OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

IEEEIAIEI Aieiaeeie? Aeaaeeneaaiae/

OAeE
539.172

IAOAI?CIE I?OAEIEO ? EAAC?I?OAEIEO ssAeA?IEO I?IOeAN?A CA O*ANOTH
IOEEII?A ? EAAEEO ssAeA? I?II?AEIEO AIA?A?E A SIAO?E*IIIO I?AeOIAe?

01.04.16 — o?ceea yae?a, aeaiaioa?ieo /anoeiie ? aenieeo aia?a?e

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?iina?oe
Oe?a?ie ? Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio oeaio?? aeaeo?io?ce/ii? ia?iaee IAI
Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Aa?aaeiie TH??e Aiaoie?eiae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? yaea?ii? o?ceee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee Eoe?o TH??e Aai?ai?iiae/, Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y
cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, aeioeaio;

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Iaoea?ia
TH??e A?eai?iae/, Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?anueeee o?e?ae, i?ioani?;

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe Ia?aieia Ieeiea Iao?iae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaoeiaee oeaio? «Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo»,
i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoeiaee oeaio? «?inoeooo yaea?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue»
IAI Oe?a?ie (naeoe?y A/aii? ?aaee c yaea?ii? o?ceee), i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny _1__aeiaoiy___1999 ?. i 15_aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.051.12 Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 310108, i.Oa?e?a, i?.Eo?/aoiaa, 31, aoae. ?
301.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (310077, i.Oa?e?a,
i.Naiaiaee, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii _29____eeiiy_1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
N.I.Ienueiaiaoeueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy c?oeiaiue ??cieo yaea?ieo /anoeiie
? yaea? c aoiiieie yae?aie aeicaiey? caeiaooe iniiaio /anoeio
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i no?oeoo?o aoiiieo yaea? ? iaoai?ci yaea?ii? aca?iiae??.
I?ioyaii inoaii?o aeaio aeanyoe??/ c oe??th iaoith oe?iei
canoiniaothoueny aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo yaea?
i?ii?aeieo aia?a?e ia yae?ao a oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? eoo?a ?icn?yiiy. I?e
oeueiio aenia?eiaioaeueii niinoa??aathoueny ??ciiiai?oi? o?ce/i? oeie
?icn?yiiy, aei yeeo ia?aaeon?i iaeaaeaoue aeeo?aeoe?ei? ea?oeie
o?aoiaioa??anueeiai oa o?aiae?anueeiai ?icn?yiiy, o?aoiaioa??anuee?
ia?aoeie, eoeii?anueea oa yaea?ia ?aeaeoaa.

Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c oaeeo yaeu yaey? niaith aeineoue neeaaeio caaea/o,
ine?eueee no/ania aenia?eiaioaeueia oaoi?ea aeicaiey? aei??thaaoe eooia?
?iciiae?ee ?icn?yieo /anoeiie o oe?ieeo ?ioa?aaeao eoo?a ? aia?a?e. Aeey
o?aaeeoe?eiiai aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy
yaea? canoiniao?oueny iioe/ia iiaeaeue, a aeey iieno i?ioean?a
iai?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy ? yaea?ieo ?aaeoe?e iineoaiaothoueny iaaeeaeaiiyi
aee?eaeaieo oaeeue aai iaoiaeii ca’ycaieo eaiae?a. Oae? ?ic?aooiee
oaoi?/ii aeineoue neeaaei?. E??i oiai, eiiieaeni? iioe/i? iioaioe?aee,
ye? canoiniaothoueny aeey iieno ?icaeyaeoaaieo i?ioean?a, /anoi i?noyoue
iaiaeiicia/iino? ia?aiao??a ? oi?ie. Oe? oneeaaeiaiiy ?ic?aooie?a
i?eaiaeyoue aei iiooeo ?ioeo iaoiae?a aiae?co aeeoa?aioe?aeuei?o
ia?a??c?a ??cieo i?ioean?a yaea?ii? aca?iiae?? i?e i?ii?aeieo aia?a?yo.
Aeueoa?iaoeaiei iaoiaeii iieno ?icaeyaeoaaieo i?ioean?a ? canoinoaaiiy
i?aeoiaeo, o yeiio iineoaiaothoueny oi?iae?ciii iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy.

Aecia/aiiy iioe/ieo iioaioe?ae?a c oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ? iaoiaeii, ui aeicaiey? ae?noaoe oace
?icn?yiiy ??cieo /anoeiie yae?aie. Iaeiae, canoinoaaiiy oi?iae?cio
iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy aeicaiey? aaciina?aaeiuei aecia/aoe oace ?icn?yiiy ?
oieeiooe i?e oeueiio iaaieo iaiaeiicia/iinoae, i?eoaiaiieo iioe/i?e
iiaeae?. A?eueo oiai, oi?iae?ci iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy aeicaiey? a ?aeeiiio
i?aeoiae? aiae?coaaoe ye i?oaeia ?icn?yiiy, oae ? ??ciiiai?oi? iai?oaei?
yaea?i? i?ioeane. Oiio cai?iiiiiaaiee ? ?ic?iaeaiee a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? S-iao?e/iee i?aeo?ae ? aeooaeueiith caaea/ith yaea?ii? o?ceee.

O?aaa i?aee?aneeoe, ui aei inoaiiueiai /ano oai?aoe/i? iiaeae? i?ioean?a
yaea?ieo c?oeiaiue, caniiaai? ia oi?iae?ci? iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy, aoee
?ic?iaeai? cia/ii iaioith i??ith, i?ae iiaeae?, ui iineoaiaothoueny
iioe/ieie iioaioe?aeaie. ?ai?oa o oi?iae?ci? iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy ye
i?aaeei canoiniaoaaeeny aeineoue i?ino? ia?aiao?ecaoe?? iao?eoe?
?icn?yiiy, ye? a iniiaiiio aeicaieyee iienoaaoe aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?
o ii??aiyii iaaaeeeiio ?ioa?aae? eoo?a ?icn?yiiy. Oae? i?ino?
ia?aiao?ecaoe?? S-iao?eoe? cae/aeii aeia?a iienothoue o?aoiaioa??anueeo
? o?aiae?anueeo aeeo?aeoe?ei? ea?oeie ?icn?yiiy, aea iai?eaeaoi? aeey
iieno ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a, ye? naia niinoa??aathoueny a ?ioa?aae? ia
aeoaea iaeeo eoo?a ?icn?yiiy. Oiio aeooaeueiith aeyaeeany caaea/a
aecia/aiiy oaeeo ia?aiao?ecaoe?e S-iao?eoe?, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo iiaeia
aoei a cia/ii ?icoe?eoe ae?aiacii ?icaeyaeoaaieo eoo?a ?icn?yiiy ?
iiynieoe c ?aeeii? oi/ee ci?o iniaeeaino? niinoa?aaeoaaieo o
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a oeio
o?aoiaioa??anueeeo ia?aoei?a ? ?aeaeoaeiiai ?icn?yiiy.

Aea/aiiy ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a o yaea?iiio ?icn?yii? iei? yaey? niaith
aeooaeueio caaea/o, ine?eueee oai?aoe/iee aiae?c i?ioean?a, ui i?noyoue
oae? yaeua, aeicaiey? caeiaooe aaaeeeao ?ioi?iaoe?th ye i?i no?oeoo?o
aoiiieo yaea?, oae ? i?i iaoai?cie aca?iiae?? i?ae yae?aie, cie?aia ia
iaeeo a?aenoaiyo. Oaeo ?ioi?iaoe?th ia iiaeia ciaeoe, aiae?coth/e
aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ia?a??ce a ?ioa?aae? iaeeo eoo?a, ui i?noyoue o?eueee
aeeo?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe.

Iiaa ia?aiao?ecaoe?y iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy, cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio?, aeicaiey? iienaoe ye aeeo?aeoe?ei?, oae ? ?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe a
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? eaaeeo yaea? c
yae?aie, a oaeiae ae?noaoe c oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co ia?aiao?e S-iao?eoe?,
ui i?noyoue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aaaeeea? aeaoae? yaea?ii? no?oeoo?e. A
?iaio? oaeiae aaeineiiaeaii iaoiae /eneiaeo ?ic?aooie?a
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a, caniiaaiee ia ?iceeaae? aiie?ooae
i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy ia aeeaeith ? aeaeueith neeaaeia?, ui ? aeooaeueiei
aeey ?icoi?iiy iiaaae?iee aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yieo eooiaeo
?iciiae?e?a ?icn?yieo /anoeiie.

Aaaeeeaei aniaeoii canoinoaaiiy oi?iae?cio iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy ? iiaeaeue
aaaaoi?aciaiai aeeo?aeoe?eiiai ?icn?yiiy Aeaoaa?a–Neoaiea, ui yaey?
niaith i?e?ineii?/iee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co i?ioean?a yaea?ieo c?oeiaiue
/anoeiie i?ii?aeieo aia?a?e. O oaeiio i?aeoiae? aaaeeeaei ? a?aooaaiiy
ni?iiai? caeaaeiino? aiie?ooae ?icn?yiiy c iaoith aiae?co ia o?eueee
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a, a e iiey?ecaoe?eieo niinoa?aaeoaaieo, ui
?acii c aeeoa?aioe?aeueiei ia?a??cii noaiiaeyoue iiaiee iaa?? aaee/ei,
ye? iienothoue ?icaeyaeoaaiee i?ioean ?icn?yiiy.

Iei? iaeiie/aii aaeeeee ianya ciaeaeaii? c oaciaiai aiae?co ?ioi?iaoe??
i?i caeaaei?noue a?ae ia?aaeaiiai ?iioeueno ioeeii-ioeeiiieo aiie?ooae,
ui i?noyoue oaeiae ? caeaaei? a?ae ni?io neeaaeia?. Aei oeueiai ne?ae
aeiaeaoe, ui c ??ciiiai?oieo aeine?aeaeaiue oaeiae aeinoaoiuei a?aeiiith
? no?oeoo?a ??cieo yaea?. Oiio oaia? aeooaeueiei ? aea/aiiy
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a oa iiey?ecaoe?eieo niinoa?aaeoaaieo o
ioeeii-yaea?iiio ?icn?yii? ca aeiiiiiaith i?e?ineii?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a ia
iniia? ?aae?noe/ieo ioeeii-ioeeiiii? aca?iiae?? oa iieno yaea?ii?
no?oeoo?e. I?e oaeeo ?ic?aooieao o?aaa a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae caeaeo
ni?iuaiue iiaeae?, ui canoiniao?oueny. C oe??th iaoith a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? ciaeaeaii iia? ae?ace aeey aiie?ooaee iai?oaeiiai
i?ioii-yaea?iiai ?icn?yiiy c oi/iei a?aooaaiiyi Z-oii?yaeeoaaiiy
ni?iiaeo iia?aoi??a. I?e oeueiio aoei a?aoiaaii a?aei?io i?ae
i?ioii-i?ioiiiith oa i?ioii-iaeo?iiiith aiie?ooaeaie ? i?ae i?ioiiiith
oa iaeo?iiiith aonoeiith, ? ia canoiniaoaaeeny ni?iuaiiy, cae/aeii
i?eoaiaii? ?ic?aooieai ca iiaeaeeth aaaaoi?aciaiai aeeo?aeoe?eiiai
?icn?yiiy. Aiaeia?/iee i?aeo?ae canoiniaaii i?e aea/aii?
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a oa iiey?ecaoe?eieo niinoa?aaeoaaieo
i?oaeiiai i?ioii-yaea?iiai ?icn?yiiy ia iniia? iiaeae? aaaaoi?aciaiai
aeeo?aeoe?eiiai ?icn?yiiy c a?aooaaiiyi ioeeiiieo ei?aeyoe?e oeyoii
aeeth/aiiy i?ii?aeieo caoaeaeaiue yaea?.

A?aooaaiiy ioeeii-ioeeiiieo ei?aeyoe?e a yae?ao ? aaaeeeaei aeey
oai?aoe/iiai iieno ?icn?yiiy /anoeiie i?ii?aeieo aia?a?e yae?aie ia
iniia? iiaeae? aaaaoi?aciaiai aeeo?aeoe?eiiai ?icn?yiiy, oi/ iaoooaaiiy
ei?aeyoe?yie ? iaea?eueo cae/aeiei ni?iuaiiyi oe??? iiaeae?. Cie?aia
oaea i?iaeaia ? iniaeeai aaaeeeaith i?e aea/aii? aca?iiae?? ??cieo
yaea?ieo /anoeiie c eaaeeie yae?aie, aeey yeeo iayai?noue
/ioe?eioeeiiieo ei?aeyoe?e -eeanoa?iiai oeio yaey? aeia?a a?aeiiee oaeo.
Oiio aeooaeueiith ? ?ic?iaea a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? oai?aoe/iiai
i?aeoiaeo aei aiae?co i?ioean?a ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a, aioei?ioii?a ?
i?ii?a yae?aie 12C ia iniia? iiaeae? aaaaoi?aciaiai aeeo?aeoe?eiiai
?icn?yiiy oeeo /anoeiie ia -eeanoa?ao, ui i?noyoueny a yae?ao i?oai?, oa
i?ea?iaeueii? -eeanoa?ii? iiaeae? c aeenia?n??th aeey yae?a aoaeaoeth.
A?eueo oiai, oeae i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? aaoiiaoe/ii caaacia/eoe a?aooaaiiy
?yaeo aoaeo?a i?e ?icn?yii? ia yae?ao (aaaaoi/anoeieia? aoaeoe,
iaaeeiiaeuei? aoaeoe, aoaeoe ca’yceo oa Oa?i?-?ooo), yea ? aaaeeeaei
aeey iieno aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?acoeueoaoe, ui
eyaee a iniiao aeena?oaoe??, caeiaoo? i?e aeeiiaii? ieaiiaeo
athaeaeaoieo oai ca I?ia?aiith ?ia?o ii aoiii?e iaooe? oa oaoieoe? IIOe
“Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo” (? 08.05–EI/03–93); ieaiiaeo
athaeaeaoieo oai Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Aca?iiae?y
eaaeeo yaea? c yae?aie a iaeano? i?ii?aeieo aia?a?e» (iiia?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0194U018972) ? «Oai??y aaaaoi/anoeieiaeo nenoai»
(iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0197U002489); i?iaeoo Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? 2.4/416 «Oai??y aca?iiae?? eaaeeo
yaea? c yae?aie».

