IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INO?OOO O?C?IEIA?? ?I. I.I. AIAIIIEUeOess

Oiiieuei?e ?eecaaaoa A?eoi?iaia

OAeE 612.822.3:616.8-009.24

IAOAI?CIE Ae?? EII’THAAO?A AAIE C A?OAI?IAIE IA AAEUeI?AI?
IINONEIAIOE*I? ?AAEOe?? IAE?II?A IIAI? EI?E IICEO UO??A

03.00.13 — O?c?ieia?y ethaeeie oa oaa?ei

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?c?ieia?? ethaeeie oa oaa?ei Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

— aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oa?aiaiei Aaea??e Aeieo?iae/,
Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith o?c?ieia??
ethaeeie oa oaa?ei.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Noi?iaeoe A?eoi? Iaeneiiae/,
?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?i. I. I. Aiaiiieueoey IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/ee
a?aeae?eii o?c?ieia?? aieiaiiai iiceo,

— eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/ieo iaoe Oaaeoeiaa Na?oeaia Aiaoie?aia, noa?oee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee I?aeia?iaeiiai oeaio?o iieaeoey?ii? o?c?ieia?? i?e
IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny: «30 » eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiae.

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.198.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
o?c?ieia?? ?i. I. I. Aiaiiieueoey IAI Oe?a?ie (252024, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aiaiiieueoey, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 1 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ni?ie?ia-Ia??ia C. E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No/aniee oa?iaeieia?/iee ne?ei?ia iiaeo i?aia?ao?a
ia?aaeaa/a? anaa?/ia ia’?aeiaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ye ia
iae?i-, oae ? ia i?e?inenoaiiiio ??aiyo. Ia aeaeue, aeine?aeaeaiiy ia
iae?i??ai? ca/anoo ia aeathoue iiaiiai aa/aiiy iaoai?ci?a ae??
i?aia?ao?a ? i?e ?o ee?i?/ieo aei?iaoaaiiyo i?ecaiaeyoue aei aeieeiaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo iia?/ieo aoaeo?a iaynii? i?e?iaee. A ca’yceo c oeei a
inoaii? ?iee caaino?eeanue oe?eaa?noue a/aieo aei aeyaeaiiy oiieeo —
ee?oeiieo, iieaeoey?ieo, aaiaoe/ieo — iaoai?ci?a ae?? ??ciiiai?oieo
i?aia?ao?a oa ?oiueiai aieeao ia aeeaeii? i?ioeane i?aai?cio. Iniaeeai
oea noino?oueny iiaeo e?ea?nueeeo cania?a, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a
iaoiaaiaoe/i?e oa?ai?? ia?aiaeo ?iceaae?a. Ia’?eoii aea/aiiy noaee
i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a iaia?ai?, ?aoeaioi?ao, ?iiieo eaiaeao, a
nenoai? aioo??oiueiee?oeiii? neaiae?caoe??, aaiaoe/iiio aia?ao? iae?iio.
Aaee/acia cia/aiiy oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue i/aaeaeia ? aacia?a/ia.

Aeia?eiaioaeueia ? ee?i?/ia aea/aiiy no/anieo iiio?ii?a, aei yeeo
a?aeiinyoue iaioiaai, i?eai?eii ? anei?a?iao-AAIE, iieacaei ?oi?e
oe?ieee niaeo? ae?? ia ??ciiiai?oi? nenoaii? i?ioeane i?aai?cio (Ea?iia
e ae?., 1998; E?uaeaiianeee e ae?., 1982). Aeyaeai? ia iae?i??ai?
i?ioenoaeiii? ? aioeieneaeaioi? aeanoeaino? aeayeeo c ieo (Aaeae e ae?.,
1994) noaee i?aenoaaith aeey oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ineoiiaa?ieia?/io
ee?i?eo. Oe? i?aia?aoe ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy aeey e?eoaaiiy ai?eain??.
Iaeiae, i?e e?eoaaii? oaeeo neeaaeieo iaoieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ye
ai?eain?y, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe noeoii?noue an?o oaeoi??a, ui eaaeaoue
a iniia? ao?ieia?? ? iaoiaaiaco ?iceaaeo. A oea, ia?aaeon?i, ii?ooaiiy
aaeaino i?ae i?ioeanaie caoaeaeaiiy ? aaeueioaaiiy, iia’ycaia c
aeao?oeeoii inoaiiueiai, ui e i?ecaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy iaoieia?/ii?
nenoaie c ii?ooaiiyi neiaioe/ieo i?ioean?a ? aoyaiaiiyi ie?aieo ee?oei a
iaoieia?/iee neiae?ii (E?uaeaiianeee, 1997).

Iaioiaai, i?eai?eii ? anei?a?iao-AAIE ? eii’thaaoaie a?oai?i?a ?
iniiaiiai aaeuei?aiiai iaae?aoi?a a ei?? — AAIE.

A?oai?ii? eiiiiiaioe ye?, ianaiia?aae oaaaeai? a neeaae eiaeiiai c
i?aia?ao?a a yeino? ia?aiiniee?a AAIE /a?ac aaiaoiaioeaoae?/iee aa?’??,
iathoue aaaaoi aeanieo, aeoaea aaaeeeaeo aeey ii?iaeueiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy OeIN, aeanoeainoae ?, i?aeaeuoth/e o?io?ei-ieanoe/iee
iioaioe?ae iiceo, aaaeooue naaa ye iae?io?ioi? /eiieee (E?uaeaiianeee,
Eooeaiei, 1995). Iaeiae, aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui
aeai? i?aia?aoe iaeaaeaoue aei no?eeeo niieo/aiue, ye? ia anooiathoue a
iaoaaie?/i? ?aaeoe?? ? aeae?eythoueny c i?aai?cio a iaci?iiiio aeaeyae?
(Eiiaeaae/ e ae?., 1994), ioaea, eiaeiee c ieo ae?? ye ?aeeia oe?ea,
aeeeeeath/e naiino?eiee iaoaaie?/iee aoaeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a ae?? i?aia?ao?a ia ie?ai? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a a
oiiaao o?c?ieia?/ii ii?iaeueii? ? iaoieia?/ii? (ai?eaioeciaaii?) ei?e
aieiaiiai iiceo in vivo, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaea ia o?eueee iie?ioeoe
?icoi?iiy iaoai?ci?a aieeao i?aia?ao?a ia ii?iaeuei? ? iaoieia?/ii
ci?iai? ia?aia? ee?oeie, aea e anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino? aca?iiae??
iaoieia?/ii? ? o?c?ieia?/ii? nenoai a oe?eiio, ?acenoaioi?noue
iaoieia?/ii? nenoaie ? i?ioeane aeoeaaoe?? a?aeiia?aeieo aioenenoai.
E??i oiai, oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
iiaeeeao ae?th i?aia?ao?a, ui aea/athoueny, ia i?ioeane neiaioe/ii?
ia?aaea/? ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ?iiieo eaiae?a, a oaeiae c
aeei?enoaiiyi cania?a noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee, aecia/eoe oi/i? aeice
i?aia?ao?a, ui aeyaeythoue oie /e ?ioee aoaeo ia iae?iii? iiioeyoe??
ei?e aieiaiiai iiceo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aea?aiee
iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi iaoeiai? ?iaioe, yeo
i?iaiaeyoue ia eaoaae?? o?c?ieia?? ethaeeie ? oaa?ei Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo ii aea/aiith iaeaaaeeea?oeo iniaeeainoae aca?iiae??
i?ioean?a caoaeaeaiiy ? aaeueioaaiiy, aecia/aiith cia/aiiy i?ioean?a
aaeueioaaiiy o ia?aa?ao ii?iaeueieo ? iaoieia?/ieo ?aaeoe?e, ii
aea/aiith ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ei?eiaeo iae?ii?a, a?aeiia?aeii
iai?yieo «Caei?ia’y ethaeeie» o ?aieao aea?aeathaeaeaoieo oai I?iina?oe
Oe?a?ie:

1. Iaoai?cie ?aae?caoe?? aeoeaiino? a?oai?i?a ye ?ioaa?aeueii? nenoaie
?aaoeyoi??a iaoaaie?cio (?a?no?. ?0897V008988)

2. Iaoai?cie i?aeoa?iai? aca?iiae?? iae?ii?a ei?e iiceo a ii?i? oa
i?io?eaii? ia?ieneciaeueii? aeoeaiino? (?a?no?. ?0197V008975)

Iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aei i?aia?ao?a, ui aeine?aeaeothoueny, coiiaeaiee
?iaioaie inoaii?o ?ie?a ni?a?ia?oiee?a eaoaae?e a?io?i?? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, aea aeai? i?aia?aoe aoee neioaciaai? ni?eueii c III
«A?oai?ie» (i. Iineaa) ? i?ieoee iiia?aaei? a?io?i?/ia aea/aiiy.

E??i oiai, aea?? oaie aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiee c iaiao?aei?noth
neioaco, anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a ee?i?/io i?aeoeeo
no/anieo a?o/eciyieo e?ea?nueeeo i?aia?ao?a.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith oe??? ?iaioe ? aeyaeaiiy ae??
eii’thaao?a AAIE c a?oai?iaie — iaioiaaia, i?eai?eiia ? anei?a?iaoa-AAIE
ia aaeuei?ai? iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a iiai? ei?e aieiaiiai
iiceo a oiiaao o?c?ieia?/ii? ii?ie ? noai?aiiy ei?eiaeo ai?eaioiaaiieo
oieon?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iinoaaeai? oae? iniiai?
caaea/?:

1. Anoaiiaeoe aeayeee aieea i?aia?ao?a i?e ??cieo caniaao ?o aaaaeaiiy
ia aaeuei?ai? iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe??, ui ?a?no?oaaeeny a ei??.

2. Aecia/eoe iaoai?cie ae?? eiaeiiai c i?aia?ao?a ia i?ioeane ?iiii?
i?ia?aeiino?, iia’ycai? c AAIE-?aoeaioi?aie iinoneiaioe/ii? iaia?aie
iae?ii?a a oiiaao ii?iaeueii? oa ai?eaioeciaaii? ei?e.

3. Aea/eoe aoaeoeai?noue aeeth/aiiy i?aia?ao?a a eiiieaen
aioeai?eaioe/ii? oa?ai??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A ?iaio? iieacaia ae?y
eii’thaao?a AAIE c a?oai?iaie — iaioiaaio, anei?a?iaoo-AAIE ? i?eai?eiio
ia ee?oeiiiio ??ai?. C’yniaai aieea eiaeiiai c i?aia?ao?a iacaeaaeii
a?ae caniaa aaaaeaiiy ia i?ioeane AAIE-??a?/iiai aaeueioaaiiy iae?ii?a a
oiiaao ii?iaeueii? oa ai?eaioeciaaii? ei?e.

Aeyaeaii, ui iaioiaai iineeth? i?ioeane iinoneiaioe/iiai aaeueioaaiiy a
ei??. I?eai?eii ? anei?a?iao-AAIE iiaeooue iineethaaoe i?ioeane
iinoneiaioe/iiai aaeueioaaiiy aai aeeeeeaoe ?icaaeueioaaiiy iae?ii?a
ei?e aieiaiiai iiceo a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeei?enoaii? aeice eiaeiiai
i?aia?aoo.

C?iaeaii i?eiouaiiy uiaei noeioethth/i? ae?? iaioiaaio ia ?iaioo
AAIEA-?aoeaioi??a iinoneiaioe/ii? iaia?aie ei?eiaeo iae?ii?a, iacia/iiai
aieeao i?eai?eiio ia ?iiio i?ia?aei?noue AAIEA-?aoeaioi??a ? aeoeaoth/i?
ae?? anei?a?iaoo-AAIE ia ?iaioo AAIE-?aoeaioi?ii-eaiaeueiiai eiiieaeno
(?EE) a oe?eiio.

Anoaiiaeaia iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iaioiaaio ?
anei?a?iaoo-AAIE a i?ioenoaeiii?e oa?ai?? a ii?aeiaii? c iecueeith
aeicith aa?a?oo?ao?a.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeyaeythoue iae?io?c?ieia?/i? iaoai?cie ae?? i?aia?ao?a ?
aeiiiaiththoue ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i ?oith oa?iaeieia?/io ae?th.

E??i oiai, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue i?i aaaeeea?noue aeice,
ui aeei?enoiao?oueny, eiaeiiai c i?aia?ao?a, ine?eueee aoaeoe, ui
aeeeeeathoueny ieie, i?e ??cieo aeicao ??ciiiai?oi?. Oey ?ioi?iaoe?y
iiaea aooe ei?enia aeey e?ea??a, ui i?aeoeeothoue, iaoeiaeo ?
oa?iaoeaaoe/ieo ?ia?oiee?a aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy canoinoaaiiy i?aia?ao?a a
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ? a ineoiiaa?ieia?/i?e i?aeoeoe? c o?aooaaiiyi
?oiuei? iae?io?c?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino?.

Io?eiai? aeai? iioe?ththoue oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?cie, ui eaaeaoue a iniia?
iaiaaeaiiy ? i?eieiaiiy ai?eaioe/ieo ?aaeoe?e ? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a iaa?iiaoieia?? i?e e?eoaaii? oieaeueieo ai?eain?e. Cia/ia
cieaeaiiy aeice aa?a?oo?ao?a ca ?aooiie eiia?iaoe?? c eii’thaaoaie AAIE
c a?oai?iaie aeicaieeoue cia/ii ne?ioeoe nooi?iue oiene/iiai aieeao
aa?a?oo?ao?a ia i?aai?ci.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aoee
i?aaenoaaeai? ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 75-??//th
Oe?a?inueei? oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? aeaaeai?? (i. Oa?e?a, 1996 ?.); ia iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo, (i. Iaeana, 1997 ?); ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? ii iiio?iiiei i?aia?aoai (i. Iineaa, 1998 ?.); ia XV
c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai o?c?ieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa, (i. Aeiiaoeuee, 1998
?.); ia eiieo?n? iieiaeeo a/aieo, i?enay/aiiio 80-??//th Oe?a?inueei?
IAI (i. Iaeana, 1998 ?.); ia I (onoaiia/i?) eiioa?aioe?? Oe?a?inueeiai
oiaa?enoaa iae?iiaoe (i. Ee?a, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 6 noaoae a
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo noaoae oa oace aeaio
aeiiia?aeae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??ae?a oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae ?c 175 iaeiaioaaiue. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 118 noi??ieao oa
?ethno?iaaia 20 iaethieaie oa 29 oaaeeoeyie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. A aenia?eiaioao aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
a?e? uo?e e?i?? A?noa? aaaith 250-350 a.

I?aeaioia/? iia?aoe??. Oaa?ei ia?eioecoaaee aioo??oiuei/a?aaiei
aaaaeaiiyi o?aoaio (1,0 a/ea). Iaiethaaee nainiiioi?io ciio iiai? ei?e.
Aeey onoiaiiy ioeuenaoe?? iiceo cae?enithaaee oeenoa?iioii?th;
o?aiaiaoe?eiee ioa?? caeeaaee oaieei ?ic/eiii aaa?-aaa?o.

