I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Oianoye Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 577.352.2/3; 539.1; 534.29

IAOAI?CIE AIEEAO AEAEO?II?A OA AEONOE*IEO IIE?A IA A?IEIA?*I? IAIA?AIE

03.00.02 – a?io?ceea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI
Oe?a?ie Caethaianueeee ?eey ?aaiiae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao, i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI
Oe?a?ie Neueicia A?oae?e Aaeaioeiiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaoeiaee oeaio?
“Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo;

— aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee,

Ai?ae??iei ?aaai Ieaenaiae?iae/, ?inoeooo i?iaeai e??ia?ieia?? ?
e??iiaaeeoeeie IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo (i. Oa?e?a);

– aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, Aieeia Na?a?e Iaoiiae/, ?inoeooo
oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee ?i. I.I. Aiaiethaiaa IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee, (i. Ee?a).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “30” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 1530 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.13 o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 310077, i. Oa?e?a, ie.Naiaiaee, 4, aoae.7-4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
310077, i. Oa?e?a, ie.Naiaiaee, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 27 ” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee N.A. Aaoao

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A inoaii? ?iee ?ii?coth/a e aeonoe/ia
aei?ii?ithaaiiy oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoue o ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocyo
i?iieneiaino?, iaaeeoeeie oa a?ieia??. ?ii?coth/a aei?ii?ithaaiiy
canoiniaothoue aeey e?eoaaiiy oe?eiai ?yaeo iieiaaiieo caoai?thaaiue, a
oaeiae aeey ae?aaiinoeee iaoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a. Aaeeea iioe?aiiy
iaea?aeaei aeei?enoaiiy iai?aaeaiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeaeo?ii?a ?
aaeueioth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?ae aeaeo?iiieo io/e?a o e?eoaaeuei?e
i?aeoeoe? oa ?aae?ia?ieia??. C oni?oii aeei?enoiao?oueny oeueo?acaoeiaa
ae?aaiinoeea aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaioieo noaeei ? ii?iaeiei na?oey,
aeey a?coae?caoe?? aeeaiei ?icoaoiaaieo aioo??oi?o i?aai?a ?
eieae?caoe?? iooeei. Aoaeoeaia e aacia/ia canoinoaaiiy aaea ?nioth/eo
i?eeaae?a, a oaeiae noai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaeo ?iioeuenieo iaoiae?a
?aae?aoe?eiiai oa aeonoe/iiai aieeao ? ae?aaiinoeee, iaiiaeeeaa aac
aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy iaoai?ci?a ae?? oeeo aei?ii?ithaaiue ia ee?oeiiiio
oa iieaeoey?iiio ??aiyo.

Nueiaiaei? noaei caaaeueiiaeciaiei, ui ?aae?ia?ieia?/i? aoaeoe iathoue
neeaaeiee, aaaaoioaeoi?iee oa?aeoa?, ui caeaaeeoue ye a?ae niaoeeo?ee
ii?ii?iaiiai ia’?eoo, oae ? a?ae o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae aei?ii?ithaaiiy.
Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iacaaaeath/e ia aeiyoeiaa
cia/aiiy aaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo a ?aae?aoe?eiiio iioeiaeaeaii? ee?oei, ia
iiaeia caiaeeoe anth noeoii?noue ?aae?ia?ieia?/ieo aoaeo?a eeoa aei
ooeiaeaeaiiy aaiiio. Oiio, ye ? ?ai?oa, iaoeiaith i?iaeaiith ?
aeae?eaiiy ? aeine?aeaeaiiy e?eoe/ieo nenoai, ye? coiiaeththoue
?aae?aoe?eia ooeiaeaeaiiy ee?oei.

Aei a?ieia?/ieo nenoai, ui iathoue aenieo ?aae?i/ooeea?noue, iaeaaeaoue
ieaciaoe/i? iaia?aie. Oa?aeoa? i?io?eaiiy ia?aeiieo o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a ?
?aae?aoe?eii-o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei ii?ooaiiy no?oeoo?e
? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio iaia?aiieo eiiiiiaio?a, aaaaoi a /iio aecia/a?
?aae?aoe?eio caaeaaeue ee?oeie. ?icoi?iiy aaaeeeaino? ?ie? ieaciaoe/ieo
iaia?ai a aoaeoao ?aae?aoe?eii? ii?acee i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui
?aae?aoe?eia iaia?aiieia?y aeae?eeeany a naiino?eiee ?icae?e ee?oeiii?
?aae?aoe?eii? a?io?ceee. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ni?yiiaai? ia iaea?aeaiiy
ii??aiyieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ? aecia/aiiy o?ce/ieo iaoai?ci?a
aieeao aei?ii?ithaaiue ia ieaciaoe/i? iaia?aie, ? aaciaeie aeey ?icaeoeo
?aae?aoe?eii? iaia?aiieia??, ioaea aeooaeueieie.

Aea/aiith aieeao ?aae?aoe?? ia iaia?aii? eiiiiiaioe i?enay/aia aaeeea
e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. sse ?acoeueoao aeine?aeaeaiue aoee
aeyaeai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao ?aae?aoe?? ia ie?ainaoa?eaeiee
oa?, a?eeiao ? e?i?aeio oace iaia?ai. I?iiaiaaa iioeiaeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e
ae?eieae?eno aeyaey?oueny a ci?i? iiaa?oiaaiai ca?yaeo ee?oei ?
ii?ooaii? aca?iiae?? ee?oeiieo ?aoeaioi??a c e?aaiaeaie. A iniia?
?aae?aoe?eii? iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?eeiaiai eiiiiiaioo iaia?ai eaaeeoue
ieneaeaoe?y noeueoa?ae?eeueieo a?oi oa a?iiaoe/ieo ai?iieeneioieo
caeeoe?a, ?ic?ea aiaeiaaeo, aeenoeueo?aeieo ? iaioeaeieo ca’yce?a, ui
i?ecaiaeyoue aei ?noioieo ci?i eiioi?iaoe?? oa aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ii?
?ooeeaino? a?ee?a. ?aae?aoe?eia ooeiaeaeaiiy e?i?aeii? oace
i?iyaey?oueny o ci?i? ca?yaeo, iiey?iino?, i?e?ia’yceino? e?i?aeiiai
iao?eeno, ii?ooaii? no?oeoo?e oa i?inoi?iai? i?aai?caoe?? e?i?aeieo
iieaeoe. Aaaeeeaei aniaeoii oi?ioaaiiy ?aae?aoe?eieo iaia?aiieo aoaeo?a
? ?nioaaiiy o?niiai aca?iica’yceo ? aca?iicoiiaeaiino? i?ioean?a, ye?
?iaeoeothoueny ii?ii?iaiiyi o ??cieo eiiiiiaioao iaia?aie. C oe??? oi/ee
ci?o aeoaea aaaeeeaei aeey ?aae?aoe?eii? a?io?ceee ? ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo ia i?inoeo iiaeaeueieo nenoaiao,
a?ieia?/ieo iaia?aiao ? ee?oeiao.

Oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?cie ?aae?aoe?eiiai aieeao ia ee?oeii? iaia?aie
noi?ioaaeeny, aieiaiei /eiii, ia iniia? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aei???a,
io?eiaieo i?e ii?ii?iaii? a?ieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a ?aioaai?anueeei oa
?-aei?ii?ithaaiiyi. Nooo?ai iaioa aea/ai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao io/e?a
ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie, cie?aia, aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a.
A?aecia/eii, ui a oe?e aaeoc? aeine?aeaeaiue iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eyeany
a?io?i?/iei ? a?ieia?/iei aniaeoai aieeao ?aae?aoe??, a ieoaiiy, ui
oi?eathoueny niaoeeo?ee ia?aeiieo o?ce/ieo ? o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a oa
iaoai?ci?a, ia oeae /an aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei. O oeueiio iai?yieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ia?niaeoeaiei oyaey?oueny aeei?enoaiiy a?aeiinii i?inoeo
a?ieia?/ieo nenoai oa naiiai i?inoiai ??ciiaeaeo aeaea?aea
aei?ii?ithaaiiy (iiiiaia?aaoe/i? io/ee aeaeo?ii?a c iaeei
?icoiaeaeaiiyi), ye? aeicaieythoue nieaioaaoe aenia?eiaio oae, uia
cia/iith i??ith oieeiooe aieeao ?aia?aoe?eieo yaeu ? aca?iiae?? aaeeei?
e?eueeino? ??ciiiai?oieo o?ce/ieo aoaeo?a.

Aiaeia?/i? i?iaeaie ?niothoue ? a aaeoc? aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao
oeueo?acaoeiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia a?ieia?/i? ia’?eoe. Cie?aia, o
a?eueoino? ioae?eaoe?e i?i aieea aeonoe/ieo iie?a ia a?iia’?eoe
a?aenooi? iaae?ei? aeai?, ui aeicaieythoue ?c iaai?noth aecia/eoe
ia?aeii? o?ce/i? iaoai?cie niinoa?aaeoaaieo a?ieia?/ieo aoaeo?a. E??i
oiai, ae?y aeonoe/ieo ? ?aae?aoe?eieo iie?a o ?yae? aeiaaee?a
aeyaey?oueny ?aeaioe/iith aei niinoa?aaeoaaieo a?ieia?/ieo aoaeo?a, oiio
aeoaea aaaeeeai aeine?aeeoe iiaeeeaee aca?iica’ycie iaoai?ci?a
a?ieia?/ii? ae?? aei?ii?ithaaiue ??cii? o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee.