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiith iaoith ?iaioe ?
?ic?iaea oai?aoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aeey e?euee?niiai iieno oe?ieiai eiea
yaeu, ui niinoa??aathoueny i?e aca?iiae?? ioeeii?a ? eaaeeo yaea?
i?ii?aeieo aia?a?e c aoiiieie yae?aie, oa i?iaaaeaiiy ia eiai iniia?
aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeuei?o aeaieo. Aeey oeueiai aoei canoiniaaii
oi?iae?ci iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy, yeee ? aeueoa?iaoeaiei aei i?aeoiae?a,
caniiaaieo ia aeei?enoaii? iioe/ieo iioaioe?ae?a. Ia oe?e iniia? a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?ica’ycaii iaaia eiei caaea/ aca?iiae?? ioeeii?a,
i?ii?a ? eaaeeo yaea? c yae?aie a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? aia?a?e, eoo?a
?icn?yiiy oa ianiaeo /enae yaea? i?oai?.

Aei ieo ia?aaeon?i iaeaaeeoue caaea/a aiae?co aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
ia?a??c?a i?oaeiiai ? eaac?i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo yaea? yae?aie, ui
i?noyoue ye aeeo?aeoe?ei?, oae ? ?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe ??ciiai oeio. O
?iaio? oaeiae iinoaaeai? caaea/? i?i i?e?ineii?/iee oa
iai?ai?e?ineii?/iee iien ??cieo i?ioean?a c?oeiaiue yaea?ieo /anoeiie c
yae?aie ?c canoinoaaiiyi oai??? aaaaoi?aciaiai aeeo?aeoe?eiiai
?icn?yiiy. Ia iniia? oaeiai i?aeoiaeo cie?aia aoei iinoaaeaii caaea/o
aea/aiiy i?ioean?a ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a, aioei?ioii?a ? i?ii?a yae?aie
aoaeaoeth 12C c a?aooaaiiyi yaeu aeueoa-eeanoa?ecaoe?? a yae?ao i?oai?.
Cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe?? i?ea?iaeueia aeueoa-eeanoa?ia iiaeaeue c
aeenia?n??th aeey yae?a aoaeaoeth aeicaieeea oni?oii ?ica’ycaoe oeth
caaea/o. ?ic?iaeaiee i?aeo?ae aeicaieea oaeiae ?ica’ycaoe caaea/o
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiey?ecaoe?eieo yaeu i?e aca?iiae?? i?ioii?a ?
aioei?ioii?a c yae?aie 12C. E??i oiai, aoea iinoaaeaia caaea/a
ii??aiyiiy iieno i?ioean?a ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a ia yae?ao aoaeaoeth ia
iniia? aeueoa-eeanoa?ii? iiaeae? oa ca aeiiiiiaith iiaeae? iacaeaaeieo
ioeeii?a. Aaaeeeaith caaea/ath aoa aiae?c i?ioii-yaea?iiai ?icn?yiiy a
oai??? aaaaoi?aciaiai aeeo?aeoe?eiiai ?icn?yiiy c a?aooaaiiyi
Z-oii?yaeeoaaiiy ni?iiaeo iia?aoi??a oa i?ii?aeieo caoaeaeaiue yaea?. A
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? oaeiae aoea iinoaaeaia oa ?ica’ycaia caaea/a
aea/aiiy ia iniia? oai??? aaaaoi?aciaiai aeeo?aeoe?eiiai ?icn?yiiy
?aaeoe?e ia?aca?yaeee ca o/anoth ioeeii?a ?c caoaeaeaiiyi ?ciaa?e/ieo
aiaeiaiaeo noai?a yaea? i?oai? c a?aooaaiiyi iiey?ecaoe?eieo yaeu.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aia?oa
cai?iiiiiaaii ? canoiniaaii S-iao?e/iee i?aeo?ae c aeai?ii yaea?ii? oace
?icn?yiiy o aeaeyae? ?iceeaaeaiiy ca iiaiei iaai?ii ooieoe?e aeey
aiae?co aoaeoo yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae o aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao
?icn?yiiy eaaeeo yaea? yae?aie. Ia iniia? oeueiai i?aeoiaeo aia?oa
ia?aaeaa/aii ?nioaaiiy aoaeo?a oeio yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae o
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao ?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee (3He,3H) ia yae?ao,
ye? i?ci?oa niinoa??aaeeny aenia?eiaioaeueii.

Aia?oa aoei cai?iiiiiaaii i?ea?iaeueio ia?aiao?ecaoe?th iao?eoe?
?icn?yiiy, yea aeicaiey? iienaoe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe eooia? ?iciiae?ee
?icn?yiiy eaaeeo yaea? yae?aie, ui i?noyoue ye aeeo?aeoe?ei?, oae ?
?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe ??ciiai oeio (o?aoiaioa??anuee? ia?aoeie, yaea?ia ?
eoeii?anueea ?aeaeoae). Caeiaoo? c oaeiai aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo cia/aiiy yaea?ieo ia?aiao??a yaeythoue niaith oe?iio ?ioi?iaoe?th
i?i yaea?io no?oeoo?o.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aa??aio i?ioeaaeo?e
?iceeaaeo aiie?ooaee yaea?iiai ?icn?yiiy ia aeeaeith ? aeaeueith
neeaaeia?, ui aeicaiey? oieeiooe iiyae a ieo iaaieo o?eoeaieo aiane?a,
ye? i?enooi? i?e canoinoaaii? noaiaea?oii? i?ioeaaeo?e Ooeea?a. Oae?
aianee /anoi aee?eaeththoue iiaaae?ieo aeeaeiuei? oa aeaeueiuei?
neeaaeiaeo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a aeey aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeo eoo?a
?icn?yiiy. Aia?oa ?icaeyiooi aieea iayaiino? iiethn?a ?aaeaea,
?icoaoiaaieo aeecueei ae?enii? in? a eiiieaeni?e ieiuei? iiiaioo
?iioeueno, ia ?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe. Cie?aia oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaieea
iiynieoe iayai?noue aeaio ?aeaeoaeieo iaeneioi?a o ia?a??cao i?oaeiiai
?icn?yiiy -/anoeiie ? yaea? eenith yae?aie.

A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia -eeanoa?ia iiaeaeue c aeenia?n??th aeey
yae?a 12C, yea aeicaieeea iiynieoe aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ia?a??ce ?
iiey?ecaoe?ei? niinoa?aaeoaai? aeey ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a yae?aie 12C.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui ooieoe?? iiai?ioo ni?io, ?ic?aoiaai? a -eeanoa?i?e
iiaeae? c aeenia?n??th ? iiaeae? iacaeaaeieo ioeeii?a, a?ae??ciythoueny
iaa?oue ye?nii. Aia?oa ca aeiiiiiaith -eeanoa?ii? iiaeae? c aeenia?n??th
aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii i?oaeia ?icn?yiiy i?ii?a oa aioei?ioii?a yae?aie
12C.

Aia?oa ciaeaeaii iia? ae?ace aeey aiie?ooaee iai?oaeiiai
i?ioii-yaea?iiai ?icn?yiiy ia iniia? oai??? aaaaoi?aciaiai
aeeo?aeoe?eiiai ?icn?yiiy c oi/iei a?aooaaiiyi Z-oii?yaeeoaaiiy ni?iiaeo
iia?aoi??a aac aoaeue-yeeo ni?iuaiue. Ia iniia? oai??? aaaaoi?aciaiai
aeeo?aeoe?eiiai ?icn?yiiy ciaeaeaii iia? ae?ace aeey aiie?ooaee
i?oaeiiai i?ioii-yaea?iiai ?icn?yiiy c iaeii/aniei a?aooaaiiyi
ni?i-i?a?oaeueii? aca?iiae?? oa i?ii?aeieo caoaeaeaiue yaea? i?oai?.
Aeiaaaeaii aaaeeea?noue a?aooaaiiy aoaeo?a i?ii?aeieo caoaeaeaiue yaea?
aeey iieno aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a oa iiey?ecaoe?eieo
niinoa?aaeoaaieo i?e ia aeoaea iaeeo eooao ?icn?yiiy.

Ia iniia? oai??? aaaaoi?aciaiai aeeo?aeoe?eiiai ?icn?yiiy caeiaooi iia?
ae?ace aeey aiie?ooaee eaac?i?oaeii? ?aaeoe?? (p,n) c a?aooaaiiyi
aaaaoi?aciaeo ia?aca?yaeie iae?oath/eo /anoeiie ia ioeeiiao yae?a oa
ni?i-i?a?oaeueii? aca?iiae??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeaiee a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? i?aeo?ae, caniiaaiee ia oi?iae?ci? iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy, aeicaieea
i?iaanoe oai?aoe/iee aiae?c aaeeeiai ianyao ??ciiiai?oieo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo. Na?aae ieo ianaiia?aae aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
iathoue aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ia?a??ce i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy -/anoeiie ? yaea?
3He ??cieie yae?aie, a oaeiae yaea? 6Li oa 16O yae?aie, a yeeo aeia?a
i?iyaey?oueny aoaeo yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae. Aaeeeee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an yaey?
oaeiae aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea? 9Be
yae?aie, aea niinoa??aathoueny o?aoiaioa??anuee? ia?aoeie, ? yaea? 6Li
yae?aie, aea niinoa??aa?oueny i?eia?a ?aeaeoae. Ciaeaeai? c oaeiai
aiae?co yaea?i? ia?aiao?e iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
e?i?ei? ?ici??e, ?icieooy iiaa?oi?, i?ici??noue yaea?, yaeythoue oe?iio
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i yaea?io no?oeoo?o.

Cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeueoa-eeanoa?ia iiaeaeue c
aeenia?n??th aeey yae?a aoaeaoeth aeicaieeea aiaaieoenue, ui aoaeoe
aeueoa-eeanoa?ecaoe?? a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue i?e ?icn?yii? ??cieo
/anoeiie yae?aie 12C. Iniaeeai /ooeeaeie aei oeeo aoaeo?a aeyaeeeny
iiey?ecaoe?ei? niinoa?aaeoaai?. Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?iaeaia aeueoa-eeanoa?ia
iiaeaeue c aeenia?n??th aaaeeeaa aeey iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy no?oeoo?e
eaaeeo yaea? aeueoa-eeanoa?iiai oeio ? iiaea canoiniaoaaoeny aeey
ieaioaaiiy e aiae?co iaeaooi?o aenia?eiaio?a.

?ic?iaeaiee a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?aeo?ae aoaea canoiniaaiee aeey
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ??cieo yaea?ieo
i?ioean?a a iaeano? i?ii?aeieo aia?a?e, a oaeiae aeey ieaioaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo aenia?eiaio?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O ?iaioao [6, 7] aeena?oaioii cai?iiiiiaaia
iiaa ia?aiao?ecaoe?y iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? iei
i?iaaaeai? eiie?aoi? ?ic?aooiee ia?a??c?a ?icn?yiiy. O ?iaioao [8, 9]
caeiaoaa/ai ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae aaciiaeaeueiiai aiae?co ?ao?aeoe?eieo
aoaeo?a o i?oaeiiio ?icn?yii? ? eaac?i?oaeieo yaea?ieo ?aaeoe?yo ca
o/anoth eaaeeo ?ii?a ? ia?aaeaa/aii ?nioaaiiy aoaeoo yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae a
?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee (3He,3H). A ?iaioao [10, 11] aeena?oaioii
i?iaaaeaiee oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a o ia?a??cao
?icn?yiiy yaea? 4He, 6Li, 9Be, 16,18O ??cieie yae?aie oa cai?iiiiiaaiee
iaoiae onoiaiiy o?eoeaieo aiane?a aei aeeaeiuei? oa aeaeueiuei?
neeaaeiaeo aiie?ooae ?icn?yiiy. O ?iaio? [12] caeiaoaa/ai i?iaaaeaiee
e?eoe/iee iaeyae ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a o yaea?ieo c?oeiaiiyo,
aeueoa-eeanoa?ii? iiaeae? c aeenia?n??th ? eaac?i?oaeieo ?aaeoe?e
ia?aca?yaeee, o yeiio aena?oeaii cia/aiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeena?oaioa. O ?iaioao [13–20] caeiaoaa/ai ?ic?iaeaia aeueoa-eeanoa?ia
iiaeaeue c aeenia?n??th aeey yae?a 12N ? ia ?? iniia? i?iaaaeaiee
oai?aoe/iee aiae?c ia?a??c?a ? iiey?ecaoe?eieo niinoa?aaeoaaieo o
?icn?yii? ??cieo /anoeiie yae?aie aoaeaoeth. O ?iaio? [21] caeiaoaa/ai
i?iaaaeaiee aaciiaeaeueiee aiae?c ?aeaeoaeiiai ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo yaea?
yae?aie o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? aia?a?e oa ianiaeo /enae yaea? i?oai?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, aeeeaaeai? o
aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeenue ia 36 (Oa?e?a, 1986 ?.), 38 (Aaeo, 1988
?.), 39 (Oaoeaio, 1989 ?.), 40 (Eai?ia?aae, 1990 ?.), 41 (I?inuee, 1991
?.), 42 (Aeia-Aoa, 1992 ?.), 44 (N.-Iaoa?ao?a, 1994 ?.), 45
(N.-Iaoa?ao?a, 1995 ?.), 46 (Iineaa, 1996 ?.) oa 47 (Iai?inuee, 1997 ?.)
I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo c yaea?ii? niaeo?ineii?? oa no?oeoo?e
aoiiiiai yae?a, ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao IIOe OOO?, OAeO, ?ssAe IAIO,
I?ssAe (i. Aeoaia).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? 32 iaoeia? ?iaioe, o
oiio /ene? 21 noaooy, nienie yeeo iaaaaeaii iai?ee?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a iniiaiiai oaenoo, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c 290 iaeiaioaaiue. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe??
noaiiaeoue 318 noi??iie, aiia i?noeoue 77 ?enoie?a oa 13 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ANOOI? aiae?co?oueny noai aeaii? iaoeiai? i?iaeaie ia /an ii/aoeo
?iaioe iaae aeena?oaoe??th, iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oa
aeioe?euei?noue ?iaioe, oi?ioeth?oueny iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/aiee ca’ycie i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie,
aeaco?oueny ia iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue caeiaooeo
?acoeueoao?a, iiaeaii ai?iaaoe?th aeena?oaoe??. Aeeeaaeaii noeneee ci?no
?iaioe ii ?icae?eao.