I?ioyaii aeine?aeo i?ney iia?aoe?? o?aoaioii?? oaa?eio ?iaeee ia?ooiiith
ca aeiiiiiaith d-ooaieo?a?eio («Sigma»,NOA; 10 ia/ea,
aioo??oiueii’yciai) ? ia?aaiaeeee ia ooo/ia aeeoaiiy. On? ?aiia?
iiaa?oi? ? oi/ee o?enaoe?? ia?iaeyee iiaiea?iii.

Aioo??oiueie??eia? iiae?aciaiiy (AEI) cae?enithaaee iiiiiiey?ii
i?yiieooieie iiooiaoaie no?oio i?ioyaei?noth 0,2 in oa aiie?ooaeith 5-20
A /a?ac i?o?iiiaee aeaeo?iae (ae?aiao? 200 iei), yeee caio?thaaee a
iicie ia aeeaeio 1 ii. Aeaeo?iei?oeeia?aio (AEiA) ?a?no?oaaee
iiaa?oiaaei eoeueeiaei ieaoeiiaei aeaeo?iaeii. A?ey iiae?acithth/iai
aeaeo?iaeo ?icoaoiaoaaee nioaeeo o?eueo?oaaeueiiai iaia?o (2o2 ii), ia
yeiio ciaoiaeeeanue eaithey, c’?aeiaia c i?e?ioi?eoeai. Eiai
iaiiaithaaee a ??cieo aeine?aeao ?ic/eiaieie a o?c?ieia?/iiio ?ic/ei?
aaiceeiai?oeee?iii iao??th (160 iI) aai a?eoeoe?iii (AEE) (5 iI).
Eiiaoeuenaioe i?eeeaaeaee i?ae oeneii ia iiaa?oith ei?e a ia’?i? a?ey 10
iee.

Aeoeai?noue ie?aieo iae?ii?a a?aeaiaeeee aioo??oiueiee?oeiii neeyieie
i?e?iaeaeo?iaeaie c iii?ii 20-60 IIi, ye? aoee caiiaiai? ?ic/eiii
aoeaoaoo eae?th (3,0 I). Aiie ciaoiaeeeenue ia a?aenoai? 1-2 ii a?ae
iiae?acithth/iai aeaeo?iaeo.

Caniae aaaaeaiiy eii’thaao?a AAIE c a?oai?iaie. A aenia?eiaioao ia
ii?iaeuei?e ei?? cae?enithaaee iiaa?oi?aa i?eeeaaeaiiy a?oai?iieo
iio?aeieo AAIE (IAI «Aeoaieiu», ?O) o eiioeaio?aoe?yo 5, 10, 20, 50 aai
100 ieI aai ?o aioo??oiuei/a?aaia aaaaeaiiy a aeicao 5, 10, 20, 50 aai
100 ia/ea. A aenia?eiaioao ia ai?eaioeciaai?e ei?? cae?enithaaee
aioo??oiuei/a?aaia aaaaeaiiy iaioiaaio ? anei?a?iaoo-AAIE o aeic? 50
ia/ea ? i?eai?eiio o aeic? 5 ia/ea oa a ii?aeiaii? c o?iiaoaeii iao??th
a aeic? 10 ia/ea.

Noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo aeaieo aeeiioaaee c aeei?enoaiiyi e?eoa??th
Nouethaeaioa.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Aieea eii’thaao?a AAIE c a?oai?iaie i?e ?oi?e iiaa?oiaa?e aie?eaoe?? ia
aaeuei?ai? iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a ii?iaeueii? ei?e.

Ia aioo??oiueiei?eiaa iiae?aciaiiy ii?iaeueii?, yea ia i?aeeyaaea aieeao
eiiaoeuenaio?a, nainiiioi?ii? ciie iiai? ei?e iae?iie a?aeiia?aeaee
?aaeoe?yie oeio: ia?aeiiee AINI, CINI — AINI, a ??aeeeo aeiaaeeao
?a?no?oaaee ?aaeoe?? oeio: CINI — i?e — AINI .

E?euee?noue oeiia ?aaeoe??, ui niinoa??aaeeny o ??cieo eiioeaio?aoe?yo
i?aia?ao?a, ci?ithaaeanue, aea a on?o ca?a?no?iaaieo iaie ?aaeoe?yo aoea
iayai?noue AINI. Aiie?ooaea ? o?eaae?noue ca?a?no?iaaieo AINI
a?aeiia?aeii aei??aithaaee 8.0± 0.7 iA ? 306.9± 12.0 in. Aaee/eia II
iae?ii?a, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, a na?aaeiueiio neeaaeaea 54.3± 1.0 iA.
O a?eueoino? ee?oei niinoa??aaee oiiiao ?iioeuenio aeoeai?noue (O?A),
/anoioa yei? a na?aaeiueiio aoea ??aia 10.5± 3.0 1/n.

Aieea iiaa?oiaaeo aie?eaoe?e iaioiaaio (IA) ia oa?aeoa? aaeuei?aieo
iinoneiaioe/ieo ?aaeoe?e iae?ii?a ei?e. I?eeeaaeath/e ia iiaa?oith ei?e
IA a ??ciiiai?oieo eiioeaio?aoe?yo (5, 10, 20, 50 aai 100 ieI), ie
aeyaeee, ui a iaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo (5 ieI) IA o?ioe i?aeaeuoaaa
aiie?ooaeo AINI ? ca?eueooaaa ?o o?eaae?noue. Aie?eaoe?y IA o na?aaei?o
aeicao (eiioeaio?aoe?? 10 ? 20 ieI) oaeiae o iacia/i?e i??? i?aeaeuoaaea
aiie?ooaeo AINI, aea ae?acii ca?eueooaaea ?o o?eaae?noue, aieiaiei /eiii
iiaeiaaeoth/e i?ci?e eiiiiiaio AINI. Oae, i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? 20 ieI IA
ca?eueooaaa o?eaae?noue AINI o na?aaeiueiio ia 23 %. Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe,
ui naia cacia/aia aeica IA aoea iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiith a ieai? aieeao ia
aaeuei?ai? iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a ei?e, ine?eueee i?aia?ao o
a?eueo aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo (50 ? 100 ieI) aeeeeeaa aoaeoe i?eaeecii
oaei? naii? aaee/eie ? oaei? naii? iai?aaeaiino?, ye i?e 20 ieI.

?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? iaie, a oe?eiio i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeneiaeai?
?ai?oa i?eiouaiiy i?i iioaioe?thaaiiy IA AAIE-a?a?/iiai aaeueioaaiiy a
ei?? aieiaiiai iiceo ?, ye iane?aeie, eiai i?ioenoaeiii? aeanoeaino?
(E?uaeaiianeee, 1997; I?aeyineay, Eiceianeee, 1981). E??i oiai, iao?
?acoeueoaoe aeyaeee aieea i?aia?aoo ia eiie?aoi? ia?aiao?e AINI:
aiie?ooaeo ? o?eaae?noue, ui iiaea aooe iia’ycaia ye c? ci?iaie ?iiieo
i?ia?aeiinoae AAIE-?EE, oae ? c i?yiei aieeaii i?aia?aoo ia aoyaiaiiy
aaeuei?aieo iae?ii?a.

