OE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE II?NUeEEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? aaei??aea
Iaea?iaa

E?AAOeIA A?eoi?
?aaiiae/

OAeE 629.12.01.013

IAOAI?EA AIO*EEO AEEAIEIAIAeIEO NENOAI

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.08.03 — iaoai?ea oa
eiino?othaaiiy noaeai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a
oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ieeiea?a
— 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iaoai?ee Oa?niinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoa

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio- caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aa?aea/ia TH??e Ieeieaeiae/,

Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee

oi?aa?neoao, ?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee i?aoe?aiee ia?iaeii?
ina?oe Ei/aiia TH??e Iao?iae/, Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee ii?nueeee
oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aoae. iaoai?ee ei?aaey

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?theia Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/, Ee?anueeee
?inoeooo cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeui? iaoaiaoeee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iieneoei Aaneeue Ieoaeeiae/,

?aaii-O?aie?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao iaooe ? aaco,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeui? iaoaiaoeee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee ii?nueeee oi?aa?neoao

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Iaeana

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “____” ___________ 1999 ?. i ____ aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 38.060.01 Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai ii?nueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. aaei. Iaea?iaa ca
aae?anith: 327025, i. Ieeiea?a, i?. Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea, 9

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai ii?nueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. aaei. Iaea?iaa ca
aae?anith: 327025, i. Ieeiea?a, i?. Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea, 9

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “____” ____________ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

ae-? oaoi. iaoe, i?ioani? Eaanieoeueeee
A.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Inoaii?i /anii o anueiio na?o? a?aecia/a?oueny
c?inoaiiy ?ioa?ano aei ?ia?o, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny ia eiioeiaioaeueiiio
oaeueo? ? aaeeeeo aeeaeiao Na?oiaiai ieaaio c iaoith aeaeiaooeo iaooe ?
aaco, ne?iaeie aeey i?iieneiaino?, oa?/iaeo ?ano?n?a, ui ia?ic?eaii
iia’ycaii c ?ic?iaeith ? noai?aiiyi iiaeo oei?a aio/eeo eiino?oeoe?e,
i?e?aeiaieo aei noaeia-iin?y: aio/eeo o?oaii?iaiae?a, aaioaaeiiano/eo
eaaae?a, eaaaeue-o?in-oeaia?a oiui. Aaaeeeaeie oaeoi?aie, noeioethth/eie
iiooe ? inai?iiy caian?a oaeueoo, ? /an ?ic?iaee ? aenieoaoaoe??
oaoi?/ieo cania?a, ye? noai?ththoueny aeey oeeo oe?eae, ?o iaae?ei?noue
? aoaeoeai?noue a aenieoaoaoe??. Iaeiei c iaea?eueo aaaeeeo aoai?a o
i?ioean? i?iaeooaaiiy ii?nueeeo eiiieaen?a ? noai?aiiy oi?iae?ciaaieo
iaoaiaoe/ieo ? ?iaeaia?ieo iien?a a?aeiia?aeieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a.
Iniaeeai aaaeeeaei ooo ? o?aooaaiiy aca?iiiai aieeao aeaiaio?a, ui
neeaaeathoue eiiieaen, a oaeiae iaaeieeoiueiai a?ae?i-iaoaina?aaeiaeua.
Neeaaei? ? aaaee? ?aaeeie aenieoaoaoe?? aio/eeo ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e
iia’ycai?, ye i?aaeei, c iaiao?aei?noth niaoe?aeueiiai aea/aiiy ?
aecia/aiiy ae?th/eo ia ieo nee, a?aooaaiiyi neeueii? iae?i?eiino?
?ica(ycaeueieo ??aiyiue, iiaeeea?noth ao?aoe no?eeino? ??aiiaaae ? c
aeiiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee aeaiaio?a nenoaie a cae?eoe/ieo
noaiao. ?ica(ycaiiy oaeeo caaea/ aeyaey?oueny iiaeeeaei o?eueee
no/anieie iaoiaeaie iae?i?eiiai aiae?co, canoinoaaiiy yeeo niiioea? aei
aeai?o iiaeeo?eaoe?? ?ica(ycaeueieo ??aiyiue, ye? caaacia/othoue
aeai?eoi?/i?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoiaoaaieo i?aeoiae?a. A Oe?a?i?
?iaioe a oeueiio iai?yi? iaaoaathoue iniaeeai aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy /a?ac
aino?o iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo aeanieo aeaea?ae aia?a??, ui aeiaoaathoueny
ia ii?nueeiio oaeueo?, aaaeooueny ?ioaineai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aenieoaoaoe?y oaeueo?a *i?iiai ? Acianueeiai ii??a.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. I?aaenoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? iaoa??aee
ocaaaeueiththoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo aaoi?ii o ?aieao
oaeeo eii?aeeiaoe?eieo ieai?a:

1. Caaaeueiee ieai iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue c ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a
/eneiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?inoi?iaiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eeo ii?nueeeo
nenoai ?c caeiaeueiith ? e?ooeeueiith aei?noe?noth, ui i?iaiaeyoueny ia
eaoaae?? iaoai?ee Oa?niinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

2. Aea?aeaaia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia i?ia?aia “Iaoei?ie? oaoiieia??».

3. Caaaeueiiaeaaeai?/ia i??i?eoaoia i?ia?aia ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeai o?ainii?oo ia 1989-2000 ??. (oeo? 4.3.8).

4. Aea?aeaaia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia i?ia?aia “?ano?nicaa??aaiiy» ia
1992-1994 ??. (oeo? 5.1.1).

5. Iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia i?ia?aia aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue
iaoee ? oaoiieia?? ia 1993-1996 ??., iai?yi 4 “Aeieia?/ii /enoa
aia?aaoeea ? ?ano?nicaa??aath/? oaoiieia??».

6. Aea?aeaaia i?ia?aia “Inai?iiy aoaeaaiaeieo ?ano?n?a
Oe?a-?inueeiai naeoi?o *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a”
Aea?aeeiiiaooiaaci?iio Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a
?ic?iaoe? oa oaeineiiaeaii? iaoiae?a ? aeai?eoi?a /eneiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i?eiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eeo i?inoi?iai
e?eaie?i?eieo aeaiaio?a aeeaieiaiaeieo eiino?oeoe?e ?c caeiaeueiith ?
e?ooeeueiith aei?noe?noth i?ae ae??th aeia?eueiiai aaeoi?a ciai?oi?o
iaaaioaaeaiue, aecia/aii? iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?aaeueieo ia’?eo?a,
i?aoethth/eo o ii?nueeeo oiiaao, neeaaeaii? iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo
ia/enethaaeueieo i?ia?ai.

Aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aeiaaa? ?ica(ycaiiy oaeeo caaea/:

1. A?aei?aoeueiaoaaiiy oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy aio-/eeo
ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e, aiae?c neeiaeo aieea?a ia ieo a oiiaao
aeeaieiaiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

2. Iiaoaeiaa iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aio/eeo aea-iaio?a
ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e c? neeaaeiith i?inoi?iaith aaiiao???th ? c ye
caaaiaeii cae??ieaieie e?ioeyie, ui i?aoeththoue a oiiaao aiaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua i?ae ae??th aeia?eueii ?icoaoiaaieo o i?inoi?? ? ii
aeiaaeei? aeaiaioa noaoe/ieo, eaac?noaoe/ieo aai aeeiai?/ieo
cina?aaeaeaieo, ?iciiae?eaieo aai iiiaioieo iaaaioaaeaiue.

3. ?icaeoie iaoiae?a ? aeai?eoi?a /eneiaiai ?ica’ycaiiy nenoaie
?ica(ycaeueieo ??aiyiue, ui iienothoue i?inoi?iaa aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eeo
aeaiaio?a ii?nueeeo nenoai ?c caeiaeueiith ? e?ooeeueiith aei?noe?noth.

4. *eneiaa ? aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea aeinoia??iino? iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

5. ?ica(ycaiiy i?eeeaaeieo caaea/: aeaoi?ioaaiiy i?aeaiaeieo
o?oaii?iaiae?a i?e oeeaaeaii?, ?aiiio? ? aenieoaoaoe??; aeine?aeaeaiiy
aio/eeo eiino?oeoe?e ci?iiith ii aeiaaeei? ? a iiia?a/iiio ia?a??c?
aei?noe?noth; iioei?caoe?y aaiiao?e/ieo ? aei?noe?nieo ia?aiao??a
aio/eeo eiino?oeoe?e, aecia/aiiy no?eeino?, cae?eoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?
aeeiai?ee aio/eeo aeeaieiaiaeieo eiino?oeoe?e.

6. Noai?aiiy iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai aeey iiaeeeaino? iia?aoeaiiai
?ica(ycaiiy caaea/ ia noaei?-iin?? ca aeiiiiiaith ai?oiai? IAII.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. Aia?oa aeey aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aio-/eeo
aeeaieiaiaeieo nenoai ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue, ui neeaaea?oueny
c nenoaie cae/aeieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue aenieiai ii?yaeeo c
iae?i?eieie a?aie/ieie oiiaaie ? ui iieno? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai
ia(?eoo, ye caaaiaeii ne?eaeaiiai o i?inoi??, i?e eiai iaiaiaaeaiiio
i?oaeiiio aeaoi?ioaaii?.

2. ?ic?iaeaii ? oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaee ? aeai?eoie /eneiaiai ?ica(yceo
nenoaie ?ica(ycaeueieo ??aiyiue, ui aeicaiey? iia?aoeaii iaea?aeoaaoe
iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aio/eiai aeeaieiaiaeiiai ia(?eoo aac cia/ii?
ia?aaoaeiae oiia iinoaaeaii? caaea/?.

3. Noi?ioeueiaaii i?eioeeie caaeaaaiiy i?inoi?iai i???ioi-aaieo
noaoe/ieo aai aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue, ae?th/eo ia aio/eee i?e?aeiaiee
ia(?eo a oiiaao aeeaieiaiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

4. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee aecia/aiiy aaiiao??? i?oaeii? e?i?? aio-/eiai
aeaiaioa a iaaeaoi?iiaaiiio noai? i?e eiai aoaeue-yeiio ne?eaeaii? o
i?inoi??.

5. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee i?iaaaeaiiy /eneiaeo oa iaoo?ieo aenia?eiaio?a
aeey aecia/aiiy aeinoia??iino? ?ica(ycoaaieo caaea/.

6. ?ica(ycaii i?eeeaaei? caaea/? uiaei aecia/aiiy
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio, no?eeino? oa cae?eoe/iiai noaio aio/eeo
aeaiaio?a ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e i?ae ae??th noaoe/ieo, eaac?noaoe/ieo
aai aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue.

7. Aeine?aeaeaii i?inoi?iaa aeaoi?ioaaiiy aeeaieiaiaeieo
o?o-aii?iaiae?a i?e oeeaaeaii?, ?aiiio? ? aenieoaoaoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi
oiia, aeecueeeo aei ?aaeueieo.

8. Aeine?aeaeaii i?inoi?iaa aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eeo aeaiaio?a
eiino?oeoe?e ii?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy: aio/eeo i?e?aeiaieo aei
noaeia-iin?y a?iiaaieo oeaia?a, aaiaeaaeiaaiiai o?oaii?iaiaeo i?e
ni??aeueiiio iaaeaaii? aaiaeaaea.

9. ?ica(ycaii caaea/? iioei?caoe?? o?ceei-aaiiao?e/ieo ia?a-iao??a
aio/eeo i?e?aeiaieo aei noaeia-iin?y ia(?eo?a.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiii aiineoue
iaaiee aianie o ?icaeoie ia/enethaaeueieo iaoiae?a ?ica(ycaiiy caaea/
iae?i?eiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy i?inoi?iai aee?eaeaieo, i?e?aeiaieo aei
noaeia-iin?y aio/eeo aeaiaio?a o neeaaeieo ?aaeeiao ?o iaaaioaaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoiaee /eneiaiai aiae?co
i?ioeano aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eeo aeaiaio?a ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e ?c
caeiaeueiith ? e?ooeeueiith aei?noe?noth caaacia/othoue ?noioia
ca?eueoaiiy oi/iino? iaea?aeoaaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iia?aoeai?noue
aecia/aiiy iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio.
?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, aeai?eoie ? i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy ?c
c?o/iei ?ioa?oaenii iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ia noaeiao ? ii?nueeeo
ieaooi?iao aeey iia?aoeaiiai aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aio/eeo
i?e?aeiaieo ia(?eo?a, iiaeaeueoiai i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy uiaei oaoiieia?? ?o
aenieoaoaoe??. Io?eiai? a aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie nii?oaeaeaiiy
? aenieoaoaoe?? aio/eeo ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e, ui i?aoeththoue ye
ie?aii, oae ? noi?nii c noaeiii-iin??i.