O IA?OIIO ?ICAe?E? ia iniia? oaiiiaiieia?/iiai S-iao?e/iiai i?aeoiaeo
aea/athoueny ?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe oeio yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae o
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy oa eaac?i?oaeieo
yaea?ieo i?ioean?a i?e c?oeiaiiyo eaaeeo yaea? c aoiiieie yae?aie.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.1 iiaeaii iaeyae S-iao?e/ieo iiaeaeae, ui
canoiniaothoueny aeey iieno yaea?ieo c?oeiaiue a iaeano? i?ii?aeieo
aia?a?e, a oaeiae ia?aeaeueii ?icaeyaeathoueny oeiia? aeeo?aeoe?ei? oa
?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe, ye? cae/aeii niinoa??aathoueny o eooiaeo
?iciiae?eao i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo oa aaaeeeo ?ii?a aoiiieie yae?aie
o oeueiio ae?aiacii? aia?a?e. Ie?aneaii o?ce/i? oiiae, ca yeeo
a?aeaoaathoueny c?oeiaiiy yaea? i?ii?aeieo aia?a?e ? ye? ? iniiaith
aeei?enoiaoaaieo aeeo?aeoe?eieo iiaeaeae, a naia: ?nioaaiiy neeueiiai
iiaeeiaiiy ?icn?thaaieo oaeeue aiane?aeie iayaiino? aaeeei? e?eueeino?
iai?oaeieo eaiae?a, eoeii?anueea oa yaea?ia ?ao?aeoe?y oaeeue, ui
?icn?thoueny, aeieeiaiiy eaac?eeane/iiai oa aeeo?aeoe?eiiai ?aaeeio
?icn?yiiy aiane?aeie iaeecie aeiaaeeie oaee? /anoeiie, ui iae?oathoue,
ii??aiyii c e?i?eieie ?ici??aie yaea? i?oai?. Iaaaaeaii ieceo i?eaeecieo
ye?nieo ae?ac?a aeey aiie?ooaee i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy, ui aeo?eathoue c
eaac?eeane/iiai ?icaeyaeo i?ioeano c?oeiaiiy yaea? oa c aeei?enoaiiy
a?aeiieo aeeo?aeoe?eieo iiaeaeae. Ca aeiiiiiaith oeeo ae?ac?a oa
?iceeaaeo aiie?ooaee ?icn?yiiy ia aeeaeith ? aeaeueith neeaaeia? iiaeaii
aeaoaeueiee ye?niee aiae?c aieeao neeueiiai iiaeeiaiiy ? eoeii?anueei?
oa yaea?ii? ?ao?aeoe?? ia oi?ioaaiiy eooiaeo ?iciiae?e?a yaea?, ui
aee?oathoue i?e ?icn?yii?. Cie?aia ?icaeyiooi o?ce/iee ci?no oa?aeoa?ieo
?en aeeo?aeoe?eieo ea?oei o?aoiaioa??anueeiai ? o?aiae?anueeiai oei?a o
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao yaea?iiai ?icn?yiiy. Oaeiae iiyniaii
i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy oaeeo ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a, ye o?aoiaioa??anuee?
ia?aoeie ??cieo oei?a. ?icaeyiooi ?ieue i?ioean?a ?aeaeoaeiiai ?icn?yiiy
– eoeii?anueei? oa yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae – i?e ?icn?yii? eaaeeo oa aaaeeeo
?ii?a yae?aie. Ia iniia? i?inoeo eaac?eeane/ieo oi?ioe aeey aiie?ooaee
?icn?yiiy iiaeaii aeaoaeueiee ye?niee aiae?c oiia aeieeiaiiy oa
oa?aeoa?ieo ?en aoaeoo yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae o eooiaeo ?iciiae?eao i?oaeiiai
?icn?yiiy eaaeeo ?ii?a. Iiyniaii, ui i?ino? aeeo?aeoe?ei? iiaeae?, ye?
cae/aeii canoiniaothoueny, iai?eaeaoi? aeey aiae?co aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
ia?a??c?a ?icn?yiiy, ui i?noyoue o nia? ae?aaeai? ?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe
oeio yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.2 cai?iiiiiaaii i?ea?iaeueiee S-iao?e/iee i?aeo?ae aei
aiae?co aoaeoo yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae o aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao
i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo ?ii?a aoiiieie yae?aie i?e aia?a?yo
iae?oath/eo /anoeiie E25–30 IaA/ioeeii. Aeo?aeiith oi/eith i?e oeueiio ?
a?aeiia ia?aiao?ecaoe?y iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy o oi?i? Iae?ioae?a
(J.A.McIntyre), ui oe?iei canoiniaoaaeany aeey iieno eooiaeo ?iciiae?e?a
?icn?yiiy -/anoeiie oa a?eueo aaaeeeo ?ii?a o ?icaeyaeoaai?e iaeano?
aia?a?e. Iaeiae, iiaeaeue Iae?ioae?a aeyaey?oueny ana ae iai?eaeaoiith
aeey aiae?co ae?aaeaieo ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a oeio yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae o
oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? eoo?a ?icn?yiiy, oi/ a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aiia
aeicaieeea iienaoe ?ao?aeoe?eia caoooaiiy inoeeeyoe?e aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
ia?a??c?a i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea? aoaeaoeth oa eenith. Oiio iaie aoei
cai?iiiiiaaii ocaaaeueiaiiy iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy, yea caeaoia caaacia/eoe
a?eueo ?aoaeueia a?aooaaiiy ae?enii? yaea?ii? oace ?icn?yiiy, ui
a?aeiia?aea? ca iien ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a. Iao?eoey ?icn?yiiy ye
ooieoe?y iiiaioo L=l+1/2 aeae?aeany iaie o oi?i?

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aea (L) – eoeii?anueea oaca ?icn?yiiy. Iiaeoeue iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy (L)
aeae?aany o aeaeyae?

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???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?A???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy???A?? ???&?
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ui a?aeiia?aea? iayaiino? neeueiiai iiaeeiaiiy ?icn?thaaieo /anoeiie i?e
cia/aiiyo iiiaioo L, iaioeo ca a?aie/iee iiiaio L0, ?icieooy yaea?ii?
iiaa?oi? oe?eie 0 oa iaei? i?ici?ino? yae?a a iaeano? iaeeo L. Ae?enia
ae yaea?ia oaca ?icn?yiiy aeae?aeany o oi?i? ?iceeaaeaiiy ca iiaiei
iaai?ii ooieoe?e, ui ia? oi?io

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???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
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aea ia?aiao?e am, L1, 1 aecia/athoueny c aiae?co aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
ia?a??c?a i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea?. Oaea aecia/aiiy yaea?ii? oace
?icn?yiiy ? aaciiaeaeueiei.

Ca aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aoei i?iaaaeaii aiae?c
aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a i?oaeiiai
?icn?yiiy yaea? 3He c aia?a??th 109,2 IaA ia yae?ao 40Ca, 58Ni, 90Zr ?
116Sn oa c aia?a??th 118,5 IaA ia yae?ao 58Ni; i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea?
4He c aia?a??th 104 IaA ia yae?ao 40,42,44,48Ca, 50Ti ? 52Cr, c
aia?a??th 139 IaA ia yae?ao 12C ? 58Ni, c aia?a??th 140 IaA ia yae?ao
50Ti, c aia?a??th 141,7 IaA ia yae?ao 40Ca ? 90Zr, c aia?a??th 166 IaA
ia yae?ao 24Mg ? 32S; i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea? 6Li c aia?a??th 90 IaA
yae?aie 12C ? 154 IaA yae?aie 28Si. ?ic?aoiaai? aeeoa?aioe?aeuei?
ia?a??ce i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea? aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c
aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yieie. C i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo aoei caeiaooi cia/aiiy ??cieo yaea?ieo ia?aiao??a: a?aie/ieo
iiiaio?a, aeeoociinoae yaea?ii? iiaa?oi?, aaee/ei i?ici?ino? yaea? i?e
iaeeo iiiaioao. Aea/aii iiaaae?ieo ae?enieo yaea?ieo oac ?icn?yiiy oa
eaaioiaeo ooieoe?e a?aeoeeaiiy o ?icaeyaeoaaieo aeiaaeeao yaea?ieo
c?oeiaiue. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui
niinoa?aaeoaaia ia aenia?eiaio? a iaeano? aaeeeeo eoo?a ?icn?yiiy
iiaaae?iea aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a a?aeiia?aea? ea?oei?
?aeaeoaeiiai ?icn?yiiy. ?c ciaeaeaieo ooieoe?e a?aeoeeaiiy aecia/aii
cia/aiiy eaac?eeane/ieo eoo?a yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae r, ui ?icoaoiaai? a
iaeano? eoo?a ?icn?yiiy, aea o ?icaeyaeoaaieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
ia?a??cao oi?io?oueny oe?ieee ?aeaeoaeiee iaeneioi, a iio?i ?c
c?inoaiiyi eooa ?icn?yiiy ?icii/eia?oueny aeniiiaioe?aeueia ciaioaiiy
ia?a??c?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.3 cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae canoiniaaii aeey aea/aiiy
?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a oeio yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae o ia?a??cao eaac?i?oaeieo
i?ioean?a i?e c?oeiaiiyo eaaeeo ?ii?a c yae?aie. Nii/aoeo ?icaeyiooi
iai?oaeia ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo ?ii?a c aia?a?yie E25-30 IaA/ioeeii ?c
caoaeaeaiiyi a yae?ao i?oai? iecueeieaaea/eo iaeiioiiiiieo eieeaaeueieo
noai?a. Aeey aea/aiiy oaeeo i?ioean?a i?aeo?ae, ?ic?iaeaiee o
iiia?aaeiueiio i?ae?icae?e?, ocaaaeueiaii aeey a?aooaaiiy caeaaeiino?
iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy a?ae eieaeoeaieo ci?iieo, ui iienothoue iae?
eieeaaiiy yaea?ii? iiaa?oi? oa caeiaooi ae?ac aeey aiie?ooaee
?icaeyaeoaaiiai iai?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy. Aoei i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a iai?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy -/anoeiie c aia?a??th
104 IaA ?c caoaeaeaiiyi ??ai?a 2+ o yae?ao i?oai? 50Ti(E2=1,56 IaA) ?
52Cr (E2=1,43 IaA) ? ??ai?a 2+ (E2=1,45 IaA) ? 3 (E3=4,47 IaA) o yae?ao
i?oai? 58Ni. Iaiao?aei? aeey oeeo ?ic?aooie?a cia/aiiy yaea?ieo
ia?aiao??a oa yaea?ieo oac ?icn?yiiy aoee aecia/ai? ?ai?oa c aiae?co
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a o a?aeiia?aeieo aeiaaeeao i?oaeiiai
?icn?yiiy. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c aenia?eiaioaeueii
aei??yieie aeeoa?aioe?aeueieie ia?a??caie aeey ?icaeyiooeo aeiaaee?a
iai?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy -/anoeiie yae?aie, a??ii iienoth/e ye
o?aoiaioa??anuee? inoeeeyoe?? ia?a??c?a iai?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy, oae ?
?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe a iaeano? aaeeeeo eoo?a ?icn?yiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaiee
S-iao?e/iee i?aeo?ae c yaea?iith oacith ?icn?yiiy, ciaeaeaiith o
aeaeyae? ?iceeaaeaiiy (4), aeicaieea iienaoe eooia? ?iciiae?ee
iai?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy ia iniia? aaee/ei, aecia/aieo c aiae?co i?oaeiiai
?icn?yiiy, aac aeiaeaoeiaeo i?aeaiii/ieo ia?aiao??a, e??i ia?aiao??a
aeaoi?iaoe?? yaea? i?oai?.

?ic?iaeaiee i?aeo?ae oaeiae ocaaaeueiaiee aeey a?aooaaiiy caeaaeiino?
iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy a?ae iia?aoi??a ?cioii?/iiai ni?io yaea?, ui
noeeathoueny, aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a o
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao eaac?i?oaeii? ?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee
(3He,3H) ia yae?ao a iaeano? aia?a?e E25–30 IaA/ioeeii. O cai?iiiiiaai?e
iiaeae? aeeoa?aioe?aeueiee ia?a??c ?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee noaiiaeoue

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aea ?iceeaaeaiiy aiie?ooaee ft() ca ia?oe?aeueieie oaeeyie ia? oi?io

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Ia?aiao? t aecia/a? aaee/eio ?cini?iiai? /anoeie aca?iiae??, T ? T3 –
?cini?i ? i?iaeoe?y ?cini?io yae?a i?oai?, a ooieoe?? (L) ? (L) iathoue
aeaeyae (2) ? (4). Aeey ia?aaeaa/aiiy iiaaae?iee eooiaiai ?iciiae?eo
?icaeyaeoaaii? ?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee aoei i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee, i?e
yeeo aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ooieoe?? (L) ? (L), aecia/ai? ?ai?oa c aiae?co
i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea? 3He. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a aeiaiaeyoue, ui
i?e ?icaeyaeoaaieo aia?a?yo o eooiaeo ?iciiae?eao ?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee
(3He,3H) a iaeano? eoo?a ?icn?yiiy aeecueeeo aei eooa yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae,
aecia/aiiai c aiae?co i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy, iiaeooue niinoa??aaoeny
?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe, ui i?eaiaeyoue aei oi?ioaaiiy oe?ieiai iaeneioia
aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai ia?a??co, aiaeia?/iiai ?aeaeoaeiiio iaeneioio a
ia?a??cao i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea? 3He. I?ci?oa ?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe
oeio yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae o aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao ?aaeoe?? (3He,3H),
iiae?ai? aei ia?aaeaa/aieo iaie, niinoa??aaeeny aenia?eiaioaeueii.