Aieea iiaa?oiaaeo aie?eaoe?e i?eai?eiio (II) ia oa?aeoa? aaeuei?aieo
iinoneiaioe/ieo ?aaeoe?e ei?eiaeo iae?ii?a. ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? iaie,
iieacaee, ui o aeiaaeeo iiaa?oiaai? aie?eaoe?? II eiai i?i?iaeueiith
eiioeaio?aoe??th, i?e ye?e a?aeaoaaeiny iineeaiiy aaeuei?aieo
iinoneiaioe/ieo ?aaeoe?e e??eiaeo iae?ii?a, ? 5 ieI. Iaeiae a
eiioeaio?aoe?? 10 ieI II ?noioii iineaaethaaa AINI o iae?iiao ei?e ?
aeeeeeaa iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae a?ia?iiey?ecaoe?eieo eiiiiiaio?a
a?aeiia?aeae a aeaiiey?ecaoe?eie, i?e/iio iniaeeai ae?acii? ?aaa?n??
caciaaaa ?aii?e eiiiiiaio AINI. Aiie?ooaea oaeeo ?aii?o
aeaiiey?ecaoe?eieo eiiiiiaio?a a aeaieo oiiaao a na?aaeiueiio neeaaeaea
1.7 ± 0.8 iA, a o?eaae?noue — 45.2 ± 4.5 in.

O a?eueo aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo iiaa?oiaai aie?eiaaiee II ciiao ii/eiaa
caaacia/oaaoe ?noioia iineeaiiy aaeuei?aii? iinon?iaioe/ii? ae??. II o
“iaaeaenie?e” aeic? (100 ieI) i?ecaiaeea aei cia/iiai c?inoaiiy ?
aiie?ooaee, ? (iniaeeai) o?eaaeino? AINI, aeeeeeaieo AEI. Oea
noino?oueny ? ia?aeiieo AINI, ? aaeuei?aieo eiiiiiaio?a o neeaaeieo
?aaeoe?yo.

Oaeei /eiii, io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i aeicicaeaaeiee aieea II
ia i?ioeane aaeueioaaiiy, i?e/iio oey caeaaei?noue ia? neeaaeiee
oa?aeoa?. A iaaieo aeicao i?aia?ao ni?aaeya aeoeaoth/ee aieea ia
iae?iii? iiioeyoe?? ei?e aieiaiiai iiceo. A?aeii? aeiaaeee aeieeiaiiy
aiaeia?/ieo aeaiiey?ecaoe?eieo AINI i?ae ae??th neiaioe/ii ca?eueiaii?
AAIE a i??ai?aeieo ee?oeiao a?iieaiia uo?a (Avoli, 1988), ui iia’ycaii c
aeoeaaoe??th AAIEA ?aoeaioi??a, ?icoaoiaaieo ia aeaiae?eoao iae?ii?a.
E??i oiai, AAIE iiae? aeeeeeaoe ciaioaiiy aiie?ooaee AINI ye /a?ac
i?aneiaioe/ia aaeueioaaiiy ca?eueiaiiy AAIE, ui iia’ycaii c aeoeaaoe??th
AAIEA-?aoeaioi??a,oae ? /a?ac i?aeaeuaiiy oei?ii? i?ia?aeiino?
AAIEA-?aoeaioi??a iinoneiaioe/ii? iaia?aie. I/aaeaeii, ui ? a iaoiio
aeiaaeeo, a?aoiaoth/e, ui II ? iio?aeiei AAIE, iiaeia i?eionoeoe ui oeae
i?aia?ao, ?ioaineo?eoy nenoaio AAIE o oe?eiio, iiaea i?eaiaeeoe aei
iiaeoeyoe?? aaeuei?aieo ?aaeoe?? ? ?icaaeueioaaiiy o ei?? iiceo.

Aieea iiaa?oiaaeo aie?eaoe?e anei?a?iaoo-AAIE (AA) ia oa?aeoa?
aaeuei?aieo iinoneiaioe/ieo ?aaeoe?e ei?eiaeo iae?ii?a. Aeaia na??y
aenia?eiaio?a iieacaea aeicicaeaaeiee aieea AA ia iinoneiaioe/i?
?aaeoe?? ei?oeeaeueieo iae?ii?a. AA o iaeeo aeicao (eiioeaio?aoe?y 5
ieI) coiiaethaaa iaaaeeea ca?eueoaiiy aiie?ooaee ? o?eaaeino? AINI.
I?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aei 10 ieI ?noioii ia ci?ithaaei aoaeoo.
Ca?eueoaiiy ae eiioeaio?aoe?? AA aei 20 ieI noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny cia/iei
iineeaiiyi aaeueieaieo ?aaeoe?e: c?inoaee ye aiie?ooaea, oae ?
(iniaeeai) ?o o?eaae?noue. Iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? AA aei
50 ieI i?ecaiaeeei aei iaaaeeeiai ia?inoaiiy aiie?ooaee aaeuei?aieo
?aaeoe?e, ia?aaaaeii ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy ii/aoeiaiai eiiiiiaioo AINI.
O oie aea /an i?ci?e eiiiiiaio AINI ii/eiaa caciaaaoe ?aaa?n??. A
oeueiio aeiaaeeo a iae?iiao niinoa??aaeiny ca?eueoaiiy /anoioe O?A.
I?ney aie?eaoe?? AA o iaea?eueo aenieeo aeicao (eiioeaio?aoe?y 100 ieI)
o an?o niinoa?aaeoaaieo iaie iinoneiaioe/ieo ?aaeoe?yo aeyaeyeanue
?aaa?n?y ye ?aiiueiai, oae ? i?ciueiai eiiiiiaio?a AINI. Ia?aeaeueii
a?aei?/aeiny cia/ia iineeaiiy O?A iae?ii?a.

Oaeei /eiii, iaea?eueoo /ooeea?noue aei AA i?iyaea ?aii?e eiiiiiaio
AINI, ca’ycaiee c oei?iith i?ia?aei?noth AAIEA-?EE. sseui ie
aeei?enoiaoaaee na?aaei? c aeine?aeaeaieo aeic, aieea i?aia?aoo noaaaa
iaio niaoeeo?/iei ? ioiiethaaa oaeiae i?ci?e eiiiiiaio AINI. Aenie?
aeice aeaiiai i?aia?aoo, iiaeeeai, coiiaethaaee a iaia?ai? ei?oeeaeueieo
iae?ii?a oaeee ?ioaineaiee aeoeaoth/ee aieea ia ?iaioo ? oei?ieo, ?
eae??aeo eaiae?a, eio?? iiina?aaeeiaothoue ?aii?e ? i?ci?e eiiiiiaioe
AINI, ui oea iiaei ni?e/eiyoe c?ooaiiy ??aiiaaaeieo iioaioe?ae?a aeey
caaaeaieo ?ii?a ? ci?ie iai?yio a?aeiia?aeieo ?iiieo no?oi?a.

Aieea eii’thaao?a AAIE c a?oai?iaie i?e ?oiueiio nenoaiiiio aaaaeaii? ia
oa?aeoa? aaeuei?aieo iinoneiaioe/ieo ?aaeoe?e iae?ii?a ii?iaeueii? ei?e.

A aeaiiio aeiaaeeo oaeiae aoee ca?a?no?iaai? ?aaeoe?? 3-o oei?a:
CINI-i?e-AINI, CINI-AINI ? ia?aeiiee AINI. E?euee?noue oeiia ?aaeoe?? o
??cieo aeicao i?aia?ao?a ci?ithaaeanue, ii a on?o ca?a?no?iaaieo iaie
?aaeoe?yo aoea iayai?noue AINI, aiie?ooaea yeeo a aeai?e na???
aeine?aeaeaiue a na?aaeiueiio neeaaeaea 8.4± 0.8 iA, a ?oiy o?eaae?noue
— 287.3± 11.4 in.

Aaee/eia II iae?ii?a, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeenue, a na?aaeiueiio neeaaeaea
53.2± 1.0 iA. O a?eueoino? ee?oei niinoa??aaee O?A, /anoioa yei? a
na?aaeiueiio aoea ??aia 10.5± 3.0 1/n.

