi?aae?iiy AIE a Ee?anuee?e
iaeano? ia ii/aoie aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo, na?aae ia?oeo ea??aiee?a aa?a?ieo
oi?ioaaiue ia?aaaaeathoue aa?iiiie (41,9 %), ?iaeaia?e-iaoai?ee (20,9
%), ciioaoi?ee (14,4%). O oie aea /an iaeaeu? iieacieee aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? o ainiiaea?noaao, ia /ie? yeeo noiyoue i?aoe?aieee c
aeiiii?/iith ina?oith. Oiio, na?aae i?iaeai ?iaioe c eaae?aie
aeooaeueiith ? i?ioan?eia (iaiaaeaea?nueea) i?aeaioiaea ea??aieo
eaae??a, ui iiaea aeinyaaoenue eo?niaith i?aeaioiaeith, aeiai?ii ia
oaeoeueoaoe aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo iaea?eueo oaeaiiaeoeo,
i?aei?e?ieeaeo oa ?i?oe?aoeaieo ethaeae, ye? aeyaeee cae?aiino? aei
iaiaaeaea?nueei? ?iaioe, oa iiaeaeueoa ?o oe?eueiaa aeei?enoaiiy.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny, ui aaaeeeaei iieacieeii aiae?co
ye?niiai neeaaeo ia?niiaeo ? ye?noue ?icnoaiiaee eaae??a ca iinaaeaie,
yeee ?ic?aoiao?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

,

aea ssi — ye?noue ?icnoaiiaee ia?niiaeo ca iinaaeaie;

Ea — e?euee?noue niaoe?ae?no?a c aeuith ina?oith, ui caeiathoue iinaaee,
ye? aeiaaathoue iayaiino? aeui? ina?oe;

En — e?euee?noue niaoe?ae?no?a c na?aaeiueith niaoe?aeueiith ina?oith,
ui caeiathoue iinaaee, ye? aeiaaathoue iayaiino? na?aaeiuei?
niaoe?aeueii? ina?oe;

CEia, CEin — caaaeueia e?euee?noue iinaae, ui aeiaaathoue iayaiino?
a?aeiia?aeii aeui? oa na?aaeiuei? niaoe?aeueii? ina?oe.

?ic?aooiie aeaiiai iieacieea aeaui i?aeaeuo? ye?noue ieaioaaiiy
eaae?iai? ?iaioe, aecia/aiiy aeiaeaoeiai? iio?aae a niaoe?ae?noao ? ?
iaiao?aeiith iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee ? cae?eniaiiy iniiaieo caoiae?a
uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai neeaaeo ? ?icnoaiiaee
eaae??a oi?aae?iiy.

A oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieo iiaeii? ?ic?iaeyoenue i?eioeeiiai iia?
canaaee i?aai?caoe?eii? iiaoaeiae ? ae?yeueiino? eaae?iaeo neoaea. A
neeo iecueeiai i?aai?caoe?eiiai noaoono ? neaaeino? a i?ioan?eiiio
a?aeiioaii?, ?nioth/? eaae?ia? neoaeae ia aeeiiothoue oe?eee ?yae caaea/
c iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo ? caaacia/aiiy ii?iaeueieo oiia aeey ?iaioe,
na?aae yeeo oae? aaaeeea?, ye: nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia ae?aaiinoeea;
aiae?c ? ?aaoethaaiiy a?oiiaeo ? iniaenoeo aca?iia?aeiinei, a?aeiinei
ea??aieea ? i?aeeaaeeo; oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/eie ? nioe?aeueieie
eiioe?eoaie ? no?anaie; ?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy nenoaie eaae?iaiai
oi?aae?iiy; oi?aae?iiy caeiyo?noth; ioe?iea ? i?aea?? eaiaeeaeao?a ia
aaeaioi? iinaaee; aiae?c eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo ? iio?aae a ia?niiae?;
ia?eaoeia eaae??a; ieaioaaiiy ? eiio?ieue ae?eiai? ea?’??e; i?ioan?eia ?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia aaeaioaoe?y i?aoe?aiee?a; oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaith
iioeaaoe??th; ?aaoethaaiiy i?aaiaeo ieoaiue o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei,
aeio?eiaiiy aeiia ineoio?c?ieia??, a?aiiii?ee ? anoaoeee i?aoe?. Ca
aeaieo oiia a?aeae?e eaae??a ia ? iaoiaee/iei, ?ioi?iaoe?eiei,
eii?aeeiaoe?eiei oeaio?ii eaae?iai? ?iaioe. No?oeoo?ia ?ic??ciai?noue

Oaaeeoey 2

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ooieoe?e eaae?iaeo neoaea

Ooieoe?? eaae?iaeo neoaea

oaeoe/ii i?iaeo

?ic?iaea ooaoiiai ?icieno. I?aeaioiaea iaeac?a ea??aieea uiaei iniaiaiai
neeaaeo

Aiae?c ??aiy caaacia/aiino? niaoe?ae?noaie c aeuith oa na?aaeiueith
niaoe?aeueiith ina?oith. Aiae?c ieeiiino? ia?niiaeo

Ioi?ieaiiy i?eeiio ia ?iaioo, ia?aaaaeaiiy, ca?eueiaiiy. Eiio?ieue ca
i?aaeeueiei canoinoaaiiyi caeiiiaeaanoaa

O/anoue o ?iaio? aoanoaoe?eii? eii?n??