O Ae?OAIIO ?ICAe?E? aeey aiae?co ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a o
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo yaea? i?ii?aeieo aia?a?e
yae?aie ?ic?iaeaii ? canoiniaaii iiao oaiiiaiieia?/io S-iao?e/io
iiaeaeue.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.1, aeoiaey/e c o?ce/ieo i??eoaaiue, iia’ycaieo c
?acoeueoaoaie ?ic?aooie?a ia iniia? S-iao?e/iiai i?aeoiaeo o ia?oiio
?icae?e? oa ca iioe/iith iiaeaeeth yaea?iiai ?icn?yiiy, a oaeiae c
ii??aiyiiy c ie?aieie aeiaaeeaie aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yieo
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a ?icn?yiiy yaea? 4He i?e E100 IaA
cai?iiiiiaaii i?ea?iaeueio ia?aiao?ecaoe?th iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy, yea
i?noeoue iaaaeeeo e?euee?noue ia?aiao??a, ui iathoue yniee o?ce/iee
ci?no, ? yea aeicaiey? iienoaaoe ye aeeo?aeoe?eio iiaaae?ieo eooiaeo
?iciiae?e?a i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea? i?e iaeeo eooao ?icn?yiiy, oae ?
??ciiiai?oi? ?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe, ui i?noyoue oaeiae aoaeo yaea?ii?
?aeaeoae. Cai?iiiiiaaia oi?ia iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy aecia/a?oueny oaeei
ae?acii

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aea aeey ooieoe?? g(L,Li,i) iiaeia canoinoaaoe cae/aeio no?ae/anoo
ooieoe?th Oa?i? (3) aai neiao?eciaaio no?ae/anoo ooieoe?th

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yea caaacia/o? iaa?oaiiy ia ioeue a?aeiia?aeii? eaaioiai? ooieoe??
a?aeoeeaiiy i?e L=0. Ia?aiao?e L0, L1, 0, 1 oa?aeoa?ecothoue e?i?ei?
?ici??e oa aeeooci?noue iiaa?oi? iiaeeiath/i? oa caeiiethth/i? iaeanoae
yae?a i?oai? noiniaii ?icn?thaaieo oaeeue, ia?aiao? 0 aecia/a?
?ioaineai?noue yaea?ii? ?ao?aeoe??, a ia?aiao? – i?ici??noue yae?a i?e
iaeeo iiiaioao L. Aeey oace C (L), yea iieno? eoeii?anueeo aca?iiae?th
yaea?, ui noeeathoueny, cai?iiiiiaaii canoinoaaiiy eaac?eeane/ii? oace
?icn?yiiy ia iaeii??aeii ca?yaeaeai?e noa?? iaaiiai ?aae?ona RC , aeey
yei? ciaeaeaii i?inoee aiae?oe/iee ae?ac. Aeyaeaii aaaeeea?noue
a?aooaaiiy iaoi/eiaiai ?iciiae?eo ca?yaeo yae?a aeey e?auiai iieno
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.2 ?icaeyiooi i?ioeaaeo?o aiae?co aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
ia?a??c?a i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea? ca aeiiiiiaith ?iceeaaeo aiie?ooaee
i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy ia aeeaeith oa aeaeueith neeaaeia? (N/F-aiae?c), yea
aeoaea ei?enia oa oe?iei canoiniao?oueny aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ??cieo
aeeo?aeoe?eieo oa ?ao?aeoe?eieo no?oeoo?, ui niinoa??aathoueny o eooiaeo
?iciiae?eao ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo oa aaaeeeo ?ii?a i?e i?ii?aeieo aia?a?yo.
I?e oeueiio ie aeoiaeeii c a?aeiii? i?ioeaaeo?e ?iceeaaeo Ooeea?a
(R.C.Fuller), yea aaaaea?oueny caaaeueiii?eeiyoith ? yeith cae/aeii
iineoaiaothoueny i?e aiae?c? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeey
?iaeyaeoaaieo i?ioean?a. I?e canoinoaaii? ooeea??anueeiai iaoiaeo
?iceeaaeo aiie?ooaee o noaiaea?oi?e oi?i? /anoi niinoa??aa?oueny
iac?icoi?ea c o?ce/ii? oi/ee ci?o iiaaae?iea aeeaeiuei? oa aeaeueiuei?
neeaaeiaeo aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai ia?a??co i?e aeineoue aaeeeeo eooao
?icn?yiiy, aei yei? cie?aia iaeaaeaoue inoeeeyoe?? neeaaeiaeo ia?a??co c
ia??iaeii, ui ca?aa?oueny c iiaeai?iei ia??iaeii o?aoiaioa??anueeeo
inoeeeyoe?e. Iaie aeiaaaeaii, ui oea iia’ycaii c aee?eaeaiiyi iiaaae?iee
aeeaeiuei? oa aeaeueiuei? neeaaeiaeo ia?a??co caaaeyee ?ioa?oa?aioe?? c
iaaieie iao?ce/ieie o?eoeaieie aianeaie. Aeyaeaii i?e/eio aeieeiaiiy
oeeo o?eoeaieo aiane?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aa??aio i?ioeaaeo?e
?iceeaaeo aiie?ooaee ?icn?yiiy, ca?aeii c yeei a?ae aeeaeiuei?
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aea eiao?oe??ioe wmetafile8? ?????????????
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??#?? ???&? ?MathType??a????uOth1/4?????

O a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a o (9) iiaeia iaiaaeeoenue ia?oei aeiaeaieii,
iieeaaoe M=1. sseui o?aaa a?aoiaoaaoe iiaeaeueo? iii?aaee, oi ne?ae
a?aoe aei oaaae, ui ae?ac (9) ia ? ??aiii??iei ca eooii, aea cae/aeii
ae?ac (9) aeey oeeo iii?aaie ia?anoa? aooe i?eaeaoiei i?e iaeeo eooao,
aea ?oi? a?aooaaiiy iaiio??aia.

Cai?iiiiiaaio i?ioeaaeo?o ?iceeaaeo aiie?ooaee ?icn?yiiy ia aeeaeith oa
aeaeueith neeaaeia? canoiniaaii o aeaeueoeo i?ae?icae?eao aeena?oaoe??
i?e aiae?c? aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy ??cieo
iae?oath/eo /anoeiie yae?aie ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iaie S-iao?e/ii?
iiaeae?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.3 ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaiiai ?ai?oa o oeueiio ?icae?e?
S-iao?e/iiai i?aeoiaeo i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aaeeei? e?eueeino?
aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yieo eooiaeo ?iciiae?e?a i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy
eaaeeo ?ii?a 3He ? 4He a iaeano? aia?a?e, ui ia?aaeuothoue e?eoe/io
aia?a?th yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae (E>25–30 IaA/ioeeii), ? o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii?
ianiaeo /enae yaea? i?oai?. ?icaeyioo? eooia? ?iciiae?ee ?icn?yiiy
i?noyoue ae?aaeai? i?iyae ?aeaeoaeiiai ?icn?yiiy i?e aeineoue aaeeeeo
eooao ?icn?yiiy. Aea/aii iiaaae?ieo ia?aiao??a iiaeae? caeaaeii a?ae
ianiaiai /enea yaea? i?oai? oa aia?a?? /anoeiie, ui iae?oathoue.
I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a, ui aea/athoueny, ca
aeiiiiiaith ?iceeaaeo ia aeeaeith oa aeaeueith neeaaeia?.

Aeeiiaii ?ic?aooiee aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy
yaea? 4He aeey oaeeo aeiaaee?a: i?e aia?a?? 104 IaA ia yae?ao
40,42,44,48Ca, 50Ti ? 52Cr; i?e aia?a?? 139 IaA ia yae?ao 12C ? 58Ni; ia
yae?ao 50Ti i?e aia?a?? 140 IaA; i?e aia?a?? 141,7 IaA ia yae?ao 40Ca ?
90Zr; ia yae?ao 90Zr i?e aia?a?yo 118 ? 99,5 IaA; ia yae?ao 92Zr i?e
aia?a?? 120 IaA, a oaeiae i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea? 3He c aia?a??th
109,2 IaA ia yae?ao 40Ca, 58Ni, 90Zr ? 116Sn ? c aia?a??th 118,5 IaA ia
yae?ao 58Ni. O e?eueeio aeiaaeeao aeey ii??aiyiiy i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a oa iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy ia iniia? iioe/ii?
iiaeae?. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a na?ae/aoue, ui S-iao?e/iee i?aeo?ae ia
iniia? cai?iiiiiaaii? ia?aiao?ecaoe?? iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy o an?o
?icaeyiooeo aeiaaeeao ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo ?ii?a aeicaiey? caeiaooe aeia?ee
iien aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ui ia iinooia?oueny ?oiueiio iieno ca
aeiiiiiaith iioe/ii? iiaeae?. Aeyaeaii, ui iiaaae?iea iiaeoe?a iao?eoe?
?icn?yiiy oa ooieoe?e a?aeoeeaiiy (L), ?ic?aoiaaieo o iaoiio
S-iao?e/iiio i?aeoiae? oa ca iioe/iith iiaeaeeth, i?e aeineoue aenieeo
aia?a?yo ia? iiae?aiee oa?aeoa?, oi/ a iioe/i?e iiaeae? eooe ?aeaeoae
iathoue a?eueo? cia/aiiy, a oi/ea ?aeaeoae ?icoaoiaaia i?e a?eueoeo
cia/aiiyo iiiaioo L. O oie aea /an i?e ieae/eo aia?a?yo iiaaae?iea
iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy a iioe/i?e iiaeae? ia? a?eueo neeaaeiee oa?aeoa?, ui
ie ?ioa?i?aoo?ii ye aieea ie?aieo iiethn?a ?aaeaea, ye? c’yaeythoueny
aeecueei ae?enii? in? a eiiieaeni?e ieiuei? iiiaioo i?e iaaeeaeaii? aei
e?eoe/ii? aia?a?? yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.4 ?ic?iaeaio S-iao?e/io iiaeaeue canoiniaaii aeey
aea/aiiy i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy a?eueo aaaeeeo ?ii?a aoiiieie yae?aie. Aoei
i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
ia?a??c?a i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea? 6Li c aia?a??th 156 IaA ia yae?ao
12C, 40Ca ? 90Zr, c aia?a??th 210 IaA ia yae?ao 12C, 28Si, 40Ca, 58Ni ?
90Zr, c aia?a??th 318 IaA ia yae?ao 12C ? 28Si, i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy
yaea? 9Be c aia?a??th 158 IaA yae?aie 12C, 16O, 26Mg, 27Al, 40Ca, 58Ni ?
197Au, a oaeiae i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy 12C-12C i?e aia?a?yo 360 ? 1016 IaA,
18O-28Si i?e aia?a?? 352 IaA oa 16O28Si i?e aia?a?? 1503 IaA.
I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ii??aiyiiyi c ?acoeueoaoaie
?ic?aooie?a ca iioe/iith iiaeaeeth. Aeey an?o ?icaeyiooeo aeiaaee?a
i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a ca aeiiiiiaith ?iceeaaeo
ia aeeaeith ? aeaeueith neeaaeia?. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?ic?aooiee ia iniia?
?ic?iaeaii? S-iao?e/ii? iiaeae? aeia?a iienothoue aenia?eiaioaeueii
niinoa?aaeoaai? ??ciiiai?oi? ea?oeie ?icn?yiiy, oeiia? aeey aca?iiae??
aaaeeeo ?ii?a c yae?aie, o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? aia?a?e iae?oath/eo
/anoeiie, eoo?a ?icn?yiiy oa ianiaeo /enae yaea? i?oaie. I?e oeueiio
?ic?aoiaai? ia?a??ce a??ii a?aeoai?ththoue ??ci? c o?ce/ii? oi/ee ci?o
aeeo?aeoe?ei? oa ?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe, ui i?noyoue yaea?io ?aeaeoao,
i?eia?o yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae, oaeaee? oa iia?euei? o?aoiaioa??anuee?
ia?aoeie oa o?aiae?anueea ?icn?yiiy. Ia ?en. 1 iaaaaeaii ye i?eeeaae
?ic?aoiaaiee ca S-iao?e/iith iiaeaeeth ia?a??c ?icn?yiiy 16O28Si i?e
aia?a?? 1503 IaA, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth oaeaeeiai
o?aoiaioa??anueeiai ia?aoeio. O aeiaaeeao, eiee a ia?a??cao
niinoa??aa?oueny aoaeo yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae, ii??aiyiiy aaee/ei |S(L)| ?
(L), ?ic?aoiaaieo o iaoiio i?aeoiae? oa ca iioe/iith iiaeaeeth, aeyaey?
o? ae caeiiii??iino?, ui e iaaaaeai? ?ai?oa aeey ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo ?ii?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.5 c?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii? ?ai?oa
S-iao?e/ii? iiaeae? aeey aiae?co ae?aaeaieo ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a o
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao i?oaeiiai yaea?iiai ?icn?yiiy aeecueei oa
ieae/a e?eoe/ii? aia?a?? yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae. Aeey oeueiai o ae?ac? aeey
iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy a?aoiaaii aieea ie?aieo iiethn?a ?aaeaea, ui i?e
oaeeo aia?a?yo iaaeeaeathoueny aei ae?enii? in? o eiiieaeni?e ieiuei?
iiiaioo L. Aa?o/e aei ?icaeyaeo aieea iaeiiai iiethno ?aaeaea a iapoiio
eaaaepaio? eiiieaenii? ieiueie iiiaioo, iao?eoeth ?icn?yiiy iiaeaii o
aeaeyae?