Aieea nenoaiiiai aaaaeaiiy iaioiaaio (IA) ia oa?aeoa? aaeuei?aieo
iinoneiaioe/ieo ?aaeoe?e iae?ii?a. ?ai?oa aoee iieacai? ?ioaineo?eaoe?y
aeoeaiino? AAIE-a?a?/ii? nenoaie i?ae ae??th IA ? eiai i?ioenoaei?iaei?
aeanoeaino? (Iao?ia e ae?. 1994). O iaoeo aeine?aeao ?acoeueoaoe
aea/aiiy aieeao aeaiiai i?aia?aoo i?e eiai nenoaiiiio aaaaeaii? ia
oa?aeoa? AINI o ei?? aieiaiiai iiceo uo??a i?iaeaiiino?oaaee, ui IA
iii?oii ca?eueooaaa o?eaae?noue oaeeo neiaioe/ieo i?ioean?a, i?e/iio
caeaa?eueoiai ca ?aooiie i?ciueiai eiiiiiaioa AINI, iiina?aaeeiaaiiai
eae??aith i?ia?aei?noth AAIEA-?EE. Oea iiina?aaeeiaaii, aea aeinoaoiuei
ia?aeiieeai, i?aeoaa?aeaeo?, ui IA aieeaa? ia aeaiee oei ?iiii?
i?ia?aeiino? iinoneiaioe/ii? iaia?aie. Aeica i?aia?aoo IA, i?e ye?e
aeieeaa iaeneiaeueiee aoaeo iineeaiiy iinoneiaioe/iiai aaeueioaaiiy,
neeaaeaea 50 ia/ea.

Aieea nenoaiiiai aaaaeaiiy i?eai?eiio (II) ia oa?aeoa? aaeuei?aieo
iinoneiaioe/ieo ?aaeoe?e iae?ii?a. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a ?c
nenoaiiei canoinoaaiiyi II iieacaee, ui, ye ? i?e iiaa?oiaaeo
aie?eaoe?yo, i?aia?ao iiaea o?euee? a iacia/i?? i??? (aei 10 %)
ca?eueooaaoue aaeuei?ai? ?aaeoe?? o ei?? o iecueeeo aeicao ? iineethaaoe
caoaeaeaii? aieeae c c?inoaiiyi aeice.

Aeica i?aia?aoo II, ??aia 5 ia/ea, aoea i?i?iaeueiith uiaei ae?? ia
aeine?aeaeoaai? ia?aiao?e acaaae?. Aoaeo canoinoaaiiy II a aeic? 10
ia/ea ia a?ae??ciyany cia/ii a?ae ae?? ia ia?aiao?e AINI i?aia?aoo a
aeic? 5 ia/ea. Aeei?enoaiiy II a a?eueo aenieeo aeicao (20 oa 50 ia/ea)
ci?uoaaei ??aiiaaao i?ae i?ioeanaie aaeueioaaiiy oa caoaeaeaiiy a a?e
inoaiiueiai: aeeeeeaany aoaeo, cai?ioiee i/?eoaaiiio. “Iaaeaenie?” aeice
II (100 ia/ea) aoee iaaoaeoeaieie uiaei aieeao ia aeine?aeaeoaai?
ia?aiao?e.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a oiiaao
nenoaiiiai aaaaeaiiy II iaae? aeic, i?e yeeo niinoa??aa?oueny
iioaioe?thaaiiy aaeueioaaiiy, cia/ii cieaeai? oa iaeiaoaeoeai?.

Oaeei /eiii, iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ui i?e nenoaiiiio aaaaeaii?
aeine?aeaeoaaiee i?aia?ao a aeinooiiiio niaeo?? aeic ni?aaey?
aeoeaoth/ee aieea ia iae?iii? iiioeyoe?? ei?e aieiaiiai iiceo.

Aieea nenoaiiiai aaaaeaiiy anei?a?iaoo-AAIE (AA) ia oa?aeoa? aaeuei?aieo
iinoneiaioe/ieo ?aaeoe?e iae?ii?a. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a c nenoaiiei
aaaaeaiiyi AA iieacaee, ui, ye ? i?e iiaa?oiaaeo aie?eaoe?yo, AA o
iaeeo aeicao (5-10 ie/ea) oaeiae i?iyaey? iaaio naeaeoeai?noue uiaei
iineeaiiy ?aiiueiai eiiiiiaioo AINI ?, iiaeeeai, oei?ii? i?ia?aeiino?
/a?ac AAIEA-?EE. A na?aaei?o aeicao (20 ? 50 ia/ea) aieea i?aia?aoo
?iciianthaeaeoaaany oe?oa oa caoiiethaaa ? i?ci?e eiiiiiaio AINI,
iia’ycaiee c oei?iith ? eae??aith i?ia?aei?noth AAIEA-?EE.

I?ioa a oe?eiio AA, iiaeeeai, aeicicaeaaeiei /eiii ca?eueoo? /an
a?aee?eoiai noaio ? oei?ieo, ? eae??aeo eaiae?a AAIE-?EE. C?
ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? (aei 100 ia/ea) ae?y AA noaaaea oaeith
neeueiith, ui oea iiaei i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?aaa?n?? AINI, aeieeiaiiy
aeaiiey?ecaoe?eiie a?aeiia?ae? ? cia/iiai iineeaiiy O?A. Oea iiaei
coiiaeoe aoaeo, cai?ioiee iineeaiith aaeueioaaiiy aai ?icaaeueioaaiiy.

Aieea eii’thaao?a AAIE c a?oai?iaie ia iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a
ei?eiaeo yi?eaioiaaiieo oieon?a.

Aioo??oiueiee?oeiii aoee aea/ai? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a nainiiioi?ii? ciie
ei?e i?ney iiaa?oiaai? aie?eaoe?? iai?oeee?io aai a?eoeoe?io, ui
aeeeeeaei ?icaeoie yi?eaioeoi?iii? aeoeaiino?. A iae?iiao aeieeaee
ia?ieneciaeuei? aeaiiey?ecaoe?ei? c?ooaiiy iaia?aiiiai iioaioe?aeo (IAeC
II), a yeeo caei IAe ?icaeaaany ia oii? aeaiiey?ecaoe?eii? oaee?.
Aiie?ooaea IAeC II aeine?aeaeaieo iae?ii?a ciaoiaeeeanue a iaaeao a?ae
20 aei 50 iA, a ?oiy o?eaae?noue a?ae 50 aei 200 in.

Aieea iaioiaaio (IA) ia iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a ei?eiaeo
yi?eaioiaaiieo oieon?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ii aeyaeaiith
iiaeeeaie aca?iiae?? i?ae IA ? niaoeeo?/ieie ? ianiaoeeo?/ieie
aeieaoi?aie AAIE-?EE iieacaee, ui IA ia cae?enith? cia/iiai aieeao ia
?i?eaioeoi?ii? ?aaeoe??, ui aeeeeeaeeny o ei?? aie?eaoe?a? iai?oeee?io
aai a?eoeoe?io. A?eueo oiai, a aeiaaeeo niaoeeo?/iiai ca’yceo
AAIEA-?aoeaioi?a c aioaaii?noii, IA i?aeoe/ii ia aoaeoeaiee aei
i?eai?/aiiy IAeC II.

A on?o ca?a?no?iaaieo iaie ai?eaioeoi?iieo ?aaeoe?yo iaio ina?aaee?a IA
aeeeeeaa aeieeiaiiy o?eaaeeo (aei 500 in) iinoa?ia?iiey?ecaoe?e, ye? a
iaoeo aeine?aeao aei aaaaeaiiy i?aia?aoo aoee a?aenooi?. A iei?oi?e /an
aeia?a a?aeiii, ui oae? iinoa?ia?iiey?ecaoe?? coiiaeai? Na-caeaaeiei
eae??aei no?oiii (Alger, Speckmann, 1983) ? a ?o aeieeiaii? iiaeooue
i?eeiaoe o/anoue AAIEA-?aoeaioi?e.