Aeey aecia/aiiy niaoeeo?/ieo iaoai?ci?a aca?iiae?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy c
iaia?aiieie no?oeoo?aie aeooaeueiith ? ?ic?iaea eiiieaenii?
aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaoiaeeee, ui i?noeoue aeinoaoiuei iiaiee iaa??
iaoiae?a aei??thaaiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo
aeanoeainoae a?ieia?/ieo iaia?ai. O ?iaio? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a ae?? io/e?a aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo
aeaeo?ii?a oa oeueo?acaoeo ia ee?oeie, iaia?aie ee?oei ? iiaeaeuei?
iaia?aii? no?oeoo?e.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
a ?aieao aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e aenia?eiaioaeueii? yaea?ii? o?ceee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca oaiaie:

“?ic?iaea ? noai?aiiy aenia?eiaioaeueiiai c?aceo
?iioeuenii-aeiiea??anueeiai niaeo?aeueiiai oeueo?acaoeiaiai i?eeaaeo
ae?aaiinoeee na?oeaai-noaeeiii? nenoaie” (iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
0194U018973)

“Aeine?aeaeaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iaoai?ci?a aieeao ?ii?coth/iai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia no?oeoo?o oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeanoeaino? iiaeaeueieo
? i?e?iaeieo iaia?ai c iaoith ?ic?iaee ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?ieo cania?a”
(iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? UA 01008653P)

“?ic?iaea o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iaoiae?a aeieia?/iiai eiio?ieth,
?aae?aoe?eiiai caoenoo oa iaaee/ii? ae?aaiinoeee ae?? ?ii?coth/eo
aei?ii?ithaaiue iaei? ?ioaineaiino?” (iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
0197U016499).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
aecia/aiiy o?ce/ieo iaoai?ci?a iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?ieia?/ieo iaia?ai i?ae
aieeaii aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a oa aeonoe/ieo iie?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe a ?iaio? aoee iinoaaeai? oa ae??oai? oae?
caaea/?:

— ?ic?iaeoe aenia?eiaioaeueio iaoiaeeeo oa noai?eoe onoaoeoaaiiy
?aae?aoe?eii-a?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aeicaieythoue iaea?aeoaaoe
iaai?e ii??aiyieo aeaieo oeyoii aei??thaaiiy aeaeo?io?ce/ieo oa
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a a?ieia?/ieo iaia?ai. Iaoiaeeea
iiaeiia aeei?enoiaoaaoe iiaeeo?eaoi?e i?yii? oa iiina?aaeeiaaii?
i?iaeoeoaie ?aae?ie?co na?aaeiaeua ae?? ?aae?aoe?? aeey aeae?eaiiy
aiane?a ie?aieo iaoai?ci?a o oi?ioaaiiy iiaeeo?eaoe?e iaia?aiieo
no?oeoo? i?ae aieeaii aei?ii?ithaaiue.

— I?iaanoe aei??e e iaea?aeaoe aeai? i?i aeaeo?ioi?aoe/io ?ooeea?noue
a?eo?ioeeo?a oa oeiioeeo?a, i?iieei?noue iaia?ai aeey ?ii?a eae?th oa
iiaa?oiaaee ca?yae ?cieueiaaieo iaia?ai i?ae aieeaii io/e?a
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a oa oeueo?acaoeo oa?aiaaoe/ii?
?ioaineaiino?. Ia iniia? io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?iaanoe
oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ? aeaoae?coaaoe iniiai? ia?aeii? iaoai?cie aieeao
ciai?oi?o o?ce/ieo iie?a ia aeaeo?ie?iaoe/i? oa aeaeo?io?ce/i?
aeanoeaino? iaia?aiieo no?oeoo?.

— I?iaanoe eiiieaenia aea/aiiy ?iaeoeoeaii-?aciiainiiai ia?aianaiiy
aia?a?? i?ae oeoi?anoeaioieie ciiaeaie i?e ae?? aeaeo?iiiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, a oaeiae aiae?c oiiei? no?oeoo?e niaeo??a
oeoi?anoeaioe?? oa aeanii? oeoi?anoeaioe?? a?ee?a. I?iaanoe
?aeaioeo?eaoe?th iniiaieo ia?aeiieo iaoai?ci?a ci?ie o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ?
no?oeoo?ii-aeeiai?/ieo aeanoeainoae e?i?aeiiai eiiiiiaioo ? no?oeoo?ieo
a?ee?a iaia?ai i?e ii?ii?iaii? aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie aeaeo?iiaie.

— Aecia/eoe ?aae?i?acenoaioi?noue Ca2+- oa Mg2+-AOOac o?iae a?eo?ioeeo?a
o i?enooiino? ??ciiiai?oieo iaia?aiio?iiieo aaaio?a, a oaeiae
aeine?aeeoe aieea io/e?a aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a ia oa?iaioi?
nenoaie ee?oeiieo i?aaiae. Anoaiiaeoe ia?aeii? iaoai?cie aieeao
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia oe? a?ieia?/i? ia’?eoe oa oa?aeoa? ca’yceo i?ae
iaoai?ciaie aieeao oa ia?aiao?aie a?eie-e?i?aeieo oa
aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ieo aca?iiae?e a?eeiaeo aeiaoe.

— Ioe?ieoe ?ieue ?aae?aoe?eii-aeonoe/iiai iaoai?cio aieeao
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a ia a?ieia?/i? ia’?eoe oa na?aaeiaeua,
aecia/eoe neooaoe??, a yeeo oeae iaoai?ci iiaea aooe aaaiiei o
?aae?ia?ieia?/iiio aoaeo? aeey a?ieia?/ieo iaia?ai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Aia?oa io?eiai? ii??aiyi? iaai?e aeaieo i?i aeaeo?ioi?aoe/io ?ooeea?noue
a?eo?ioeeo?a oa oeiioeeo?a i?ae aieeaii aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a oa
aeyaeaia ciaioaiiy ?o AO? i?e ca?eueoaii? aeice ii?ii?iaiiy o oe?ieiio
?ioa?aae? aeic (a?ae 20 aei 1000 A?).

Aia?oa i?iaaaeaia ioe?iea ?aae?i/ooeeaiai ia’?io ee?oei ca ci?iith
aeaeo?ie?iaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaia?ai i?ae aieeaii aeaeo?iiiiai
ii?ii?iaiiy.

Aeyaeaii, ui i?ae ae??th io/e?a aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a o oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? ?ioaineaiinoae oa aeic ii?ii?iaiiy niinoa??aa?oueny
ca?eueoaiiy iiaa?oiaaiai iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo oa iioaioe?aeo ?cieueiaaieo
a?eo?ioeeoa?ieo iaia?ai.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iiao o?ce/io iiaeaeue ia?a?iciiae?eo ia’?iiiai ca?yaeo
i?eiaia?aiieo oa??a i?e ii?ii?iaii?. Iiaeaeue aeicaiey? naiiocaiaeaeaii
iienaoe aeai? i?i aeaeo?e/i? aeanoeaino? iaia?ai, io?eiai? oeyoii
aei??thaaiiy aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ii? ?ooeeaino? oa iaoiaeii oeoi?anoeaioieo
ciiae?a.

Ca aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? ianeaiiai o?ainii?oo ?ii?a oa
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi iaai?o oeoi?anoeaioieo
ciiae?a, aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae ae??th aeaeo?iiieo io/e?a
cieaeo?oueny i?e?ia’yce?noue ye iiey?ii?, oae ? a?ae?ioiaii? ciie
e?i?aeii? oace iaia?ai.

Aia?oa io?eiai? aeai? i?i ?iaeoeoeaii-?aciiainia ia?aianaiiy aia?a??
i?ae ciiaeaie AIN ? AeNI-12 i?e ae?? aeaeo?iiiiai ii?ii?iaiiy oa
c?iaeai? aeniiaee i?i ci?io o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ? no?oeoo?e
a?ieia?/ieo iaia?ai.

Iieacaii, ui a iniia? niinoa?aaeoaaiiai cieaeaiiy aeanii?
oeoi?anoeaioe?? no?oeoo?ieo a?ee?a iaia?ai oa ?iaeoeaaoe?? AOOac
eaaeeoue ci?ia a?eie-e?i?aeieo aca?iiae?e o iaia?aiao ?
aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ieo o a?eeiaeo aeiaoeao.

Io?eiaii iia? aeai? i?i ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? aeeooc?? aaniee?a aeanii?
oeoi?anoeaioe?? a?ee?a, iia’ycaii? c iaiaaeaiiyi ?o
aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ii? ?ooeeaino? a iaia?ai?.

Aeaoaeueii aeine?aeaeaii iaoai?ci eieaeueiiai ?aae?aoe?eii-aeonoe/iiai
aieeao ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia a?ieia?/i? na?aaeiaeua. Aia?oa
iieacaii, ui oa?aeoa?i? ?ici??e iaeano? eieaeueiiai aeeiai?/iiai aieeao
oaeaeeiai aeaeo?iio ii??aiyi? c ?ici??aie iaia?aiieo no?oeoo?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeicaieeee iaea?aeaoe iiao ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i caeiiii??iino? aieeao io/e?a
aeaeo?ii?a oa oeueo?acaoeo ia o?ceei-o?i?/i? oa
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeanoeaino? ee?oeiieo iaia?ai, iaiao?aeio,
cie?aia, aeey ?icaeoeo i?eeeaaeieo iai?yie?a o a?io?ceoe? oa aoaeoeai?e
?ic?iaoe? iiaeo iaaeeei-a?ieia?/ieo oaoiieia?e. ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenieo
aei???a oa?aeoa?enoee a?ieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a noaee iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee
? noai?aiiy ?yaeo iiaeo iaoiae?a, i?eeaae?a ? ?a/iaei, ui iathoue
i?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy, a naia:

?ic?iaeaii iiaee iaoiae o?ceei-o?i?/ii? i/enoee aiaee;

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?? io?eiaiiy iiaeo eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a c
i?aai?/iith iniiaith;

io?eiaii iiao ?a/iaeio, ui ia? ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?io ae?th;

?ic?iaeaii oa noai?aii e?eueea iiaeo ae?aaiinoe/ieo i?eeaae?a aeey
iaaeeoeeie.