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?MathType??0???uFth§?????aea wmetafile8? ??3???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@`???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy ??o?? ???&? ?MathType???????uey
????Ia iniia? oaei? S-iao?e/ii? iiaeae? c a?aooaaiiyi iaeiiai
a?aeie?aieaiiai iiethno ?aaeaea o ia?oiio eaaae?aio? eiiieaenii? ieiueie
L aoei i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
ia?a??c?a ipoaeiiai ?icn?yiiy yaea? 4He ia yae?ao 90Zr i?e aia?a?yo
79,5, 59,1 ? 40 IaA, ye? i?noyoueny aeecueei oa ieae/a e?eoe/ii? aia?a??
yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae, oa i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy 16O-16O i?e aia?a?? 350 IaA.
?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a aeey inoaiiueiai aeiaaeeo iaaaaeaii ia ?en. 2.
Iiaaae?ieo oeeo ia?a??c?a i?e aaeeeeo eooao ?icn?yiiy ia iiaeia iienaoe
e?euee?nii ca aeiiiiiaith i?inoi? ia?aiao?ecaoe?? iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy
(7). Iaaaaeai? o e?oa?aoo?? ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co ?icaeyaeoaaieo
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a ia iniia? iioe/ii? iiaeae? aeyaeee, ui
noaiaea?oi? oi?ie iioe/ieo iioaioe?ae?a oaeiae ia caeaoi? iienaoe
iiaaae?ieo oeeo ia?a??c?a a onueiio ae?aiacii? eoo?a ?icn?yiiy. Oiio
iien oeeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ? aaeueie e?eoe/iei aei oai?aoe/ii?
iiaeae?, ui canoiniao?oueny. I?iaaaeai? iaie ?ic?aooiee aeiaiaeyoue, ui
a?aooaaiiy iiethno ?aaeaea neeueii aieeaa? ia ?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe o
?icaeyaeoaaieo ia?a??cao i?e aaeeeeo eooao ?icn?yiiy ? aeicaiey? iienaoe
aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ia?a??ce a onueiio ?ioa?aae? eoo?a, ui aea/a?oueny.

O O?AOUeIIO ?ICAe?E? aeey aea/aiiy aieeao yaeua -eeanoa?ecaoe?? a
yae?ao 12C ia i?ioeane ?icn?yiiy ??cieo yaea?ieo /anoeiie oeeie yae?aie
canoiniaaii i?ea?iaeueio -eeanoa?io iiaeaeue c aeenia?n??th oa oai??th
aaaaoi?aciaiai ?icn?yiiy /anoeiie ia -eeanoa?ao.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.1 noi?ioeueiaaii -eeanoa?io iiaeaeue c aeenia?n??th
aeey yae?a 12C, yea aaco?oueny ia i?eiouaii?, ui yae?i aoaeaoeth
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio -eeanoa??a, ye? iiaeooue a?aeoeeyoenue a?ae nai?o
iaea?eueo ?iia??ieo iieiaeaiue o aa?oeiao ??aiia?/iiai o?eeooieea c?
noi?iiith d. A -eeanoa?i?e iiaeae? c aeenia?n??th yae?i 12C iieno?oueny
ca aeiiiiiaith o?e/anoeieiai? aonoeie ?iciiae?eo -eeanoa??a a yae??
aoaeaoeth, ui ye ooieoe?y eii?aeeiao sseia? ? -eeanoa??a ia? oaeo
oi?io

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aea 0(,) – o?e/anoeieiaa aonoeia yae?a aoaeaoeth a cae/aei?e iiaeae?
aei?noeiai o?eeooieea, yeo iiaeia iiaeaoe o aeaeyae?

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a ooieoe?y ?icieooy (,) a?aoiao? a?aeoeeaiiy -eeanoa??a a?ae iieiaeaiue
??aiiaaae e aeey ia? cai?iiiiiaaii aaoniao oi?io

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Oaeei /eiii, o?e/anoeieiaa aonoeia yae?a aoaeaoeth a -eeanoa?i?e iiaeae?
c aeenia?n??th oa?aeoa?eco?oueny, e??i ia?aiao?a d, ia?aiao?ii
aeenia?n?? , ui aecia/a? na?aaeith aaee/eio a?aeoeeaiue -eeanoa??a a?ae
iieiaeaiue ??aiiaaae.

Ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaii? aonoeie ?iciiae?eo -eeanoa??a (13) aoei
caeiaooi ae?ace aeey ca?yaeiaiai oi?ioaeoi?a yae?a 12C oa aeey aonoeie
?iciiae?eo ca?yaeo a yae?? aoaeaoeth. I?e oeueiio i?eioneaeiny, ui
?iciiae?e ca?yaeo a -eeanoa?? a yae?? 12C oaeee naiee, ye ? o a?euei?e
-/anoeioe?. Aeyaeaii, ui aaaaeaiiy ia?aiao?a aeenia?n?? 0 i?ecaiaeeoue
aei a?eueo oaeaeeiai aeniiiaioe?aeueiiai ciaioaiiy oi?ioaeoi?a yae?a 12C
?c c?inoaiiyi ia?aaeaiiai ?iioeueno q, ui ? aea?aaeaioiei ca?eueoaiith
aoaeoeaieo ?ici???a -eeanoa?a ana?aaeei? yae?a. Ia iniia? iaee?auiai
ocaiaeaeaiiy oai?aoe/iiai oa aei??yiiai ca?yaeiaeo oi?ioaeoi??a aoei
aecia/aii cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a d ? aonoeie (13). ?ic?aoiaaiee ?
aei??yiee oi?ioaeoi?e yae?a 12C ocaiaeaeothoueny aei cia/aiue
ia?aaeaieo ?iioeuen?a q3 oi–1. Oaeiae ocaiaeaeothoueny ?ic?aoiaai? oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yi? cia/aiiy na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/iiai ca?yaeiaiai
?aae?ona yae?a aoaeaoeth. I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aoiaaii? aonoeie
?iciiae?eo ca?yaeo a yae?? 12C c ca?yaeiaith aonoeiith, ciaeaeaiith c
aaciiaeaeueiiai aiae?co ?icn?yiiy aeaeo?ii?a, ? aeyaeaii, ui aiie aeia?a
ca?aathoueny. Aeaye? iaaaeee? ?ica?aeiino? niinoa??aathoueny eeoa
aeecueei aei oeaio?a yae?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.2 -eeanoa?io iiaeaeue c aeenia?n??th yae?a 12C
canoiniaaii aeey iieno aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a ? iiey?ecaoe?eieo
niinoa?aaeoaaieo aeey i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a i?ii?aeieo aia?a?e
yae?aie 12C ia iniia? oai??? aaaaoi?aciaiai aeeo?aeoe?eiiai ?icn?yiiy
(OAAe?) ia -eeanoa?ao, ui neeaaeathoue yae?i i?oai?. sseui aia?a?y
iae?oath/i? /anoeiee cia/ii a?eueoa ca aia?a?th ?ooo ioeeiia a yae??, oi
/an ?? aca?iiae?? c yae?ii ? iaeei ii??aiyii c /anii
aioo??oiueiyaea?iiai ?ooo. Oiio eiee aeiaaeeia oaee? /anoeiee aeineoue
iaea, aiia “aa/eoue” yae?i 12C ye oaea, ui neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
-eeanoa??a, ai aiie ia anoeaathoue iai?iyoeny ioeeiiaie ca /an
aca?iiae??. E??i oiai, /an aca?iiae?? iaeee ii??aiyii c oa?aeoa?iei
/anii ?ooo -eeanoa??a, ? no?oeoo?a yae?a ia anoeaa? ci?ieoeny.
Aiane?aeie oeeo oiia iiaeia canoinoaaoe OAAe? iae?oath/eo /anoeiie ia
-eeanoa?ao ye “aeaiaioa?ieo” no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo yae?a. A?aeoeeaiiy
a?ae oaei? i?inoi? -eeanoa?ii? no?oeoo?e iathoue aooe iii?oieie i?e
aaeeeeo ia?aaeaieo ?iioeuenao (q>3 oi–1), aea iiaeooue niinoa??aaoeny
a?eueo oiie? aeaoae? no?oeoo?e yae?a.

O ?ic?iaeaiiio i?aeoiae? aiie?ooaeo i?oaeiiai p-12C ?icn?yiiy iiaeia
ae?aceoe /a?ac «aeaiaioa?i?» aiie?ooaee ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a ia -eeanoa?ao
fp(q) ? aonoeio ?iciiae?eo -eeanoa??a (,) a yae?? i?oai?. I?e
?ic?aooieao ca?aeii OAAe? aaaaea?ii, ui aiie?ooaea fp(q) ? oaeith
naiith, ye ? aiie?ooaea ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a ia a?eueieo yae?ao 4He.
I?aaeeueiee aea?? aeaiaioa?ii? aiie?ooaee fp(q) ? iaeiei c eeth/iaeo
iiiaio?a ?ic?aooie?a ca OAI?. Ia iniia? iaaieo o?ce/ieo i??eoaaiue iaie
cai?iiiiiaaii i?ea?iaeueio oaiiiaiieia?/io ia?aiao?ecaoe?th p-
aiie?ooaee c a?aooaaiiyi ni?i-i?a?oaeueii? aca?iiae??, ui i?ecia/aia
aeey ai?ieneiaoe?? aiie?ooae aeeo?aeoe?eiiai oeio ? ia?aiao?e yei?
aecia/athoueny c aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeuei?o aeaieo c aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
ia?a??c?a ? iiey?ecaoe?e aeey i?oaeiiai p-4He ?icn?yiiy. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
cai?iiiiiaaia iaie oi?ia p- aiie?ooaee aeicaiey? aeia?a iienaoe iiaiee
iaa?? niinoa?aaeoaaieo aeey i?oaeiiai p-4He ?icn?yiiy i?eiaeii? aei
ia?aaeaieo ?iioeuen?a q3 oi–1. Iaie aoee aecia/ai? cia/aiiy ia?aiao??a
aiie?ooaee fp(q) i?e ??cieo cia/aiiyo aia?a??, ui aoee iaiao?aei? aeey
aeaeueoeo ?ic?aooie?a niinoa?aaeoaaieo o p-12C ?icn?yii?.
Iaaiai?th?oueny oaeiae canoinoaaiiy ai?ieneiaoe?e aiie?ooaee fp(q) a
?ioeo a?aeiieo oi?iao, iai?eeeaae, ca aeiiiiiaith iaei??? aaoniai?
ooieoe??.

O ?icaeyaeoaaiiio i?aeoiae? aoee caeiaoo? ae?ace aeey aiie?ooae iaeii-,
aeai- oa o?e?aciaiai ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a ia -eeanoa?ao yae?a 12C c
a?aooaaiiyi ni?i-i?a?oaeueii? aca?iiae?? oa aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaii?
?ai?oa oi?ie p- aiie?ooaee. I?e ?ic?aooieao aoei canoiniaaii iaaeeaeaiiy
aoaeoeaii? aeaoi?iaoe?? Aoiaaea (I.Ahmad), yea aeicaieeei ciaeoe ae?ace
aeey aiie?ooae a yaiiio aiae?oe/iiio aeaeyae?.

Aoei i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a, iiey?ecaoe?e oa
ooieoe?e iiai?ioo ni?io aeey i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy p-12C i?e
aia?a?yo 1 AaA, 800, 398 ? 200 IaA. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a i?e 800 IaA
iaaaaeai? ia ?en. 3. ?ic?aoiaai? aiie?ooaea oa niinoa?aaeoaai? aaee/eie
aeey p-12C ?icn?yiiy ia i?noyoue aeiaeieo i?aeaiii/ieo ia?aiao??a,
ine?eueee cia/aiiy an?o ia?aiao??a, ui aoiaeyoue aei ie?aneaieo ae?ac?a,
aoee ciaeaeai? iacaeaaeii c aiae?co ca?yaeiaiai oi?ioaeoi?a yae?a 12C ?
ia?a??c?a oa iiey?ecaoe?e o i?oaeiiio p-4He ?icn?yii?. ?acoeueoaoe
?ic?aooie?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yieie
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieie ia?a??caie oa iiey?ecaoe?eieie niinoa?aaeoaaieie
o ae?aiacii? ia?aaeaieo ?iioeuen?a q3 oi–1. Iaaiai?ththoueny
?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a c aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo oi?i aeey p- aiie?ooaee.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.3 i?aeo?ae, caniiaaiee ia -eeanoa?i?e iiaeae? c
aeenia?n??th oa OAAe? aioei?ioii?a ia -eeanoa?ao yae?a 12C, canoiniaaii
aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy aioei?ioii?a ia yae?ao aoaeaoeth
i?e aia?a?? 179 IaA. I?e ?ic?aooieao ie iineoaiaoaaeeny aeey
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???u?????????»????-?????g????G???u@th??????O i?ae?icae?e?
3.4 ia iniia? -eeanoa?ii? iiaeae? c aeenia?n??th oa OAAe? ia -eeanoa?ao
yae?a 12C caeiaooi ae?ace aeey aiie?ooaee i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy -iacii?a
yae?aie aoaeaoeth. O oaeiio i?aeoiae? i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy –12C i?e aia?a?yo
i?ii?a

120–280 IaA, ui i?noyoueny a iaeano? -?aciiaino. Aeey — aiie?ooaee
canoiniaaii ia?aiao?ecaoe?th ? cia/aiiy ?? ia?aiao??a, aecia/ai? a
e?oa?aoo??. ?ic?aoiaai? iaie aac aeei?enoaiiy aoaeue-yeeo i?aeaiii/ieo
ia?aiao??a aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ia?a??ce ocaiaeaeothoueny c
aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yieie. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue aeia?a iieno?
??cea iiaeeaeaiiy aeeo?aeoe?eieo i?i?ioi?a ia?a??c?a i?e aia?a?yo,
aeecueeeo aei i?ea -?aciiaina, yea niinoa??aa?oueny aenia?eiaioaeueii ?
iiynith?oueny ca?eueoaiiyi iiaeeiaiiy i?ii?a yae?aie i?e oaeeo aia?a?yo.
I?eiaaeiith ?enith canoiniaaiiai i?aeoiaeo ? oa, ui — aiie?ooaea ye
aeaiaioa?ia «oeaaeeiea» iiaeae? aaoiiaoe/ii a?aoiao? ye aoaeoe ioeeiiieo
ei?aeyoe?e, oae ? i?yiiai iiaeeiaiiy i?ii?a aeaiia aai e?eueeiia
ioeeiiaie e ?io? aaaaoi/anoeieia? i?ioeane aca?iiae?? i?ii?a.