?ic?iaea oa iciaeiieaiiy ea??aieoeoaa c i?iiiceoe?yie uiaei i?aeaioiaee,
ia?a-i?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ia?niiaeo

Ieaioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a — aecia/aiiy iio?aae a eaae?ao caeaaeii
a?ae no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa

Cae?eniaiiy eiiieaeniiai aiae?co neeaaeo ? ?ooo ia?niiaeo

Aecia/aiiy e aiae?c aeaea?ae iie?eooy iio?aae a ia?niiae?

O/anoue o ?iaio? eii?n?? ii ioe?ioe? eaiaeeaeao?a ia aaeaioio iinaaeo

O/anoue o i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue uiaei i?eeiio ia ?iaioo, ia?aaaaeaiiy,
ca?eueiaiiy

I?ioi???ioaoe?y e aaeaioaoe?y — aeeth/aiiy iaa?aieo i?aoe?aiee?a o
eieaeoea, o i?ioean ae?iaieoeoaa

Caaacia/aiiy caeiyoino?

I?aai?caoe?y e i?iaaaeaiiy ia??iaee/ii? ioe?iee eaae??a

I?aai?caoe?y iaa/aiiy, ia?ai?aeaioiaee ? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
ia?niiaeo

Noai?aiiy eaae?iaiai ?aca?ao ia?niiaeo, i?aea?? o eaiaeeaeaoe. ?iaioa c
eaae?iaei ?aca?aii

Ieaioaaiiy ? eiio?ieue ea?’??e oa neoaeaiai-i?ioan?eiiai i?inoaaiiy

Aecia/aiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ? i?euea c iaoith caeo/aiiy, caa?aaeaiiy,
cae??ieaiiy eaae??a

Eiio?ieue ca aeio?eiaiiyi aeiia ineoio?c?ieia??, a?aiiii?ee e anoaoeee
i?aoe?

Aiae?c ? ?aaoethaaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei

Oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/eie ? nioe?aeueieie eiioe?eoaie, no?anaie

Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia ae?aaiinoeea

Aaaeaiiy ia?niiaeueiiai iae?eo, o?oaeiaeo eieaeie ? iniaiaeo ni?aa
i?aoe?aiee?a, ea?oie aeey a?enueeiaiciaia’ycaieo oa anoaiiaeaii?
ca?oii-iae?eiai? aeieoiaioaoe?? ii eaae?ao, i?aeaioiaea noaoenoe/ii?
ca?oiino?

I?aeaioiaea iaeac?a i?i caioi/aiiy oa noyaiaiiy

Ioi?ieaiiy e?ea?iyieo eeno?a, iain?e

Neeaaeaiiy ? aeeiiaiiy a?ao?e?a ui??/ieo a?aeionoie

Aaaeaiiy oaaaeueiiai iae?eo

Oi?ioaaiiy ni?aa aei a?o?ao

Ia?aienea c ?aea?enueeiiaoii, nioecaaacii, neoaeaith caeiyoino?, ?ioeie
i?aai?caoe?yie

?icaeyae i?iiiceoe?e, eeno?a, caya ? nea?a i?aoe?aiee?a c ieoaiue, ye?
aoiaeyoue aei eiiiaoaioe?? a?aeae?eo

Eiinoeueooaaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a

i?ae?icae?e?a, ye? caeiathoueny ieoaiiyie oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii, iaei
ni?ey? oe?eani?yiiaaiei no?aoaa?/iei ae?yi.