Aeiaaaeaia ca iaea?aeaieie ?acoeueoaoaie iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy
?aae?i?acenoaioiino? iaia?aiieo nenoai oeyoii iiaeeo?eaoe?? ?oiueiai
no?oeoo?iiai noaio oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae, ui aaaeeeai i?e
?ic?iaoe? iiaeo ?aae?ii?ioaeoi?ieo i?aia?ao?a. E??i oiai, io?eiai? aeai?
i?i aenieo ?aae?i/ooeea?noue aeayeeo eiiiiiaio?a iaia?aiieo no?oeoo?
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoiae?a
aeni?an-ae?aaiinoeee ?aae?aoe?eieo iioeiaeaeaiue aeeaeo i?aai?ci?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O aeena?oaoe?? ocaaaeueiai? iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii aaaaoi??/ii? naiino?eii? ?iaioe
aaoi?a, aai io?eiai? i?e eiai iniaeno?e o/ano?. C iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o ?c
ni?aaaoi?aie aeei?enoai? eeoa o? iaoa??aee, o ye? a?i ai?n iaea?eueo
aaaiiee aianie.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo
aaoi?ii naiino?eii [14,15,17,18,20], a oaeiae i?ae eiai iaoeiaei
ea??aieoeoaii [1-13,16,19], aea caeiaoaa/o iaeaaeeoue aea??
i?iaeaiaoeee oa iaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, iinoaiiaea aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?
oai?aoe/ieo caaea/, aea?? iioeiaeueieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a. Eiio
iaeaaeeoue cia/ia ?ieue o i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaio?a oa ia?iaoe?
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue iniiaia ?ieue a aiae?c? oa
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, o ?ic?iaoe? eiie?aoieo
o?ce/ieo iiaeaeae. O ?iaioao [21,22,23] aaoi?ii c?iaeai? i?iiiceoe?? ii
i?aeoe/iiio aeei?enoaiith ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaieo iei iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. A?i aaciina?aaeiuei a?aa o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe? ? noai?aii?
i?eeaaeo aeey o?ceei-o?i?/iiai i/euaiiy aiaee [22], a oanooaaii? iiai?
?aae?ii?ioaeoi?ii? ?a/iaeie [23], o ?ic?iaoe? oeueo?acaoeiaiai
iaaee/iiai ia?aoai?thaa/a [21].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aa?eoee a aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo, aoee i?aaenoaaeai?
oa iaaiai?ai? ia: Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? ii ooiaeaiaioaeueiei
i?iaeaiai a?ieia?? oa iaaeeoeeie (Oa?e?a, 1987), Ananithciiio neiiic?oi?
“Aeei?enoaiiy oeueo?acaoeo o i?iieneiaino? oa iaaeeoeei?”, Ananithci?e
eiioa?aioe?? ii iiaei iai?yieai o a?ioaoiieia?? (Ioueii, 1988), VI
eiioa?aioe?? ii niaeo?ineii?? a?iiie?ia??a (Oa?e?a, 1988), Ananithci?e
eiioa?aioe?? ii aeei?enoaiith oeueo?acaoeo a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?
(Iineaa, 1988), Ananithci?e ia?aae? ii iiaei iaoiaeai oa i?eeaaeai o
a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeei? (Iineaa, 1989), I Ananithciiio ?aae?ia?ieia?/iiio
c’?cae? (Ioueii, 1989), International Symposium on Mechanisms of
Acoustical Bioeffects (Pushchino, 1990), ?aae?ia?ieia?/iiio c’?cae?
(Ee?a, 1993), VIII Ia?aae? ii canoinoaaiith i?enei?thaa/?a ca?yaeaeaieo
/anoie o i?iieneiaino? oa iaaeeoeei? (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1995), II c’?cae?
Oe?a?inueeiai a?io?ce/iiai oiaa?enoaa (Oa?e?a, 1998), II c’?cae?
a?io?cee?a ?in?? (Iineaa, 1999), Nai?ia?? Oa?e?anueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy
a?io?ce/iiai oiaa?enoaa Oe?a?ie (Oa?e?a, 1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a 44 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, o
oiio /ene? a 20 noaooyo, c ieo 5 aac ni?aaaoi??a, a 3 aaoi?nueeeo
iina?ae/aiiyo ? iaoaioao ia aeiaoiaee oa a 21 oacao aeiiia?aeae
iaoe?iiaeueieo ? i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?e, neiiic?oi?a, c’?cae?a.

No?oeoo?a e ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
ainueie ?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 299
noi??iie, 59 ?ethno?aoe?e, c ieo 4 ?ethno?aoe?? caeiathoue iiai?
noi??iee, 28 oaaeeoeue, c ieo 2 oaaeeoe? caeiathoue iiai? noi??iee, 41
noi??ieo caeia? nienie aeei?enoaieo a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aeaea?ae (428
iaeiaioaaiue).

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? aecia/aia eiei iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai ?aae?aoe?eii?
iaia?aiieia?? oa iaa?oioiaai? iaiao?aei?noue ? aeooaeuei?noue aeeiiaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, iinoaaeai?
caaea/?, ??oaiiy yeeo caaacia/o? aeinyaiaiiy iaoe.

O ?icae?e? 1 ia iniia? iayaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo i?iaaaeaii
aeaoaeueiee aiae?c no/aniiai noaio i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c a?io?ceeith
aeonoe/ieo aoaeo?a, iniaeeainoyie ae?? ?aae?aoe?? ia iaia?aii?
eiiiiiaioe e aeoeai?noue iaia?aiica’ycaieo oa?iaio?a. A?ieia?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue aei?ii?ithaaiiy a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae eieaeueii?
u?eueiino? iiaeeiaii? aia?a??, oiio iaiao?aeia aeaoaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiai?ee ia?aaea/? aia?a?? a?ae /anoeiie ia?aeiiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aei
a?ieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua. O ca’yceo c iiaeeeaith
?aae?aoe?eii-aeonoe/iith ae??th io/e?a aeaeo?ii?a aeooaeueii ii??aiyiiy
oa?aeoa?o caeaaeiino? niinoa?aaeoaaieo aoaeo?a a?ae aeice ii?ii?iaiiy
i?ae aieeaii iie?a ??ciiiai?oii? i?e?iaee oa aeyaeaiiy a?aie/ieo
cia/aiue a?ieia?/ii? ae?? ye ca aeicith, oae ? ca aaniethoiei cia/aiiyi
aeonoe/iiai oeneo.

A?aecia/aii, ui cai?iiiiiaai? aei oeueiai /ano iiaeae?
?aae?aoe?eii-?iaeoeiaaiiai iaoai?cio no?oeoo?ieo ia?aaoaeia iaia?ai
a?aeaeaathoue o a?eueo?e i??? a?io?i?/io noi?iio i?ioean?a, ui
i?io?eathoue. Ca ?aieaie ?icaeyaeo caeeoa?oueny aiae?c i?e/ei ci?ie
niinoa?aaeoaaieo o?ce/ieo aaee/ei oa iiaoaeiaa ei?aeoieo iiaeaeae aeey
naiiocaiaeaeoaaiiai iieno noeoiiino? niinoa?aaeoaaieo aoaeo?a.
Aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii iaiao?aeiino? aeaoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioeiaeaeaiiy a?ieia?/ieo iaia?ai io/eaie aeaeo?ii?a ? oaeiae aeyaeaia
aei oaia??oiueiai /ano iaiaeiicia/ia caeaaei?noue niinoa?aaeoaaieo ci?i
o?ce/ieo aaee/ei oa aoaeo?a aieeao ?aae?aoe?? a?ae oiia oa aeaeo
ii?ii?iaiiy.

Aei??thaaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a iaia?aiieo no?oeoo? i?iaaaeaii c
aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno onoaoeoaaiiy ? iaoiae?a, na?aae yeeo noai?ai?
i?eeaaee aeey aei??thaaiiy i?ia?aeiino? a?oa?iaeo e?i?aeieo iaia?ai
(AEI), aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ii? ?ooeeaino? (AO?) ee?oei oa eiioeaio?aoe?? E+ o
noniaic?? a?eo?ioeeo?a. ?icaeiai? oa a?aei?aoeueiaai? iaoiaeeee
aei??thaaiiy aeanii? oeoi?anoeaioe?? iaia?aiieo a?ee?a, oeoi?anoeaioieo
ciiae?a oa ?i..

O ?icae?e? 3 i?aaenoaaeai? aeai? i?i ci?io AO? a?eo?ioeeo?a ? oeiioeeo?a
i?ae aieeaii aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a oa oeueo?acaoeo oa?aiaaoe/ii?
?ioaineaiino?. Iieacaii, ui aieea aei?ii?ithaaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei
cieaeaiiy AO? ee?oei. Nooi?iue i?iyaeaiiy aoaeoo ci?ith?oueny a
i?enooiino? iiaeeo?eaoi??a — ia?aoiiethaa/?a i?iaeoeo?a ?aae?ie?co
aiaee (o?iii/aaeie, o?eioioaio, ?iiieo), SH-aeoeaieo niieoe (oeenoai?io,
ae?o?io?a?oieo, IOIA), coeaath/eo aaaio?a (aeooa?iaiai aeueaeaa?aeo) oa
niieoe, ui iiaeeo?eothoue e?i?aeio oaco iaia?ai (?ii?a Na2+,
oei?i?iiaceio, o?eoiio X-100).

Aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii, ui aecia/a? ci?io aeaeo?ie?iaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae
ee?oei i?ae aieeaii io/ea aeaeo?ii?a, ? iioeiaeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e a?eeiai?
oace iaia?ai, coiiaeaia ieneaeaoe??th noeueoa?ae?eeueieo a?oi oa
ii?ooaiiyi a?eie-e?i?aeieo aca?iiae?e. Ci?ia aeaeo?ie?iaoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny aca?iiae??th a?eueieo
?aaeeeae?a, ui ooai?ththoueny i?e ?aae?ie?c? aiaee, c iaia?aiieie
eiiiiiaioaie, aiane?aeie yeiai ciaioo?oueny i?e?ia’yce?noue
a?eie-e?i?aeii? eiiiiiaioe iaia?ai, ui aieeaa? ia ?ooeea?noue a?eeiaeo
iieaeoe ? i?e?aeiaieo aei ieo aoaeaaiaeieo caeeoe?a.

Ciaioaiiy AO? iia’yco?oueny c i?inoi?iaei ia?a?iciiae?eii ca?yaeo o
i?eiaia?aiieo oa?ao (?en.1) oa iaoiiaeaii ye i?yiith ae??th ia iueiai
?aae?aoe??, oae ? ci?iith o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae a?eie-e?i?aeiiai
eiiieaeno iaia?ai. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue ia?a?iciiae?eo ia’?iiiai
ca?yaeo iaia?ai i?e ii?ii?iaii? ? iieacaii, ui ci?ia aeaeo?ie?iaoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae ee?oei iiaea aooe iiyniaia

?en.1.

ciaioaiiyi ia’?iii? u?eueiino? iaaaoeaieo o?eniaaieo ca?yae?a
ie?ainaoa?eaeiiai oa?o.

A ?aieao ?icaeyiooi? iiaeae? aeei?enoaii naiiocaiaeaeaia ??oaiiy
iaeiii??iiai ??aiyiiy Ioanniia

c a?aie/ieie oiiaaie

,

ie?ainaoa?eaeiiai oa?o

.

??oaiiy ia? aeaeyae

, (1)

a i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?o iaia?aie.

c (1) io?eio?ii

, (2)

. Ci?ia u?eueiino? iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo aaciina?aaeiuei ia iiaa?oi?
a?eie-e?i?aeiiai iao?eeno i?e ii?ii?iaii? caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o
ia?a?iciiae?eo ia’?iiiai ca?yaeo ae?eieae?eno ? iiaea c?inoaoe i?e
ciaioaii? inoaiiueiai.

A ?aieao oai??? i?oai? io?eiaia aiae?oe/ia ioe?iea aaee/eie
?aae?i/ooeeaiai ia’?io ca e?eaith “aeaeeaaiiy” AO?, yea aeey
a?eo?ioeeo?a iaaaaeaia ia ?en.2 o eiaa?eoi?/iiio ianooaa?.

Aeey ia?iaee aeaieo ? ?ic?aooieo aaee/eie ?aae?i/ooeeaiai
ia’?io

?en.2.

aoea aeei?enoaia caaaeueia oi?ioea

, (3)

— e?euee?noue /ooeeaeo iaeanoae, U — aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ia ?ooeea?noue.

, i?eeiyoei o oai??? i?oai?:

.

5,5·10-5 iei3 i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aaaeeea?noue aianeo a?eueieo ?aaeeeae?a,
ui ooai?ththoueny i?e ?aae?ie?c? aiaee, ye? aieeaathoue ia no?oeoo?iee
noai oa ia’?iiee ?iciiae?e ca?yaeo a i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao iaia?aie. sse
a?aeiii, i?iaeoeoe ?aae?ie?co aiaee eieae?ciaai? ocaeiaae o?aeo
aeaeo?iia a iaaaee/eeo ianyaao-oii?ao, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia a?aenoai? ~
500 ii iaeei a?ae iaeiiai. O oaeiai ?iaeo oii?ao c ae?aiao?ii ~ 4 ii
ooai?th?oueny 10-12 a?ae?aoiaaieo aeaeo?ii?a oa ia?aeiieo ?aaeeeae?a —
i?iaeoeo?a ?aae?ie?co aiaee, ia ooai?aiiy eiaeiiai c eio?eo
aeo?a/a?oueny aia?a?y ~ 10 aA. I?e ia?iaeaeaii? aeae?eueeio aoi?eiieo oa
o?aoeiieo aeaeo?ii?a oea icia/a? ca?eueoaiiy i?aeoe/ii ia aeaa ii?yaeee
e?eueeino? aaciina?aaeiuei ae?th/eo ia ca?yae iaia?aie ?aaeeeae?a, ia
eiaeiee c yeeo i?eiaaea?, ai/aaeaeue, a?aeiinii iaaaeeeee ia’?i
eieaeueii? ae??.

O ?icae?e? 4 aeine?aeaeaii aieea aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a ?
oeueo?acaoeo ia iaia?aie a?eo?ioeeo?a (?en.3) oa aeyaeaii ca?eueoaiiy
aeoiaeo eae?th c ee?oei. Aiae?c e?iaoeee aeoiaeo eae?th iieaco?,
ui i?e iaeeo a?ae??ceao /ano iino?aae?aoe?eii? ?ieoaaoe?? aianeii o
ca?eueoaiiy iioieo ?ii?a eae?th

(4)

?en.3.

— aaeaioi?noue ?ii?a eae?th.

O ii?ooaii? i?iieeiino? a?eo?ioeeoa?ieo iaia?ai aeey ?ii?a eae?th
aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue iioeiaeaeaiiy a?eeiaiai eiiiiiaioo iaia?ai
i?iaeoeoaie ?aae?ie?co aiaee — a?ae?ieneeueieie ?aaeeeaeaie oa
a?ae?aoiaaieie aeaeo?iiaie. Ca?eueoaiiy i?iieeiino? iaia?ai iaoiiaeaii,
cie?aia, ooeiaeaeaiiyi SH-a?oi iaia?aiieo a?ee?a ?, ye iane?aeie,
ci?iith a?eie-e?i?aeieo oa aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ieo aca?iiae?e a?eeiai?
aeiaoee.

Oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? aeoiaeo ?ii?a E+ a?ae oaiia?aoo?e i?aeoaa?aeaeo?,
ui o oi?ioaaii? ?aaeoe?? a?eo?ioeeo?a ia aieea ?aae?aoe?? aaaeeeao ?ieue
a?ae?a?athoue o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? e?i?aeiiai a?oa?o. Aeyaeaii
ca?eueoaiiy ?aae?i?acenoaioiino? nenoai ianeaiiai o?ainii?oo ?ii?a K+
i?e i?aeaeuaii? oaeo/ino? e?i?aeii? oace. Ca?eueoaiiy ae a’yceino?
iaia?ai i?e 4°N i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?eueoiai a?aeiiniiai aeoiaeo ?ii?a
eae?th ?, oaeei /eiii, aei cieaeaiiy no?eeino? a?eo?ioeeo?a aei ae??
ii?ii?iaiiy.

O ?aieao cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? oa ia i?aenoaa? aeaieo, io?eiaieo i?e
oeueo?acaoeiaiio ii?ii?iaii? AEI (?en.4), iieacaii, ui
aeiaeaoeiaei oaeoi?ii i?aeaeuaiiy i?iieeiino? ? ci?ia aeeooc?eiiai
?aaeeio a i?eiaia?aiieo oa?ao aeaeo?ie?oo. sse aa/eii c ?en.4, /anoioa
a?aee?eooy ?iiieo eaiae?a, ooai?aieo ae?ia?aie a?ai?oeeae?io,
aeinoaoiuei aeia?a iieno?oueny e?i?eiith ooieoe?iiaeueiith caeaaei?noth
a?ae /ano

,

.

O ?icae?e? 5 i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?aae?i?acenoaioiino? Ca2+- oa Mg2+-AOOac
o?iae a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e aaeeeeo aeicao ii?ii?iaiiy aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie
aeaeo?iiaie ? iieacaii, ui aeoeai?noue AOOac ?ia?ao?oueny, i?e/iio
Mg2+-AOOaca a?ae??ciy?oueny a?eueoith ?aae?i?acenoaioi?noth. Aeyaeaii,
ui ia?iiiaaiiee aeaoa?aaio o?eoii O-100 nainea?e?co? iaeaeaa
oa?iaioe aei ae??

?en.4

?aae?aoe??, o oie /an ye aeooa?iaee aeueaeaa?ae, ui no?oeoo?o? a?eeiao
eiiiiiaioo, ciaioo? ?aae?aoe?eiee aoaeo aeey Ca2+-AOOace.

I?e iecueeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo iaia?aiiiai a?eea a ii?ii?iai?e noniaic??
aeoeai?noue eaeueoe??ai? AOOace ?ia?ao?oueny ia?aaaaeii i?iaeoeoaie
?aae?ie?co aiaee, iniiaiei ae?th/ei aaaioii na?aae yeeo ? ?aaeeeaee I• .
C? ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? iaia?aiiiai a?eea ii/eia? ia?aaaaeaoe
i?yia ae?y ?aae?aoe?? ia oa?iaio.