O *AOAA?OIIO ?ICAe?E? ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a i?ii?aeieo aia?a?e yae?aie
aeine?aeaeo?oueny ia iniia? OAAe? ia ioeeiiao yae?a i?oai?, a ye?e
aiie?ooaea aca?iiae?? i?ioiia c yae?ii aoaeo?oueny c ioeeii-ioeeiiieo
aiie?ooae ? aaee/ei, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?iciiae?e ioeeii?a o yae?ao
i?oai?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.1 ia iniia? OAAe? ? iiaeae? iacaeaaeieo ioeeii?a
i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a, iiey?ecaoe?e oa
ooieoe?e iiai?ioo ni?io aeey i?oaeiiai p-12C ?icn?yiiy i?e aia?a?yo 398
? 800 IaA. O pN-aiie?ooae? a?aoiaaii oeaio?aeueio oa ni?i-i?a?oaeueio
/anoeie, ia?aiao?e yeeo aoee aecia/ai? c ?acoeueoao?a oaciaiai aiae?co
ioeeii-ioeeiiiiai ?icn?yiiy. Aoei ciaoooaaii ??cieoeath i?ae i?ioiiiith
? iaeo?iiiith aonoeiaie ? canoiniaaii ioeeiiio aonoeio yae?a aoaeaoeth,
ciaeaeaio c -eeanoa?ii? iiaeae? c aeenia?n??th, a oaeiae aeey ii??aiyiiy
a?aeiio aaciiaeaeueio yaea?io aonoeio. Uia aeyaeoe, yeith i??ith
a?aooaaiiy -eeanoa?ecaoe?? ? nooo?aei aeey iieno aca?iiae?? i?ioii?a c
yae?aie 12C, aoei ii??aiyii ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a ca iiaeaeeth
iacaeaaeieo ioeeii?a ? ?ic?aooie?a oeeo aea aaee/ei ia iniia? OAAe? ia
-eeanoa?ao ? -eeanoa?ii? iiaeae? c aeenia?n??th. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
?ic?aooiee ia iniia? -eeanoa?ii? iiaeae? c aeenia?n??th e?aua iienothoue
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? c i?oaeiiai p-12C ?icn?yiiy i?e i?ii?aeieo
aia?a?yo, i?ae ?ic?aooiee, a yeeo ciaoooaaii ioeeiiieie ei?aeyoe?yie
-eeanoa?iiai oeio (aeea. ?en. 3). Oe? ?ica?aeiino? iniaeeai iii?oi? o
ooieoe?? iiai?ioo ni?io, aea niinoa??aathoueny iaa?oue ye?ni?
a?aei?iiino? o iiaaae?ioe? ?ic?aoiaaieo ooieoe?e. Oaeiae ? cia/i?
?ica?aeiino? iiey?ecaoe?e i?e aia?a?? 398 IaA, ?ic?aoiaaieo o aeaio
i?aeoiaeao. Iii?oi? a?aei?ie o aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao
niinoa??aathoueny a iaeano? aaeeeeo eoo?a, ii/eiath/e c ae?oaiai
aeeo?aeoe?eiiai iaeneioio.

?icaeyiooee a oeueiio i?ae?icae?e? i?aeo?ae oaeiae canoiniaaii aeey
iieno iai?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a ?c caoaeaeaiiyi iecueeieaaea/eo
eieaeoeaieo noai?a yae?a 12C. I?e oeueiio ciiao aoei canoiniaaii
ioeeiiio aonoeio c -eeanoa?ii? iiaeae? c aeenia?n??th oa aaciiaeaeueio
ioeeiiio aonoeio. Ia?ao?aeio aonoeio aoei ae?aaeaii /a?ac aonoeio yae?a
aoaeaoeth a iniiaiiio noai? ca aeiiiiiaith eieaeoeaii? iiaeae?, i?e/iio
cia/aiiy ia?aiao?a aeeiai?/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? yae?a aecia/aeiny c?
caaaeaii? ?iia??iino? aeaeo?e/iiai ia?aoiaeo. ?ic?aoiaai?
aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ia?a??ce ? iiey?ecaoe?? aeey iai?oaeiiai p-12C
?icn?yiiy i?e aia?a?yo 398 ? 800 IaA c? caoaeaeaiiyi ia?oiai noaio 2+
yae?a 12C ocaiaeaeothoueny c aei??yieie i?e iaaaeeeeo eooao ?icn?yiiy, a
a iaeano? a?eueoeo eoo?a niinoa??aathoueny iaai? ?ica?aeiino?, iiae?ai?
aei ?nioth/eo i?e iien? aeeoa?aioeeaeueiiai ia?a??co oa iiey?ecaoe?? o
i?oaeiiio ?icn?yii? ia iniia? iiaeae? iacaeaaeieo ioeeii?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.2 c caaaeueieo oi?ioe OAAe? ia ioeeiiao yae?a caeiaooi
iia? ae?ace aeey aiie?ooaee iai?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a ?c
caoaeaeaiiyi o aacni?iiaeo yae?ao i?oai? noai?a i?e?iaeii? ia?iino? c
a?aooaaiiyi iiey?ecaoe?eieo aoaeo?a. ?nioth/? cae/aeii i?e iiae?aieo
?ic?aooieao ni?iuaiiy iiaeae? iiaeooue nooo?ai aieeiooe ia iien
aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yieo iiey?ecaoe?eieo niioa?aaeoaaieo. Oiio iaie o
ciaeaeaieo oi?ioeao aeey aiie?ooaee iai?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy oi/ii
a?aoiaaii Z-oii?yaeeoaaiiy ni?iiaeo iia?aoi??a, ui iaeiiooothoue,
iaiao?aei?noue yeiai aeieea? caaaeyee ianoa?e/i?e i?e?iae? caoaeaeaiue
yaea? ? yea nooo?ai oneeaaeith? ia/eneaiiy aiie?ooaee. ?acii ?c
Z-oii?yaeeoaaiiyi a?aoiaaii a?aei?ie i?ae i?ioii-i?ioiiiith ?
i?ioii-iaeo?iiiith aiie?ooaeaie oa i?ae iaeo?iiiith ? i?ioiiiith
aonoeiaie, ? ia canoiniaothoueny ?io? ni?iuaiiy iiaeae?, ui cae/aeii ?
i?eoaiaiieie ?ic?aooieai ca OAAe?, a naia: iioe/ia iaaeeaeaiiy,
iaaeeaeaiiy ioeueiaiai ?aae?ona ae?? yaea?ieo nee, aeei?enoaiiy yaiiai
aeaeyaeo ia?aiao?ecaoe?? pN-aiie?ooaee. Ciaeaeai? ae?ace ? ei?enieie
aeey aiae?co aenia?eiaio?a c aei???a iiaiiai iaai?o niinoa?aaeoaaieo
aeey ??cieo iai?oaeieo i?ioean?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.3 aeine?aeaeaii aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ia?a??ce oa
iiey?ecaoe?ei? niinoa?aaeoaai? a i?oaeiiio ?icn?yii? i?ioii?a ia
aacni?iiaeo yae?ao ia iniia? OAAe? c a?aooaaiiyi aeai/anoeieiaeo
ioeeiiieo ei?aeyoeee oeyoii aeeth/aiiy i?ii?aeieo caoaeaeaiue yaea? oa c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?aae?noe/ieo ioeeiiieo aonoei ? pN-aiie?ooae, aecia/aieo c
oaciaiai aiae?co ioeeii-ioeeiiiiai ?icn?yiiy. C oe??th iaoith caeiaooi
a?aeiia?aei? iia? ae?ace aeey aiie?ooae i?oaeiiai i?ioii-yaea?iiai
?icn?yiiy ca aeiiiiiaith i?aeoiaeo, aiaeia?/iiai ?ic?iaeaiiio o
i?ae?icae?e? 4.2. Ciaeaeai? ae?ace oaeiae a?aoiaothoue ei?aeyoe??
oeaio?a ian ? ei?ioeiae?th/? ei?aeyoe?? oeio a?aeooiaooaaiiy i?ae
ioeeiiaie. O oi?ioeao aeey aiie?ooaee i?oaeiiai p-A ?icn?yiiy a?aoiaaii
aeaeo?iiaai?oio aca?iiae?th iae?oath/iai i?ioiia c yae?ii. I?e oeueiio
eoeii?anueea aca?iiae?y a?aoiao?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iae?ineii?/ii?
i?ioii-yaea?ii? eoeii?anueei? oace. Aca?iiae?y ae iaai?oiiai
iiiaioo i?ioiia c iieai yae?a a?aoiaaia i?e?ineii?/iei oeyoii, eiee
ni?i-i?a?oaeueia /anoeia pp-aiie?ooaee i?noeoue aeaeo?iiaai?oiee
aeiaeaiie o oi?i?, ui canoiniao?oueny a aeayeeo aa??aioao oaciaiai
aiae?co.

Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaiiai i?aeoiaeo i?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a, iiey?ecaoe?e oa ooieoe?e iiai?ioo ni?io
aeey i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a c aia?a??th 800 IaA ia yae?ao
40Ca, 54Fe ? 208Pb. I?e oeueiio canoiniaoaaeeny ia?aiao?e pN-aiie?ooae,
aecia/ai? c ??cieo aa??aio?a oaciaiai aiae?co, oa oa?o??-oie?anuee? (OO)
ioeeiii? aonoeie, ?ic?aoiaai? c ??cieie neeaie Ne??ia, aai aaciiaeaeuei?
yaea?i? aonoeie. I?e ?ic?aooieao a?aoiaoaaeinue aeae?eueea iaea?eueo
nooo?aeo i?ii?aeieo caoaeaeaiue aeey eiaeiiai c e?eueeio ieae/eo
cia/aiue ioeueoeiieueiino? ia?aoiaeo. Ia?ao?aei? aonoeie, ui iienothoue
i?ii?aei? caoaeaeaiiy, aoee ae?aaeai? /a?ac iio?aei? a?ae aonoei yae?a
i?oai? a iniiaiiio noai?, ye ? a iae?ineii?/i?e iiaeae?, aa?o/e aei
oaaae, ui iai?oaei? ia?aoiaee cae/aeii iathoue iiaa?oiaaee oa?aeoa?. I?e
oeueiio cia/aiiy «aeiaaeei aeaoi?iaoe??» aecia/aeeny c aaee/ei caaaeaieo
?iia??iinoae a?aeiia?aeieo aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aoiae?a aai aoee acyo? c
?ia?o, aea oe? ia?aoiaee aiae?coaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith iiae?aii?
iae?ineii?/ii? iiaeae?. ?ic?aoiaai? aaee/eie aeey ?icn?yiiy p-40Ca
iaaaaeai? ia ?en. 5. Aieea i?ii?aeieo caoaeaeaiue c?inoa? c?
ca?eueoaiiyi eooa ?icn?yiiy ? aeyaey?oueny nooo?aei i?e aeineoue aaeeeeo
, i?eaiaey/e aei iii?oiiai cnoao iieiaeaiue aeeo?aeoe?eieo iaeneioi?a ?
i?i?ioi?a ia?a??co oa ni?iiaeo niinoa?aaeoaaieo o a?e a?eueoeo eoo?a oa
i?enei?thth/e ciaioaiiy ia?a??co c? c?inoaiiyi . Aianie ei?ioeiae?th/eo
ei?aeyoe?e iaea?eueo iii?oiee aeey ooieoe?? iiai?ioo ni?io a iaeano?
aeineoue aaeeeeo eoo?a. Iaaiai?ththoueny ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a c
??cieie OO aonoeiaie.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.4 ?icaeyiooi canoinoaaiiy OAAe? c a?aooaaiiyi
?cini?iiai? caeaaeiino? NN-aiie?ooae ? ni?i-i?a?oaeueii? aca?iiae?? aeey
iieno i?ioean?a ia?aca?yaeee ioeeii?a ia yae?ao a iaeano? aeinoaoiuei
aenieeo aia?a?e. Ia iniia? oaeiai i?aeoiaeo caeiaooi iia? ae?ace aeey
aiie?ooae eaac?i?oaeii? ?aaeoe?? (p,n) ?c caoaeaeaiiyi ?ciaa?e/iiai
aiaeiaa iniiaiiai noaio yae?a i?oai? oa aeey i?oaeiiai i?ioii-yaea?iiai
?icn?yiiy, ye? a?aoiaothoue aaaaoi?acia? ia?aca?yaeee iae?oath/i?
/anoeiee ia ioeeiiao yae?a. Ca aeiiiiiaith oeeo ae?ac?a i?iaaaeai?
/enaeuei? ?ic?aooiee aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a, iiey?ecaoe?e oa
ooieoe?e iiai?ioo ni?io aeey eaac?i?oaeii? ?aaeoe?? (p,n), a oaeiae
i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a ia yae?ao 54Fe ? 208Pb i?e aia?a?? 800 IaA.
I?e oeueiio aoee aeei?enoai? oa?o??-oie?anuee? ioeeiii? aonoeie yaea?
i?oai?, ?ic?aoiaai? c aoaeoeaiith aca?iiae??th Ne??ia oeio SK1, ?
ioeeii-ioeeiii? aiie?ooaee, aecia/ai? c aeaio ??cieo aa??aio?a oaciaiai
aiae?co. A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaieo ?ic?aooie?a ia?aaeaa/ai? iiaaae?iea oa
ii?yaeie aaee/eie ia?a??co oa iiaaae?iea iiey?ecaoe?eieo
niinoa?aaeoaaieo aeey ?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee (p,n) ia yae?ao o
?icaeyaeoaai?e iaeano? aia?a?e. ?ic?aoiaai? aeey eaac?i?oaeii? ?aaeoe??
(p,n) aaee/eie ye ooieoe?? eooa ?icn?yiiy iathoue inoeeethth/ee
aeeo?aeoe?eiee oa?aeoa?. I?e oeueiio aeeo?aeoe?ei? inoeeeyoe??
iiey?ecaoe?eieo niinoa?aaeoaaieo aeey ?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee ae?aaeai?
cia/ii neeuei?oa, i?ae o i?oaeiiio ?icn?yii?. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith
iiey?ecaoe?? o aeiaaeeo ?aaeoe?? (p,n) ? oa, ui o ?icaeyiooiio ?ioa?aae?
ia aeoaea aaeeeeo eoo?a ?icn?yiiy aiia ? iii?oii cnoiooith aei iaeano?
nai?o a?ae’?iieo cia/aiue, oiae? ye o a?aeiia?aeieo aeiaaeeao i?oaeiiai
?icn?yiiy iiey?ecaoe?y i?ioii?a iaaoaa? o?eueee aeiaeaoieo
cia/aiue. Ne?ae oaeiae a?aecia/eoe, ui i?e iaeeo eooao ?icn?yiiy
iiey?ecaoe?y oa ooieoe?y iiai?ioo ni?io a ?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee ia
a?aei?io a?ae iiaaae?iee oeeo aaee/ei o i?oaeiiio ?icn?yii?
aeaiiino?othoue i?eaeecii e?i?eia ciaioaiiy a?ae ioey a iaeanoue
a?ae’?iieo cia/aiue. Aeyaeaii, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae niinoa?aaeoaaieo o
i?oaeiiio ?icn?yii? aeei?enoaiiy aeaio ??cieo aa??aio?a NN-aiie?ooae
i?eaiaeeoue aei aeayeeo a?aei?iiinoae o ?ic?aoiaaieo niinoa?aaeoaaieo
aeey ?aaeoe?? (p,n): aeaui ??ciyoueny aaee/eie ciaeaeaieo ia?a??c?a,
oaeiae ? iaai? iaaaeee? a?aei?iiino? a iiey?ecaoe?yo, oiae? ye ooieoe??
iiai?ioo ni?io aeoaea aeecueee aeey iaio aa??aio?a ?ic?aooie?a. Oi/a
caaaeai? a?aei?iiino? na?ae/aoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue a?eueo oi/iiai
aecia/aiiy NN-aiie?ooae, ana ae ?acoeueoaoe iaio aa??aio?a ?ic?aooie?a
caaaeii ocaiaeaeothoueny i?ae niaith. Aea/aii iiaaae?ieo ?cini?iiai?
/anoeie ?ic?aoiaaii? ia iniia? OAAe? iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy.