I?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe ? oaoi?/i? ?ic?iaee, caniiaai? ia iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoaoao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ai?iaaaeaeai? ia i?aei?e?inoaao
Oe?a?ie: ia AeAI “*i?iiii?iaooiaac” (i. N?ioa?iiieue); IAI “Ii?a” (i.
Oaiaein?y); AAO “?aaii-O?aie?anueeaac” (i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee). Aeaiaioe
?icaeiooi? oai??? aecia/aiiy iaoai?ee aio/eeo ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? nooaeaio?a
a?aeiia?aeiiai i?io?eth, a oaeiae o iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e ?iaio?
nooaeaio?a ? ani??aio?a Oa?niinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, io?eiai?
aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeieeaaeaeeny ia: ?anioae?eainuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Oaoiieiaey e iai?oaeiaaiea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
iiiaii?iaiei/iuo aeouo ecaeaeee” (i. Naaanoiiieue, 1989 ?.);
I?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an? iaoai?e?a (I?A, Aa?ia, 1990 ?.); eiioa?aioe??
“Oaoi?/i? caniae ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ii?nueeiai ? ieaai?/iiai i?iieneo ?eae”
(i. Naaa-noiiieue, 1990 ?.); eiioa?aioe?? “Oaoi?/i? caniae ieaai?/iiai
i?iieneiaiai ?eaaeuenoaa” (i. Naaanoiiieue, 1992-1993 ??.); 2- io
I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? oe?a?inueeeo ?iaeaia??a-iaoai?e?a (Euea?a,
1994 ?.); iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoai?ea ? iia? oaoiieia??”
(i. Naaanoiiieue, 1995 ?.); I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “No/ani? i?iaeaie
iaoaiaoeee” (i. *a?i?aoe?, 1995 ?.); 1- e I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy ? aeieia??
a noaeiiaoaeoaaii?” (i. Ieeiea?a, 1996 ?.); ?anioae?eainuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Iia? oaoiieia?? ia aac? ne?iaeiieo caian?a Oe?a?ie” (i.
Oa?nii, 1996 ?.); iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoa iaooe ? aaco (i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1996 ?.);
Anaoe?a?inueeiio nai?ia?? c iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy (i. Oa?nii, 1996
?.); I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? c iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy (i.
Oaiaein?y, 1997 ?.); I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy (i. Oa?nii, 1998 ?.); I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c
ii?nueeeo oaoiieia?e (i. Ieeiea?a, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 28
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, na?aae ieo 2 iiiia?ao??, 17 noaoae o oaoiaeo
aeaeaiiyo, nienie yeeo i?eaiaeeoueny a e?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeeeaaeaii a ?iaioao, iioae?eiaaieo naiino?eii.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 293
noi??iee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 75 ?ethno?aoe?e, 3 oaaeeoe?, aeiaeaoee ia
23 noi?. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 268 iaeiaioaaiue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O Anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??,
aecia/athoueny iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aecia/athoueny iaoeiaa
iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aiae?co?oueny no/aniee noai i?iaeaie iaoai?ee
aio/eeo i?ioyaeieo i?inoi?iai e?eaie?i?eieo ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e ?c
caeiaeueiith ? e?ooeeueiith aei?noe?noth, i?eaaaeaii iniiai? a?aeiiino?
i?i aio/e? ii?nuee? nenoaie ? iaoiaee ?o ?ic?aooieo. Cia/io oaaao
i?eae?eaii aieeao iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio (IAeN) i?e?aeiaiiai
aio/eiai ia’?eoa ia oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino? noaeia-iin?y. Iieacaii, ui
iai?aaeeueia aecia/aiiy ciai?oi?o iaaaioaaeaiue ia noaeii c aieo
i?e?aeiaieo ia’?eo?a iiaea i?eaanoe aei iaaeiionoeieo e?aio ?
aeeoa?aioo, ?noioiiai c?inoaiiy caeiaeueiiai iiiaioo, ui iinoaaeoue i?ae
caa?ico caaacia/aiiy caaaeueii? i?oeiino? ei?iono noaeia. E??i iniiaii?
?ioi?iaoe?? a i?ia?aiao c? noaoeee noaeia iio??ai? aeiaeaoeia?
a?aeiiino? i?i aenooiath/? /anoeie, iieiaeaiiy ia?ie caaeeaeaiiy oiui.
I/aaeaeii, ui aaaeeeaith ? e ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i iaoai?eo i?e?aeiaii?
aeiaaii??ii? eiino?oeoe??.

?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy i?i ia?niaeoeae inai?iiy oaeueoo, yea iaaoaa?
inoaii?i /anii aaee/aciiai cia/aiiy /a?ac aino?o iaaeinoa/o a Oe?a?i?
aia?ai?ano?n?a oa aeiaeaoeiaeo aeaea?ae ne?iaeie. Iienaii iniiai? oeie
ii?nueeeo eiiieaen?a, aeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo oaeueoo, iieacaii
aaaeeea?noue iaoeiaiai caaacia/aiiy ?ia?o uiaei eiai inai?iiy,
o?oaeii?noe?noue ? aei?iaeia/o aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue o
ii?nueeeo oiiaao. Iaei??th c iniiaieo a?aei?oieo iniaeeainoae ii?nueeeo
eiiieaen?a ?ica?aeee ? aeaeiaooeo ei?enieo eiiaeei ? iayai?noue a ieo
aeiaaii??ieo aio/eeo eiino?oeoe?e, ui c’?aeiothoue ?ooii? ieaacaniae c
i?aeaiaeii-oaoiieia?/iei iaeaaeiaiiyi. Naia oe? aeaiaioe, iia?aoeaia
anoaiiaeaiiy ?o aenieoaoaoe?eii-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aaeeeith
i??ith aecia/athoue i?aoeacaeaoi?noue eiiieaen?a caaaeii. Oiio ia
aeiaaeeiai iaea?eueo iiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy a oeueiio iai?yi?
i?iaiaeyoueny naia ii aecia/aiith noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aio/eeo eiino?oeoe?e. Iniaeea? oiiae nii?oaeaeaiiy ? aenieoaoaoe??
aeeaieiaiaeieo eiiieaen?a iathoue ?noioi? a?aei?iiino? a?ae iacaiieo ?
i?eeiaiaeieo. O aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao canoinoaaiiy aio/eeo ca’yce?a ?
?aeeiith iiaeeea?noth aeeiiaiiy eiino?oeoe??th ?? iniiaiiai i?ecia/aiiy.
C ia?aaeuaiiyi ?iai/eo aeeaei e?eiiao?iai? a?aei?oee iiaaae?iea oeeo
aeaiaio?a noaea aeeeeeaoe oneeaaeiaiiy i?e neioac? caeii?a oi?aae?iiy
ieaacaniaaie ? i?aeaiaeiei iaeaaeiaiiyi ? a aeiiiaiaiiy aei neeaaeiinoae
aeiaaeeiaiai oa?aeoa?o aieeao iaoaina?aaeiaeua i?ecaaei aei ?ic?iaee ?
?icaeoeo oaeeo iaoeiaeo iai?yi?a, ye aaciaea ii?aieaaaiiy ?
aenieoaoaoe?y aeeaieiaiaeieo eiiieaen?a, noai?aiiy i?ioeaaa??eieo nenoai
caiia?aaiiy iieiiie noaeiiaiai ? oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

A inoaii? aeanyoe??//y iaea?eueo iiai? ? aeeaie? ?acoeueoaoe uiaei
aea/aiiy oe??? i?iaeaie io?eiaii A.I. Naaoe?oeueeei, I.I. Aeoooiaei,
A.A. ?etho?iei, ?.I. Iiiiaei, ca?oa?aeieie aaoi?aie. I?i iaiao?aei?noue
aea/aiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy na?ae/eoue aaeeea /enei ioae?eaoe?e a/aieo
Oe?a?ie (Aoaa?iei A.A., Ai?aaiue A.I., Eaetho TH.?., Eathe ss.O.,
E?theia I.I., Eoeianueeee ?.A., Iaaoea A.A., Naeoaiia I.A., Oaia??i
TH.?.).

Aeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae aio/eeo aeaiaio?a
ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e oa ae?th/eo ia ieo iaaaioaaeaiue. Aaaeeeaith
ianoaaeiith i?e aaeeeeo ia?ai?uaiiyo ? oaea ae aaeeea ia?ai?uaiiy
aaeoi?a ciai?oiueiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?ae ae??th yeiai aiii
a?aeaoaa?oueny. I?e oeueiio iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaea iaoe iinooiaeueia
ia?ai?uaiiy (eiee aaeoi? neee ia?ai?uo?oueny

ia?aeaeueii aei naaa), ne?aeeoth/a ia?ai?uaiiy (eiee aaeoi? neee
caa??aa? a i?ioean? aeaoi?ioaaiiy iino?eiee eoo c iai?yiii i?oaeii?
inueiai? e?i?? a oi/oe? i?eeeaaeaiiy neee) ? caaaeueiee aeiaaeie
ia?ai?uaiiy (eiee neea ia caeeoa?oueny ia?aeaeueiith ? ia noaaeeoue ca
iiai?ioii i?oaeii? e?i??). Aioo??oi? neee ? iiiaioe, a oaeiae aaee/eie
i?oaeieo ia?ai?uaiue o eiaeiiio iiia?a/iiio ia?a??c? ? iae?i?eieie
ooieoe?yie a?ae ciai?oi?o iaaaioaaeaiue, oiio a?aeiia?aei? oai?aie i?i
aca?ii?noue ? i?eioeei noia?iiceoe?? iai?oaeaiue ? ia?ai?uaiue
ao?a/athoue neeo. Ca iaei??th ? o??th ae nenoaiith ca’yce?a ?
iaaaioaaeaiue aeyaeythoueny iiaeeeaeie aeae?eueea oei?a oi?i ??aiiaaae
i?oaeii? e?i??, aeaye? c ieo aeyaeythoueny no?eeeie, ?io? — iano?eeeie.
Ia?ao?ae a?ae iano?eei? ??aiiaaae aei no?eei? iiaea aooe ?aae?ciaaiee
aai /a?ac a?oo?eaoe?eiee (ao?aoa no?eeino? ia?oiai ?iaeo), aai /a?ac
a?aie/iee (ao?aoa no?eeino? ae?oaiai ?iaeo) noaie.

I??a aeaoae?coaaiiy ieoaiue o i?iaeooaaii? ? aeine?aeaeaii?
i?aeaiaeii-oaoi?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy iai/ii na?ae/eoue i?i cia/iee
aeina?ae, iaeiie/aiee o aaeoc? ?ic?iaee oeeo oaoi?/ieo cania?a. No/aniee
i?aeo?ae aei ia’?eo?a, ui aeine?aeaeothoueny, aeiaaa? canoinoaaiiy
aeaiaio?a aaaaoueio iaoeiaeo iai?yi?a: iaoai?ee oaa?aeiai o?ea,
aiae?oe/ii? iaoai?ee, iaoai?ea ??aeeie ? aaco, ia/enethaaeueii?
iaoaiaoeee. Ocaaaeueiaio iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui a?aoiao?
??ciiiai?ooy ae?th/eo nee, iae?i?ei?noue ? i?inoi?iao e?eaie?i?ei?noue
aeaoi?ioaaiiy aei oeueiai /ano ia noai?aii. O oie aea /an i?aeoe/ii
iaia? aeeaieeo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei ieoaiue o?aooaaiiy aieeao
aeiaaii??ieo aio/eeo eiino?oeoe?e, ca’ycoth/eo i?ae niaith iaaeaiaei? ?
i?aeaiaei? ia’?eoe, ia ?o oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aio/eeo
aeiaaii??ieo i?e?aeiaieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e aeey noaeiiaoaeoaaiiy.
Iieacaii iiaeeeaino? neeiaeo aieea?a ia noaeii i?e?aeiaieo aeiaaii??ieo
aio/eeo ia’?eo?a. I?eaaaeaii iaoiaee ?ica(ycaiiy caaea/ ? ?o
ii??aiyeuei? ioe?iee. Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue c ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a ? aeai?eoi?a aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aio/eeo ii?nueeeo nenoai. Aeoiaey/e c no/aniiai noaio
i?iaeaie, o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? noi?ioeueiaaii iai?yie ??
?ica(ycaiiy, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeeeaaeai? a iiaeaeueoeo
?icae?eao.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e. sse aaciaa ?ic?aooieiaa iiaeaeue aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
aio/eeo i?aeaiaeieo nenoai o aeai?e ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny oai??y aio/eeo
i?inoi?iai aee?eaeaieo noa?aei?a. ?icaeoie oe??? iiaeae? a ieai?
canoinoaaiiy no/anieo ia/enethaaeueieo aeai?eoi?a aeicaiey? noai?eoe
oi?o?eiaaio ? aeai?eoi?/io iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy aio/eeo
aeeaieiaiaeieo eiino?oeoe?e. I?eaaaeaii ni?iuoth/? ia?aaeoiiae oai???
aio/eeo aeaiaio?a. Caa?iooi oaaao ia a?aei?ii?noue o i?aeoiaeao aei
e?i?eii? ? iae?i?eii? oai??e aeaeio, ui iieyaa? a iani?aaaaeeeaino?
aeayeeo a?iioac, ye? cae/aeii canoiniaothoueny. Iienaii ??aiiaaao ?
aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eiai aeaiaioa, i?e oeueiio i?eeiathoueny i?aeoiaee
Eaa?aiaea ? Aeea?a a?aeiia?aeii. Aioo??oiy aaiiao??y caaea?oueny
eii?aeeiaoith s, aei??thaaiith a?aenoaiith acaeiaae inueiai? e?i?? a?ae
ii/aoeiai? oi/ee aei iioi/ii?. Iniiaia caaea/a caiaeeoueny aei
anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo i?ae ci?iieie