Ae?y ?aae?aoe?? ia aeine?aeaeoaai? AOOace ia?aaaaeii ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac
ci?io iieaeoey?ieo a?eie-e?i?aeieo ? aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ieo aca?iiae?e
a?eeiai? aeiaoee, oa?aeoa? yeeo, cie?aia, aecia/a?oueny ca?eueoaiiyi
i?ae ae??th ?aae?aoe?? /anoee ieeneaieo SH-a?oi. O ?acoeueoao?
i?aeaeuo?oueny no?oeoo?ia aei?noe?noue a?eeiaeo iieaeoe ? cieaeo?oueny
aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ia ?ooeea?noue.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?iaioe i?aaiae (AeOO?O- ? oa???oeeai?ae?aaeoeoace
i?e?iniiaeueieo iaia?ai) iathoue iaioo /ooeea?noue aei ae?? io/e?a
aeaeo?ii?a o ii??aiyii? c Ca2+-AOOacith o?iae a?eo?ioeeo?a (?en.5).
Iaia?aiio?iii? aaaioe nainea?e?cothoue iaeaeaa oa?iaioe
aei ii?ii?iaiiy oaeaeeeie

?en.5.

aeaeo?iiaie, i?e/iio ?aae?i?acenoaioi?noue oa???oeeai?ae?aaeoeoace a
i?enooiino? aaaio?a aeyaey?oueny ?noioii ieae/a. Iaoai?ci aieeao
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a ia oa?iaioaoeaio aeoeai?noue
ieneaei?aaeoeoac ?aae?co?oueny, aieiaiei /eiii, /a?ac ci?io o?ce/ieo
aeanoeainoae e?i?aeii? oace aioo??oiueiee?oeiieo iaia?ai.

O ?icae?e? 6 iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aieeao
io/ea aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a ia no?oeoo?iee noai oa
aeaeo?io?ce/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaia?ai a?eo?ioeeo?a ? oeiioeeo?a
aacoth/enue ia aeaieo, io?eiaieo ?c aeei?enoaiiyi oeoi?anoeaioieo
ciiae?a AIN ? AeNI. Aeyaeaia cieaeaiiy oeoi?anoeaioe?? AIN (?en.6) ?
iineeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? na?/?iiy AeNI o noniaic?? ii?ii?iaieo
o?iae a?eo?ioeeo?a (?en.7) iiynith?oueny ca?eueoaiiyi u?eueiino?
iiaa?oiaaiai iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo ?cieueiaaieo a?eo?ioeeoa?ieo iaia?ai
i?ae aieeaii ?aae?aoe??.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeniiaie i?i ca?eueoaiiy u?eueiino? iaaaoeaiiai
ca?yaeo oa iioaioe?aeo aaciina?aaeiuei ia iiaa?oi? iaia?aie

(5)

ia noia?a/eoue aeyaeaiiio ciaioaiith i?inoi?iai? u?eueiino? o?eniaaiiai
iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo a i?eiaia?aiiiio ie?ainaoa?eaeiiio oa?? ?,
a?aeiia?aeii, iioaioe?aeo a ieiuei? eiacaiiy. A?aeiia?aeii
aei (2) aeaeo?ie?iaoe/iee

?en.6.

?en. 7

iioaioe?ae, ui ?a?no?o?oueny iaoiaeii AO?, a?aeaeaa? ia?a?iciiae?e
ca?yaeaeaieo a?oi iiaeeco ieiueie eiacaiiy, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia
a?aenoaiyo ~ 30 ii a?ae e?i?aeiiai iao?eeno iaia?aie, ? iaei aieeaa? ia
iioaioe?ae (5) aaciina?aaeiuei? iiaa?oi? iaia?aie. Neeueii ae?aiiaaiee
ca?yae iiaa?oi? iaia?aie oaeiae ia aeyaey? ?noioiiai aieeao ia
aeaeo?ie?iaoe/iee iioaioe?ae.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeiei ?c aieiaieo oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue
?aae?aoe?eii-?iaeoeiaaio ci?io ca?yaeo o?iae a?eo?ioeeo?a i?ae aieeaii
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a, ? ?icaeoie i?ioean?a IIE. Iieacaii, ui
aeey ciiaea AIN (AeNI) ca?eueoaiiy iaaaoeaiiai iiaa?oiaaiai ca?yaeo
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy (ca?eueoaiiy) e?eueeino? oeaio??a ca’ycoaaiiy
? ciaioaiith (ca?eueoaiith) eiinoaioe anioe?aoe??

iaoiiaeaiiio a?aeiia?aeiith ci?iith aaee/eie iioaioe?aeo.

O ?icae?e? 7 iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oeoi?anoeaioe?? i??aio
oa iieacaii cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? oeoi?anoeaioe?? i?ae aieeaii
ii?ii?iaiiy aeaeo?iiaie. Oa?aeoa? aan?iiy oeoi?anoeaioe?? i??aio
iiey?iei aanieeii — ?iiaie eiaeo ia ci?ith?oueny i?e ii?ii?iaii?, oiio
cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? iiynith?oueny cieaeaiiyi eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo
oeoi?anoeaioe?? ciiaeo.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c oiiei? no?oeoo?e niaeo??a oeoi?anoeaioe?? i??aio
(?en.8) oa nooiaith eiai aeneia?ecaoe?? i?e ae?? aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo
aeaeo?ii?a. Iieacaii, ui ciaioaiiy eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo
ciiaeo

iia’ycaia, o naith /a?ao, ia c? ci?iith iiey?iino? i?e?iioi/aiiy ciiaeo,
a c ?aae?aoe?eiei ii?ooaiiyi o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae e?i?aeii? oace
iaia?ai. I?i oea na?ae/eoue c?inoaiiy nooiaith aeneia?ecaoe??
i??aio a ii?ii?iaieo iaia?aiao, ui aeaco? ia ca?eueoaiiy oaeo/ino? a
iaeano? aoaeaaiaeieo eaioetha?a e?i?aeieo iieaeoe. Aeniiaie i?i
cieaeaiiy i?e?ia’yceino? a?ae?ioiaii? ciie e?i?aeii? oace iaia?ai i?ae
ae??th ii?ii?iaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae ii??aiyeueiei aiae?cii
ia?aiao??a oeoi?anoeaioe?? i??aio a noniaic?? o?iae a?eo?ioeeo?a oa
iiaeaeueieo iaia?ai.

Ci?ia o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae oa no?oeoo?iiai noaio iaia?ai a?eo?ioeeo?a
i?ae aieeaii io/ea aeaeo?ii?a aeyaey?oueny oaeiae o i?aeaeuaii?
aoaeoeaiino? ia?aianaiiy aia?a?? i?ae oeoi?anoeaioieie ciiaeaie AIN ?
AeNI-12. ?icaeyioo? o?ce/i? iiaeae? n?iaeao-n?iaeaoiiai ia?aiino
aia?a?? aeacothoue ia ca?eueoaiiy ?ooeeaino? iieaeoe AeNI-12 a iaeano?
iaiiey?ii? ciie e?i?aeiiai oa?o, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy
eiao?oe??ioo aeinooiiino? ? ciaioaiith

?en.8

, ia ye?e iieaeoee aeoeaioi?a i?iaiaeyoue a?eueoo /anoeio /ano iiaeeco
aeiii?a.

Ae?enii, o caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo ae?ac aeey noaoe?iia?ii? oeoi?anoeaioe??
aeiii?a i?e eiai aan?ii? aeoeaioi?ii iiaea aooe caienaiee o aeaeyae?:

(6)

— /an aan?iiy oeoi?anoeaioe?? aeiii?a o a?aenooi?noue aeoeaioi?a.
?ioaa?aeueia aaee/eia

(7)

a?ae iaeaeeae/iai aeiii?a. A ?aieao iaea?eueo i?inoiai i?aeoiaeo
oaeiio aca?iiiio ?icoaooaaiith iieaeoe AIN ? AeNI-12 a?aeiia?aea?
oyaeaiiy i?inoi?iaiai ?iciiae?eo iieaeoe aeoeaioi?a o aeaeyae?

, (8)

a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo i?eaeecii aei??aith? 0,5.

O oeueiio aeiaaeeo a?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae oeoi?anoeaioe??
ciiaea-aeiii?a a i?enooiino? oa o a?aenooiino? aeoeaioi?a iiaea aooe
iiaeaia o aeaeyae?

, (9)

— oaea a?aenoaiue i?ae aeiii?ii ? aeoeaioi?ii, i?e ye?e iiaeeea?noue
aan?iiy aei??aith? 0,5.

.

O ?aieao o?ce/ii? iiaeae?, yea a?eueo ei?aeoii a?aoiao? no?oeoo?o
iaia?aie, a?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae iieno?oueny ae?acii

,

oa aaiiao??? iaia?aie

, (10)

i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy, iniaeeai i?e aaeeeeo a?ae??ceao /ano i?ney
ii?ii?iaiiy, eiee ?icaeaathoueny i?ioeane IIE.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?iaeoeiaaia ii?ii?iaiiyi cieaeaiiy a?eeiai?
oeoi?anoeaioe??, iieacaia ia ?en.9, nooo?ai ciaioo?oueny
i?e ciaioaii? ?aae?aoe?eii-o?i?/iiai aeoiaeo
a?eueii?aaeeeaeueieo ?aaeoe?e. Ci?ia
aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ieo aca?iiae?e oa eiioi?iaoe?eiiai noaio
a?ee?a, ui

?en. 9.

aeyaey?oueny a cieaeaii? oeoi?anoeaioe??, iia’ycaia c ieneaeaoe??th
SH-a?oi a?eeiaeo iieaeoe a?ae?ieneeueieie ?aaeeeaeaie.

Aeyaeaii ciaioaiiy aoaeoeaii? eiinoaioe aan?iiy o?eioioaiiai?
oeoi?anoeaioe?? a?ee?a ciai?oi?ie aanieeaie a ?aii? no?iee i?ney
ii?ii?iaiiy oa ci?io oa?aeoa?o iioeiaeaeaiue a?eeiaeo iieaeoe o i?ioean?
iino?aae?aoe?eii? ?ieoaaoe??. Ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? aeeooc?? aaniee?a oa
aoaeoeaiino? aan?iiy iia’ycaii, i/aaeaeii, c i?aeaeuaiiyi no?oeoo?ii?
aei?noeino? oa iaiaaeaiiyi aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ii? ?ooeeaino? iaia?aiieo
a?ee?a a?eo?ioeeo?a oa oeiioeeo?a.

