Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»

Iiiia ss?ineaa Aiaaeaiiae/

OAeE 621.382

IAOAIAOE*IA IIAeAETHAAIIss IA?AEIIEO IA?AOAI?THAA*?A O?CE*IEO AAEE*EI IA
INIIA? AI?IENEIAOe?EIEO IAOIAe?A

01.05.02 — Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy oa ia/enethaaeuei? iaoiaee

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Caneoaeaiee aeiao?aeiee Oe?a?ie,

Aeoaeeeaae/ Aaea??e Aiaaeaiiae/

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e “Aaoiiaoeea ? oaeaiaoai?ea” Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Caneoaeaiee aeiao?aeiee Oe?a?ie,
Noaaeiee Aiaaeai ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
“?ioi?iaoe?eii-aei??thaaeueia oaoi?ea” Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”;

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ssai?nueeee ?ai? Ieeieaeiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo “A?aea?? oa ia?iaea noioanoe/ieo neaiae?a”
O?ceei-iaoai?/iiai ?inoeoooo Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoei oa nenoai IAI
Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “24” ethoiai 1999 ?. i “14” aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.052.05 o Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
«Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» (290646, Euea?a-13, aoe.N.Aaiaea?e,12,
aoae.226 aieiaiiai ei?iono).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea» (Euea?a, aoe.I?ioani?nueea,1)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “22” c?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe Oea/aiei N.I.

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. No/aniee ?icaeoie cania?a aei??thaaiiy o?ce/ieo
aaee/ei (oaiia?aoo?e, oeneo, ?iaeoeoe?? iaai?oiiai iiey oiui), a oaeiae
nenoai aaoiiaoecaoe?? iaoeiaeo aenia?eiaio?a, aaoiiaoeciaaiiai ea?oaaiiy
oaoiieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie ? neeaaeieie ia’?eoaie nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae
iayaiino? aoaeoeaieo cania?a iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa
iioei?caoe??. Oea coiiaeaii cia/iith neeaaei?noth no/anieo i?eno?i?a
aei??thaaiiy, aenieeie aeiiaaie aei oi/iino?, iaae?eiino? oa
aoaeoeaiino?.

?ic?iaea aenieioi/ieo aei??thaaeueieo cania?a ia iniia?
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ia?aoai?thaa/?a /anoi oneeaaeiaia iae?i?ei?noth
oa?aeoa?enoee oeeo aeaaa/?a o oe?ieeo ae?aiaciiao aei??thaaiiy oa
cia/iei ?iceeaeii a?aaeothaaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ie?aieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a
iaa?oue o iaaeao iaei??? ia?o??. O ca’yceo c oeei a?aaeothaaeuei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey oeueiai oeio ia?aoai?thaa/?a aecia/athoue
?iaeea?aeoaeueii.

Aenieioi/i? caniae aei??thaaiiy, ye i?aaeei, aeei?enoiaothoue iaai?
iaoiaee e?iaa?ecaoe??. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?nioth/eo
e?iaa?ecaoe?eieo no?oeoo? iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeoe aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeai?
caniae iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a oa
aeai?eoie iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a noai.

Iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a iiaeia iaea?aeaoe oeyoii
ai?ieneiaoe?? ?o aenia?eiaioaeueii ciyoeo oa?aeoa?enoee. I?e
iiaeaethaaii? ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a o?ce/ieo aaee/ei ia iniia?
ai?ieneiaoe?eieo iaoiae?a iaiao?aeii, uia oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aoai?thaa/?a
caaeia?eueiyee oiiae aeaaeeino? oa iaia?a?aiino? ia ?ioa?aae?
ai?ieneiaoe??, ui aeey ?yaeo iioe?aieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a ia? i?noea ia
i?aeoeoe?.

A?aeiii, ui aeey aaaaoueio iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oa?aeoa?ia iae?i?eia
(aeniiiaioe?aeueia, noaiaiaaa oiui) caeaaei?noue ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
ia?aiao??a a?ae aei??thaaii? o?ce/ii? aaee/eie.