). (1)

, ui oa?aeoa?eco? ?ioaineai?noue ciai?oiueiai cao?aiiy, ae?th/iai ia
aeaiaio. Aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e i?oaeii? e?i?? aio/eiai aeaiaioa
(eii?aeeiaoe, eooe iiai?ioo, e?eaecie) ?, ii-ia?oa, ooieoe?yie
eii?aeeiaoe s ?, ii-ae?oaa, caeaaeaoue a?ae aaee/eie iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui
noaoe/ii (aai aeeiai?/ii) ci?ith?oueny. Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy oe???
caeaaeiino? ?icaeyiooi i?oaeio ??aiiaaao aio/eiai aeaiaioa. Ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui aaeoi?e an?o nee iiaeooue aooe ?icoaoiaai? ye caaaiaeii ia
o?eueee a ieiuei?, aea e o i?inoi??. Io?eiai? aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ??aiyiiy
??aiiaaae i?oaeii? e?i?? ?iaa??aioi? a?aeiinii aei aoaeue-yei? nenoaie
eii?aeeiao.

iio??aii ?icaeoe oi/eaie ceaio ? ?ic?eao ia i?aeiaeano?, a yeeo
?ica(ycie ia? iaiao?aeio aeaaee?noue. I?e oeueiio a?ae aeaioi/eiai?
e?aeiai? caaea/? cae?enith?oueny ia?ao?ae aei aaaaoioi/eiai? c
a?aeiia?aeieie a?aie/ieie oiiaaie ?ic?ea?a. Iio??aii cacia/eoe, ui i?e
iae?i?ei?e iinoaiiaoe? caaea/? a?aie/i? ??aiyiiy a caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo
aeyaeythoueny iae?i?eieie.

Iinoaaeaii a?aie/i? oiiae aeey aeayeeo niinia?a iie?aiiy noa?aei?a. Ooo
iio??aii i?aee?aneeoe, ui i?inoa i?aenoaiiaea ? cai?ia a?aie/ieo oiia ua
ia caaacia/o? aaoiiaoe/iee ia?ao?ae a?ae iaei??? caaea/? aei ?ioi?; a
eiaeiiio iiaiio aeiaaeeo c’yaeythoueny nai? iniaeeaino? ?ica(yce?a
-caaeaaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue, aaee/eia e?ieo ?ioaa?oaaiiy, e?euee?noue
e?ie?a oiui.

?icaeyiooi oiiae ?ic?eao ooieoe?e Fu , Fv , Fw o aeiaaeeo, eiee
cina?aaeaeaia ciai?oiy neea ? i?eeeaaeaia a oi/oe? s=sP.

.

?en. 1. Niiniae i?aaenoaaeaiiy cina?aaeaeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy

e?i?eiith (a) ? iae?i?eiith (a) ooieoe?yie

cina?aaeaeaiiai iiiaioo oieeiooe ?ica(ycaiiy aaaaoioi/eiai? caaea/?
neeaaei?oa. Aea i?e iaaieo aeiiouaiiyo iiiaioia iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaeia
?ioa?i?aooaaoe ye ia?o nee, i?eeeaaeaio ia aeineoue iae?e ae?eyioe?
?ioaa?oaaiiy. Oea aeinyaa?oueny oaeei /eiii: a ieie? oi/ee aeiaeaoeo
cina?aaeaeaiiai iiiaioo i?eeeaaea?oueny cina?aaeaeaia iaaaioaaeaiiy
ce?aa ? i?aai?o/ a?ae ia?, aaee/eia iiiaioo aecia/a?oueny i?e oeueiio ye
aeiaooie neee ia a?aenoaiue i?ae neeaie, oiaoi o?aaa ciaeoe iiiaio
ia?e. sseui ae a ye?e-iaaoaeue oi/oe? iaiao?aeii i?eeeanoe e?ooiee
iiiaio, oi oieeiooe ?ica(ycaiiy aaaaoioi/eiai? caaea/? iaiiaeeeai.

I?e ?ioaa?oaaii? ?ica(ycaeueieo ??aiyiue o oi/eao ia?aaeio inueiai?
e?i?? ?o cia/aiiy iathoue no?eaeiiiae?aiee ia?ao?ae a?ae aeiaeaoiiai
cia/aiiy aei a?ae’?iiiai (aai iaaiaee), ui iaiao?aeii a?aenoaaeoaaoe
i?e ia/enethaaeueiiio i?ioean? aeey iaaeiiouaiiy aacia?a?aiino?
?ioaa?oaaiiy ooieoe?e. Ine?eueee c oeei iai?yiii iia’ycaia i???ioaoe?y
i?oa n, oi aeey oiai, uia a oi/eao ia?aaeio i?e ia?aoiae? /a?ac oe?
oi/ee o??eea aaeoi??a n,b,( caeeoaeany i?aaith, iaiao?aei?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy: n (s+) ( ( n (s(), b (s+) ( ( b (s(). An?
niiniae caaeaaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ? e?aeiaeo oiia ?aae?ciaothoueny
ia/enethaaeueieie aeai?eoiaie, oiaoi aaee/eie nee ? iiiaio?a, oi/ee ?o
i?eeeaaeaiiy aecia/athoueny aaoiiaoe/ii, — i?ia?ai?noo aeineoue caaeaoe
?o aaee/eio a ii/aoeiaeo aeaieo.

sseui aaiiao??y aio/eeo aeaiaio?a iacaiieo eiino?oeoe?e, ye i?aaeei,
caaea?oueny a iaiai?oaeaiiio noai? i?e ye?e-iaaoaeue noaoe/ii iaai?e
oi?i? inueiai? e?i??, oi oi?ia aeeaieiaiaeieo aeaiaio?a iiaea aooe
aeia?eueii i?inoi?iaith ye o iai?oaeaiiio, oae ? a iaiai?oaeaiiio noai?.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiiao??? oaeeo aeaiaio?a aeiaaa? iniaeeaiai i?aeoiaeo.
Aeey caaaeaiiy e?eai? iaiao?aeii? i?inoi?iai? eiio?ao?aoe?? o?aaa
aecia/eoe ii/aoeia? oiiae, ia?aiao?e e?eaeci ? ?o iio?aei?, a oaeiae
ae?eyieo ?ioaa?oaaiiy, yea c oi/ee ci?o ia/enethaaeueiiai i?ioeano iiaea
aooe aea?aia aeia?eueii ia aoaeue-ye?e ae?eyioe? ia?aiao?e/ii caaeaii?
e?eai?. ?icaeyiooi niiniae caaeaaaiiy «noaiaea?oieo» e?eaeo, oiaoi
oaeeo, ui iienothoueny aeaiaioa?ieie ooieoe?yie. Iaeiae o ?aaeueieo
oiiaao /anoi aeieeathoue aeiaaeee, eiee iaiai?oaeaia oi?ia inueiai?
e?i?? aio/eiai aeaiaioa ia iiaea aooe iienaia a?aeiieie c aeaiaioa?ii?
aaiiao??? ooieoe?iiaeueieie ??aiyiiyie. O oeeo aeiaaeeao oyaey?oueny
oe?eaaei caaeaaaiiy aaiiao??? inueiai? e?i?? ye ae?eyiee e?eai? o
aeaeyae? eaii?neaoe Aa?ioee? i?inoi?iai? eiio?ao?aoe??. ?ica(ycaiiy
oaei? caaea/? c aeiaeaiiyi i?inoi?iai? eii?aeeiaoe iia’ycaia c? cia/ieie
o?oaeiiuaie iaoaiaoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, iaeiae aeicaiey? ooieoe?iiaeueii
caaeaaaoe i?aeoe/ii yeo caaaiaeii i?inoi?iai eiio?ao?aoe?th
iiaeiaaeiuei? in? aio/eiai aeaiaioa a iaiai?oaeaiiio noai?. Ca
oaeeie oiiaaie io?eiaii i?eeeaae iiaoaeiae aaiiao??? ? /eneiaiai
?ic?aooieo iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio aio/eiai i?e?aeiaiiai
aeiaaii??iiai ia’?eoa aeia?eueii? i?inoi?iai? eiio?ao?aoe?? i?ae ae??th
iaaaioaaeaiiy, aeeeeeaiiai ia?ai?uaiiyi noaeia-iin?y iaeii/anii acaeiaae
o?ueio eii?aeeiaoieo inae. Ia ?en. 2 iieacaii ??aiiaaaei? oi?ie
aio/eiai aeaiaioa i?e oaeiio iaaaioaaeaii?.

I?e aenieoaoaoe?? aeeaieiaiaeieo eiino?oeoe?e iiaeooue, iaeiae,
aeieeiooe neooaoe??, eiee aaiiao??th inueiai? e?i?? aio/eiai aeaiaioa
iaiiaeeeai caaeaoe ooieoe?iiaeueii i?yeei c ?icaeyiooeo niinia?a, ?,
e??i oiai, ?ic?aooiie iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio iaiao?aeii
i?iaiaeeoe iia?aoeaii, aeei?enoiaoth/e ai?oia? ia/enethaaeuei?
eiiieaene. Aeey oeueiai ?ic?iaeaii ? ia?aa??aii ia i?aeoeoe? iaoiae
aecia/aiiy aaiiao??? e?eai? niiniaii neaioaaiiy. O no/anieo ii?nueeeo
oaoiieia?yo ?niothoue niiniae aecia/aiiy i?inoi?iaiai iieiaeaiiy
aio/eiai aeaiaioa ca aeiiiiiaith anoaiiaeaieo ii eiai aeiaaeei?
aeao/ee?a. I?ney io?eiaiiy ia ae?ai? iii?oi?a ia?aco e?eai?,
aeei?enoiaoth/e a?aeii? iaoaiaoe/i? iaeaoe i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai, iiaeia
io?eiaoe an? iaiao?aei? ?? oa?aeoa?enoeee ? iio?aei?,- a ?acoeueoao?
iiaeeeai aeine?aeaeaiiy aio/eiai aeaiaioa aeia?eueii? ieinei? aai
i?inoi?iai? eiio?ao?aoe?? iiaeiaaeiuei? in?, ui ia iieno?oueny a?aeiieie
ooieoe?yie. O caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo iae?i?eio e?aeiao caaea/o aeey
iaea?aeaii? nenoaie cae/aeieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue iiaeia
caienaoe o aeaeyae?

(2)

— caaeaiee aaeoi? ?ici??i?noth n). Aeey /eneiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioeano aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eeo aeaiaio?a cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae, ia
iia’ycaiee iiia?aaei?i cieaeoaaiiyi ii?yaeeo ?ica(ycaeueii?
nenoaie ??aiyiue ? caniiaaiee ia ni?eueiiio canoinoaaii? iaoiaeo
i?iaeiaaeaiiy ii ia?aiao?o ?ica(yce?a iae?i?eieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
??aiyiue ? iaoiaeo Iuethoiia-Eaioi?iae/a. Eiai a?aei?oiith iniaeea?noth
? oa, ui ?ica(ycie iine?aeiaiino? e?iaa?eciaaieo e?aeiaeo caaea/ i?e
e?ieiaiio ca?eueoaii? ia?aiao?o iaaaioaaeaiiy aoaeo?oueny aac
iiia?aaeiuei? e?iaa?ecaoe?? aeo?aeieo iae?i?eieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo
??aiyiue, neeaaeath/eo iae?i?eio aeaioi/eiao e?aeiao caaea/o, ui
caeaaeeoue a?ae ia?aiao?a (. C oe??th iaoith aeei?enoiaothoueny
/eneia? iaoiaee ?ica(ycoaaiiy cae/aeieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue,
oae? ye iaoiae ?oiaa-Eoooa, ye? aeyaeythoueny aeineoue oi/ieie ?
aoaeoeaieie, eaaei i?ia?aiothoueny ? c?o/i? aeey ?aae?caoe?? ia AII.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aio/eeo aeaiaio?a /anoi aeiaiaeeoueny aecia/aoe ?o
cae?eoe/io iiaaae?ieo i?e ao?ao? no?eeino? (iai?eeeaae, aace?/
cae?eoe/ieo oi?i i?ney ao?aoe no?eeino? aio/eiai o?oaii?iaiaeo i?ae
ae??th a?ae?inoaoe/iiai oeneo, aio/eiai oeaiaa i?e ?ooo a iueiio
aiaeii-aeenia?n?eii? noi?o? oiui). O oeeo aeiaaeeao iaiao?aeii aecia/aoe
e?eoe/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ciaoe iiaeeea? cae?eoe/i? oi?ie ??aiiaaae. I?e
aeine?aeaeaii? aeaoi?ioaaiiy, no?eeino?, cae?eoe/ii? iiaaae?iee aio/eeo
aeeaieiaiaeieo nenoai /anoi aeieeathoue neooaoe??, eiee iiaeeea?
aeae?eueea i?iaeiaaeaiue ?ica(yce?a, ui aeoiaeyoue c a?oo?eaoe?eieo
oi/ie, yeeo, o naith /a?ao, iiaea aooe aeae?eueea ? ia a?eeao. I?e
iiaoaeia? a i?inoi?? noai?a a?eie, ui aeoiaeyoue c oi/ee a?oo?eaoe??,
iniaeeai aaaeeeaith aeyaey?oueny caaea/a a?aeae?eaiiy no?eeeo a?eie a?ae
iano?eeeo.