O ?icae?e? 8 oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaia caoaeaeaiiy oeueo?acaoeiaeo
eieeaaiue i?e ii?ii?iaii? a?ieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a ?iioeueniei io/eii
?aeyoea?nonueeeo aeaeo?ii?a. Iieacaii, ui a?ieia?/ia ae?y io/ea oaeaeeeo
aeaeo?ii?a iiaea ?aae?coaaoeny /a?ac oeueo?a- oa a?ia?caoeia? eieeaaiiy,
ui aaia?othoueny a i?ioean? ?iioeueniiai ii?ii?iaiiy ?a/iaeie. I?e
?aae?aoe?eii-aeonoe/iiio aoaeo? ?iioeueniee aeaeo?iiiee io/ie aeyaey?
ae?th ia no?oeoo?e a?ieia?/iiai ia’?eoo, ye? ia ioiieai? ?ii?caoe??th
aaciina?aaeiuei. Aoaeoeai?noue o?ainoi?iaoe?? aia?a??, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny
a i?e?iii?eo, a aia?a?th oa?iiaeonoe/iiai ?iioeueno aeinyaa? aeae?eueeio
a?aenioe?a aeey ii?e?a a?ae iiaoi?ieo aeaeo?ii?a c aia?a??th 50 – 500
aA.

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith caoaeaeoaaiiai ?iioeueno ? eiai oe?ieiiieini?noue oa
i?inoi?iaa eieae?ciaai?noue. Aeey ioe?iee aaee/eie aeieeath/eo o cii?
ii?ii?iaiiy aeonoe/ieo iai?oa ( iiaeia aeei?enoaoe ae?ac

, (11)

— o?eaae?noue ?iioeuena i?enei?thaa/a. Iayaia o ae?ac? (11) aaee/eia
(b yaey? niaith aeayea ii?iaiaa cia/aiiy aeonoe/ii? iai?oae, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei nooo?aeo ci?i o a?ieia?/iiio ia’?eo?, oiio ia??ai?noue
o i?aa?e /anoei? (11) ? oiiaith ?aae?aoe?eii-aeonoe/ii? ae?? ia
a?iia’?eo c aieo na?aaeiueiai aeonoe/iiai iiey.

Ioe?iea aeonoe/ieo iai?oa, caoaeaeoaaieo io/eii o
i?iaaaeaieo

aeine?aeaeaiiyo, oa ?oi? ii??aiyiiy c a?aeiieie aeaieie i?i a?aie/i?
cia/aiiy iieaco?, ui i?e aeei?enoaieo ia?aiao?ao io/ea ae??th ia
a?ieia?/i? ia’?eoe ona?aaeiaiiai aeonoe/iiai iiey iaaaaa?oeiaiai
ae?aiaciio iiaeia ciaoooaaoe.

Aia?oa oai?aoe/ii aea/aia eieaeueia ?aae?aoe?eii-aeonoe/ia ae?y oaeaeeeo
aeaeo?ii?a ia a?ieia?/i? ia’?eoe oa na?aaeiaeua. Iieacaii, ui ooai?aiiy
iaeeo ia?aa??oeo iaeanoae iiaeeco i?noeue coieiaiiy aoi?eiieo aeaeo?ii?a
i?e i?ioiaeaeaii? ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy /a?ac a?ieia?/i?
na?aaeiaeua i?ecaiaeeoue aei aaia?aoe?? i?e?inoa?e/ieo oa?iiaeonoe/ieo
?iioeuen?a, ui iathoue, ye iieacaii ia ?en.10, ii/aoeiao aaee/eio
aiie?ooaee aeonoe/iiai oeneo aei aeae?eueeio e?eiaa? oa ii/aoeiao
o?eaae?noue a aeae?eueea i?einaeoiae.

?en. 10

Aeey ioe?iee ?ici???a i?e?iii?e?a ? ii?iaeaeoaaieo ieie aeonoe/ieo
?iioeuen?a aeei?enoaia a?aeiia ?ioaa?aeueia ??oaiiy E??oaioa oaeeaaiai
??aiyiiy

, (12)

— eii?aeeiaoe oi/ee niinoa?aaeaiiy. Aaaaeath/e, ui u?euei?noue oaieiaeo
aeaea?ae oaeoi?eco?oueny oa caaea?oueny aaoniaei ?iciiae?eii ye o
i?inoi??, oae ? a /an?, c (12) iaea?aeo?ii oaeee ae?ac aeey aaee/eie
aeonoe/ieo oene?a:

, (13)

aea aaee/eia E aecia/a? iiaio oaieiao aia?a?th ciie aaia?aoe??, D —
aoaeoeaiee iiia?a/iee ciie aaia?aoe?? ? ( — aoaeoeaiee /an iaa??aaiiy.
I?oaeia oaeey (13) ia? aeaeyae a?iiey?iiai aioeneiao?e/iiai ?iioeueno,
ye oea iieacaii ia ?en.11.

?en. 11.

Aeieeath/? i?e?i?iioeuene oeneo iiaeooue nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee noaee?oeiieo no?oeoo? o aeaye?e noa?e/i?e cii? c
oeaio?ii o i?e?iii?oe?. Ia’?i oaei? ciie a?ieia?/ii? ae??
?aae?aoe?eii-aeonoe/iiai iaoai?cio aecia/a?oueny aaee/eiith caoaeaeaiiai
o i?e?iii?oe? ?iioeueno oeneo, caeiiii eiai i?inoi?iaiai niaaeaiiy oa
a?aie/iiai oeneo ?iaeoeaaoe??. O?aooaaiiy aieeao iiaeeiaiiy aeonoe/ieo
oaeeue iieaco?, ui aeey oe?ieiiieiniiai aeonoe/iiai neaiaeo (13)
caoooaiiy ia? ia aeniiiaioe?aeueiee, a noaiiaaee oa?aeoa?, aiane?aeie
/iai ia’?i ciie a?ieia?/ii? ae?? iaaeiei i?e?iii?eo iiaea aooe ia
ii?yaeie a?eueoa ia’?io naiiai ii?eo. A?aeiia?aeii, e?i?ei? ?ici??e
iaeano? eieaeueii? aeeiai?/ii? ae?? ii??aiyi? c oa?aeoa?ieie ?ici??aie
iaia?aiieo no?oeoo? ? caeaaeaoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ?a/iaeie a?ieia?/iiai
ia’?eoo. O ?acoeueoao? oeueiai ci?ia inoaiiuei? iiaea ?noioii aieeaaoe
ia oaeaee?noue ?iaeoeaaoe?? i?e ii?ii?iaii?. A?aecia/ai? iniaeeaino?
eieaeueiiai ?aae?aoe?eii-aeonoe/iiai aoaeoo aoi?eiieo aeaeo?ii?a
aeicaieythoue ?icaeyaeaoe eiai ye iaeei ?c oaeoi??a a?ieia?/ii? ae??
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee ?iaioe

Iieacaii, ui aieea aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a oa oeueo?acaoeo
oa?aiaaoe/ii? ?ioaineaiino? i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy AO? a?eo?ioeeo?a
oa oeiioeeo?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?ia aeaeo?ie?iaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae
ee?oei o cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny ii?ooaiiyi iieaeoey?ieo aca?iiae?e,
ciaioaiiyi i?e?ia’yceino? e?i?aeii? oace iaia?ai ? ca?eueoaiiyi
?ooeeaino? a?eeiaeo iieaeoe.

I?iaaaeaia a ?aieao oai??? i?oai? aiae?oe/ia ioe?iea ?ici??o
?aae?i/ooeeaiiai ia’?io ee?oei oeaco? ia aaaeeeao ?ieue i?iaeoeo?a
?aae?ie?co aiaee o aeyaeai?e ci?i? o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ? no?oeoo?iiai
noaio ee?oeiieo iaia?ai.

Niinoa?aaeoaaia ci?ia aeaeo?ie?iaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae ee?oei iia’ycaia c?
ciaioaiiyi ia’?iii? u?eueiino? iaaaoeaieo o?eniaaieo ca?yae?a
i?eiaia?aiieo oa??a. Iieacaii, ui ci?ia u?eueiino? iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo
oa iioaioe?aeo aaciina?aaeiuei ia iiaa?oi? iaia?aie i?e ii?ii?iaii?
caeaaeeoue a?ae ia?a?iciiae?eo ia’?iiiai ca?yaeo ? iiaea c?inoaoe i?e
eiai ciaioaii?.

Ii?ooaiiy i?iieeiino? iaia?ai a?eo?ioeeo?a aeey ?ii?a eae?th i?ae
aieeaii io/ea aeaeo?ii?a iia’ycaii c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaeo/ino? e?i?aeii?
oace iaia?ai oa iiina?aaeeiaaii iioeiaeaeaiiyi SH-a?oi iaia?aiieo
a?ee?a. Aiae?c aeaieo oeueo?acaoeiaiai ii?ii?iaiiy AEI iieaco?, ui
aeiaeaoeiaei oaeoi?ii i?aeaeuaiiy i?iieeiino? ? ci?ia aeeooc?eiiai
?aaeeio a i?eiaia?aiieo oa?ao aeaeo?ie?oa.