O aeniiaeao iaaaaeaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, caeiaoo? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio?.

AENIIAEE

1. Aeey iieno aoaeoo yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae o aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??cao
i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo yaea? aoiiieie yae?aie i?e aia?a?yo E25–30
Iaa/ioeeii cai?iiiiiaaii S-iao?e/iee i?aeo?ae, ui aaco?oueny ia
aecia/aii? yaea?ii? oace ?icn?yiiy o oi?i? ?iceeaaeaiiy ca iiaiei
iaai?ii ooieoe?e, ? ca eiai aeiiiiiaith i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aaeeei?
e?eueeino? aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a
?icaeyaeoaaieo i?ioean?a ? caeiaooi ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i yaea?i? ia?aiao?e
oa eaaioia? ooieoe?? a?aeoeeaiiy.

2. Ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai S-iao?e/iiai i?aeoiaeo oa ?acoeueoao?a
aiae?co i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy iienaii aoaeo yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae o eooiaeo
?iciiae?eao iai?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo ?ii?a. Ia iniia? aiaeia?/iiai
i?aeoiaeo c a?aooaaiiyi ?cini?iiai? caeaaeiino? iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy
ia?aaeaa/aii ?nioaaiiy ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a oeio yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae o
aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiio ia?a??c? eaac?i?oaeii? ?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee
(3He,3H) i?e aia?a?yo E25–30 Iaa/ioeeii.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?ea?iaeueio oaiiiaiieia?/io oanoeia?aiao?e/io iiaeaeue
iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy, ui aeicaiey? iienoaaoe ye aeeo?aeoe?ei? ea?oeie
yaea?iiai ?icn?yiiy, oae ? ?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe – aoaeo yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae
oa o?aoiaioa??anuee? ia?aoeie ??ciiai oeio.

4. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee aa??aio ?iceeaaeo aiie?ooae yaea?iiai ?icn?yiiy
ia aeeaeith ? aeaeueith neeaaeia? (N/F-aiae?c), yeee aeicaiey? onoiooe
iaai? o?eoeai? aianee, ui ?niothoue o noaiaea?oi?e i?ioeaaeo??
?iceeaaeo.

5. Ia iniia? iiai? S-iao?e/ii? iiaeae? oa cai?iiiiiaaiiai aa??aioa
N/F-aiae?co aea/aii aaeeeo e?euee?noue aenia?eiaioaeueii aei??yieo
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy ye eaaeeo ?ii?a 3He ?
4He, oae ? a?eueo aaaeeeo yaea?. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue
aeia?a iieno? ??ciiiai?oi? ea?oeie ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo oa aaaeeeo ?ii?a
yae?aie o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? aia?a?e, eoo?a ?icn?yiiy oa ianiaeo /enae
yaea? i?oaie. I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy oe??? iiaeae? c iioe/iith
iiaeaeeth.

6. Cai?iiiiiaaii ocaaaeueiaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? ?ai?oa S-iao?e/ii? iiaeae?
aeey aiae?co ?ao?aeoe?eieo aoaeo?a o eooiaeo ?iciiae?eao i?oaeiiai
?icn?yiiy yaea? aeecueei oa ieae/a e?eoe/ii? aia?a?? yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae
oeyoii a?aooaaiiy iiethn?a ?aaeaea, ?icoaoiaaieo a?ey ae?enii? in? a
eiiieaeni?e ieiuei? iiiaioo. Aea/aii aieea a?aooaaiiy oaeeo iiethn?a ia
aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ia?a??ce ?icn?yiiy -/anoeiie o oe?e iaeano? aia?a?e oa
?icn?yiiy 16O-16O i?e 350 IaA.

7. ?ic?iaeaii -eeanoa?io iiaeaeue c aeenia?n??th aeey yae?a 12C,
ia?aiao?e yei? aecia/aii c aiae?co ca?yaeiaiai oi?ioaeoi?a yae?a
aoaeaoeth. Ia iniia? oaei? iiaeae? yae?a 12C oa OAAe? /anoeiie ia
-eeanoa?ao caeiaooi ae?ace aeey aiie?ooae ?icn?yiiy ioeeii?a yae?aie 12C
c a?aooaaiiyi ni?i-i?a?oaeueii? aca?iiae??, a oaeiae aeey aiie?ooaee
i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy 12C. I?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
ia?a??c?a ? iiey?ecaoe?eieo niinoa?aaeoaaieo o i?oaeiiio ?icn?yii? p-12C
i?e aia?a?yo 1000, 800, 398 ? 200 IaA, ?acoeueoaoe yeeo ocaiaeaeothoueny
c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie. Oaeiae i?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy –12C i?e e?eueeio
aia?a?yo a iaeano? -?aciiaino. ?ic?aoiaai? ia?a??ce ocaiaeaeothoueny c
aei??yieie.

8. Ia iniia? -eeanoa?ii? iiaeae? c aeenia?n??th i?iaaaeaii aiae?c
aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai ia?a??co i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy aioei?ioii?a c
aia?a??th 179 IaA yae?aie 12C, c yeiai aecia/aii ia?aiao?e wmetafile8?
??§???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`????? ???&?
?MathType??P? ???u?????????»????-?????g????G???u@th??????9.
I?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a oa iiey?ecaoe?eieo
niinoa?aaeoaaieo aeey i?oaeiiai ? iai?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy p-12C i?e
aia?a?yo 398 ? 800 IaA ia iniia? OAAe? ? iiaeae? iacaeaaeieo ioeeii?a c
aeei?enoaiiyi ioeeiiii? aonoeie, ciaeaeaii? c -eeanoa?ii? iiaeae? c
aeenia?n??th, aai aaciiaeaeueii? yaea?ii? aonoeie oa pN-aiie?ooae,
ciaeaeaieo c ?acoeueoao?a oaciaiai aiae?co. Aeey i?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy
i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy c ?ic?aooieaie ia iniia? -eeanoa?ii? iiaeae? c
aeenia?n??th ? OAAe? ia -eeanoa?ao, yea na?ae/eoue, ui ?ic?aooiee c
a?aooaaiiyi ioeeiiieo ei?aeyoe?e -eeanoa?iiai oeio e?aua iienothoue
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?e ia aeoaea iaeeo eooao, i?ae ?ic?aooiee ca
iiaeaeeth iacaeaaeieo ioeeii?a, i?e/iio a ooieoe?yo iiai?ioo ni?io
niinoa??aathoueny iaa?oue ye?ni? a?aei?ie.

10. Ia iniia? OAAe? ia ioeeiiao yae?a caeiaooi iia? ae?ace aeey
aiie?ooaee iai?oaeiiai ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a ?c caoaeaeaiiyi o aacni?iiaeo
yae?ao i?oai? noai?a i?e?iaeii? ia?iino? c a?aooaaiiyi ni?i-i?a?oaeueii?
aca?iiae??, a yeeo oi/ii a?aoiaaii Z-oii?yaeeoaaiiy ni?iiaeo iia?aoi??a,
a?aei?ie i?ae i?ioii-iaeo?iiiith ? i?ioii-i?ioiiiith aiie?ooaeaie oa
i?ae iaeo?iiiith ? i?ioiiiith aonoeiaie, a oaeiae ia canoiniaothoueny
ni?iuaiiy iiaeae?, ui cae/aeii i?eoaiaii? ?ic?aooieai ca OAAe?.

11. Ia iniia? OAAe? c a?aooaaiiyi aeai/anoeieiaeo ioeeiiieo ei?aeyoe?e,
iia’ycaieo c i?ii?aeieie caoaeaeaiiyie yaea?, oa ei?ioeiae?th/eo
ei?aeyoe?e oeio a?aeooiaooaaiiy caeiaooi iia? ae?ace aeey aiie?ooae
i?oaeiiai i?ioii-yaea?iiai ?icn?yiiy, ui i?noyoue oaeiae
ni?i-i?a?oaeueio aca?iiae?th. I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
ia?a??c?a, iiey?ecaoe?e oa ooieoe?e iiai?ioo ni?io aeey i?oaeiiai
?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a c aia?a??th 800 IaA ia yae?ao 40Ca, 54Fe ? 208Pb c
aeei?enoaiiyi pN-aiie?ooae, aecia/aieo c ?acoeueoao?a oaciaiai aiae?co,
oa ??cieo oa?o??-oie?anueeeo aai aaciiaeaeueieo yaea?ieo aonoei. I?e
oeueiio a?aoiaoaaeany cia/ia e?euee?noue i?ii?aeieo caoaeaeaiue aeey
ieae/eo cia/aiue ioeueoeiieueiino? ia?aoiaeo, a oaeiae ei?ioeiae?th/?
ei?aeyoe??. Aeyaeaii, ui a?aooaaiiy i?ii?aeieo caoaeaeaiue aeyaey?oueny
nooo?aei i?e aeineoue aaeeeeo eooao ?icn?yiiy ? iie?auo? iien
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo. Aieea ei?ioeiae?th/eo ei?aeyoe?e iaea?eueo
iii?oiee a iaeano? aeineoue aaeeeeo eoo?a aeey ooieoe?? iiai?ioo ni?io.

12. Ia iniia? OAAe? c a?aooaaiiyi ?cini?iiai? caeaaeiino?
ioeeii-ioeeiiieo aiie?ooae ? ni?i-i?a?oaeueii? aca?iiae?? caeiaooi iia?
ae?ace aeey aiie?ooae eaac?i?oaeii? ?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee oa i?oaeiiai
?icn?yiiy ioeeii?a ia yae?ao, ye? a?aoiaothoue aaaaoi?acia? ia?aca?yaeee
iae?oath/i? /anoeiee ia ioeeiiao yae?a. I?iaaaeaii ?ic?aooiee
aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ia?a??c?a, iiey?ecaoe?e oa ooieoe?e iiai?ioo ni?io
aeey eaac?i?oaeii? ?aaeoe?? (p,n) ia yae?ao 54Fe ? 208Pb i?e aia?a?? 800
IaA ?c canoinoaaiiyi ioeeii-ioeeiiieo aiie?ooae, aecia/aieo c ?ica’yce?a
oaciaiai aiae?co, oa oa?o??-oie?anueeeo yaea?ieo aonoei. A ?acoeueoao?
ia?aaeaa/aii iiaaae?ieo oa ii?yaeie aaee/eie ia?a??co ? iiaaae?ieo
iiey?ecaoe?eieo niinoa?aaeoaaieo aeey ?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee (p,n) ia
yae?ao o ?icaeyaeoaai?e iaeano? aia?a?e. Aea/aii iiaaae?ieo ?cini?iiai?
/anoeie ?ic?aoiaaii? a oaeiio i?aeoiae? iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a oaeeo noaooyo:

1. Pilipenko V.V. 16O-16O elastic scattering at 350 MeV and pole
structure of the S-matrix// Mod.Phys.Letters A.– 1998.– V. 13, No 3.– P.
211–217.

2. Ieeeiaiei A.A. Oi?oaia ?annayiea yaea? 6Li yae?aie e S-iao?e/iue
iiaeoiae// ssaea?iay oeceea.– 1998.– O. 61, ?3.– N.467–471.

3. Ieeeiaiei A.A. Aoaeo yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae ? iiaa ia?aiao?ecaoe?y
iao?eoe? ?icn?yiiy// AeAI O?N?. Na?. A.– 1989.– N 1.– N. 65–68.

4. Pilipenko V.V. Phenomenological S-matrix approach to study of the 6Li
scattering by nuclei// AEo?iae o?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.– 1998.– O.2,
?3.– N. 290–295.

5. Ieeeiaiei A.A. Eaaceoi?oaea ioeeii-yaea?iua i?ioeannu a oai?ee
iiiaie?aoiiai aeeo?aeoeeiiiiai ?annayiey// A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y o?ce/ia “ssae?a, /anoeiee, iiey”.–
1998.– ? 421.– N. 27–32.

6. Berezhnoy Yu.A., Pilipenko V.V. Analysis of refraction effects in
nuclear scattering on the basis of the S-matrix approach// Mod. Phys.
Letters A.–1995.– V. 10, N 31.– P. 2305–2312.