Aeey ia?aa??ee aeinoia??iino? aeeeaaeaieo aeua iaoiae?a i?iiiiothoueny
/eneia? ?ica’ycee iiaeaeueieo caaea/, a oaeiae ?ic?iaea ? i?iaaaeaiiy
iaoo?ieo aenia?eiaio?a. Iaei??th c oaeeo aeey ia?aa??ee i?aaeeueiino?
iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy e?eoe/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue i?e ao?ao? no?eeino?
i?inoi?iai e?eaie?i?eieo aeaiaio?a a?ae noaoe/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, a
oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?eoe/ii? iiaaae?iee i?e oeueiio, aoea /eneiai
?ica’ycaia caaea/a aeaeio e?eueoey a nai?e ieiueie i?ae ae??th
cina?aaeaeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy a oe?e aea ieiueie. oi?ie e?eueoey,
io?eiai? ca ?acoeueoaoaie /eneiaiai ?ic?aooieo, iieacai? ia ?en. 3.
?acoeueoaoe /eneiaiai ?ic?aooieo, io?eiai? ca aeiiiiiaith iaoeiii?
a?ao?ee, ni?aiaee c aenia?eiaioaie. I?e oeueiio ?icoiaeaeaiiy a
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoao ia ia?aaeuoaaee 5% o aeie?eoe/i?e cii?
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? 10% — a cae?eoe/i?e cii?.

a) a)

?en. 3. Oi?ie e?eueoey a aeie?eoe/iiio (a) ? cae?eoe/iiio (a)

noaiao o i?iaeoe?? ia ieiueie xOy ? xOz a?aeiia?aeii

sseui iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae oa/?? ae?? ia ii ii?iae? aei inueiai? e?i??
(a o aeiaaeeo i?inoi?iaiai aeaeio e?eueoey aiia ae?? a iai?oaeaiiio
noai? caaaeaee ia ii ii?iae?), oi

(3)

— eii?aeeiaoe oi/ie a iaiai?oaeaiiio noai?. Oi?ie e?eueoey, io?eiai?
ca oaeeie oiiaaie /eneiaei ?ic?aooieii ? ca aeiiiiiaith oioia?aiiao???,
i?aeoe/ii ni?aiaee.

I?aeoeea aeei?enoaiiy iaeaoa i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai aeey ?ica’ycaiiy
oanoiaeo caaea/ ? aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiae?a ?
aeai?eoi?a iieacaea, ui aeey aeinoaoiuei? oiaaiaiino? a aeinoia??iino?
?acoeueoao?a iaiao?aeii ia?ana?ae/eoeny a ca?aeiino? ?ioaa?oaaiiy
?ica(ycaeueieo ??aiyiue. Iaei??th c oaeeo iciae ? a?coaeueia
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?ii? a?ao?ee ca aaiiao???th
ia’?eoa aaciina?aaeiuei ia ae?ai? iii?oi?a a i?ioean? ?ica’ycaiiy ia
aoaeue-yeiio e?ioe? ?ioaa?oaaiiy. Ia iniia? oanoiaeo caaea/, iaoo?ieo ?
/eneiaeo aenia?eiaio?a aeiaaaeaii aeinoia??i?noue iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy
iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aio/eeo aeaiaio?a.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aii iieno iaaaioaaeaiue oa iaoiaeai ?o
i?eeeaaeaiiy aei aio/eeo eiino?oeoe?e a oiiaao aeeaieiaiaeiiai
na?aaeiaeua. I?iaiae?ciaaii ? nenoaiaoeciaaii iaoiaee aecia/aiiy ae?? ia
aio/e? i?inoi?ia? ii?nuee? eiino?oeoe?? a?o?iaeo nee, oaeeueiaeo
iaaaioaaeaiue, iaaaioaaeaiue a?ae oa/??, a?ae?inoaoe/iiai oeneo.
I?eaaaeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee neeiaeo aieea?a i?aee?aneththoue neeaaei?noue
?o o?aooaaiiy i?e aieea? ia aio/e? aeaiaioe ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e.
Noi?ioeueiaaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ii?nueeiai
oa?aeoa?o c o?aooaaiiyi iaoiae?a ? aeai?eoi?a, ?ic?iaeaieo o aeai?e
?iaio?.

C neeaie, coiiaeaieie ae??th aaciina?aaeiuei a?o?o, /ano?oa ca ana
noeeathoueny i?e aoae?aieoeoa? ? aenieoaoaoe?? i?eaa?aaeieo, a oaeiae
noaoe?iia?ieo iaaeaiaeieo nii?oae. Ia aeeaieiaiaei? nii?oaee a?oa?,
c?icoi?ei, aieeaa? eeoa iai?yii, aeeeeeath/e oaee? ? oa/?th. ?ic?aooiee
oaeeueiaeo aieea?a ia nii?oaee iaiao?aei?, c iaeiiai aieo, aeey ioe?iee
caaaeueii? i?oeiino? ? no?eeino? an??? nii?oaee caaaeii, a oaeiae
i?noeaai? i?oeiino? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe??; c ae?oaiai —
oaeeueia? aieeae aecia/athoue oiiae aacia?aa?eii? ii?iaeueii?
aenieoaoaoe?? aeeaieiaiaeieo ia’?eo?a. ?ic?aooiee oi/eiaiai oeneo
iaiao?aei? aeey aecia/aiiy i?noeaai? i?oeiino? no?iie nooe?eueieo
eiino?oeoe?e, aeeiiaieo o aeaeyae? ieineeo aai i?inoi?iaeo iaieiiie.
Aeaoi?iaoe?? iiaeaoeeaeo nii?oae i?ae ae??th oaeeue ? iio?aeieie a?ae
neeiaiai aieeao oaeeue.

— oaeeueiaa /enei, a z cae/aeii ia? a?ae’?iia cia/aiiy. Aeey aeiaaeo
oaeeue k aeoaea iaea, ? oaeaee?noue oa/?? iaioa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
aeeaeie iia?eueii. Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia /aeaoe, ui oa/?y aieeaa? ia anth
i?aeaiaeio /anoeio nii?oaee ia a?aei?io a?ae a?o?iaeo oaeeue, ui iathoue
iaioo aeiaaeeio. Oa/?y iiaea aieeaaoe ia oaeaee?noue /anoie aiaee
iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue, ? ine?eueee oaeaee?nia neeaaeiaa oaeeueiaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ia?aoeiaeo i?iii?oe?eia eaaae?aoo oaeaeeino? ?ooo
??aeeie, oi ii??aiyii iaaaeeea oa/?y iiaea aieeaaoe iii?oiei /eiii,
iniaeeai ia aaeee?e aeeaei?. Ia ?ia?oe?eio neeaaeiao oa/?y ia aieeaa?,
ine?eueee aiia i?iii?oe?eia o?eueee i?enei?aiith /anoie aiaee.

(,, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a ?ica(ycaeueieo ??aiyiiyo, ca
aeiiiiiaith a?aeiia?aeii? iao?eoe? ia?aoiaeo o?aaa caienaoe ?o o
aeaeyae?

(4)

.

), oi oi?ioea ia?aoiaeo neeaaeath/eo iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae oa/?? i?e
ia?aoiae? a?ae iaei??? nenoaie eii?aeeiao aei ae?oai? aoaea iaoe
inoaoi/iee aeae:

,

;

,
(5)

:

. (6)

Aeei?enoaiiy oeeo ni?aa?aeiioaiue aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe ae?th oa/?? i?e
aoaeue-yeeo eooao aoaee ye o ieiuei?, oae ? a i?inoi??. I?ia?aiieie
iaoiaeaie oe? iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaeooue caaeaaaoeny aeene?aoii ia
aoaeue-ye?e ae?eyioe? ?ioaa?oaaiiy ?ica(ycaeueieo ??aiyiue. Ia ?en. 4
iieacaii i?eioeei caaeaaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue a?ae oa/??.

I?eaaaeaii aiae?c iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo neeiaeo aieea?a, iiaoaeiao
/eneiaiai ?ica(yceo. Ia i?eeeaaeao aeaoi?ioaaiiy ie?aieo nenoai iieacaii
iiaeeeaino? iaoiae?a (?en. 5).

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?ica(ycaii caaea/? i?inoi?iaiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy
o?oaii?iaiaeo i?e oeeaaeaii?, ?aiiio? oa aenieoaoaoe??. O i?aeoeoe?
aoae?aieoeoaa i?aeaiaeieo o?oaii?iaiae?a canoiniaothoue ??ci? niiniae ?o
oeeaaeaiiy. A?eueo?noue c oeeo niinia?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui o?oaii?ia?ae
c aeaeiii o aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei? caio?ththoue c iiaa?oi? aiaee ia aeii
aiaeieieua.

Iaeiae c aaeeeeie aeeaeiaie aeaoi?ioaaiiy o?oaii?iaiaeo /ano?oa ca ana
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia a iaei?e ieiuei?, a a i?inoi?? ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy
aieeao oa/?e, ae?aeoo noaeia oiui.

Aea?? niiniao aoae?aieoeoaa a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao coiiaeaii iano/ith
caeaoi?noth o?oaii?iaiae?a, ui caciathoue aeaeio i?e oeeaaeaii?. Aeeaeia
caio?aiiy o?oaii?iaiaeo aecia/a?oueny iaeneiaeueiei iai?oaeaiiyi,
aeieeath/ei o iueiio i?e oeeaaeaii?, i?e ?icaeyaeaii? ye a aa?aaaoiiio
noai?, oae ? eieaeueii a ie?aiiio ia?a??c?. O?aooaaiiy oeeo oaeoi??a ?
ae?ae aaaeeeaei aeey o?oaioeeaaeaeueiee?a. ?ic?iaea iiaeo, a?eueo
aeineiiaeeo niinia?a caio?aiiy o?oaii?iaiae?a iia’ycaia c aeei?enoaiiyi
iiaeo iaoiae?a ?o ?ic?aooieo. Cia/iee ianya o?oaioeeaaeaeueieo ?ia?o
i?eiaaea? ia i?aeiyooy o?oaii?iaiaeo i?e oeeaaeaii? (i?e oeeee?/iiio
niinia?) ? ?aiiio?. Iaiao?aei?noue ? iaoiaee ?aiiioo o?oaii?iaiaeo
aecia/athoueny aeiiii?/iith aeioe?euei?noth ? oaoi?/iith iiaeeea?noth.
Aeey nionei-i?aei?iaeueieo iaoai?ci?a noaeia aaaeeeai o?aoiaoaaoe
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? i?e?aeiaiiai o?oaii?iaiaeo.

O caeaaeiino? a?ae oeueiai ?aiiio iiaea aooe cae?eniaii aac i?aeeiio
o?oaii?iaiaeo ia iiaa?oith ? c i?aeeiiii. I?e ?aiiio? o?oaii?iaiaeo
niiniaii i?aeeiio ia iiaa?oith aeey aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aeioe?eueiino? iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeai ciaoe iaoai?eo anueiai i?ioeano —
a?ae a?ae?eao a?ae aeiiii? iniiae aei e?ioeaaiai ?icoaooaaiiy a
?aiiioii?eaeaoiiio noai?. I?e oeueiio ia/enethaaeueiee aeai?eoi iiaeia
iiaoaeoaaoe oaeei /eiii, ui e?iaoeue o?oaii?iaiaeo, yeee iaeaaeeoue
noaeio, aoaea “eiaciei” ye c iaoaiaoe/ii?, oae ? c o?ce/ii? oi/ie ci?o,
oiaoi aeiaaeeia o?oaii?iaiaeo, a cia/eoue, ? aeiaaeeia ae?eyiee
?ioaa?oaaiiy iiaeooue ci?ithaaoeny ii i??? oeeaaeaiiy.