Ia iniia? aeaieo oeoi?anoeaioe?? ciiae?a AIN ? AeNI aeyaeaia ca?eueoaiiy
iiaa?oiaaiai iaaaoeaiiai ca?yaeo oa iioaioe?aeo ?cieueiaaieo iaia?ai
a?eo?ioeeo?a i?e ii?ii?iaii? aeaeo?iiaie. Aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii ci?ie
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae iaia?ai oa ia?aiao??a eiiieaeniooai?aiiy
ca?yaeaeaieo ciiae?a ? ?icaeoie i?ioean?a IIE.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c oiiei? no?oeoo?e niaeo??a oeoi?anoeaioe?? i??aio oa
nooiaith eiai aeneia?ecaoe?? i?e ae?? aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a, ui
aeaco? ia ciaioaiiy eaaioiaiai aeoiaeo ciiaeo. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
ia?aiao??a oeoi?anoeaioe?? i??aio a noniaic?? o?iae a?eo?ioeeo?a oa
iiaeaeueieo iaia?ai na?ae/eoue i?i cieaeaiiy i?e?ia’yceino? a?ae?ioiaii?
ciie e?i?aeii? oace iaia?ai.

Io?eiaii aeai? i?i ?iaeoeoeaii-?aciiainia ia?aianaiiy aia?a?? i?ae
ciiaeaie AIN ? AeNI-12 i?e ae?? ii?ii?iaiiy aeaeo?iiaie. Ca?eueoaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ia?aianaiiy aia?a?? iia’ycaia c? ci?iith a’yceino?
e?i?aeii? oace iaia?ai, ui iaoiiaeth? ca?eueoaiiy ?ooeeaino? iieaeoe
AeNI-12, oa ciaioaiiyi ieiu? iiaa?oi? iaia?ai.

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea io/ea aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a ia o?ce/i?
aeanoeaino? a?eeiaiai eiiiiiaioo o?iae a?eo?ioeeo?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a
iniia? niinoa?aaeoaaiiai cieaeaiiy aeanii? oeoi?anoeaioe?? no?oeoo?ieo
a?ee?a oa ?iaeoeaaoe?? Ca2+- oa Mg2+-AOOac eaaeeoue ci?ia
a?eie-e?i?aeieo oa aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ieo aca?iiae?e a?eeiai? aeiaoee,
yea iia’ycaia c ieneaeaoe??th SH-a?oi i?iaeoeoaie ?aae?ie?co aiaee.

Aeyaeaii ciaioaiiy aoaeoeaii? eiinoaioe aan?iiy o?eioioaiiai?
oeoi?anoeaioe?? a?ee?a o ?aii? no?iee i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy oa ci?io
iaoai?cio iioeiaeaeaiue o i?ioean? iino?aae?aoe?eii? ?ieoaaoe??.
Iieacaii, ui ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? aeeooc?? aaniee?a oa aoaeoeaiino?
aan?iiy iia’ycaia c iaiaaeaiiyi aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ii? ?ooeeaino?
iaia?aiieo a?ee?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae aieeaii io/e?a aeaeo?ii?a aeoeai?noue Ca2+- oa
Mg2+-AOOac, a oaeiae ieneaei?aaeoeoac i?e?iniiaeueiuo iaia?ai,
?ia?ao?oueny i?iaeoeoaie ?aae?ie?co aiaee oa i?yiith ae??th ?aae?aoe??.
O?ce/iee iaoai?ci ae?? io/e?a aeaeo?ii?a ia ieneaei?aaeoeoace
?aae?co?oueny, aieiaiei /eiii, /a?ac e?i?aeio oaco iaia?ai.

I?iaaaeaii oai?aoe/iee aiae?c oa?iiaeonoe/iiai iaoai?cio aieeao oaeaeeeo
aeaeo?ii?a ia a?ieia?/i? ia’?eoe. Iieacaii, ui ona?aaeiai? aeonoe/i?
iiey iaaaaa?oeiaiai ae?aiaciio, caoaeaeai? iiaeeiaiiyi aia?a??
aei?ii?ithaaiiy, aei a?ieia?/ii? ae?? ia i?ecaiaeyoue. O oie aea /an,
i?e?iii?ee oa ii?iaeaeoaai? ieie aeonoe/i? ?iioeuene iathoue oa?aeoa?i?
?ici??e, ii??aiyi? c ?ici??aie iaia?aiieo no?oeoo?, ? iiaeooue aooe
iaeiei ?c o?ce/ieo oaeoi??a aieeao.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy e io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe a?aeiinyoueny aei o???
iaeano? ?aae?aoe?eii? a?io?ceee, yea ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue
i?iaeiaaeo? caeeoaoeny iaeiaio aea/aiith.Io?eiaia iiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i
caeiiii??iino? aieeao io/ea aeaeo?ii?a oa oeueo?acaoeo ia o?ceei-o?i?/i?
aeanoeaino? ee?oeiieo iaia?ai aaaeeeaa aeey a?eueo aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy
ia?aeiieo iaoai?ci?a aca?iiae?? aei?ii?ithaaiue ?c iaia?aiieie
no?oeoo?aie. Aiaeii/an, cia/aiiy iiaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia ae/a?io?oueny
o?eueee iaoeiaith oe?ii?noth, ine?eueee aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? ?
oaiaeaioe?? ?acii ?c a?aeiieie aeaieie i?i aieea ?ioeo aeae?a
aei?ii?ithaaiue iiaeooue nooo?ai ni?eyoe aoaeoeai?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo
iaaeeei-oaoi?/ieo ? iaaeeei-a?ieia?/ieo oaoiieia?e.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ianooiieo ?iaioao:

Aa?aiiee A.A., Ae?iue N.A., Oianoye A.A. Noeioeyoeey aiaae?aiey
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Oianoye A.A., Ae?aaaeue A.E., Iaca?aiei I.Ae., Aa?aiiee A.A. Aeeyiea
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Ae?aaaeue A.E., Iaca?aiei I.Ae., Oianoye A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey
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E?oiei A.Ae., Eo?eeei N.A., Oea/aiei A.I., Ai?aaiei A.I., Oianoye A.A.
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E?oiei A.Ae., Eo?eeei N.A., Oea/aiei A.I., Ai?aaiei A.I., Oianoye A.A.
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Ai?aaiei A.I., E?oiei A.Ae., Oeiaoei A.A., Oianoye A.A. Aeeyiea
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Ai?aaiei A.I., E?oiei A.Ae., Oianoye A.A. Aeeyiea ?aaeeaoeee ia
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E?oiei A.Ae., Eo?eeei N.A., Oea/aiei A.I., Ai?aaiei A.I., Oianoye A.A.
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Oea/aiei A.I., Ai?aaiei A.I., Aethaei O.N., E?oiei A.Ae., Eo?eeei N.A.,
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E?oiei A.Ae., Ai?aaiei A.I., Eo?eeei N.A., Oea/aiei A.I., Oianoye A.A.
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Ai?aaiei A.I., E?oiei A.Ae.. Oianoye A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey
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Oea/aiei A.I., Ai?aaiei A.I., Eo?eeei N.A., Oianoye A.A. Aeeyiea
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Oianoye A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey ?aaeeaoeee ia no?oeoo?o iaia?ai
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A.n. 1520682 NNN?. Oeueo?acaoeiaie i?aia?aciaaoaeue / Aa?aiiee A.A.,
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Iaoaio 548 Onoaiiaea aeey oeceei-oeie/aneie i/enoee noi/iuo aiae .
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Cayaeaii 15.11.93; Iioaeeeiaaii 30.06.94 Atheeaoaiue N 8-II.

Iaoaio 4950053/14 ?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey, RU 2049473 C1,
Ainoaea?noaaiiue iao/iue oeaio? eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa, Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao (UA) / Aauanoai, iaeaaeathuaa
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Oianoye A.A., Ae?iue N.A., Ae?aaaeue A.E., Iaca?aiei I.Ae. Aeeyiea
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Ae?iue N.A., Oianoye A.A. Aeaenoaea oa?aiaaoe/aneiai oeueo?acaoea ia
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Ae?iue N.A., Ae?aaaeue A.E., Oianoye A.A. Iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue aeneie a
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Ai?aaiei A.I., Ae?aaaeue A.E., Oianoye A.A. Niaeo?ioioiiao?e/aneia
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Aa?aiiee A.A., Iaiaeeoea A.A., Oianoye A.A., Oa?uaei A.A., sseiaeaa A.A.
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Ae?aaaeue A.E., Iaca?aiei I.Ae., Oianoye A.A. ?aaeno?aoeey
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Aiiaea?ue E.Ae., Ae?aaaeue A.E., E?oiei A.Ae., Eo?eeei N.A., Iaca?aiei
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Ai?aaiei A.I., E?oiei A.Ae., Eo?eeei N.A., Oea/aiei A.I., Oianoye A.A.
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Oea/aiei A.I., E?oiei A.Ae., Eo?eeei N.A., Ai?aaiei A.I., Oianoye A.A.
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E?oiei A.Ae., Eo?eeei N.A., Oea/aiei A.I., Oianoye A.A. Aeeyiea io/ea
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Oeiaoei A.A., E?oiei A.Ae., Ai?aaiei A.I., Oianoye A.A. Aeeyiea
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Ai?aaiei A.I., E?oiei A.Ae., Oianoye A.A. Aeaenoaea auno?uo yeaeo?iiia
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Aa?aiiee A.A., Ae?iue N.A., Oianoye A.A. Oeueo?acaoeiaie oaoaeueiue
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Caethaianeee E.E., Aaeeia A.I., Aioe I.I., Iiiia A.O., ?oaeu/aa A.A.,
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Oianoye A.A. Aieea ?aae?aoe?? ia no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? aeanoeaino?
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Oea/aiei A.I., Oianoye A.A. Aieea ?ii?coth/iai ii?ii?iaiiy ia
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Oianoye A.A., Eo??eei N.I., E?oi?i A.Ae. Iniaeeaino? aieeao io/ea
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O?iaoei I.A., E?oi?i A.Ae., Oianoye A.A. Iiaeeo?eaoe?y ?aae?aoe?eiiai
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Aiioaoe?y