No/ani? iaoiaee ai?ieneiaoe?e aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo iae?i?eieie
a?aeiinii ia?aiao??a ae?acaie aacothoueny, ye i?aaeei, ia iaoiae?
iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a /e iaee?auiio /aaeoianueeiio iaaeeaeaii?. I?e
oeueiio ?ica’ycothoue iae?i?eio nenoaio ??aiyiue aai ai?ieneiaoe?th
caiaeyoue aei iie?iii?aeueii? /a?ac ia?aoai?aiiy ci?iieo. Inoaii?e
niin?a ia? ?yae iaaeie?e?a. Ii-ia?oa, i?i?i?co?oueny a?aeoeeaiiy
ai?ieneioth/iai ae?aco ia a?ae caaeaii? caeaaeiino?, a a?ae
ia?aoai?aii?. Oiio aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeinoaoiuei? oi/iino? /anoi
iaaei?aaaeaii ca?eueoothoue ii?yaeie iie?iiia (a e?oa?aoo??
cono??/athoueny iaaeeaeaiiy iie?iiiaie nueiiiai ? iaa?oue
aeaaiaaeoeyoiai noaiaiy). Ii-ae?oaa, yeui aeei?enoiao?oueny ia?aoai?aiiy
ci?iieo, oi aenia?eiaioaeuei? oi/ee, ui aoee ??aiia?aeaeaeai? aeey ia
ia?aoai?aii? ci?iii?, iiaeooue noaoe ia??aiia?aeaeaeaieie aeey iiai?
ci?iii?. O oaeiio aeiaaeeo iio??aii ciyoe cia/ii aono?oo
aenia?eiaioaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo o iaaiiio ae?aiacii?, a aeey oe?eiai
?yaeo aei??thaaiue (iai?eeeaae, iecueeeo oa iaaeiecueeeo oaiia?aoo?)
aenieo aonoeio oi/ie caaacia/eoe ?iiae? aaaeei aai iaiiaeeeai.

Ioaea, ? iio?aaa o ?ic?iaoe? caaaeueieo aeai?eoi?a ai?ieneiaoe??
aenia?eiaioaeueieo caeaaeiinoae iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ia?aeiieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a iae?i?eieie a?aeiinii ia?aiao??a ae?acaie.

*anoi ni?iae aeinyaoe caaeaii? iioeaee i?e aeei?enoaii? iaeiiai
ai?ieneioth/iai ae?aco ia anueiio ?ioa?aae? iaaeeaeaiiy i?ecaiaeyoue aei
cia/iiai oneeaaeiaiiy iaaeeaeath/iai ae?aco. Iaeiei ?c cania?a
aeinyaiaiiy caaeaii? iioeaee ai?ieneiaoe?? ? ?icaeooy ?ioa?aaeo
iaaeeaeaiiy ia ?yae i?ae?ioa?aae?a (iaaeeaeaiiy nieaeiaie). A?aeiia?aeio
/anoeio oa?aeoa?enoeee ia eiaeiiio c i?ae?ioa?aae?a iaaeeaeathoue, ye
i?aaeei, iaeiioeiieie ae?acaie.

Nooo?aa cia/aiiy i?e iiaoaeia? nieaeio ia? aea?? caaaeueiiai aeaeo
ai?ieneioth/iai ae?aco, aaeaea o ?ac? iaaeeaeaiue iaai?ii iiaeeeaeo
ae?ac?a iaa?aeiii, yeee ae?ac c iaai?o ? iioeiaeueiei. E?eoa???i
iioeiaeueiino? eia?/ii aea?aoe iioeaeo iaaeeaeaiiy aai e?euee?noue eaiie
nieaei-ai?ieneiaoe??. Iio??aii ?ic?iaeoe aeai?eoie, ui aeae?aee a ae?ac
iioeiaeueiiai aeaeo aeey ai?ieneiaoe?? eiie?aoii? aenia?eiaioaeueii?
caeaaeiino?.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea aoaeoeaieo aeai?eoi?a
iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a o?ce/ieo aaee/ei
ia iniia? ai?ieneiaoe?eieo iaoiae?a oa aeei?enoaiiy oeeo iiaeaeae aeey
noai?aiiy aeai?eoi?a iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a noai aei??thaaeueieo
i?eno?i?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?noeoue
?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaea/:

iaeyae oa aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a aiae?oe/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueii ciyoeo caeaaeiinoae;