A ?iaio? o?oaii?ia?ae ?icaeyaea?oueny ye aio/eee aeiaaii??iee
i?inoi?iai aee?eaeaiee noa?aeaiue, an? aeaoi?iaoe?? yeiai
a?aeaoaathoueny a i?oaei?e noaae??. O caeaaeiino? a?ae iaoiaeo
oeeaaeaiiy ? i?ioeano “iaaaioaaeaiiy» (ia?oueny ia oaac? ia?aiao?
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e /eneiaiio ?ica’ycoaaii? aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue)
caaea?oueny aaiiao??y inueiai? e?i?? ? ii/aoeia? oiiae. Oiaoi,
iaaaioaaeaiiy iiaea cae?enithaaoeny ye ii aeiaaeei? o?oaii?iaiaeo c
aeiaeaaaiiyi nee ? iiiaio?a o oi/eao aeene?aoecaoe?? ?ioa?aaeo
?ioaa?oaaiiy, oae ? oeyoii aa??thaaiiy a?aie/ieo oiia (ia?ai?uaiue
e?ioe?a acaeiaae i?inoi?iaeo eii?aeeiao, ?o iiai?io?a). Aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaoi?ioaaiiy o?oaii?iaiaeo i?e eiai oeeaaeaii? iiaeooue
?icaeyaeaoeny ??ci? aa??aioe ?ic?aooieo a caeaaeiino? a?ae niinia?a
oeeaaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio i?aee?aneeii, ui aeai?eoi ?ic?iaeaieo
i?aei?ia?ai ia?aaeaa/a? iiaeeea?noue ci?ie ae?? iaaaioaaeaiue ia
aoaeue-yeiio e?ioe? /eneiaiai ?ioaa?oaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith
“caiai’yoiaoaaiiy» iiia?aaeiueiai e?ieo, a oaeiae ia aoaeue-yeiio
?ioa?aae? noeoiiino? oi/ie aeene?aoecaoe??. E?euee?noue e?ie?a
?ioaa?oaaiiy ? e?euee?noue oi/ie aeene?aoecaoe?? ii aeiaaeei? o?oae
caeaaeeoue a?ae aaaaoueio oaeoi??a: aeeaeie caio?aiiy, e?eueeino? ?
oa?aeoa?o ae?th/eo ii aeiaaeei? iaaaioaaeaiue, i??e iae?i?eiino?
i?ioeano, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, oiui. Niiniae caaaeaiiy cina?aaeaeaieo,
?iciiae?eaieo ? iiiaioieo iaaaioaaeaiue, a oaeiae ia?ai?uaiiy e?ioe?a
o?oae c oi/ee ci?o ia/enethaaeueiiai aeai?eoio ia?aaeaa/athoue oe?ie?
iiaeeeaino? ia/enethaaeueiiai i?ioeano. ?icaeyiaii iaoai?eo
o?oaii?iaiaeo i?e niinia? oeeaaeaiiy, ui iieyaa? a caio?aii? c iiaa?oi?
aiaee cacaeaeaa?aeue ciiioiaaiiai o?oaii?iaiaeo. I?e ?icaeyae?
ii/aoeiaiai aoaio caio?aiiy o?oaii?iaiaeo, eiee e?iaoeue aaoiaa ua ia
oi?ea?oueny aeia, a ?ooa?oueny o aiae? a?ae aa?oiueiai iieiaeaiiy aei
ieaeiueiai, a?aie/i? oiiae i?eeiathoueny ye aeey aei?noei caoeniooiai
noa?aeiy c a?eueiei e?ioeai (niiniae caaeaaaiiy a?aie/ieo oiia iienai? a
2 ?icae?e?). Oeae ?ic?aooieiaee aeiaaeie a?aeiia?aea? ii/aoeia?e noaae??
oeeaaeaiiy — iioneaii? e?ioey aaoiaa, aeaaaeaiiai a c?a?aiiio aeaeyae?
ia iiaa?oith aeaaoi???. Caiiaiaiiy aaoiaa aiaeith c iaeiiai e?ioey (aai
i?e iine?aeiai?e a?aeno?iiiaoe? iiioii?a, ui ao?eiothoue aao?a ia ieaao)
ni?e/eiy? caio?aiiy e?ioey aaoiaa c iiaa?oi? ia aeii ? c?oeiaiiy
o?oaii?iaiaeo c aeiiiei a?oioii (?en. 6, a).

a)
a)

?en. 6. ?ic?aooieia? noaie o?oaii?iaiaeo
i?e a?eueiiio

iioneaii? (a) ? i?ney
oi?eaiiy aeia (a)

I?e oeueiio ae?th/eie ia o?oaii?ia?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyie ? aaaa aaoiaa,
aeooiaooth/a neea ? aaaa ??aeei? noi?o?, ui iinooiiai caiiaith?oueny
aeey iaaaaeithaaiiy. I?e aecia/aii? aioo??oi?o neeiaeo oaeoi??a ?
aeaoi?iaoe?e iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe aaiethoe?th anueiai i?ioeano nioneo
a?ae ii/aoeo caoiee aaoiaa iaaaaeithaaeueiith noi?ooth aei i?eeiyooy in?
o?oaii?iaiaeo S-iiae?aii? oi?ie. Aeey oeueiai i?eeia?ii, ui ia?aae
nioneii o?oaii?ia?ae ciaoiaeeoueny a iaiai?oaeaiiio noai? ? eiai
iiaeiaaeiy a?nue — i?yia. ?oo aaoiaa ii/eia?oueny i?ae ae??th ??
caaaioaaeaiiy caiiaithth/ith o?oao noi?ooth (aai neeith oyae?iiy
o?oaii?iaiaeo i?e a?aeno?iiiaoe? iiioii?a). Cae/aeii i?eeiyoi, ui
aeiaaeeia ae?eyiee, a?eueii? a?ae caoiee, ci?ith?oueny o /an? ?c caeiiii
s = S — Vt, aea s — aeiaaeeia ae?eyiee, a?eueii? a?ae caoiee; S —
aeiaaeeia aaoiaa, t — /an; V — e?i?eia oaeaee?noue caiiaiaiiy
o?oaii?iaiaeo aiaeith.I?e /eneiaiio ?ica’ycaii? caaea/? /an t
oi?iaeueii aea?aaeaioiee e?ieo ?ioaa?oaaiiy, ine?eueee i?ioean
iaaaioaaeaiiy aoaeaii aaaaeaoe eaac?noaoe/iei. Oaeei /eiii, i?eeiyaoe
e?ie ?ioaa?oaaiiy aeineoue iaeei, iiaeia cae?enieoe eiio?ieue
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio o?oaii?iaiaeo ia anueiio aoai?
oeeaaeaiiy aei oi?eaiiy aeia aiaeieieua (?en. 6, a); iio?i, aaaaeath/e
ui a?eueiee e?iaoeue aeinya aeia, iiaeia i?iaeiaaeeoe ?ica’ycie c iiai?
oi/ee ?ioaa?oaaiiy c iiaeaeueoei iaaaioaaeaiiyi o?oaii?iaiaeo, iaeiae
aaea aaaaeath/e eiai aei?noei caoeniooei ii iaio e?ioeyo (?en. 6, a).
Ia an?o aoaiao aeaoi?ioaaiiy a?aene?aeeiaothoueny an? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio. Ia ?en. 7 iieacai? cia/aiiy aioo??oi?o
coneeue Fv ? Fw, aea Fv — coneeey a ieiuei? iioneaiiy; Fw —
iiaeiaaei? coneeey.

?en. 7. Coneeey a
iiia?a/ieo ia?a??cao

o?oaii?iaiaeo

.

.

(a cia/eoue, e a?ae aeeaeie caio?aiiy), oiaoi a?ae ?icoaooaaiiy
aa?aaaia ia noaei?.

I?e aenieoaoaoe?? i?aeaiaeieo ia?aoiae?a a?aeaoaathoueny ?noioi? ci?ie
oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? noaio i?aoeacaeaoiino? o?oaii?iaiaeo, a ca’yceo c
oeei o aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aeiiii?/ii aea?aei?oa aeyaey?oueny
cae?enithaaoe ?aiiio oeyoii i?aeeiio ae?eyiee o?oaii?iaiaeo ia
iiaa?oith. I?e oeueiio iaiao?aeii ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ? i?iaiicoaaoe ae?th/?
ia ieaacan?a iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui aeieeathoue i?e i?aeeii? o?oaii?iaiaeo.
I?aai?caoe?y i?ioeaaeo?e caoiieaiiy o?oaii?iaiaeo aeiaaa? aaeeei?
iaa?aaeiino?, ine?eueee i?e aaeeeeo caeiaeueieo iiiaioao a?i iiaea
?oeioaaoeny i?ae ae??th ciai?oi?o i?eeeaaeaieo iaaaioaaeaiue. O ca’yceo
c oeei oyaey?oueny aaeueie aeooaeueiith caaea/a aiae?co ??aiiaaaeieo
eiio?ao?aoe?e c?aiaiiai o?oaii?iaiaeo, i?aea?oaiiai ca aeiiiiiaith
o?in?a e?aiaaeie aa?ae? o?oaioeeaaeaeueieea. C oi/ee ci?o iaoiae?a ?
aeai?eoi?a, ui i?iiiiothoueny a aeai?e ?iaio?, ?icaeyiooi i?ioean
i?aeeiio o?oae c ii/aoeo a?ae?eao a?ae iniiae aei oi?eaiiy c noaeiii
(?en. 9).

?en. 9. ?ic?aooieiaa noaia (a) oa oi?ie
inueiai? e?i??

o?oaii?iaiaeo (a) i?e
i?aei?iaii? ia iiaa?oith

I?e oeueiio iaea?aeaii oa?aeoa?enoeee IAeN ia an?o aoaiao i?ioeano
i?aei?iaiiy (?en. 10).

?en. 10. Coneeey (a) oa caeiaeuei? iiiaioe (a)
a iiia?a/ieo

ia?a??cao o?oaii?iaiaeo i?e
i?aeeii?

O i(yoiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeaii ?ica(ycee caaea/ uiaei i?inoi?iaiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eeo aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e ii?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy. I?e
i?iaeooaaii? a?e?oo?a aeey a?ae?iiaoai?ciaaiiai /euaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo
?ieinoae ye i?ae?eiaeueia o?oaa ? iia?o?ii?ia?ae canoiniaothoueny aio/e?
a?iiaai? oeaiae. Iano/ei aeaiaioii o oaeeo eiino?oeoe?yo ? aio/ea
aaaaoiaeoeiaa ni??aeue. I?e i?iaeooaaii? aio/eeo a?iiaaieo oeaia?a
iaei??th c iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo caaea/ ? aecia/aiiy
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ? aeaoi?iaoe?? a?iaoo?e, coiiaeaieo
iiaeiaaeaiiyi, in?aeaiiyi aai i?inoi?iaei ia?ai?uaiiyi i?ae ae??th
iaaaioaaeaiue a?ae oa/??, oaeeue, ae?aeoo oiui. Ia ?en. 11 iieacaii
?iciiae?e aaee/eie e?ooiiai iiiaioo a eiaeiiio aeoeo ni??ae?,
a?aeiia?aeiiai inoaiiueiio aoaio aeaoi?ioaaiiy i?e oaeeo iaaaioaaeaiiyo.