Cae?enithaai? e?iee ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee oa aeaiie?aoecaoe??
noni?euenoaa aeiaaathoue ?aaeeeaeueieo ci?i o no?oeoo?? oi?aae?iiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei i?aei?e?inoaii. A?aeae?ee eaae??a oaia?
iiaeii? ?icaeyaeaoenue o /ene? i?ia?aeieo no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a, ui
ia?aaeaa/a?, ia?o ca ana, oeiiieaeooaaiiy eaae?iaeo neoaea a?eueo
eaae?o?eiaaieie ethaeueie c aenieei ??aiai ina?oe. ?acii c oei iiaeiai
o?ainoi?ioaaoenue «eiioaeno», a yeiio aeeiiothoueny ooieoe??
oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii. Ca iiaeo oiia iiaeii? ia?aaaaeaoe ia iae?eia?, a
ci?noiai? aiae?oe/i? e i?aai?caoe?ei? aniaeoe ae?yeueiino? eaae?iaeo
neoaea (oaae.2). Aeacaia iio?aao? noai?aiiy i?aeoe/ii iiaeo iieiaeaiue
i?i no?oeoo?i? i?ae?icae?ee ? iinaaeiaeo ?ino?oeoe?e ye aeey
i?aoe?aiee?a eaae?iaeo neoaea cie?aia, oae ? aeey anueiai
oi?aae?inueeiai ia?niiaeo ainiiaea?noa a oe?eiio. A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoea c?iaeaia ni?iaa iiaoaeoaaoe aaciao iiaeaeue ?iciiae?eo ooieoe?e
iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo i?ae eaae?aie oi?aae?iiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?aei?e?inoaa, yea a a?aeiia?aeaea iiaei
aeiiaai ? iiaea iieaaoeoe neeaaeaiiy a eiie?aoieo ainiiaea?noaao
aeanieo aeieoiaio?a-?aaeaiaio?a, ui ni?eyoeiooue /?oeiio ?iciiae?eo
ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii, aeeeth/aiith ia?aeaeueiino? ?
aeoaethaaiiy, caaacia/aiith aca?iica’yceo a ?iaio? iinaaeiaeo in?a, a
oaeiae iine?aeiaiino? ? nai?/aniino? aeeiiaiiy cae??ieaieo ca ieie
?ia?o.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii a AIE”
aecia/aii i?noea eaae?iai? iie?oeee a nenoai? oi?aae?iiy aa?a?ieie
i?aei?e?inoaaie, i?noyoueny i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano
ieaioaaiiy iio?aae a ia?niiae? AIE oa aecia/aiiy i?noey
aeioneiee?a-iaiaaeaea??a aa?a?ieo aoc?a, ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee
aei aecia/aiiy iio?aae a ?icaeoeo ia?niiaeo.

Eaae?iaa iie?oeea i?aai?caoe?? a aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
oe?e?nia no?aoaa?y ?iaioe c ia?niiaeii, yea aecia/a? ?? aaia?aeueiee
iai?yi ? i?eioeeiia? onoaiiaee ia aeiaao ia?niaeoeao, ia’?aeio? ??ci?
aeaiaioe ? oi?ie eaae?iai? ?iaioe, ? ia? ca oe?eue noai?aiiy
aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai ? aenieii?ioan?eiiai eieaeoeao, caeaoiiai aio/ei
?aaaoaaoe ia ci?ie ciai?oiueiai ? aioo??oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Iniiaiei
ci?noii eaae?iai? iie?oeee a aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoaao ?, ii-ia?oa,
caaacia/aiiy i?aei?e?inoaa ia?niiaeii, aeeth/ath/e ieaioaaiiy, a?aea?? ?
iaei, aea?eueiaiiy (aeo?ae ia iain?th, ca?eueiaiiy), aiae?c ieeiiino?
ia?niiaeo oa ?i.; ii-ae?oaa, ?icaeoie i?aoe?aiee?a (iaa/aiiy,
i?ioi???ioaoe?y oa ia?ai?aeaioiaea, noai?aiiy ?aca?ao, neoaeaiaa
i?inoaaiiy oa i?iaaaeaiiy ?o ioe?iee); ii-o?ao?, oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? ? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?, nioe?aeuei? aeieaoe
(?en.3).

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui iei? iinoa? ieoaiiy ?ic?iaee iiai? eaae?iai?
iie?oeee, yea a ioiiethaaea noa?e, ui ?ai?oa iaei a?aoiaoaaeenue: noa?a
o?oaeiaeo eiioe?eo?a, aca?iia?aeiinei c

AIOO??OI? NA?AAeIAEUA

?en. 3 Aca?iica’ycie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa
c eaae?iaith iie?oeeith oa ooieoe?yie iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo

aaei?i?no?aoe??th oa a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie, ?ieue nioe?aeueieo
i?ia?ai, ye? aieeaathoue ia

ae?iaie/o a?aeaea/o ia?niiaeo oa ?ioa.

Eiaeia i?aei?e?inoai oi?io? aeanio eaae?iao iie?oeeo, ia yeo aieeaathoue
ye aioo??oi?, oae ? ciai?oi? oaeoi?e. Iaeiae, caaaeueiei aeey an?o
ainiiaea?thth/eo noa’?eo?a ? oa, ui eaae?iaa iie?oeea iiaeiia aooe
iine?aeiaiith ? a?aeiia?aeaoe ?o i?n?? oa oe?eyi, yaeyoenue /anoeith
caaaeueii? no?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa ? aca?iiae?yoe ?c eiai
?iaanoeoe?eiei, ?iiiaaoe?eiei i?iaeoaie oa o?iainiaeie iiaeeeainoyie
i?aai?caoe??.