?ic?iaea aeai?eoio caeaaeaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeey aeiaaeeo
ia??aiia?aeaeaeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo oi/ie;

iiaeeo?eaoe?y aeai?eoio i?i?iaenii? ai?ieneiaoe?? oaaee/ii caaeaieo
ooieoe?e iie?iiiii /e ?aoe?iiaeueiei iie?iiiii;

?ic?iaea caaaeueii? iaoiaeeee ai?ieneiaoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a iae?i?eieie
ae?acaie a?ae ?aoe?iiaeueiiai iiiai/eaia;

?ic?iaea aeai?eoi?a iae?i?eieo nieaei-ai?ieneiaoe?e aenia?eiaioaeueieo
caeaaeiinoae c iaia?aae caaeaiei ia?aiao?ii (iioeaeith, e?euee?noth
eaiie oiui);

?ic?iaea aeai?eoi?a nieaei-ai?ieneiaoe?e aenia?eiaioaeueieo caeaaeiinoae
ae?acii iioeiaeueiiai aeaeo ?c caaeaiith iioeaeith;

?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a noai e?iaa?ecaoe??;

aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ii??aiyiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaea?aeaieo
aeai?eoi?a c ?nioth/eie.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. I?e aeeiiaii? iinoaaeaieo caaea/
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue: oai??y aei??thaaiue, oai??y ai?ieneiaoe?e, iaoiaee
i?ia?aioaaiiy oa ia/enethaaeueii? iaoaiaoeee, aiae?oe/i? iiaeeeaino?
eiii’thoa?ii? aeaaa?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe:

?ic?iaeaii caaaeueio iaoiaeeeo i?i?iaenii? ai?ieneiaoe??
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ia?aeiieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a iae?i?eieie a?aeiinii ia?aiao??a ae?acaie a?ae
?aoe?iiaeueiiai iiiai/eaia;

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a e?iaa?ecoth/eo noai;

?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoie iae?i?eii? nieaei-ai?ieneiaoe?e aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo c iaia?aae caaeaiei ia?aiao?ii (oi/i?noth /e e?euee?noth eaiie)
oa nieaei-ai?ieneiaoe?e ae?acaie iioeiaeueiiai aeaeo;

iiaeeo?eiaaii aeai?eoi caeaaeaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c
ia??aiia?aeaeaeaieie a?aoiaioaie;

iiaeeo?eiaaii no?oeoo?o aeai?eoio i?i?iaenii? ai?ieneiaoe??
aenia?eiaioaeueieo caeaaeiinoae iie?iiiii /e ?aoe?iiaeueiei iie?iiiii.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe:

?ic?iaeaii iaeao i?ia?ai a nenoai? eiii’thoa?ii? aeaaa?e Maple V, yeee
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey aiae?oe/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee
??ciiiai?oieo ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a o?ce/ieo aaee/ei;

?ic?iaeaii i?eeeaaei? i?ia?aie, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey iiaeaethaaiiy
ia?aoai?thaa/?a eiie?aoiiai oeio i?e noai?aii? aei??thaaeueieo
i?eno?i?a;

aeai?eoie iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a noai e?iaa?ecaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny
aeey aaoiiaoe/iiai ciaoiaeaeaiiy cia/aiue ia?aiao??a noai aeayeeo
aei??thaa/?a oaiia?aoo?e.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue caaacia/o?oueny ei?aeoi?noth
oa no?ia?noth iinoaiiaee caaea/? ? iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a, aeei?enoaieo
i?e aeiaaaeaii? iniiaieo oaa?aeaeaiue, ii??aiyiiyie ?acoeueoao?a,
iaea?aeaieo ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a, aeeeaaeaieo o ?iaio? oa a?aeiieo
?ai?oa, ?acoeueoaoaie aeei?enoaiiy i?aeaioiaaieo iaeao?a i?ia?ai aeey
?ic?iaee aei??thaaeueieo i?eno?i?a.