Aeyaeaiee iaie aieea IA ia i?ci?e eiiiiiaio AINI ? iioaioe?thaaiiy
o?eaaeeo iinoa?ia?iiey?ecaoe?e o ai?eaioeoi?iieo ?aaeoe?yo iiynith?
cieaeaiiy /anoioe ai?eaioeoi?iieo ?ic?yae?a ?, ye iane?aeie,
i?ioenoaeiiio ae?th i?aia?aoo.

Aieea i?eai?eiio (II) ia iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a ei?eiaeo
yi?eaioiaaiieo oieon?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ii aea/aiith
aca?iiae?? II ? niaoeeo?/ieo (a?eoeoe?ia) ? ianiaoeeo?/ieo (iai?oe?e?ia)
aeieaoi??a AAIE-?EE iieacaee, ui II ia aeyaey? aioeai?eaioeoi?iiie
aeoeaiino?. Eiai ae?y a oae?e iae?e aeic? (5 ia/ea) aeyaey?oueny
iaeiaoaeoeaiith ui aei i?eai?/aiiy IAeC II, iniaeeai, yeui oe? IAeC
aeeeeeai? niaoeeo?/iith aeieaaeith AAIEA-?aoeaioi?a a?eoeoe?iii.A on?o
ca?a?no?iaaieo iaie ?aaeoe?yo II aeeeeeaa eeoa iacia/ia iaae?iiy
aiie?ooaee IAeC II ? iineaaeaiiy O?A iae?ii?a.

A oe?eiio, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui oey /anoeia aeine?aeaeaiiy ua ?ac
(i?ney aenia?eiaio?a ia ii?iaeuei?e ei??) iieacaea iaeo aoaeoeai?noue
i?aia?aoo ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?aeneeaiiy iinoneiaioe/iiai aaeueioaaiiy
a ei?? ?, oei a?eueo, ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?eai?/aiiy ai?eaioeoi?iii?
aeoeaiino?.

Aieea anei?a?iaoo-AAIE (AA) ia iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a ei?eiaeo
ai?eaioiaaiieo oieon?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ii aea/aiith
aca?iiae?? AA c? niaoeeo?/ieie ? ianiaoeeo?/ieie aeieaoi?aie AAIE-?EE
iieacaee a?eueo ae?aaeaioth ae?th AA i?e a?aenooiino? o?eaaeiai ca’yceo
i?ae eiiaoeuenaioii ? AAIEA-?aoeaioi?ii, o aeiaaeeo ianiaoeeo?/ii?
aeieaaee oei?ii? i?ia?aeiino? AAIEA-?aoeaioi?a iai?oe?e?iii.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a on?o ca?a?no?iaaieo iaie ?aaeoe?yo, AA aeeeeeaa
aeieeiaiiy o?eaaeeo iinoa?ia?iiey?ecaoe?e, ui aoee a?aenooi? aei
aaaaeaiiy i?aia?aoo. A?aoiaoth/e oie oaeo, ui oae? iinoa?ia?iiey?ecaoe??
coiiaeai? Na-caeaaeiith eae??aith i?ia?aei?noth, iiaeia i?eionoeoe
iiaeeeaee aieea i?aia?aoo, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, naia ia aeaiee oei
?iiii? i?ia?aeiino?.

Iiaeeeai, eiai ae?y iiaea aeeeeeaoe iicaee?oeiia iaeiie/aiiy eae?th ?,
ye iane?aeie, oei/aniaa i?aeaeuaiiy ai?eaioeoi?iii? aeoeaiino?. A?aeiii,
ui naia iicaee?oeii? iaeiie/aiiy ?ii?a E+ iiaeooue ni?e/eiyoe aeieeiaiiy
noaeii a a?iieaii? (Traynelis, Dingledine, 1989). Aiaeia?/ia ea?oeia
niinoa??aaeany ? a iaoeo aeine?aeao, ui i?iyaeyeiny a oei/aniaiio
i?aeneeaii? O?A ? i?aeaeuaii? /anoioe niiioaiieo ai?eaioeoi?iieo
?ic?yae?a. Iaeiae, oaeee ina?aaeie i?a ?nioaaoe iaaeiaai, i?ney /iai
ai?eaioeoi?ii? ?aaeoe?? a cia/i?e i??? i?eai?/oaaeeny.

Aieea eii’thaao?a AAIE c a?oai?iaie a ii?aeiaii? c aa?a?oo?aoaie ia
iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a ei?eiaeo ai?eaioiaaiieo oieon?a

Aieea aa?a?oo?ao?a ia ai?eaioeoi?ii? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a ei?e. Aaaaeaiiy
?ic/eio o?iiaioaeo iao??th ia oii? noi?iiaaiiai ai?eaioiaaiiiai
ina?aaeeo aeeeeeaei ciaiooaaiiy aiie?ooaee ? o?eaaeino? IAeC II.

Ae?th aa?a?oo?ao?a ia ai?eaioeoi?iio aeoeai?noue iae?ii?a iia’ycothoue
ia?aaeon?i c i?aeneeaiiyi nenoaie AAIE-a?a?/iiai aaeueioaaiiy, yea
aeyaeyeiny a iiaeiaaeaii? /ano ooieoe?iioaaiiy oei?ieo eaiae?a
AAIEA-?aoeaioi??a iinoneiaioe/ii? iaia?aie. ?nio? aeoiea, ui aa?a?oo?aoe
aeinoa?e/ii ci?iththoue eiioi?iaoe?th AAIE-?EE, ca?eueooth/e caaaeyee
oeueiio, /an ia i?ioyc? yeiai oei?i? eaiaee iinoneiaioe/ii? iaia?aie
caeeoathoueny a?aee?eoeie (Oooi, 1990). I?aeneeaiiy oei?ii? i?ia?aeiino?
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeaiyeiai aoaeoo. Ii-ia?oa, iineeth?oueny aaeueioaaiiy
? ii/eia? ia?aaaaeaoe iaae caoaeaeaiiyi, ii-ae?oaa, ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
oei?ii? i?ia?aeiino? iaaea? ii?? iaia?aie, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ooiooaaiiy IAeC.

Aieea iaioiaaio (IA) a ii?aeiaii? c o?iiaioaeii iao??th ia
ai?eaioeoi?ii? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a ei?e. Aaaaeaiiy IA a ii?aeiaii? c
o?iiaioaeii iao??th aaea i?e iae?e aeic? inoaiiueiai (10 ia/ea)
iiai?noth onoaaei an? eiiiiiaioe IAeC, ia?aoai?thth/e eiai ia i?ioyc? 15
oaeeei i?ney aaaaeaiiy a ?aaeoe?th CINI — i?e — AINI.

I/aaeaeii, iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui ii?aeiaiiy IA c iaa?oue iaeith aeicith
aa?a?oo?aoo, a oe?eiio aieeaath/e ye ia AAIEA -, oae ? ia
AAIEA-?aoeaioi?e, iiaei a cia/i?e i??? iineethaaoe aaeuei?ai?
iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe??, ye? aoee caianeiaai? iiooaeieie ai?eaioe/ieie
CINI, ? i?ecaiaeeoe aei oiai, ui iineeaia a ei?? aaeueioaaiiy ii/eiaei
ia?aaaaeaoe iaae caoaeaeaiiyi, ia?aoai?thth/e ai?eaioeoi?ii? IAeC a
ii?iaeuei? ?aaeoe??. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui oaeee aoaeo niinoa??aaany aaea
i?e ii?aeiaii? IA c aeoaea iecueeith aeicith aa?a?oo?aoo, yea naia ii
nia? ia aeeeeeaea iii?oieo ci?i a ee?oeiieo ai?eaioeoi?iieo ?aaeoe?yo.