Ooo iio??aii cacia/eoe, ui i?e ao?ao? no?eeino? e?eaa ci?ith? iai?yi
a?ae e?i?eii? aei iae?i?eii?, iaeiae aecia/iee iao?eoe? sseia? ciaeo
ia ci?ith?. Oaeei /eiii, ia?aiao? iaaaioaaeaiiy (e? iiaeia aaaaeaoe
oiiaii e?eoe/iei. Ine?eueee ia anueiio ?ioa?aae? aeine?aeaeaiiy e?ea?
c?inoathoue, oi i?e /eneiaiio ?ioaa?oaaii? iiaeia ia i?iyoe aaaeo/ee
ia?aiao?, ciaiooth/e eeoa eiai i?e??no i?e i?ioiaeaeaii? oiiaii? oi/ee
ao?aoe no?eeino?, a oaeiae a cae?eoe/iiio noai?. Iaeiei c iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? ? iaae?eiino? aio/eeo
o?oaii?iaiae?a aaeeeiai ae?aiao?a i?e o?ainii?ooaaii? iaooe ? aaco ?
aaiaeaaeoaaiiy — iaaeaaiiy aenieii?oeiiai i?io?eth (iai?eeeaae, ae?ioo)
a iaeei aai aeae?eueea oa??a ia iiaa?oith o?oa, ui aeioneathoueny
i?iieneia?noth ca cae/aeiith oaoiieia??th. Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei aeaeii
aaiaeaaea i?e oeueiio aaaaeathoue aeae iaaeaaiiy aenieii?oeiiai i?io?eth
ia o?oao-iniiao aai i?ae eooii aei iiaeiaaeiuei? in? o?oae, aai
ia?iiaeeeoey?ii aei ia?. Oiae? iaoai?eo ni?eueii? ?iaioe o?oae-iniiae ?
aaiaeaaea iiaeia aecia/aoe, ?icaeyaeath/e eieaeueiee ia?a??c o?oae ye
ae?eueieoe? iane?i/aiii aeiaai? iaieiiee, iaaaioaaeaii? aioo??oi?i
oeneii. ? oiae? e?eueoeaa? coneeey a o?oa? ? iaiiooaaii? (aaiaeaae?)
i?eeiathoueny ye noia coneeue a?ae aioo??oiueiai oeneo ? ? iaoyaiaiiy
aaiaeaaea ? ?iciiae?eythoueny aiie ii ia?a??co i?aeoe/ii ??aiii??ii.
sseui c yeeo-iaaoaeue oaoiieia?/ieo i?e/ei, cie?aia o i?inoi?iaiio
aeaoi?ioaaii? i?e i?aeeii?-iioneaii?, i?e ?icoaooaaii? o?oae ia
ia??aiiio ?aeue?o? aeia oiui, a ?iai/iio noai? iiaeiaaeiy a?nue
o?oaii?iaiaeo aeaoi?io?oueny, iaoya a?ae aaiaeaaea ia?a?iciiae?ey?oueny
ii ia?a??co ? ia aoaea ??aiii??iei. O i?inoi?iaiio aeaoi?ioaaii?
o?oaii?iaiaeo a aa?aaaoiiio noai? eieaeuei? aioo??oi? coneeey ia
i?aeei?ythoueny i?eeiyoei cae/aeii aeiiouaiiyi ? aeiaaathoue ie?aiiai
?icaeyaeo. Aoaeaii aaaaeaoe, ui aaiaeaae ni?eeia? coneeey a?ae
aioo??oiueiai oeneo o?oae. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia?aiao?ii iaaaioaaeaiiy
iiaea aooe ?iciiae?eaia iaaaioaaeaiiy fu acaeiaae in? u ?ooiiiai
o?ea?aiieea (u, v, w). I?e oae?e iinoaiiaoe? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaii
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai aaiaeaaea o i?inoi?iaiio aeaoi?ioaaii?
o?oaii?iaiaeo. I/aaeaeii, ui i?e oaeiio aeaoi?ioaaii? aioo??oi? neeia?
oaeoi?e a aaiaeaae? aoaeooue a eiaeiiio ia?a??c? ?iciiae?eai?
ia??aiii??ii.?acoeueoaoe /eneiaiai ?ic?aooieo (?en. 12) iieacothoue
cia/aiiy aioo??oi?o coneeue a aac?ici??ieo aaee/eiao a eiaeiiio aeoeo
iaea?eueo aeaoi?iiaaii? ae?eueieoe? aaiaeaaea.

I?aaenoaaeaii ?ica(ycee iioei?caoe?eieo caaea/, ye? na?ae/aoue, ui
canoinoaaiiy aio/eeo noa?aeiaaeo eiioo??a c iioeiaeueiei eiioo?ii in?
aai iioeiaeueiei ?iciiae?eii iaoa??aeo ? aei?noeino? ii ?o aeiaaeei?
?noioii i?aeaeuo? aei?noe?noue nenoaie, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, aeey
i?eeiyoiai caeiio ?ooo noaeia-iin?y.

— i?enei?aiiy aeae?eaiiai aeaiaioa ds a?aeiinii ?ia?oe?eii? nenoaie
a?aee?eo OXYZ. I?aenoaaeaoe io?eiai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey iaaaioaaeaiue
a nenoaio ?ica’ycaeueieo ??aiyiue ? cai?ieaoe cae/aei? iio?aei? ca
iacaeaaeieie ci?iieie /anoeiieie iio?aeieie, io?eia?ii ?ica’ycaeueio
nenoaio iae?i?eieo ??aiyiue ?ooo. Aeey /eneiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeeo
caaea/ i?iiiio?oueny iaoiae, ui aaco?oueny ia /eneia?e e?iaa??caoe??
??aiyiue noaio ia eiaeiiio e?ioe? ca /anii, iaoiae? ii/aoeiaeo
ia?aiao??a, iaoiae? aeene?aoii? i?oiaiiae?caoe?? ? iaoiae? ?oiaa-Eooa
/aoaa?oiai ii?yaeeo aai iaoiae? Aaa?oa?oa (aeey ia/enethaaeueiiai
i?ioeano ? noaiaea?oi? i?aei?ia?aie ca ia?a?aoiaaieie iaoiaeaie).

O ca’yceo c ?noioiith iae?i?ei?noth ??aiyiue noaio ? ?o
ia?ica(ycai?noth a?aeiinii noa?oeo iio?aeieo ca /anii i?iiiio?oueny
i?aeo?ae, yeee aeicaiey? caanoe caaea/o aei iine?aeiaiino? e?aeiaeo
caaea/ aeey cae/aeieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue ii i?inoi?ia?e
eii?aeeiao? s ia eiaeiiio e?ioe? ca /anii. I?e aeineoue iaeiio e?ioe?
ca /anii t ci?ia ci?iieo noaio iacia/ia, ui aeicaiey? aeei?enoaoe
a?aeiiee noai ia aeaiiio oei/aniaiio e?ioe? ye iii?ia ?ica(ycaiiy aeey
ianooiiiai e?ieo ca /anii. Oeae i?aeo?ae ? iiaeeo?eaoe??th iaoiaeo
i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?ica(yceo ii ia?aiao?o, a iayaii ao?aeiei o ??aiyiiy noaio
ia?aiao?ii ? /an t. ?icaeyiooi eieeaaiiy o?oaii?iaiaeo c o?aooaaiiyi
ea/aiiy noaeia ia ?aaoey?iiio oaeethaaii?. Oaeei /eiii aoee io?eiai?
oi?ie o?oaii?iaiaeo (?en. 13, a) oa oa?aeoa?enoeee eiai IAeN (?en. 13,
a) i?e an?o ie?aii ae?th/eo aeaeao ea/aiiy. I?e oeueiio aaaaeaeiny, ui
aeaoi?ioaaiiy o?oaii?iaiaeo a?aeaoaaeiny a ieie? noaio niieith
(iaiai?oaeaiiai noaio, iicia/aiiai na?aaei?ie e?eaeie) ??aieie
aiie?ooaeaie a iaeio ? a ae?oao noi?iio (e?aei? e?ea?).

?en. 13. Oi?ie o?oaii?iaiaeo (a) ?
cia/aiiy e?ooieo

iiiaio?a (a) i?e
aeeiai?/iiio iaaaioaaeaii?

Oa?aeoa? e?iaiaoe/iiai caoaeaeaiiy, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny, oaeee, ui
aiane?aeie aeeiai?/iiai iiai?ioo noaeia o?oaii?ia?ae aeaoi?io?oueny a
i?inoi?? ca oi?iith, aeecueeith aei ia?oi? iiaee eiai aeanieo eieeaaiue.
sse iieacaee ?ic?aooiee, aianie o caaaeueio oi?io a?eueiiai ?ooo
o?oaii?iaiaeo i?e t>O a?eueo aenieeo iiae eieeaaiue aeyaey?oueny
a?aeiinii iaeei. O o?oa/anoeo i?e?aeiaieo aei noaeia-iin?y i?oaeieo
nenoaiao c aioo??oi?ie iioieaie ??aeeie iiaeooue aooe ?aae?ciaai?
iaea?eueo oeiia? aeeiai?/i? aoaeoe, aeanoea? iaoai?/iei nenoaiai c
?ooiiith ianith. O/anoue aeaiaio?a oaeeo nenoai iaeii/anii a aeae?eueeio
aeaeao ?ooo a caeaaeiino? a?ae aca?iiae?? i?ae ieie iiaea i?eaanoe aei
aeyao nenoaiith aeanoeainoae eiina?aaoeaiino? aai iaeiina?aaoeaiino?.
Oiio aiane?aeie oaeeo aca?iiae?e nenoaia iiaea aooe ye noaa?e?ciaaia,
oae ? aeanoaa?e?ciaaia, i?e/iio ?? ao?aoa no?eeino? iiaea aeyaeyoeny a
oi?iao aeeaa?aaioe?? aai oeaoa?a. A?aei?/ai? yaeua iiaeooue iaoe i?noea,
iai?eeeaae, o aio/eeo a?iiaaieo oeaiaao i?e a?aeea/oaaii? ??aeei? noi?o?
c aeia ii?y aai c aaeeeeo aeeaei. I?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe /eneiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee eiinieueiiai a?iiaaiiai oeaiaa. O
iaiaaaioaaeaiiio, oiaoi a ia?iai/iio, noai?, eiee ??aeeia ia
iiaea?oueny, oeaia ia? i?inoi?iai aee?eaeaio oi?io, iieacaio ia ?en. 14
(aa?oiy e?eaa) a aeniiiiao?e/iiio cia?aaeaii?, io?eiaiiio ca aeiiiiiaith
eiii’thoa?ii? a?ao?ee ca ?acoeueoaoaie /eneiaiai ?ic?aooieo.

Io?eiaii oaeiae oi?ie eieeaaiue oeaiaa, iaeia c yeeo iieacaia ia ?en.
14 (ieaeiy e?eaa), ?? aeae iacia/ii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aeaoi?ioaaiiy
i?e eaac?noaoe/iiio iaaaioaaeaii?. Aiae?c /eneiaiai ?ic?aooieo
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui cia/aiiy oaeaeeino? 1,5 i/n ? e?eoe/iei, ine?eueee
i?e iueiio caoaeaeothoueny noae? iacaoooath/? eieeaaiiy.

O Aeniiaeao aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe caaaeii ?
noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co noaio ?ia?o a aaeoc?
aein-e?aeaeaiiy aio/eeo aeaiaio?a ii?nueeeo nenoai aecia/aii iia?
iai?yie aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith noai?aiiy iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo, ui
aeicaieythoue aeine?aeaeoaaoe ?o iaoai?eo aaciina?aaeiuei a ?aaeueieo
oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??. Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue o?aooaaiiy iaoai?ee
i?e?aeiaieo aio/eeo ia’?eo?a aeey caaacia/aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a
noaeia-iin?y.

2. Ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ciai?oiueiai neei-aiai
aieeao ia aio/e? aeeaieiaiaei? aeaiaioe eiino?oeoe?e ?ic?iaeaii niiniae
caaeaaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue ii?nueeiai oa?aeoa?o: a?o?iaeo nee, oaeeueiaeo
iaaaioaaeaiue, iaaaioaaeaiue a?ae oa/?e, a?ae?inoaoe/iiai oeneo.

3. ?icaeiaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aeine?aeaeaiiy aio/eeo ii?-nueeeo
eiino?oeoe?e, caniiaaio ia a?aeiieo i?aeoiaeao Eaa?aiaea ? Aeea?a.
Ocaaaeueiai? oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae aeicaieeee noi?ioethaaoe nenoaio
?ica(ycaeueieo cae/aeieo aeeoa?ai-oe?aeueieo ??aiyiue a?n?iiaaeoeyoiai
ii?yaeeo, ye? ? iii?ieie i?e iiaeeo?eaoe?? aeai?eoi?a ?ica(yceo
i?eeeaaeieo caaea/ ? ?ica(ycie yeeo aia?oa io?eiaii aaoi?ii
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

4. ?ic?iaeaii niiniae caaeaaaiiy a?aie/ieo oiia aeey ??cieo aeae?a
iie?aiiy aio/eeo aeaiaio?a, niiniae caaeaaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiue,
i?eoaiaiieo aeeaieiaiaeiiio na?aaeiaeuo, ui aeicaiey? iaaeeceoe /eneia?
aenia?eiaioe aei ?aaeueieo oiia aenieoaoaoe?? ia’?eoa.

5. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee aecia/aiiy aaiiao??? aio/eiai aeaiaioa o
iaiai?oaeaiiio noai? i?e aeia?euei?e ieine?e aai i?inoi?ia?e ii/aoeia?e
eiio?ao?aoe?? inueiai? e?i?? c ?? iiaeaeueoei canoinoaaiiyi o
?ica(ycaeueieo ??aiyiiyo.

6. Ia i?aenoaa? no/anieo iaoiae?a /eneiaiai aiae?co ? aiae?oe/ii?
aaiiao??? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee ? ia/enethaaeuei? aeai?eoie /eneiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i?eiiai i?inoi?iaiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eeo
aeeaieiaiaeieo eiino?oeoe?e ?c caeiaeueiith ? e?ooeeueiith aei?noe?noth,
ui aeicaieythoue aecia/aoe iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia’?eoa ye a eiai aa?aaaoiiio noai?,
oae ? eieaeueii.

7. Noai?aii ia/enethaaeuei? aeai?eoie, ui aeicaieythoue, ia a?ae-i?io
a?ae ?ai?oa a?aeiieo, ?ica(ycoaaoe i?eioeeiiai iia? oeie caaea/ iaoai?ee
aio/eeo aeeaieiaiaeieo nenoai, oi?o?eoaaoe oeie eiino?oeoe?e, ui
aeine?aeaeothoueny, aoaeoeaii ia?aoiaeeoe a?ae iaei??? ?ic?aooieiai?
noaie aei ?ioi? o caeaaeiino? a?ae o?ceei-aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a ? oiia
iaaaioaaeaiiy, io?eioaaoe aeo?aei? aeai? a c?o/iiio aeey ei?enooaa/a
aeaeyae?.

8. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee aecia/aiiy aeinoia??iino? ?acoeueoao?a
?ic?aooie?a, ui io?eiothoueny, ca aeiiiiiaith /eneiaiai aai iaoo?iiai
aenia?eiaioa. ?ica(ycaiiy oanoiaeo caaea/ ? i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe
iieacaee aeinoia??i?noue ? aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiae?a ?
aeai?eoi?a.

9. Io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe ?ica’yce?a i?eeeaaeieo caaea/, ui
aeic-aieythoue aecia/aoe iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai, no?ee?noue,
cae?eoe/io iiaaae?ieo ? aeeiai?eo aio/eeo aeaiaio?a ??cieo oei?a
ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e.

10. Io?eiaii oa?aeoa?enoeee iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
i?aeaiaeiiai o?oaii?iaiaeo i?e eiai i?inoi?iaiio aeaoi?ioaaii? a
i?ioean? oeeaaeaiiy ? i?aeeiio c iaoith ?aiiioo aai cai?ie. ?ica(ycaii
i?eioeeiiai iiao caaea/o aecia/aiiy oyaiaiai coneeey eaa?aeee i?e
a?ae?ea? o?oaii?iaiaeo a?ae iniiae (aeia) a eiai i?inoi?iaiio
aeaoi?ioaaii? ? ae?? oa/??.

11. Aecia/aii e?eoe/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy ? cae?eoe/i? oi?ie o?oaii?iaiaeo
i?e aeine?aeaeaii? eiai eieaeueii? no?eeino? i?e caaeeaeaii? a a?oio ?
i?e iaaeineiiaeino? aeaioiaeaiiy.

12. Aeine?aeaeaii i?inoi?iaa aeaoi?ioaaiiy aio/eeo a?iiaaieo oeaia?a c
o?aooaaiiyi aaiiao??? a?iaoo?e i?e iaaaioaaeaiiyo a?ae i?io?eaiiy
??aeeie ? a?ae ciai?oiuei? oa/??.

13. ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeie ?ica(ycaiiy caaea/ aeeiai?ee aio/eeo ii?nueeeo
nenoai, i?e?aeiaieo aei noaeia-iin?y, ? i?aeoe/ii ?aae?ciaaii iaoiaee
?ica(yceo.

14. Iinoaaeaii ? ?ica(ycaii caaea/o iioei?caoe?? aio/eeo aee-aieiaiaeieo
nenoai c iaoith i?i?i?caoe?? ?o o?ceei-aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a.

15. I?eaaaeaii iien ia/enethaaeueieo aeai?eoi?a ? oaenoe in-iiaieo
ia/enethaaeueieo i?ia?ai, ui ?aae?ciaothoue iaoiaee ? aeai?eoie,
?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii.

16. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaieee noaeiiaeo
nenoai iiaeooue noai?thaaoe iia? oeie aio/eeo aeiaaii??ieo eiino?oeoe?e
c o?aooaaiiyi neeaaeiinoae ?o iaoai?ee o iae?i?eiiio i?inoi?iaiio
aeaoi?ioaaii?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a ioae?eaoe?yo:

E?aaoeia A.E. Iaoaieea aeaeeo aeoaieiaiaeiuo nenoai: [Iiiia?.]. — Eeaa:
Iaoe. aeoiea, 1997. — 237 n.

E?aaoeia A.? Iaoai?ea aio/eeo ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e: [Iiiia?.]. — Ee?a:
Iaoe. aeoiea, 1999. — 131 n.

E?aaoeia A.E. Iaeeiaeiay iinoaiiaea caaea/ onoie/eainoe ?aaiiaaney
iaoaie/aneeo nenoai // Iaeeiaeiua e?aaaua caaea/e iaoaiaoe/aneie oeceee
e eo i?eeiaeaiey: [Na. iao/. o?.]. — Eeaa: Ei-o iaoaiaoeee IAI Oe?aeiu,
1995. — N. 128-130.

E?aaoeia A.E., Aoaeeiaa I.A. Iaeeiaeiay iinoaiiaea caaea/ onoie/eainoe
?aaiiaaney e eieaaaiee iaoaie/aneeo nenoai // Iaoaiaoe/aneia
iiaeaee?iaaiea: [Na. iao/. o?.]. — Eeaa: Ei-o iaoaiaoeee IAI Oe?aeiu,
1996. — N. 127-130.

E?aaoeia A.E. Iioeiecaoeey ia?aiao?ia aeaeie iaiei/ee i?e ia?aie/aiee
ii iaeeiaeiie onoie/eainoe //Aanoiee OAOO. — 1997. — ? 1. — N. 22-23.

E?aaoeia A.E. Onoie/eainoue aeaeeo o?oaii?iaiaeia //

Aaoiiaoeea. Aaoiiaoecaoeey. Yeaeo?ioaoie/aneea eiiieaenu e

nenoaiu. — 1997. — ? 1. — N. 190-198.

E?aaoeia A.E. Enneaaeiaaiea o?aaiaiee ?acaaoaeaiey a iaoaieea aeaeeo
yeaiaioia // Aanoiee OAOO. — 1997. — ? 2. — N. 161-164.

E?aaoeia A.E. Iaeeiaeiay iinoaiiaea caaea/ onoie/eainoe e eieaaaiee
aeaeeo i?ioyaeaiiuo iaiei/ae // ?ano?ninaa?aaathuea e yia?ainaa?aaathuea
oaoiieiaee: [Na. iao/. no.]. — Oa?nii, 1996. — N. 51-53.

Aa?aea/aa TH.I., E?aaoeia A.E. Ii?aaeaeaiea aeeiaie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee
i?eaiaea oi?aaeyaiuo iaaaoiiiiiuo iiaeaiaeiuo iauaeoia // Aaoiiaoeea.
Aaoiiaoecaoeey. Yeaeo?ioaoie/aneea eiiieaenu e nenoaiu. — 1998. — ? 1. —
N. 97-104.

E?aaoeia A.E. Iaoiae /eneaiiiai ?an/aoa i?ino?ainoaaiii ene?eaeaiiuo
aeaeeo yeaiaioia // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue OAeIOO. — ? 2 (350). —
Ieeiea?a: OAeIOO, 1998. — N. 30-36.

E?aaoeia A.E. I?ino?ainoaaiiia aeaoi?ie?iaaiea aeaeiai oeaiaa n
iaiaeii?iaeiie aeaeaeouaeny aeeaeeinoueth // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
OAeIOO.- ? 3 (351).- Ieeiea?a: OAeIOO, 1998.- N. 54-60.

Aa?aea/aa TH.I., E?aaoeia A.E. Aaiiao?ey e?eauo a iaoaieea aeaeeo
iiaeaiaeiuo yeaiaioia // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue OAeIOO. — ? 6 (354). —
Ieeiea?a: OAeIOO, 1998. — N. 53-57.

E?aaoeia A.E., Aa?aea/aa TH.I. Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey aeeiaie/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee iiaeaiaeiiai o?oaii?iaiaea // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
OAeIOO.- ? 11(359).- Ieeiea?a: OAeIOO, 1998. — N. 35-40.

E?aaoeia A.E. Aa?iyoiinoii-aeae?iaeeiaie/aneee iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey
aieiiauo iaa?ocie // Aanoiee OAOO. -1998. — ? 1(3). — N. 9-11.

Aa?aea/aa TH.I., E?aaoeia A.E. Iinoaiiaea a?aie/iuo oneiaee i?e
enneaaeiaaiee o?aaiaiee, iienuaathueo aeaoi?ie?iaaiea aeaeeo noa?aeiae
// Aanoiee OAOO. -1998. — ? 2(4). — N. 7-9.

E?aaoeia A.?. Aieea iaaaioaaeaiue a?ae oa/?e ia aio/e? i?aeaiaei?
eiino?oeoe?? // Aanoiee OAOO. — 1998. — ? 2(4). — N. 26-29.

E?aaoeia A.E. Iaoaieea iiaeaiaeiiai o?oaii?iaiaea i?e ?aiiioa niiniaii
iiaeiyoey ia iiaa?oiinoue n o/aoii ?aaeoeee iniiaaiey // Aanoiee OAOO. —
1998. — ? 2(4). — N. 209-211.

E?aaoeia A.?. Iioei?caoe?y ia?aiao??a aio/eeo noaeiiaeo

aioai // Aaoiiaoeea. Aaoiiaoecaoeey. Yeaeo?ioaoie/aneea

eiiieaenu e nenoaiu. — 1999. -?1. — N. 124-131.

Ao/eineee E.A., E?aaoeia A.E. Ninoiyiea enneaaeiaaiee a iaeanoe
ae?ooaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe // Aanoiee OAOO: Niaoe. aui. — 1999. — N.
43-46.

E?aaoeia A.E., Iaianthe I.A. Iaoiae enneaaeiaaiey iaeeiaeiiai
i?ino?ainoaaiiiai aeaoi?ie?iaaiey iaoaeeiei?aea // Oac. aeiee. eiio.
“Oaoiieiaee e iai?oaeiaaiea aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iiiaii?iaiei/iuo aeouo
ecaeaeee”. — Naaanoiiieue, 1989. — N. 11-12.

E?aaoeia A.E. *eneaiiua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey aeaeeo aeaoaeae
iiaeuaiii-o?aeiaiai iai?oaeiaaiey // Oac. aeiee. eiio. “Oaoie/aneea
n?aaenoaa ieaaie/aneiai i?iiuoeaiiiai ?uaieianoaa”. — Naaanoiiieue,
1990. — N. 56-57.

E?aaoeia A.E. Au/eneeoaeueiua aeai?eoiu ii?aaeaeaiey
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey noaeueiiai eaiaoa // Oac.
aeiee. eiio. “Oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa ieaaie/aneiai i?iiuoeaiiiai
?uaieianoaa”. — Naaanoiiieue, 1993. — N. 19-20.

E?aaoeia A.?. Noaoeea oa aeeiai?ea aio/eeo i?inoi?iai ne?eaeaieo
aeaiaio?a eiino?oeoe?e i?e ?o iaiaiaaeaiiiio aeaoi?ioaaii? // Oace aeii.
2-ai I?aeia?iaeiiai n?iiic?oia oe?a?inueeeo ?iaeaia??a-iaoai?e?a. —
Euea?a, 1995. — n. 34-35.

E?aaoeia A.E., Aoaeeiaa I.A. Oi?aaeaiea aeaeeie iiaeaiaeiuie iauaeoaie
// Oacenu aeiee. 1-e Iaaeaeoia?. iao/ii-oaoi. eiio. “I?iaeaiu
yia?ainaa?aaeaiey e yeieiaee a noaeino?iaiee”. — Ieeieaaa, 1996. — N.
104-106.

E?aaoeia A.E. *eneaiiia ?aoaiea aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo o?aaiaiee aunieiai
ii?yaeea a caaea/ao iaeeiaeiie iaoaieee // Iaoaiaoe/aneia
iiaeaee?iaaiea: [ Na. iao/. o?.]. — Oa?nii, 1997. — N. 95-97.

E?aaoeia A.E. Iioeiecaoeey ia?aiao?ia aeaeiai i?ioyaeaiiiai yeaiaioa
i?e ia?aie/aiee ii iaeeiaeiie onoie/eainoe // Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiua e
eioaa?aeueiua o?aaiaiey iaoaiaoe/aneie oeceee e eo i?eeiaeaiey: [Na.
iao/. o?.]. — Eeaa: Ei-o iaoaiaoeee IAI Oe?aeiu, 1997. — N. 125-129.

E?aaoeia A.E. I?eaaaeaiea aa?eaoeeiiiuo i?eioeeiia iaoaieee e aeaeo,
oaeiaiiio aeey aeai?eoie/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey ia IYAI // Iaoaiaoe/aneea
iiaeaee e nia?aiaiiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: [Na. iao/. o?.]. —
Eeaa: Ei-o iaoaiaoeee IAI Oe?aeiu, 1998. — N. 82-85.

E?aaoeia A.E., Eaeaoiee I.A., Iaeueiee ?.E. Iaeeiaeiia aeaoi?ie?iaaiea
e onoie/eainoue aeaeeo iiaeaiaeiuo a?ie?iaaiiuo oeaiaia //
Oeceei-oaoie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea i?eeiaeaiey iaoaiaoe/aneiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey: [Na. iao/. o?.]. — Eeaa: Ei-o iaoaiaoeee IAI Oe?aeiu,
1998. — N. 138-142.