?aae?caoe?y iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai? a aeena?oaoe??
iaoiaee ? aeai?eoie ai?iaaaeaeai?:

a ?inoeooo? i?eeeaaeii? o?ceee Euea?anueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
i?e iiaoaeia? i?eno?i?a aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e oa oeneo ia iniia?
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a;

o a?aeae?e? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?e?inaini??a IAeA IIN AeO “Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea” i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?eno?i?a aei??thaaiiy iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? oa
?iaeoeoe?? iaai?oiiai iiey.

Aeai? i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeaii a?aeiia?aeieie aeoaie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue e iaaiai?thaaeenue ia:

Iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy-96» (A?iieoey-Noaeae,
na?iaiue, 1996);

1-o?e i?aeia?iaei?e oeie?-nai?ia?? «Iiaeaethaaiiy’96» (Aeoooa,
aa?anaiue, 1996);

I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «NCII?» (Iaeana, /a?aaiue,
1997);

Ia?o?e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c iiaeaethaaiiy (Aeoooa, aa?anaiue,
1997);

Iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Eiio?ieue oa oi?aae?iiy a oaoi?/ieo
nenoaiao» (A?iieoey, aa?anaiue, 1997).

Eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy a aeaeo?iaia?aaoeoe? ?
aeaeo?ioaoi?oe?” (Euea?a, aa?anaiue, 1997).

Eiia?an? ?AA No?aeii? oa Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie (Aaeia?, I?ia//eia,
o?aaaiue, 1998), aea aeiiia?aeue io?eiaea ia?oo i?ai?th ia eiieo?n?
?ia?o iieiaeeo a/aieo.

I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c iiaeaethaaiiy “NNI’98” (E?ii, O?aioe?y,
/a?aaiue 1998).

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Aaoi?ii naiino?eii aeeiiaia iniiaia /anoeia
oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue:

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo oa aeai?eoi ai?ieneiaoe?? a?aaeothaaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oa?iiaeaaa/?a iae?i?eieie a?aeiinii ia?aiao??a ae?acaie
[3,5,10];

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a e?iaa?ecoth/eo noai [3, 4];

?ic?iaeaii iiaeeo?eiaaiee aeai?eoi Eaioeioa aeey caeaaeaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c iaaea?aeenoaioiei a?aoiaioii [1];

?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi ??aiii??iiiai nieaei-iaaeeaeaiiy a?aaeothaaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a c iaia?aae caaeaiei ia?aiao?ii
[2,6,7,8];

?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi iaaeeaeaiiy a?aaeothaaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aeiieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a ae?acii iioeiaeueiiai aeaeo [10];

?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi i?i?iaeniiai iaaeeaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo
caeaaeiinoae aeaio ci?iieo [9].

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ie?aieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa i?eeeaaeieo canoinoaaiue
i?iaaaeaii o ni?aaaoi?noa? ca?aeii iaaaaeaiiai nieneo e?oa?aoo?e.

Ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe iioae?eiaaij a 10 ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iniiaiee ci?no
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe neeaaeathoue ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo
?ic?iaie, i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii i?e aeeiiaii? ?ia?o ca?aeii c
aea?aeathaeaeaoiith oaiith “Oaeaeeiae?th/? ia?aoai?thaa/? ?ioi?iaoe??
aeey aei??thaaeueieo i?eeaae?a ? nenoai”, iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??:
0196U000181 ca 1996-1998 ??. ia eaoaae?? “Aaoiiaoeea ? oaeaiaoai?ea”
AeO“Euea?nueea iie?oaoi?ea”.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio
? /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, nieneo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c 112
iaeiaioaaiue ? aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 130 noi??ieao,
aeeth/ath/e 52 ?enoiee ? 22 oaaeeoe?. O aeiaeaoeao iaaaaeaii aeieoiaioe
i?i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa i?eeeaaee aeei?enoaiiy aeayeeo i?ia?ai.

ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaaaaeaii caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?iaioe, iaa?oioiaaii ??
aeooaeuei?noue, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue,
aecia/aii iaoiaee ae??oaiiy noi?ioeueiaaieo caaea/, noi?ioeueiaaii
iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe ? i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, ??
ai?iaaoe?th oa ioae?eaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii iaeyae aeayeeo iaoiae?a e?iaa?ecaoe??, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny a caniaao aei??thaaiiy, iiaoaeiaaieo ia iniia?
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a. Ei?ioei ?icaeyiooi
oa?ii?acenoeai? ia?aeii? ia?aoai?thaa/?, ?o oa?aeoa?enoeee oa iieacaii,
ui a?aaeothaaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?yaeo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo aeaaa/?a
oaiia?aoo?e ai?ieneiothoue iie?iiiaie aenieeo noaiai?a c iiia?aaei?i
ia?aoai?aiiyi ci?iieo.

?icaeyiooi no/ani? iaoiaee aiae?oe/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aoai?thaa/?a o?ce/ieo aaee/ei.
A?aecia/aii ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee iioe?aieo iaoiae?a ai?ieneiaoe?? oa
iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?i?iaenieo iaaeeaeaiue.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?ic?iaeaii iiaeeo?eiaaiee iaoiae Eaioeioa, ui
aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey caeaaeaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c
iaaea?aeenoaioieie a?aoiaioaie. Aoaeoeai?noue aeai?eoio caeaaeaeaiiy
i?i?ethno?iaaii ia i?eeeaae?.

Aeine?aeaeaii ia ca?aei?noue aeaa aeai?eoie cai?ie oi/ie V-aeueoa?iaino
iaee?auiai /aaeoianueeiai iaaeeaeaiiy aeey oaaee/ii caaeaieo
caeaaeiinoae – aeai?eoi Aaeea-Ionnaia oa R-aeai?eoi. Iieacaii, ui eiaeai
c ?icaeyiooeo aeai?eoi?a ia ca?aa?oueny aeey aeayeeo oaaee/ii caaeaieo
ooieoe?e oa iaaeeaeath/eo ae?acia. Cai?iiiiiaaii no?oeoo?o
iiaeeo?eiaaiiai aeai?eoio aeey ai?ieneiaoe?e aenia?eiaioaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a o?ce/ieo aaee/ei, ui iine?aeiaii
aeei?enoiao? aeua aeacai? aeai?eoie cai?ie oi/ie /aaeoianueeiai
aeueoa?iaino. Aea?ai? aeai?eoie iathoue ??cio iaeanoue ca?aeiino?, oiio
?o ni?eueia aeei?enoaiiy aea? a??iee ?acoeueoao o an?o ia?aa??aieo
aeiaaeeao iaaeeaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee (ii?yaeeo
oeny/?).

?icaeyiooa aeanoea?noue iaee?auiai /aaeoianueeiai iaaeeaeaiiy
ooieoe??th a?ae ?aoe?iiaeueiiai iiiai/eaia.

– aaeoi? ia?aiao??a ai?ieneiaoe?eiiai ae?aco.

, (1)

a?aeiia?aeii iaeneiaeueia oa i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy caaeaii? caeaaeiino?
ia ae?aiacii? iaaeeaeaiiy)

ca aeiiiiiaith aeai?eoio ?aiaca.

Nenoaio ??aiyiue /aaeoianueei? ?ioa?iieyoe?? caieoaii o aeaeyae?:

, (2)

.

O ?iaio? iieacaii, ui iae?i?eio nenoaio ??aiyiue (2) iiaeia cai?ieoe
nenoaiith ??aiyiue (3):

. (3)

c aaaith

. (4)

).

Oaaeeoey 1. Ae?ace, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey i?i?iaenieo iaaeeaeaiue

,

— ?aoe?iiaeueiee iiiai-/eai.

O oaaeeoe? 1 iaaaaeaii aeaiaioa?i? ooieoe??, ye? iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey iaaeeaeaiiy oaaee/ieo aeaieo. Iaaaaeai? oaeiae
iaa?iai? ooieoe??, iio?aei? a?ae iaa?iaieo oa ?ioa?aaee, a yeeo iathoue
i?noeoeny cia/aiiy iaaeeaeoaa-ieo caeaaeiinoae.