?nioth/a nenoaia ?ic?aooieo aeiaeaoeiai? iio?aae aaeoc? a niaoe?ae?noao
aaco?oueny ia ocaaaeueiaii? a I?i?noa?noa? AIE cayaie, ui iaaeoiaeyoue
a?ae i?aei?e?inoa, i?aai?caoe?e oa onoaiia, neeaaeaieo ye ii a?oiao
niaoe?aeueiinoae, oae ? ie?aii ii eiaei?e c ieo oa ei?aaoaaiiy ?o c
o?aooaaiiyi ooaoieo ii?iaoea?a. O i?aei?e?inoaao aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie aeei?enoiaothoue ??ci? iaoiaee ieaioaaiiy iio?aae a
ia?niiae?. Ae?aaiinoeea aeaiiai ieoaiiy iieacaea, ui a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao /ano?oa aeei?enoiaothoue
ii?aeiaiiy aeae?eueeio iaoiae?a ieaioaaiiy. Oae, ?aniiiaeaioe
iia?aeiieee, ui a ?o ainiiaea?noaao i?e ieaioaaii? iio?aae a ia?niiae?
iaaeathoue ia?aaaao ooaoii-ii?iaoeaiiio (68%) oa ooaoiiio (41%)
iaoiaeai. Canoiniaothoueny oaeiae ii?iaoeaiee (12%),
ooaoii-iiiaieeaoo?iee (7%) oa iaoiae aeno?aiieyoe?? (5%). A oiiaao
iaaecia/aii? aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? aaaaoi aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa ia
?ic?iaeythoue no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ? ieaioaaiiy cae?eniththoue ii-noa?iio,
“a?ae aeinyaiooiai”. Ieie caeaa?eueoiai ia aea/athoueny oaiaeaioe??
?eieo, ia i?iaiaeeoueny i?iaiicoaaiiy iio?aae a ia?niiae? a ca’yceo ?c
ci?iith oaoiieia??, i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? ? ae?iaieoeoaa oiui.

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo aeno?aiieyoe?? c?iaeaii
i?iaiic aeiaeaoeiai? iio?aae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa AIE
a ea??aieeao oa niaoe?ae?noao (oaae.3).

?ic?aooiee i?iaiaeeeenue ca oi?ioeith:

aea Pj — aeiaeaoeiaa iio?aaa a ia?niiae? aaeoc? (i?aei?e?inoaa) a j-iio
?ioe?;

bij — i?iaiiciaaia /enaeuei?noue ?-i? eaoaai??? ia?niiaeo a j-iio ?ioe?;

aij — iayaia /enaeuei?noue ?-i? eaoaai??? ia?niiaeo ia ii/aoie j-iai
?ieo;

kij, lij, mij — aeiaeaoeiaa iio?aaa a ia?niiae? ?-i? eaoaai??? a j-iio
?ioe? a?aeiia?aeii aeey a?aeoai?aiiy i?e?iaeiiai aeaoooy, aeaoooy c
?ioeo i?e/ei, /anoeiai? cai?ie i?aeoee?a

n — noeoii?noue eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a.

C?iaeaiee i?iaiic aea? iaaeeaeaio ioe?ieo aeiaeaoeiai? iio?aae
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno a
ea??aieeao ? niaoe?ae?noao. ?, ye na?ae/aoue aeai?, iaa?oue ca oiiae
nei?i/aiiy caaaeueii? /enaeueiino? oi?aae?inueeeo i?aoe?aiee?a ?nio?
aeao?oeeo o ina?/aieo eaae?ao oi?aae?iiy. C iaoith caaacia/aiiy
iiaeeeaino? cae?eniaiiy ?aaeuei?oiai i?iaiicoaaiiy (ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoiae?a nei?aaiaaii? aeno?aiieyoe?? oa iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee),
iaiao?aeii noai?eoe aaeocaa? oa ?aa?iiaeuei? aaiee aeaieo i?i eaae?e ia
no/ani?e ?ioi?iaoe?eii-oaoiieia?/i?e aac?.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? eaae?iai? iie?oeee aaeoc? iaia’yceiai iiaeii?
a?aoiaoaaoenue aeiiae i?ia?aie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie,
iai?/oaai? i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy,

Oaaeeoey 3

I?iaiic aeiaeaoeiai? iio?aae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa AIE
a ea??aieeao oa niaoe?ae?noao, /ieia?e

Eaoaai??? i?aoe?aiee?a Ui??/ia aeiaeaoeiaa iio?aaa aac o?aooaaiiy ci?i
Aeiaeaoeiaa iio?aaa c o?aooaaiiyi oaiaeaioe?? ci?i caaaeueii? iio?aae