AIIOAOe?ss

E?aaoeia A?eoi? ?aaiiae/. Iaoai?ea aio/eeo aeeaieiaiaeieo nenoai. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05-08-03 iaoai?ea ? i?iaeooaaiiy noaeai. Oe?a?inueeee
aea?aeaaiee ii?nueeee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. aaei. Iaea?iaa,
Ieeiea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a ? aeai?eoi?a /eneiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i?eiiai i?oaeiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy i?inoi?iai
aee?eaeaieo aio/eeo aeaiaio?a ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e ?c caeiaeueiith ?
e?ooeeueiith aei?noe?noth i?ae ae??th aeia?eueii ?icoaoiaaieo o i?inoi??
noaoe/ieo, eaac?noaoe/ieo aai aeeiai?/ieo cina?aaeaeaieo, ?iciiae?eaieo
aai iiiaioieo iaaaioaaeaiue, aeeeeeaieo e?iaiaoe/iei aai aeaoi?iaoe?eiei
aieeaii aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, i?e ?iaio? a oiiaao, aeecueeeo aei
?aaeueieo. ?ic?iaeaii iaeaoe ia/enethaaeueieo i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai, ye?
aeicaieythoue iia?aoeaii ae??ooaaoe iinoaaeai? caaea/? c iaoith
i?eeiyooy eiino?oeoeaieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue aaciina?aaeiuei o
i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? aio/eeo ii?nueeeo eiino?oeoe?e. Aeinoia??i?noue
ia?aa??aia ?ic?iaeaieie iaoiaeaie /eneiaiai ? iaoo?iiai aenia?eiaioa.
Aeine?aeaeaia iaoai?ea i?aeaiaeiiai o?oaii?iaiaeo ? eiai aieea ia
noaeii-iin?e i?e oeeaaeaii?, ?aiiio? ? aenieoaoaoe??. Aecia/aii
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai aio/eeo, i?e?aeiaieo aei noaeia-iin?y
i?ioyaeieo eiino?oeoe?e i?ae ae??th noaoe/ieo ? aeeiai?/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue. Ia iniia? noai?aieo iaoiae?a ? aeai?eoi?a oia?oa
?ica’ycaii ?yae i?ea?iaeueieo i?eeeaaeieo caaea/ iaoai?ee aeeaieiaiaeieo
aio/eeo eiino?oeoe?e, aeine?aeaeaii ?o iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai,
no?ee?noue ? aeeiai?ea a ?aaeeiao aenieoaoaoe??, aeecueeeo aei
?aaeueieo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aio/e? aeaiaioe, o?oaii?ia?ae, noaeii-iin?e, noaoeea,
aeeiai?ea, no?ee?noue, aeaoi?ioaaiiy, i?inoi?ia?noue, iaoai?ea, /eneia?
iaoiaee.

SUMMARY

Krawtsov Viktor ?. Mechanics of flexible deep-water systems. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for degree of the doctor of technical sciences on speciality
05.08.03 -mechanic and designing of ships. — Ukrainian State Maritime
Technical University, Mykolaiv 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to methods development and algorithms of
numerical research of unlinear resilient deforming of spatially warper
flexible elements of sea constructions from by bend and torsion
inflexibility attached to action of almost static or dynamic loadings
allotted or moment concentrated, static, at will disposed in space,
called by velocity or deformation influence of water environment,
attached to work in conditions, near to real. Developed the packets of
calculable applied programs, which allow officient to decide the put
tasks with view reception of of constructive and technological
decisions immediately in act of exploitation of flexible sea
constructions. A veracity is well-tried by developed methods of numeral
and on location experiment. Explored mechanics submarine to conduit and
his influence on ships-carrier attached to concluding, repair and
exploitation. Defined tensely-deformed to state of drawling
constructions tack to ships-carrier flexible, attached to action of
static and dynamic loadings. On base of created methods and algorithms
for the first time untied a row of original applied mechanics tasks of
deep-water flexible constructions, inquired into their tensely-deformed
state, steadiness and dynamics in exploitation modes, near to real.

Key words: flexible elements, conduit, ships-carrier, statics,
dy-namics, steadiness, deforming, space, mechanics, numerical methods.

AIIIOAOeEss

E?aaoeia Aeeoi? Eaaiiae/. Iaoaieea aeaeeo aeoaieiaiaeiuo nenoai. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.08.03 — iaoaieea e eiino?oe?iaaiea noaeia. Oe?aeineee
ainoaea?noaaiiue ii?neie oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, a. Ieeieaaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia e aeai?eoiia /eneaiiiai
enneaaeiaaiey iaeeiaeiiai oi?oaiai aeaoi?ie?iaaiey i?ino?ainoaaiii
ene?eaeaiiuo aeaeeo yeaiaioia ii?neeo eiino?oeoeee n ecaeaiie e
e?ooeeueiie aeanoeinoueth i?e aeaenoaee i?iecaieueii ?aniieiaeaiiuo a
i?ino?ainoaa noaoe/aneeo, eaacenoaoe/aneeo eee aeeiaie/iuo
nin?aaeioi/aiiuo, ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo eee iiiaioiuo iaa?ocie, aucaaiiuo
eeiaiaoe/aneei eee aeaoi?iaoeeiiiui aeeyieai aiaeiie n?aaeu. Iai?aaeaiey
enneaaeiaaiee iaoneiaeaiu aaaeiinoueth yoeo caaea/ a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo aeey iaania/aiey Oe?aeiu nianoaaiiuie yia?ai?ano?naie, eioi?ua
aeiauaathony iooai ?ac?aaioee oaeueoia Aciai-*a?iiii?neiai aannaeia, a
oaeaea iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?acaeoey ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo ?ac?aaioie a iaeanoe
no?ieoaeueiie iaoaieee ei?aaey. Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiiai aiaeeca
ninoiyiey ?aaio a iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiey aeaeeo yeaiaioia ii?neeo nenoai
ii?aaeaeaiu iiaua iai?aaeaiey n oeaeueth nicaeaiey iaoiaeia ?an/aoa,
iicaieythueo enneaaeiaaoue eo iaoaieeo iaiin?aaenoaaiii a ?aaeueiuo
oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee. Enneaaeiaaiu oa?aeoa?enoeee aiaoiaai neeiaiai
aicaeaenoaey ia aeaeea aeoaieiaiaeiua yeaiaiou eiino?oeoeee, ?ac?aaioaiu
niiniau caaeaiey iaa?ocie ii?neiai oa?aeoa?a: aao?iauo nee, aieiiauo
iaa?ocie, iaa?ocie io oa/aiee, aeae?inoaoe/aneiai aeaaeaiey.
?ac?aaioaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue enneaaeiaaiey aeaeeo ii?neeo
eiino?oeoeee, iniiaaiiay ia ecaanoiuo iiaeoiaeao Eaa?aiaea e Yeea?a.
Iaiauaiiua oai?aoe/aneea i?aaeiinueee iicaieeee noi?ioee?iaaoue nenoaio
?ac?aoathueo iaueiiaaiiuo aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuo o?aaiaiee ainaiiaaeoeaoiai
ii?yaeea, eioi?ua yaeythony iii?iuie i?e iiaeeoeeaoeee aeai?eoiia
?aoaiey i?eeeaaeiuo caaea/ e ?aoaiea eioi?uo aia?aua iieo/aii aaoi?ii
aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou. Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/aoa iaoaieee
i?eniaaeeiaiiuo aeaeeo iauaeoia aeey iaania/aiey oaoiieiae/aneeo
ia?aiao?ia noaeia-iineoaey. ?ac?aaioaiu niiniau caaeaiey a?aie/iuo
oneiaee aeey ?acee/iuo aeaeia iie?aiey aeaeeo yeaiaioia, niiniau
caaeaiey iaa?ocie, i?enoueo aeoaieiaiaeiie n?aaea, /oi iicaieyao
i?eaeeceoue /eneaiiua yenia?eiaiou e ?aaeueiui oneiaeyi yenieoaoaoeee
iauaeoa. ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey aaiiao?ee aeaeiai yeaiaioa a
iaiai?yaeaiiii ninoiyiee i?e i?iecaieueiie ieineie eee i?ino?ainoaaiiie
ia/aeueiie eiioeao?aoeee inaaie eeiee n aa aeaeueiaeoei i?eiaiaieai a
?ac?aoathueo o?aaiaieyo. Nicaeaiu au/eneeoaeueiua aeai?eoiu,
iicaieythuea ?aoaoue i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua oeiu caaea/ iaoaieee aeaeeo
aeoaieiaiaeiuo nenoai, oieoeoee?iaaoue oeiu enneaaeoaiuo eiino?oeoeee,
yooaeoeaii ia?aoiaeeoue io iaeiie ?an/aoiie noaiu e ae?oaie a
caaeneiinoe io oeceei-aaiiao?e/aneeo ia?aiao?ia iauaeoa e oneiaee
iaa?ocee, iieo/aoue auoiaeiua aeaiiua a oaeiaiii aeey iieueciaaoaey
aeaea. Aeinoiaa?iinoue iaoiaeeee i?iaa?aia ?ac?aaioaiiuie iaoiaeaie
/eneaiiiai e iaoo?iiai yenia?eiaioa. Iieo/aiu oa?aeoa?enoeee
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey iiaeaiaeiiai o?oaii?iaiaea i?e
aai i?ino?ainoaaiiii aeaoi?ie?iaaiee a i?ioeanna oeeaaeee e iiaeuaia n
oeaeueth ?aiiioa eee caiaiu. ?aoaia caaea/a ii?aaeaeaiey oyaiaiai oneeey
eaaaaeee i?e io?uaa o?oaii?iaiaea io iniiau (aeia) a aai
i?ino?ainoaaiiii aeaoi?ie?iaaiee e i?e aeaenoaee oa/aiey. Ii?aaeaeaii
iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea aeaeeo, oi?oaeo, i?eniaaeeiaiiuo
e noaeio-iineoaeth i?ioyaeaiiuo eiino?oeoeee i?e aeaenoaee noaoe/aneeo e
aeeiaie/iuo iaa?ocie. Ii?aaeaeaiu e?eoe/aneea iaa?ocee e cae?eoe/aneea
oi?iu o?oaii?iaiaea i?e enneaaeiaaiee aai eieaeueiie onoie/eainoe i?e
oaeoaeaiee a a?oio e i?e ianiaa?oainoaa ecaioiaeaiey. Enneaaeiaaii
i?ino?ain-oaaiiia aeaoi?ie?iaaiea aeaeeo a?ie?iaaiiuo oeaiaia n o/aoii
aaiiao?ee a?iaoo?u i?e iaa?oceao io i?ioaeaiey aeeaeeinoe e io aiaoiaai
oa/aiey. ?ac?aaioaiu e i?aeoe/anee ?aaeeciaaiu i?eioeeiu ?aoaiey caaea/
aeeiaieee aeaeeo ii?neeo nenoai, i?eniaaeeiaiiuo e noaeio-iineoaeth.
Iinoaaeaia e ?aoaia caaea/a iioeiecaoeee aeaeeo aeoaieiaiaeiuo nenoai n
oeaeueth ieieiecaoeee eo oeceei-aaiiao?e/aneeo ia?aiao?ia. ?acoeueoaou
i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee iicaieytho ?ac?aaio/eeai noaeiauo nenoai
nicaeaaaoue iiaua oeiu aeaeeo aeeeiiiia?iuo eiino?oeoeee n o/aoii
neiaeiinoae eo iaoaieee i?e iaeeiaeiii i?ino?ainoaaiiii aeaoi?ie?iaaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaeea yeaiaiou, o?oaii?iaiae, noaeii-iineoaeue,
noaoeea, aeeiaieea, onoie/eainoue, aeaoi?ie?iaaiea, i?ino?ainoaaiiinoue,
iaoaieea, /eneaiiua iaoiaeu.

Aeae-ai ONC, 1999.-Cai. 374.-Oe?aae
100 i?ei.

PAGE 7

a)

a)

?en. 2. ??aiiaaaei? oi?ie i?inoi?iai aee?eaeaiiai aio/eiai aeaiaioa a
oi?i? eaii?neaoe Aa?ioee? a aeniiiiao?e/i?e
i?iaeoe??

?en. 4. ?iceeaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae oa/?? ia neeaaeia? ii

inyo i?e?iaeiiai o?ea?aiieea

a)
a)

?en. 5. Oi?ie caio?thaaii? aio/ei? eiino?oeoe?? i?e iioneaii? (a)

oa i?ae ae??th ooieoe?iiaeueii ci?ithaaii? c aeeaeiith oa/??
(a)

?en. 8. ?ic?aooieiaa noaia o?oaii?iaiaeo i?e oeeaaeaii?
niiniaii ciiooaaiiy c aa?aaaia

?en.11. ?iciiae?e e?ooiiai

iiiaioo o aeoeao a?iaoo?e

?en. 12. Aioo??oi? coneeey a aeoeao aaiaeaaea

ia iaea?eueo aeaoi?iiaaieo ae?eyieao o?oaii?iaiaeo

?en. 14. Oi?ia eieeaaiiy

oeaiaa a aeniiiiao?e/iiio cia?aaeaii?

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