7. Berezhnoy Yu.A., Pilipenko V.V. S-matrix approach for description of
refraction and absorption effects in 9Be elastic scattering// Heavy Ion
Physics.– 1996.– V. 3, No 1.– P. 249–259.

8. Berezhnoy Yu.A., Pilipenko V.V. Rainbow scattering in quasi-elastic
nuclear reactions// J. Phys. G.: Nucl.Phys.– 1985.– V. 11, No 10.– P.
1161–1174.

9. Aa?aaeiie TH.A., Ieeeiaiei A.A. Caoooaiea inoeeeeyoeee a na/aieyo
eaaceoi?oaeo yaea?iuo i?ioeannia n o/anoeai eaaeeo eiiia// AeAI ONN?.
Na?. A.– 1984.– N 5.– N. 52–54.

10. Aa?aaeiie TH.A., Ieeeiaiei A.A. Aiaeec ?annayiey eaaeeo yaea?
yae?aie a S-iao?e/iii iiaeoiaea// Ecaanoey ?AI, na?. oece/aneay.– 1995.–
O. 59, ? 3.– N. 197–205.

11. Aa?aaeiie TH.A., Ieeeiaiei A.A. Aiaeec na/aiee oi?oaiai ?annayiey
yaea? 9Be n yia?aeae 158 IyA yae?aie// Ecaanoey ?AI, na?. oece/aneay.–
1996.– O. 60, ? 5.– N. 138–147.

12. Akhiezer A.I., Berezhnoy Yu.A., Pilipenko V.V. Nuclear Diffraction//
Physics Reviews.– 1997.– V. 18, Part 3.– P. 1–148.

13. Berezhnoy Yu.A., Pilipenko V.V., Khomenko G.A. Polarisation in
proton-carbon elastic scattering and the -particle model with
dispersion// J.Phys.G.: Nucl.Phys.– 1984.– V. 10, No 1.– P. 63–74.

14. Berezhnoy Yu.A., Mikhailyuk V.P., Pilipenko V.V. Scattering of
protons antiprotons and pions on 12C and 16O nuclei// Acta.Phys.Pol. B.–
1990.– V. 21, No 9.– P. 723–740.

15. Berezhnoy Yu.A., Mikhailyuk V.P., Pilipenko V.V. Elastic and
inelastic proton multiple scattering on 12C and 16O nuclei//
Mod.Phys.Lett. A.– 1991.– V. 6, No 9.– P. 775–780.

16. Berezhnoy Yu.A., Mikhailyuk V.P., Pilipenko V.V. The 200 and 398 MeV
elastic scattering of protons on -cluster nuclei// Acta.Phys.Pol. B.–
1991.– V. 22, No 10.– P. 873–884.

17. Berezhnoy Yu.A., Mikhailyuk V.P., Pilipenko V.V. Elastic and
inelastic intermediate-energy proton multiple scattering on 12C and 16O
nuclei// J.Phys. G: Nucl.Part.Phys.– 1992.– V. 18, No 1.– P. 85–97.

18. Berezhnoy Yu.A., Mikhailyuk V.P., Pilipenko V.V. The
antiproton-nucleus elastic scattering and the alpha-cluster model with
dispersion// Z.Phys. A: Hadrons and Nuclei.– 1993.– V. 344, No 4.– P.
411–416.

19. Aa?aaeiie TH.A., Ieoaeethe A.I., Ieeeiaiei A.A. ?annayiea i?ioiiia e
aioei?ioiiia yae?aie 12C e 16O// I?iaeaiu yaea?iie oeceee e einie/aneeo
eo/ae.– Oa?ueeia: Ecae-ai OAO, 1990.– Aui. 33.– N. 10–17.

20. Aa?aaeiie TH.A., Ieoaeethe A.I., Ieeeiaiei A.A. Oi?oaia e iaoi?oaia
?annayiea i?ioiiia i?iiaaeooi/iuo yia?aee yae?aie oaea?iaea e
eenei?iaea// ssaea?iay oeceea.– 1992.– O. 55, aui. 7.– N. 1885–1895.

21. Aa?aaeiie TH.A., Eocie/aiei A.A., Iieuaiei A.I., Ieeeiaiei A.A.
?aaeoaeiia ?annayiea a yaea?iuo noieeiiaaieyo// Y*Ass.– 1987.– O. 18,
Aui. 2.– N. 289–322.

Ieeeiaiei A. A. Iaoai?cie i?oaeieo ? eaac?i?oaeieo yaea?ieo i?ioean?a ca
o/anoth ioeeii?a ? eaaeeo yaea? i?ii?aeieo aia?a?e a S-iao?e/iiio
i?aeoiae?.– ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.16 – o?ceea yae?a, aeaiaioa?ieo /anoeiie
? aenieeo aia?a?e.– Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

?iaioa i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? i?e?ineii?/ieo, iai?ai?e?ineii?/ieo ?
oaiiiaiieia?/ieo S-iao?e/ieo i?aeoiae?a aeey iieno c?oeiaiue aae?ii?a ?
eaaeeo yaea? c yae?aie a iaeano? i?ii?aeieo aia?a?e ? oai?aoe/iiio
aiae?co aenia?eiaio?a aeey oeeo i?ioean?a. Aea/aii ?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe a
i?oaeieo ? eaac?i?oaeieo c?oeiaiiyo eaaeeo yaea? c yae?aie. Aeey aiae?co
aoaeoo yaea?ii? ?aeaeoae canoiniaaii i?aeo?ae c aaciiaeaeueiei
aecia/aiiyi yaea?ii? oace ?icn?yiiy. ?ic?iaeaii iiao oaiiiaiieia?/io
S-iao?e/io iiaeaeue, ui aeicaieeea iienaoe aeeo?aeoe?ei? oa ?ao?aeoe?ei?
ea?oeie ?icn?yiiy eaaeeo ? aaaeeeo ?ii?a o oe?ieeo ae?aiaciiao aia?a?e,
eoo?a ?icn?yiiy ? ianiaeo /enae i?oai?. Aea/aii aieea iiethn?a ?aaeaea
ia ?ao?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe. Ia iniia? oai??? Aeaoaa?a–Neoaiea aeine?aeaeaii
i?oaei? e eaac?i?oaei? c?oeiaiiy /anoeiie c yae?aie. ?icaeyiooi aieea
-eeanoa?ecaoe?? a yae?ao 12C ia ?icn?yiiy i?ioii?a, aioei?ioii?a ?
i?ii?a. Aeine?aeaeaii aieea i?ii?aeieo caoaeaeaiue yaea? ia ia?a??ce ?
iiey?ecaoe?ei? niinoa?aaeoaai? a i?oaeiiio p-A ?icn?yii?. Ia?a??ce oa
iiey?ecaoe?ei? niinoa?aaeoaai? a ?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee ioeeii?a ia
yae?ao aeine?aeaeaii ia iniia? oai??? Aeaoaa?a–Neoaiea.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ioeeiie, eaae? oa aaaee? ?iie, i?ii?aei? aia?a??,
aeeo?aeoe?y, yaea?ia ?aeaeoaa, S-iao?e/iee i?aeo?ae, oai??y
Aeaoaa?a–Neoaiea, aeueoa-eeanoa?ecaoe?y, iiey?ecaoe?ei? niinoa?aaeoaai?,
?aaeoe?? ia?aca?yaeee.

Pilipenko V.V. Mechanisms of elastic and quasielastic nuclear processes
with intermediate-energy nucleons and light nuclei in the S-matrix
approach.– Manuscript.

Thesis for the degree of doctor of science in physics and mathematics by
speciality 01.04.16 – physics of nucleus, elementary particles and high
energies.– Kharkiv State University, Kharkiv, Ukraine, 1999.

In the thesis microscopic, semimicroscopic and phenomenological S-matrix
approaches are developed to description of intermediate-energy hadron
and light-nucleus collisions with nuclei and to theoretical analyses of
experiments. Refraction effects in elastic and quasielastic light
nucleus-nucleus collisions are studied. An approach with model-free
nuclear scattering phase is proposed to analyze the nuclear rainbow
effect. A new phenomenological S-matrix model has been developed by
which diffraction and refraction patterns are described for light and
heavy ion scattering in wide energy, scattering-angle and
target-mass-number ranges. The role of Regge poles in refraction effects
has been studied. The Glauber-Sitenko theory is used to study elastic
and quasielastic nuclear collisions. Influence of -clusterization in the
12C nuclei on proton, antiproton and pion scattering has been studied.
Effects of intermediate excitations of nuclei in cross sections and spin
observables in elastic p-A scattering are investigated. Cross sections
and spin observables for charge exchange reactions of nucleons on nuclei
have been studied in Glauber-Sitenko theory.

Key words: nucleons, light and heavy ions, intermediate energies,
diffraction, nuclear rainbow, S-matrix approach, Glauber–Sitenko theory,
alpha-clusterization, spin observables, charge exchange reactions.

Ieeeiaiei A. A. Iaoaieciu oi?oaeo e eaaceoi?oaeo yaea?iuo i?ioeannia n
o/anoeai ioeeiiia e eaaeeo yaea? i?iiaaeooi/iuo yia?aee a S-iao?e/iii
iiaeoiaea.– ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.16 – oeceea yae?a, yeaiaioa?iuo /anoeoe e
aunieeo yia?aee.– Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea S-iao?e/iuo iiaeoiaeia aeey iienaiey
noieeiiaaiee aae?iiia e eaaeeo yaea? n yae?aie a iaeanoe i?iiaaeooi/iuo
yia?aee e i?iaaaeaieth ia eo iniiaa oai?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo aeey ?anniao?eaaaiuo i?ioeannia. N yoie
oeaeueth ?acaeo ?yae oai?aoe/aneeo iiaeaeae a ?aieao eae
oaiiiaiieiae/aneeo iiaeoiaeia, oae e ia iniiaa iee?ineiie/aneie e
iieoiee?ineiie/aneie oai?ee. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeaii eco/aieth
?ao?aeoeeiiiuo yooaeoia i?e oi?oaeo e eaaceoi?oaeo noieeiiaaieyo eaaeeo
yaea? n yae?aie. I?aaeeiaeai S-iao?e/iue iiaeoiae, iniiaaiiue ia
ii?aaeaeaiee yaea?iie oacu ?annayiey a oi?ia ?aceiaeaiey ii iieiiio
iaai?o ooieoeee, aeey eco/aiey yooaeoa yaea?iie ?aaeoae a oaeiauo
?ani?aaeaeaieyo ?annayiey eaaeeo eiiia, e n aai iiiiuueth
i?iaiaeece?iaaii cia/eoaeueiia /enei yenia?eiaioaeueii ecia?aiiuo
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo na/aiee ?annayiey. I?aaeneacai yooaeo yaea?iie
?aaeoae a oaeiaii ?ani?aaeaeaiee eaaceoi?oaie ?aaeoeee ia?aca?yaeee
(3He,3H) ia yae?ao. ?acaeoa i?eaeiaeueiay oaiiiaiieiae/aneay S-iao?e/iay
iiaeaeue, eioi?ay iicaieyao iienuaaoue eae aeeo?aeoeeiiiia yaea?iia
?annayiea, oae e ?ao?aeoeeiiiua yooaeou – yooaeo yaea?iie ?aaeoae,
i?ec?ae ?aaeoae e o?aoiaioa?ianeea ia?ana/aiey ?acee/iiai oeia. Ia
iniiaa yoie iiaeaee i?iaiaeece?iaaiu ?aciiia?aciua oece/aneea ea?oeiu
?annayiey eaaeeo e oyaeaeuo eiiia yae?aie a oe?ieeo aeeaiaciiao yia?aee,
oaeia ?annayiey e ianniauo /enae yaea? ieoaie. I?aaeeiaeai iiaue aa?eaio
?aceiaeaiey aiieeooae yaea?iiai ?annayiey ia aeeaeithth e aeaeueithth
ninoaaeythuea, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai oaeaaony ono?aieoue oeeoeaiua
aeeaaeu, aicieeathuea a noaiaea?oiie i?ioeaaeo?a ?aceiaeaiey. ?acaeoay
iiaeaeue S-iao?eoeu iaiauaia ia neo/ae o/aoa iiethnia ?aaeaea aaeece
aeaenoaeoaeueiie ine a eiiieaeniie ieineinoe iiiaioa, e eco/aii eo
aeeyiea ia ?ao?aeoeeiiiua yooaeou a oaeiauo ?ani?aaeaeaieyo ?annayiey
-/anoeoe e yaea? 16O a iaeanoe aieueoeo oaeia. Aeey iee?ineinie/aneiai
iienaiey na/aiee e iiey?ecaoeeiiiuo yaeaiee i?e ?annayiee /anoeoe
aeinoaoi/ii aunieeo yia?aee yae?aie eniieueciaaia oai?ey iiiaie?aoiiai
aeeo?aeoeeiiiiai ?annayiey (OIAe?) Aeaoaa?a–Neoaiei. Ia iniiaa OIAe? ia
-eeanoa?ao e i?eaeiaeueiie -eeanoa?iie iiaeaee n aeenia?neae eco/aii
aeeyiea -eeanoa?ecaoeee a yae?ao 12C ia ?annayiea i?ioiiia, aioei?ioiiia
e -iaciiia. N iiiiuueth oaeiai iiaeoiaea oaeaeinue iienaoue aeaiiua eae
aeey aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo na/aiee, oae e aeey iiey?ecaoeeiiiuo
iaaethaeaaiuo a oi?oaii p-12C ?annayiey i?e ?acee/iuo yia?aeyo.
I?iaiaeece?iaaii yenia?eiaioaeueii ecia?aiiia aeeooa?aioeeaeueiia
na/aiea oi?oaiai ?annayiey wmetafile8? ??§????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`????? ???&? ?MathType??P?
???u?????????»????-?????g????G???u@th??????Eeth/aaua neiaa:
ioeeiiu, eaaeea e oyaeaeua eiiu, i?iiaaeooi/iua yia?aee, aeeo?aeoeey,
yaea?iay ?aaeoaa, S-iao?e/iue iiaeoiae, oai?ey Aeaoaa?a–Neoaiei,
aeueoa-eeanoa?ecaoeey, iiey?ecaoeeiiiua iaaethaeaaiua, ?aaeoeee
ia?aca?yaeee.

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