caaaeueii? iio?aae 2000 ??e 2005 ??e

Ea??aieee i?aei?e?inoa 2068 2035 2015

Canooiieee ea??aiee?a 964 686 559

Aa?iiiie 2813 1794 1463

Ciioaoi?ee 2752 1646 1273

Aaoe?ea?? 4124 2573 1991

?iaeaia?e-iaoai?ee 8136 5010 3678

?iaeaia?e-aoae?aaeueieee 2718 1849 1358

Aeiiii?noe 2225 1099 806

Aooaaeoa?e 13612 11772 10641

I?aoe?aieee eaae?iaeo neoaea 2319 2048 1852

?acii 41731 30512 25636

cai?iaeoiaai? ci?ie o niaoe?ae?caoe?? ? aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa,
oaoi?/iiio caaacia/aii?. ?c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeieia?? no?aoaa?/iiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo aeioe?eueii i?aeaiooaaoe iaoiaeeeo i?iaiicoaaiiy ?
ieaioaaiiy iio?aae a eaae?ao oa ?o ioe?iee, aaeaioiaaio aei ?eieiaeo
oiia (inoaii? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ooaoi?e /enaeueiino?
ea??aiee?a, niaoe?ae?no?a oa ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, ye? iaaoee oe?ieiai i?aeoe/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy, aoee ?ic?iaeai? ?AA OAAI ua a 1987 ?ioe?) ? a
iaeei?iooee no?ie i?iaanoe nooe?eueio ia?aaoanoaoe?th oi?aae?inueeiai
ia?niiaeo c oei, uia aecia/eoe i?ia?aio ?o i?inoaaiiy, i?aeaioiaee ?
ia?ai?aeaioiaee, cai?ie eaae??a.

C ieaioaaiiyi ia?niiaeo o?nii iia’ycaiee eiai ?icaeoie, yeee ? a?aeiinii
naiino?eiith noa?ith eaae?iai? iie?oeee. A?i i?aaenoaaey? niaith
eiiieaen caoiae?a, ye? aeeth/athoue i?ioan?eia iaa/aiiy aeioneiee?a
oe?e, ia?ai?aeaioiaeo ? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? eaae??a, a oaeiae
ieaioaaiiy ea?’??e ia?niiaeo i?aai?caoe??. Eaae?e aeey AIE Oe?a?ie
aioothoue 20 aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a III-IV ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe?? oa
112 aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ?-?? ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??. Ia aeaii?e oa
cai/i?e oi?iao iaa/a?oueny iiiaae 185 oeny/ niaoe?ae?no?a, o oiio /ene?
o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao III-IV ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe?? — iiiaae 90
oeny/ nooaeaio?a. Na?aae eiioeiaaioo aoc?a III-IV ??ai?a ae?aaeeoaoe??
iaea?eueoa nooaeaio?a, ye? caeiaoaathoue niaoe?aeueiino? iae?e ? aoaeeo,
iaoai?caoe?y n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, aa?a?iee iaiaaeaeiaio,
aa?iiii?y, cii?iaeaia??y oa aaoa?eia?ia iaaeeoeeia. Iei? c’yaeythoueny
ye?nii iia? niaoe?aeueiino?, ui coiiaeaii iio?aaith ae?iaieoeoaa. Iaeiae
ieoiia aaaa nooaeaio?a, ye? ?o io?eiothoue, iiee ui iaaaeeea.
N?iiaaeoeyoue aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a nenoaie AIE Oe?a?ie oa
Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao ii/aee aiooaaoe iaiaaeaea??a.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ii?yae c ?ioeie aeenoeeie?iaie aeey iaeaooi?o
oao?aoe?a o noa?? iaiaaeaeiaioo ei?enii aoei a aea/aoe oae?
aeenoeeie?ie, ye iniiae ae?eiaiaenoaa, ineoieia?y oi?aae?iiy,
nioe?aeueia ineoieia?y i?aai?caoe?e, ineoiae?aaiinoeea, nioe?ii?ea,
o?ai?ia, oaoi?ea i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aaiai??a oa eoeueoo?a iiaaae?iee.

A oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei i?iaaaeaii oanooaaiiy na?aae nooaeaio?a
/aoaa?oiai eo?no oaeoeueoaoo aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aeey aecia/aiiy nioe?aeueiiai oeio iniaenoino? ca
iaoiaeeeith Ae.Eae?n?. ?acoeueoaoaie oanooaaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui
a?eueo?noue nooaeaio?a iathoue oae? iniaeno?ni?, eiioi?eaoe?ei? oa
i?ioan?eii aaaeeea? yeino?, ii?aeiaiiy yeeo ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aeey
iaiaaeaea??a, aaei?i?no?aoi??a, a?cianiai?a, aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a.
Iaeiae, na?aae oanoiaaieo aeyaeeenue ? iniae, aeey yeeo, a?aeiia?aeii
aei ?o nioe?aeueiiai oeio, a?eueo i?aeoiaeyoue i?ioan?? ienueiaiiee,
e?ea?, aeeeaaea/, aeoiaaoaeue, o?eieia, ?iaeaia?. Oiio aeioe?eueii
na?aae aa?oo???io?a oaeoeueoao?a aa?a?iiai iaiaaeaeiaioo i?iaiaeeoe
noa?aiia oanooaaiiy, yea aeiiiiiaea cae?enithaaoe i?ioan?eio
i???ioaoe?th oa aeanoue ciiao ia i?ioan?ei?e iniia? c /enea iiaeeeaeo
i?aoaiaeaio?a a?ae?a?aoe naia oeo, ooi ca nai?ie
i?ioan?eii-ineoieia?/ieie yeinoyie a?aeiia?aea? iaaiei aeiiaai.