Oianoye A.A. Iaoai?cie aieeao aeaeo?ii?a ? aeonoe/ieo iie?a ia
a?ieia?/i? iaia?aie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa (?oeiien) ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith aeieoi?a
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca oaoii 03.00.02 — a?io?ceea, Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeine?aeaeaii ?ieue o?ce/ieo iaoai?ci?a o iiaeeo?eaoe?? a?ieia?/ieo
iaia?ai i?ae aieeaii aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo aeaeo?ii?a ? aeonoe/ieo iie?a.
Aeyaeaii ciaioaiiy aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ii? ?ooeeaino? a?eo?ioeeo?a ?
oeiioeeo?a ? cai?iiiiiaaia o?ce/ia iiaeaeue ia?a?iciiae?eo ia’?iiiai
ca?yaeo i?eiaia?aiieo i?ioa?e?a i?e ii?ii?iaii?, yea aeicaiey? ocaiaeeoe
aeai? i?i ci?io aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae iaia?ai, ui io?eiai?
iaoiaeii i?e?iaeaeo?ioi?aco ? iaoiaeii oeoi?anoeaioieo ciiae?a.
Aecia/aii ?aae?i/ooeeaee ia’?i ee?oei. Aeine?aeaeaii
?iaeoeoeaii-?aciiainia ia?aianaiiy aia?a?? i?ae ciiaeaie oa ianeaiee
o?ainii?o ?ii?a ? aeyaeaii ciaioaiiy i?e?ia’yceino? e?i?aeii? oace
iaia?ai. Iieacaii, ui a iniia? cieaeaiiy aeanii? oeoi?anoeaioe??
no?oeoo?ieo a?ee?a, ui niinoa??aa?oueny, oa ?iaeoeaaoe?? AOOac eaaeeoue
ci?ia a?eie-e?i?aeieo ? aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ieo aca?iiae?e a?eeiai?
aeiaoee. Aeyaeaii ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? aeeooc?? aaniee?a aeanii?
oeoi?anoeaioe??, iia’ycaia c iaiaaeaiiyi aioo??oiueiiieaeoey?ii?
?ooeeaino? iaia?aiieo a?ee?a. Oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaii iaoai?ci
eieaeueii? ?aae?aoe?eii-aeonoe/ii? ae?? oaeaeeeo aeaeo?ii?a ia
a?ieia?/ia na?aaeiaeua ? iieacaii, ui oa?aeoa?i? ?ici??e iaeano?
eieaeueiiai aieeao ii??aiyi? c ?ici??aie iaia?aiieo no?oeoo?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ia ?ooeea?noue, iiaa?oiaaee iioaioe?ae,
?aae?i/ooeeaee ia’?i, ?iiiee o?ainii?o, i?e?ia’yce?noue, ?iiiee eaiae,
a?eie-e?i?aei? aca?iiae??, oeoi?anoeaioe?y, oa?iiaeonoe/iee aoaeo.

Aiiioaoeey

Oianoye A.A. Iaoaieciu aicaeaenoaey yeaeo?iiia e aeonoe/aneeo iieae ia
aeieiae/aneea iaia?aiu.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa (?oeiienue) ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
aeieoi?a oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.02 –
aeioeceea, Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Enneaaeiaaia ?ieue oece/aneeo iaoaieciia a iiaeeoeeaoeee aeieiae/aneeo
iaia?ai i?e aicaeaenoaee aunieiyia?aaoe/aneeo yeaeo?iiia e aeonoe/aneeo
iieae. Iaia?oaeaii oiaiueoaiea yeaeo?ioi?aoe/aneie (YOI) iiaeaeaeiinoe
y?eo?ioeeoia e oeiioeeoia e i?aaeeiaeaia oece/aneay iiaeaeue
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iauaiiiai ca?yaea i?eiaia?aiiuo neiaa i?e iaeo/aiee,
iicaieythuay niaeaniaaoue aeaiiua ia eciaiaiee yeaeo?ioece/aneeo naienoa
iaia?ai, iieo/aiiua iaoiaeii iee?iyeaeo?ioi?aca e iaoiaeii
oeoi?anoeaioiuo ciiaeia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi eciaiaiea yeaeo?ieeiaoe/aneeo
naienoa eeaoie a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii?aaeaeyaony ia?ooaieai
iieaeoey?iuo acaeiiaeaenoaee, oiaiueoaieai iee?iayceinoe eeieaeiie oacu
iaia?ai e oaaee/aieai iiaeaeaeiinoe aaeeiauo iieaeoe. Ii eciaiaieth
YOI a ?aieao oai?ee ieoaie ioeaiai ?aaeei/oanoaeoaeueiue iauai eeaoie e
iieacaia aaaeiay ?ieue i?iaeoeoia ?aaeeieeca aiaeu. Ia iniiaa aeaiiuo i
oeoi?anoeaioeee ciiaeia AIN e AeNI auyaeaii oaaee/aiea iiaa?oiinoiiai
io?eoeaoaeueiiai ca?yaea e iioaioeeaea eciee?iaaiiuo iaia?ai
y?eo?ioeeoia i?e yeaeo?iiiii iaeo/aiee. Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea
aunieiyia?aaoe/aneeo yeaeo?iiia ia ianneaiue o?ainii?o eiiia, niaeo?u
oeoi?anoeaioeee ie?aia e eiaeoeoeaii-?aciiainiue ia?aiin yia?aee iaaeaeo
ciiaeaie e auyaeaii oiaiueoaiea iee?iayceinoe eeieaeiie oacu iaia?ai.
Aeiiieieoaeueiui oaeoi?ii iiauoaiey i?iieoeaaiinoe eeaoi/iuo iaia?ai
yaeyaony eciaiaiea aeeoooceiiiiai ?aaeeia a i?eiaia?aiiuo neiyo
yeaeo?ieeoa. Iieacaii, /oi a iniiaa iaaethaeaaiiai nieaeaiey nianoaaiiie
oeoi?anoeaioeee no?oeoo?iuo aaeeia, eiaeoeaaoeee AOOac e
ieneaei?aaeoeoac iee?iniiaeueiuo iaia?ai eaaeeo eciaiaiea
aaeie-eeieaeiuo e aioo?eiieaeoey?iuo acaeiiaeaenoaee aaeeiaie aeiaoeu.
Iaia?oaeaii oiaiueoaiea nei?inoe aeeooocee oooeoaeae nianoaaiiie
oeoi?anoeaioeee, naycaiiia n ia?aie/aieai aioo?eiieaeoey?iie
iiaeaeaeiinoe iaia?aiiuo aaeeia. I?iaaaeai oai?aoe/aneee aiaeec
oa?iiaeonoe/aneiai iaoaiecia aicaeaenoaey auno?uo yeaeo?iiia e iieacaii,
/oi on?aaeiaiiua aeonoe/aneea iiey iaaaaa?oeiaiai aeeaiaciia,
nii?iaiaeaeathuea iaeo/aiea, aeieiae/aneiai aeaenoaey ia ieacuaatho. A
oi aea a?aiy oa?aeoa?iua ?acia?u iaeanoe eieaeueiiai aeeiaie/aneiai
aicaeaenoaey auno?iai yeaeo?iia niiinoaaeiu n oa?aeoa?iuie ?acia?aie
iaia?aiiuo no?oeoo? e iiaoo auoue iaeiei ec oece/aneeo oaeoi?ia
aicaeaenoaey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeo?ioi?aoe/aneay iiaeaeaeiinoue, iiaa?oiinoiue
iioaioeeae, ?aaeei/oanoaeoaeueiue iauai, eiiiue o?ainii?o,
iee?iayceinoue, eiiiue eaiae, aaeie-eeieaeiua acaeiiaeaenoaey,
oeoi?anoeaioeey, oa?iiaeonoe/aneee yooaeo.

Summary

Tovstiak V.V. Mechanisms of influence of electrons and acoustic fields
on biological membranes.

The manuscript for the Doctor’s Degree (Physics and Mathematics) on
speciality 03.00.02 – Biophysics, Kharkiv State University, Kharkiv,
1999.

The role of physical mechanisms in the modification of biological
membranes under the influence of highly energetic electrons and acoustic
fields has been investigated. The decrease of electrophoretic mobility
(EPM) of RBC and thymocytes has been found and the physical model of the
redistribution of the volume charge of the nearmembrane layers under
irradiation has been proposed which makes it possible to agree the data
on the changes of electrophysical properties of membranes obtained by
using the microelectrophoresis and fluorescence probes methods. The
radiosensitive space of cells has been determined. The resonant energy
transfer between fluorescent probes and passive ion transport has been
studied, as well as the decrease of microviscosity of the lipid bilayer
has been found. It has been shown that the basis of decreasing intrinsic
fluorescence of structural proteins observed and ATPase inactivation is
the changing of protein-lipid and intramolecular interaction of protein
globule. The decrease of diffusion rate of quenchers of intrinsic
fluorescence connected with the limitation of intramolecular mobility of
membrane proteins has been observed. The mechanism of local
radiation-acoustic effect of fast electrons on the biological
environment has been theoretically investigated and the typical sizes of
the area of local influence have been shown to be comparable with the
sizes of membrane structures.

Key words: electrophoretic mobility, surface charge, radiosensitive
space, ionic transport, microfluidity, ion channel, lipid-protein
interactions, fluorescence, thermoacoustic effect.

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