Aieea anei?a?iaoo-AAIE (AA) a ii?aeiaii? c o?iiaioaeii iao??th ia
ai?eaioeoi?ii? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a ei?e.

sse cacia/aeiny iaie ?ai?oa, ? ye niinoa??aaee a aeai?e na???
aenia?eiaio?a, aaaaeaiiy /enoiai AA (50 ia/ea) i?ecaiaeeei aei
iacia/iiai i?eai?/aiiy IAeC , aieiaiei /eiii ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy eiai
o?eaaeino?. Iaeiae, ii?aeiaiiy AA c o?iiaioaeii iao??th aaea a aeic? 10
ia/ea inoaiiueiai ia i?ioyc? 15 oaeeei onoaaei an? eiiiiiaioe IAeC,
ia?aoai?thth/e eiai a ?aaeoe?th oeio: CINI — i?e — AINI.

Aiae?coth/e ? ocaaaeueithth/e ?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ie
c’ycoaaee aeniiaeo, ui eii’thaaoe AAIE c a?oai?iaie — iaioiaai,
i?eai?eii ? anei?a?iao-AAIE aeyaeythoue aieea ia aaeuei?ai? ?aaeoe??
iae?ii?a ei?e iiceo. Oeae oaeo i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny, ye i?yiei aieeaii
an?o i?aia?ao?a, ui aea/aeeny, ia oa?aeoa? aaeuei?aieo iinoneiaioe/ieo
?aaeoe?e iae?ii?a ii?iaeueii? ei?e, oae ? ?oi?i aieeaii ia
iinoneiaioe/i? ai?eaioeoi?ii? ?aaeoe?? ei?eiaeo iae?ii?a, ui ?icaeaaeeny
ia i?noe? aaeuei?aieo iinoneiaioe/ieo iioaioe?ae?a. Aeine?aeaeai?
i?aia?aoe icia/ai?e i??? iioaioe?ththoue i?ioeane AAIE-a?a?/iiai
aaeueioaaiiy a ei?? iiceo, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei iineeaiiy aaeuei?aieo
iinoneiaioe/ieo iioaioe?ae?a ia?aiaeo eeeoei aai aeeeeeathoue
?icaaeueioaaiiy.

AENIIAEE

1. Eii’thaaoe AAIE c a?oai?iaie — iaioiaai, i?eai?eii ? anei?a?iao-AAIE
— aieeaathoue ia i?ioeane AAIE-a?a?/iiai aaeueioaaiiy o ei?? aieiaiiai
iiceo iacaeaaeii a?ae caniaa aaaaeaiiy. Aieeae i?aia?ao?a ia i?ioeane
?iiii? i?ia?aei?no? /a?ac AAIE-?aoeaioi?ii-eaiaeuei? eiiieaene, —
neeaaei? oa ia??aiicia/i? ? iiaeooue oo?eioaaoe ye i?a-, oae ?
iinoneiaioe/i? iaoai?cie.

2. Iaioiaai aeicicaeaaeii iineeth? aaeuei?ai? iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe??
ei?eiaeo iae?ii?a, aeeeeeath/e iaeneiaeueiee aoaeo a aeic? 50 ia/ea.

3. I?eai?eii a aeicao 5-10 ia/ea iiaea iineethaaoe aaeuei?ai?
iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? o ei??, a a aeicao 20-50 ia/ea aeeeeeaoe
?icaaeueioaaiiy ei?eiaeo iae?ii?a.

4. Anei?a?iao-AAIE aeicicaeaaeii iioaioe?th? AAIE-a?a?/ia aaeueioaaiiy
a ei?? a aeicao 10-50 ia/ea ? aeeeeea? ?icaaeueioaaiiy c ca?eueoaiiyi
aeice aeua 100 ia/ea.

5. Iaioiaai ? anei?a?iao-AAIE iacia/ii i?eai?/othoue ia?ieneciaeuei?
aeaiiey?ecaoe?ei? c?ooaiiy iaia?aiiiai iioaioe?aeo iae?ii?a, ye?
aeieeathoue o ei?? i?e aie?eaoe?? AAIEA-aioaaii?no?a — a?eoeoe?io aai
iai?oeee?io. I?eai?eii ia cae?enith? aieeao ia oeae aeae ai?eaioeoi?iii?
aeoeaiino?.

6. Ii?aeiaiiy iaioiaaio aai anei?a?iaoo-AAIE c iecueeith aeicith
aa?a?oo?aoo aeicaiey? aoaeoeaii aeieoaaoe ?icaeoie ai?eaioeoi?iii?
aeoeaiino?, yea aeeeeeaeany a ei?? aieiaiiai iiceo aie?eaoe?ath
a?eoeoe?io aai iai?oeee?io.

Ia?ae?e iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue caeiaoaa/a ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Noaoo?:

1. Ea?iia E.I., Oa?aiaiei A.Ae., Oiiieuei?e ?.A., Iieoaaoeaaa I.A., Ao?a
Iioaiaae A. Aeaye? iae?io?c?ieia?/i? ? a?io?i?/i? aeanoeaino? iaioiaaio
oa ?ioeo a?oai?iieo iio?aeieo AAIE i?e ??cieo aieeaao ia iicie oaa?ei.
Na. Iiio?iii? i?aia?aoe. — I.:Aeaeaaieoeoai Oia. «E?ea?» .-1998.-N.
86-97.

2. Oiiieuei?e ?.A., Ea?iia E.I., Oa?aiaiei A.Ae. Aieea a?oai?iieo
iio?aeieo AAIE ia iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a ei?e iiceo uo??a//
A?niee IAeO. — 1998.-?2.-N. 118-122.

3. Oiiieuei?e ?.A. Oanoaea I.I. Aieea i?eai?eiio ia aaeuei?ai?
iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a iiai? ei?e//
Iae?io?c?ieia?y.-1999.-O.31, ?1.- N. 80-82.

4. Oiiieuei?e ?.A. Aieea a?oai?iieo iio?aeieo AAIE ia aaeuei?ai?
iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a ii?iaeueii? ei?e //
Iae?io?c?ieia?y.-1999.-O.31, ?2.-N. 169-172.

5. Oa?aiaiei A.Ae., Eiiaioeaa A.Y., Nai?e E.?., Aeaaeeee O.A.,
Oiiieuei?e ?.A. Iaoai?ci ai?eaioiaaiii? ae?? aeayeeo eiiaoeuenaio?a ia
aeoeai?noue iae?ii?a iiai? ei?e iiceo// Iae?io?c?ieia?y.-1999.-O. 31,
?2. — N. 105-108.

6. Oiiieuei?e ?.A., Iieoaaoeaaa I.A., Ea?iia E.I., Inoaoeia E.A.,
Oa?aiaiei A.Ae. Aieea anei?a?iaoo-AAIE ia ai?eaioeoi?ii? ?aaeoe??
iae?ii?a ei?e iiceo uo??a ? aeaye? iaoaaie?/i? iane?aeee a?iien?? a
iueiio// Iae?io?c?ieia?y.-1999.-O. 31, ?3.-N. 250-252.

Oace aeiiia?aeae:

1. Oiiieuei?e ?. A., Oa?aiaiei A. Ae., Ao?a Iioaiaae Aaaeoe ?aoeae,
Ea?iia E. I. O?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/ia aea/aiiy eii’thaao?a AAIE c a?oai?iaie
// Iao. iaoe-i?aeo. eiio-oe??, i?enay/. 75-??//th Oe?a?inueei? oa?i.
Aeaaeai??.-Aeinyaaiiy no/anii? oa?iaoe?? — a iaaee/io i?aeoeeo. —
Oa?e?a, 1996. — n. 357-358.