Ine?eueee ca no/anieo oiia caaea/? aeiaaino?ieiaiai oa?aeoa?o /anoi
a?aenoaathoueny ia ae?oaee ieai ? ainiiaea?noaa ?iiae? ia caoe?eaaeai? a
i?aeaioiaoe? iieiaeeo niaoe?ae?no?a, iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ye iniiaiee niin?a caaacia/aiiy
a?aeiia?aeiino? eaae?o?eaoe?? i?aoe?aiee?a no/aniiio ??aith ?icaeoeo
iaoee, oaoi?ee e aeiiii?ee. I?e oe?eueia?e ?ioaineai?e i?aeaioiaoe?
iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee iiaeii? oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoiaee aeoeaiiai
iaa/aiiy oa no/ani? oaoi?/i? caniae. Ia?ai?aeaioiaea oa i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? i?aoe?aiee?a iiaeiia cae?enithaaoenue ca ?aooiie eioo?a
i?aei?e?inoa, aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, a oaeiae /anoeiaiai o?iainoaaiiy
i?aoe?aieeii iniaenoi.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei
cae?eniaiiy i?aaeeueiiai i?aeai?o eaiaeeaeao?a aeey i?ioiaeaeaiiy
i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??
oi?aae?inueeiai ia?niiaeo.

Oaeineiiaeaiith iiaoaeiae oa aoaeoeaiiio ooieoe?iioaaiith nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie a AIE Oe?a?ie ni?eyoeia aea/aiiy oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o a?o/eciyio i?aeoeeo aaaaoiai aeina?aeo ca?oa?aeieo
e?a?i, iniaeeai ?oae??, ssiii?? ? NOA.

AENIIAEE

Ca oiia ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ethaenuee? ?ano?ne iaaoaathoue cia/aiiy
no?aoaa?/iiai oaeoi?a oni?oo i?aei?e?inoa. Naia iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo
ii/eia? a?ae?a?aaaoe i?ia?aeio ?ieue o caaacia/aii?
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? oiaa?iae?iaiee?a. Iaaeineiiae?noue iaoai?cio
oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie a aa?a?i?e noa?? aeiaaa? ?aaeeeaeueieo
ci?i o eaae?ia?e iie?oeoe? ye ia i?e?i-, oae ? ia iae?iaeiiii?/iiio
??aiyo AIE.

Aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y a n?euenueeeo ianaeaieo ioieoao Oe?a?ie ui??/ii
iia??oo?oueny. Ciaioaiiy aeeoae?a naea a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie
i?e?iaeiiai nei?i/aiiy oa i?a?aoe?? ianaeaiiy a i?noi, a a inoaii?
?iee — ca ei?aeii. Na?aae i?a?aio?a — aaeeea /anoea ethaeae iieiaeiai
a?eo, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ii?ooaiiy iaiao?aeiiai noaoaai-a?eiaiai
neeaaeo n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy oa iia??oaiiy ye?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo.

sse?niee neeaae ea??aiee?a ? niaoe?ae?no?a aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa ia a
iiai?e i??? a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, ui ia?
aaciina?aaei?e aieea ia aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy oiaa?iae?iaiee?a.
Iaaenieee i?ioan?eiee ??aaiue oi?aae?inueeeo i?aoe?aiee?a, aeii?ioaaiiy
na?aae ia?oeo ea??aiee?a oaoiieia?a aeiaaathoue caaino?aiiy oaaae ia
ieoaiiyo oi?ioaaiiy ia?niiaeo a AIE.

C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioan?eii-eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai neeaaeo ?
?icnoaiiaee oi?aae?inueeeo i?aoe?aiee?a i?e aiae?c? ye?niiai neeaaeo
ia?niiaeo a aa?a?ieo oi?ioaaiiyo aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iieaciee
yeino? ?icnoaiiaee eaae??a ca iinaaeaie.

Cae?enithaai? caoiaee uiaei ?aoi?ioaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa iiee ui ia oi?eioeeny ?o eaae?iaeo neoaea. Aiie ana ua
i?aoeththoue ii-noa?iio, iaiaaeoth/enue iae?eiaeie ooieoe?yie. A
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ia a?aeiia?aeaeuei? ?ie? ea??aiee?a neoaea
oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii i?ecia/athoueny iniae aac a?aeiia?aeii? ina?oe oa
iaiao?aeieo cae?aiinoae ? iaae/ie. A?aeae?e eaae??a, ca aeaieo oiia, ia
? iaoiaee/iei, ?ioi?iaoe?eiei ? eii?aeeiaoe?eiei oeaio?ii eaae?iai?
?iaioe. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy noaoono a?aeae?eo eaae??a oa ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
?iciiae?eo ooieoe?e iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo i?iiiio?oueny cae??ieoe ca
aeacaiith neoaeaith ooieoe?th eii?aeeiaoe?? ae?yeueiino? an?o
i?ae?icae?e?a c ieoaiue, ye? a?aeiinyoueny aei ?? eiiiaoaioe??.

Ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ia?aaeaa/a? o?ainoi?iaoe?th «eiioaenoo»,
a yeiio aeeiiothoueny ooieoe?? iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo, ui aeiaaa?
noai?aiiy iiaeo aeieoiaio?a, ye? ?aaeaiaioothoue ae?yeuei?noue eaae?iaeo
neoaea. I?e ?o ?ic?iaoe? ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe cai?iiiiiaaio
iiaeaeue ?iciiae?eo ooieoe?e iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo i?ae i?aoe?aieeaie
oi?aae?iiy aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa, ui ni?eyoeia aeeeth/aiith
ia?aeaeueiino? ? aeoaethaaiiy, caaacia/aiith aca?iica’yceo a ?iaio?
iinaaeiaeo in?a, a oaeiae iine?aeiaiino? e nai?/aniino? aeeiiaiiy
cae??ieaieo ca ieie ?ia?o.

Ieaioaaiiy ? i?iaiicoaaiiy iio?aae a eaae?ao iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe c
iiaiei a?aooaaiiyi i?ia?aie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie,
iai?/oaaieo i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ci?i o
niaoe?ae?caoe?? ? aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, oaoi?/iiio
caaacia/aii?.

Ca oiia c?inoaiiy ?ie? ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a o ae??oaii?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai aeioe?eueii aaanoe aei ooaoo aaeeeeo
aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoa ? ia’?aeiaiue iinaaeo iaiaaeaea?a eaae?iai?
neoaeae, yeee (ye oea i?eeiyoi a aaaaoueio ca?oa?aeieo ei?ii?aoe?yo)
ciiaea aeeiioaaoe ooieoe?? canooiieea ea??aieea i?aei?e?inoaa ii
ia?niiaeo. I?e oeueiio aei?a/ii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaiaaeaea??a,
i?aeaioiaeaieo aeueie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie, ui aeanoue iiaeeea?noue
iinoaaeoe ?iaioo eaae?iaeo neoaea ia no/aniee i?ioan?eiee ??aaiue oa
noai?thaaoe iaeaaeiee ?aca?a eaae??a ia ea??ai? iinaaee.

C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aenenoaie ?icaeoeo ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a a
aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoaao i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?ic?iaeai? e
iaa?oioiaai? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy iio?aae a i?aeaioiaoe?,
ia?ai?aeaioiaoe? oa i?aeaeuaii? eaae?o?eaoe?? ia?niiaeo. Aiie
aeiiiiiaeooue: iaa?oioiaaii i?iaiaeeoe aiae?c a?aeiia?aeiino? eaae??a
iinaaeai, ye? aiie caeiathoue; aaeeaaoe caoiae?a uiaei i?ioan?eiiai
?icaeoeo eiie?aoieo i?aoe?aiee?a; ioe?ithaaoe iio?aao a i?aeaioiaoe?
?aca?ao eaae??a; noai?thaaoe eaae?iaee ?aca?a; ieaioaaoe ea?’??o
i?aoe?aiee?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

Aaeaiianueea O.?. Aieea oi?aae?inueeiai ia?niiaeo ia aoaeoeai?noue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa// Aeiiii?ea AIE.- 1999. — ?
3.-N.64-67.

Aaeaiianueea O.?.Aeina?ae i?aeaioiaee eaae??a a ssiii?? //
Oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii AIE: Ca.
iaoe. i?.- E.: IAO, 1996. — N.46-52.

Aaeaiianueea O.?. I?ioan?eiee ?icaeoie ia?niiaeo a nenoai? AIE//
Aeni?an-iiaeie: iaoea, oaoi?ea, ae?iaieoeoai. — 1999. — ? 7-8.- N.50-52.

Aaeaiianueea O.?. Oi?aae?iiy eaae?iaei iioaioe?aeii
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa // Iaoeiaee a?niee IAO. — 1998. —
Aei.4.- N.58-65.

Aaeaiianueea O.?. No?aoaa?y oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii a aa?a?ieo
i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie// Iaoeiaee a?niee IAO. — 1999. — Aei.14.-
N.55-58.

Aaeaiianueea O.?. Iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaeo a AIE Oe?a?ie. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.02 — i?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa
ia?eaoeia. — Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia oai?aoe/iei oa i?aeoe/iei ieoaiiyi oi?aae?iiy
ia?niiaeii a nenoai? AIE. O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe
oa aaiethoe?th aeine?aeaeaiue oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie a iao?e
e?a?i? oa ca ?oaaaeai. ?ice?eoi iniaeeaino? oa i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?th/i? i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie ?ano?naie a
aa?a?i?e noa??. ?ic?iaeai? e iaa?oioiaai? eiie?aoi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaiaaeaeiaioo ia?niiaeo a AIE Oe?a?ie a?aeiia?aeii aei
aeiia ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ethaenuee? ?ano?ne, ia?niiae, eaae?e, iaiaaeaeiaio,
aa?a?ia noa?a, eaae?iaa iie?oeea, no?aoaa?y oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii,
?icaeoie ia?niiaeo.

Aaeaiianeay O.E. Iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaea a AIE Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.02 — i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iaiaaeaeiaio e
ia?eaoeia. — Iaoeeiiaeueiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oai?aoe/aneei e i?aeoe/aneei aii?inai
oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii a nenoaia AIE. ?ane?uoi iniaaiiinoe e i?iaaaeaii
eiiieaeniia enneaaeiaaiea aeaenoaothuae i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii a
aa?a?iie noa?a AIE. ?ac?aaioaiu e iainiiaaiu eiie?aoiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee
ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth iaiaaeaeiaioa ia?niiaea a AIE Oe?aeiu
niioaaonoaaiii o?aaiaaieyi ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniio?aiu oai?aoe/aneea aniaeou e yaiethoeeth
enneaaeiaaiee oi?aaeaiey /aeiaa/aneeie ?ano?naie a iaoae no?aia e ca
?oaaaeii.

Ii?aaeaeaii ianoi iiiyoey »iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaea» eae oi?aaeai/aneie
eaoaai?ee n?aaee aeeceeo aio iiiyoee.

Auyaeaii eiee/anoaaiiua e ea/anoaaiiua eciaiaiey oi?aaeai/aneeo
?aaioieeia a aeeiaieea.

I?iaiaeece?iaaii aeeyiea ea/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ia
yooaeoeaiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee.

Onoaiiaeaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue eniieueciaaiey iieacaoaey ea/anoaa
?annoaiiaee eaae?ia ii aeieaeiinoyi.

?ac?aaioaia iiaeaeue ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiiiaoaioeee a noa?a iaiaaeaeiaioa
ia?niiaea iaaeaeo oi?aaeai/aneeie ?aaioieeaie.

Ii?aaeaeaia acaeiinaycue nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey n eaae?iaie iieeoeeie e ooieoeeyie iaiaaeaeiaioa ia?niiaea.

Auiieiai i?iaiic aeiiieieoaeueiie iio?aaiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee nenoaiu AIE a ?oeiaiaeeoaeyo e niaoeeaeenoao.

Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue oniaa?oainoaiaaiey i?ioeanna ieaie?iaaiey
iio?aaiinoe a ia?niiaea AIE e naeaeaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey ioiineoaeueii
ii?aaeaeaiey ianoa auioneieeia-iaiaaeaea?ia aa?a?iuo aocia.

Iainiiaaia iio?aaiinoue i?iaaaeaiey oanoe?iaaiey ia ii?aaeaeaiea
nioeeaeueiiai oeia ee/iinoe n?aaee aaeoo?eaioia oaeoeueoaoia aa?a?iiai
iaiaaeaeiaioa.

?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaee/aneea iiaeoiaeu e ii?aaeaeaieth iio?aaiinoe a
?acaeoee ia?niiaea.

Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue eco/aiey e aiaae?aiey a ioa/anoaaiioth
i?aeoeeo aiaaoiai iiuoa ca?oaaaeiuo no?ai ioiineoaeueii iino?iaiey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: /aeiaa/aneea ?ano?nu, ia?niiae, eaae?u, iaiaaeaeiaio,
aa?a?iay noa?a, eaae?iaay iieeoeea, no?aoaaey oi?aaeaiey ia?niiaeii,
?acaeoea ia?niiaea.

Balanovska T.I. Personnel management in Agroindustrial Complex of
Ukrain. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a master’s degree of economic sciences on the speciality
08.06.02 — Entrepreneurship, management and marketing. — National
Agrarian University, Kiev, 1999.

The thesis is devoted theoretical and practical questions of
personnel management in the system of Agroindustrial Complex.
Theoretical aspects and evolution of investegation of human resource
management in our country and overseas are considered in the thesis. The
complex analysis of acting practice of human resource management in the
agrarian sphere are made. The concrete recommendations on perfecting of
personnel management in Agroindustrial Complex of Ukraine accordingly
requirements of market economy are elaborated.

Key words: human resource, personnel, staff, management, agrarian
sphere, staff policy, strategy of personnel management, personnel
development.

PAGE

PAGE 1

I?n?y i?aei?e?inoaa

Oe?e? ? o?einio?y i?aei?e?inoaa

No?aoaa?? i?aei?e?inoaa

Nioe?aeueia iie?oeea i?aei?e?inoaa

Eaae?iaa iie?oeea

i?aei?e?inoaa

A?aea?? ? iaei ia?niiaeo

Ieaioaaiiy ia?niiaeo

Aea?eueiaiiy ia?niiaeo

Aca?iia?aeiineie c aaei?i?no?aoe??th oa a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie

Aiae?c ieeiiino?

Iaa/aiiy ia?niiaeo

Ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii

Ae??oaiiy o?oaeiaeo eiioe?eo?a

I?aai?caoe?y ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ia?niiae

I?ioi???ioaoe?y ? ia?ai?aeaioiaea ia?niiaeo

Nioe?aeuei?

ieoaiiy

Noeioethaaiiy ia?niiaeo

Ioe?iea ia?niiaeo

Neoaeaiaa i?inoaaiiy

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