2.Oiiieuei?e ?. A. Aieea anei?a?iaoo-AAIE ia iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe??
iae?ii?a ei?e iiceo uo??a //Iao. OV c’?caeo Oe?a?inueeiai o?c?ie. oia
(Aeiiaoeuee, 12-15 o?aaiy 1998 ?.) O?c?ie. aeo?i. — 1998. — O. 44, ? 3.
— n. 63.

Aiioaoe?y

Oiiieuei?e ?.A. Iaoai?cie ae?? eii’thaao?a AAIE c a?oai?iaie ia
aaeuei?ai? iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a iiai? ei?e iiceo uo??a. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 03.00.13 — o?c?ieia?y ethaeeie oa oaa?ei. —
?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?i. I.I. Aiaiiieueoey IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeyaeaiith iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a ae??
eii’thaao?a AAIE c a?oai?iaie —iaioiaaio, i?eai?eiio oa anei?a?iaoo
-AAIE. A ?iaio? anoaiiaeaii aieea i?aia?ao?a ia iinoneiaioe/i? ?aaeoe??
iae?ii?a ii?iaeueii? ? ai?eaioeciaaii? iiai? ei?e aieiaiiai iiceo.
Aecia/ai? aeice i?aia?ao?a, ye? iineeththoue aai ciaioothoue i?ioeane
AAIE-a?a?/iiai aaeueioaaiiy. Iieacaia ae?y i?aia?ao?a ia
ai?eaioeoi?ii? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a, ye? aeieeae? o ei?? iiceo i?e
aie?eaoe?? a?eoeoe?io aai iai?oeee?io. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
ciaeoee eeei?/ia canoinoaaiiy a ineoioa?iaeieia?? ? ineoiiaa?ieia??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eii’thaaoe AAIE c a?oai?iaie, iae?ii, iinoneiaioe/i?
?aaeoe??, AAIE-?aoeaioi?ii-eaiaeueiee eiiieaen, ai?eaioeoi?ii? ?aaeoe??.

Aiioaoeey

Oiiieueiee A.A. Iaoaieciu aeaenoaey eiiuthaaoia AAIE n aeoaieiaie ia
oi?iiciua iinoneiaioe/aneea ?aaeoeee iae?iiia iiaie ei?u iicaa e?un. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 03.00.13 — oeceieiaey /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo. —
Einoeooo oeceieiaee ei. A.A. Aiaiiieueoea IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia auyaeaieth iae?ioeceieiae/aneeo iaoaieciia
aeaenoaey eiiuthaaoia AAIE n aeoaieiaie —iaioiaaia, ieeaieeiia e
anei?aeiaoa-AAIE. A ?aaioa onoaiiaeaii aeeyiea enneaaeoaiuo i?aia?aoia
ia oi?iiciua iinoneiaioe/aneea ?aaeoeee iae?iiia ii?iaeueiie e
yieeaioece?iaaiiie iiaie ei?u iicaa e?un. Iieacaii, /oi eae i?e
iiaa?oiinoiie aiieeeaoeee, oae e i?e nenoaiiii aaaaeaiee iaioiaai
iioaioee?oao i?ioeannu AAIE-y?ae/aneiai oi?iiaeaiey a ei?a. Aeaiiue
i?aia?ao cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaaao aeeeoaeueiinoue oi?iiciuo
iinoneiaioe/aneeo iioaioeeaeia (OINI), i?e /ai ca n/ao iicaeiaai
eiiiiiaioa OINI, iiin?aaeiaaiiiai eaeeaaie i?iaiaeeiinoueth
AAIEA-?aoeaioi?ii-eaiaeueiuo eiiieaenia. Ieeaieeii e anei?aeiao-AAIE a
caaeneiinoe io eniieuecoaiie aeicu iiaoo eae oneeeaaoue i?ioeannu
AAIE-y?ae/aneiai oi?iiaeaiey a ei?a, oae e i?eaiaeeoue e
?anoi?iaaeeaaieth. Ieeaieeii a iaeuo aeicao oneeeaaao aiieeooaeo ?aiieo
eiiiiiaioia OINI, iiin?aaeiaaiiuo oei?iie i?iaiaeeiinoueth AAIEA
-?aoeaioi?ia. A n?aaeieo e aunieeo aeicao ieeaieeii ieacuaaao
aeoeae?othuaa aeeyiea ia iae?iiiua iiioeyoeee ei?u aieiaiiai iicaa.
Anei?aeiao-AAIE ieacuaaao naia aicaeaenoaea eae ia ?aiiea, oae e ia
iicaeiea eiiiiiaiou OINI, iaeiaei aai aeeyiea ia iicaeiee OINI auei
aieaa au?aaeaiiui e iiaei i?eaiaeeoue e ?aaa?nee aeaiiiai eiiiiiaioa. A
niioaaonoaee n yoei ii?aaeaeaiu aeicu i?aia?aoia, ieacuaathuea oa eee
eiua yooaeou ia ei?eiaia oi?iiaeaiea. N eniieueciaaieai niaoeeoe/aneeo e
ianiaoeeoe/aneeo aeieaoi?ia AAIEA-?aoeaioi?ia onoaiiaeaiu
acaeiiioiioaiey enneaaeoaiuo i?aia?aoia n AAIEA-?aoeaioi?aie e eo
niiniaiinoue e iiaeaaeaieth eeaoi/iuo yieeaioeoi?iiuo ?aaeoeee.
Iieacaii, /oi eeoue iaioiaai e anei?aeiao-AAIE iaeaaeatho
iacia/eoaeueiie aioeyieeaioeoi?iiie aeoeaiinoueth. Ni/aoaiea yoeo
i?aia?aoia n aa?aeoo?aoii — oeiiaioaeii iao?ey oaea i?e iaeie aeica
iineaaeiaai i?eaiaeeei e i?aaaee?iaaieth oi?iiaeaiey iaae aicaoaeaeaieai
e auno?iio iiaeaaeaieth yieeaioeoi?iiie aeoeaiinoe. Ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo
?acoeueoaoia auneacuaathony i?aaeiieiaeaiey i iaoaieciao aeeyiey
i?aia?aoia ia i?ioeannu ei?eiaiai oi?iiaeaiey, ?aaeecoaiiai
/a?acAAIE-?aoeaioi?ii-eaiaeueiue eiiieaen iinoneiaioe/aneie iaia?aiu
iae?iiia. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee eeeie/aneia i?eiaiaiea a
ineoioa?iaeieiaee e ineoiiaa?ieiaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiuthaaou AAIE n aeoaieiaie, iae?ii,
iinoneiaioe/aneea ?aaeoeee, AAIE-?aoeaioi?ii-eaiaeueiue eiiieaen,
yieeaioeoi?iiua ?aaeoeee.

Summary

Topolnik E. V. Mechanisms of action of vitamine derivatives of GABA on
the inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in neocortical neurons. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 03.00.13 — human and
animal physiology. — Bogomoletz Institute of Physiology the National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the investigation of neurophysiological
mechanisms of action of the vitamine derivatives of GABA — pantogam,
pycamilon and GABA-ascorbinate. The influence of these compounds on the
postsynaptic reactions of the normal and epileptic neocortical neurons
was studied. Doses that induce different effects on the cortical
inhibition are determined. Mechanisms of action of these drugs on the
GAAA-receptor-channel complex are discussed. The results of the work
have found clinical applications in psychoneurology and
psychopharmacology.

Key words: Vitamine derivatives of GABA, neocortical neurons,
postsynaptic reactions, GABA-receptor-channel complex, epileptiform
reactions.

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