, iaa?iai? yeeo ia ? aeaiaioa?ieie ooieoe?yie. ?icoe?aiiy eeano oaeeo
ooieoe?e aea? aeei?enoaiiy W-ooieoe?? Eaiaa?oa.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ei?ioei ?icaeyiooi ?nioth/? iaoiaee iiaoaeiae
nieaei-ai?ieneiaoe?e aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aeiieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a o?ce/ieo aaee/ei.

Ni?iae aeinyaoe caaeaii? iioeaee i?e aeei?enoaii? iaeiiai
ai?ieneioth/iai ae?aco ia anueiio ?ioa?aae? iaaeeaeaiiy o aeiaaeeo
iae?i?eieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo aeaaa/?a oaiia?aoo?e /anoi i?ecaiaeyoue
aei cia/iiai oneeaaeiaiiy ai?ieneioth/iai ae?aco. Iaeiei ?c cania?a
aeinyaiaiiy caaeaii? oi/iino? ai?ieneiaoe?? ? ?icaeooy ?ioa?aaeo
iaaeeaeaiiy ia ?yae i?ae?ioa?aae?a. A?aeiia?aeio /anoeio oa?aeoa?enoeee
ia eiaeiiio c i?ae?ioa?aae?a iaaeeaeathoue, ye i?aaeei, iaeiioeiieie
ae?acaie. A?aeiii, ui iioeiaeueiei, c oi/ee ci?o caaaeueii?
iaeneiaeueii? iioeaee iaaeeaeaiiy, ? oaea ?icaeooy ?ioa?aaeo
ai?ieneiaoe?? ia /anoeie, i?e yeiio iioeaea ia eiaei?e c ieo iaeiaeiaa.
Oaeee niin?a ai?ieneiaoe?? iaceaa?oueny ??aiii??iei aai aaeainiei
iaaeeaeaiiyi.

O ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo iiaoaeiae i?i?iaenii? ??aiii??ii?
ai?ieneiaoe?? nieaeiaie oaaee/ii caaeaieo caeaaeiinoae oa ?ic?iaeaii
aeai?eoie nieaei-ai?ieneiaoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueieo caeaaeiinoae ?c
caaeaiei ia?aiao?ii (iioeaeith /e e?euee?noth eaiie). Aoaeoeai?noue
aeai?eoi?a i?i?ethno?iaaii ia i?eeeaaeao.

Iiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaii? ai?ieneiaoe?? iae?i?eieie a?aeiinii ia?aiao??a
ae?acaie oa ??aiii??iiai iaaeeaeaiiy nieaeiaie cia/ii ?icoe?ththoue
iaa?? ae?ac?a, yeeie iiaeia oni?oii ai?ieneioaaoe oaaee/ii caaeai?
ooieoe??.

Aeieea? ieoaiiy e?eoa???a oa niinia?a aeai?o oeo /e ?ioeo ae?ac?a.
Ine?eueee aeaia ?iaioa noino?oueny ai?ieneiaoe?? oa?aeoa?enoee
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a aeey cania?a aei??thaaiiy,
oi iniiaieie e?eoa??yie iioeiaeueiino? ? iaeneiaeueia iioeaea oa
e?euee?noue ia?aiao??a iaaeeaeaiiy. Caaeaii? iaeneiaeueii? iioeaee
iiaeia aeinyaiooe aoaeoth/e ??aiii??ia iaaeeaeaiiy nieaeiaie. No/ani?
aei??thaaeuei? i?eno?i?, ye i?aaeei, aeei?enoiaothoue aeaiaioe oeeo?iai?
oaoi?ee, oiio aeei?enoaiiy aeaiaioa?ieo ooieoe?e o ai?ieneiaoe?eieo
ae?acao o aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao oneeaaeieoue no?oeoo?o i?eno?ith iacia/ii.

Ioaea, caaea/a iioeiaeueiiai iaaeeaeaiiy o iaoiio aeiaaeeo caiaeeoueny
aei iiooeo na?aae ae?ac?a ?c caaeaiith e?euee?noth ia?aiao??a oaeiai,
ui aeaaaa ae iaeiaioo e?euee?noue i?ae?ioa?aae?a i?e caaeai?e iioeaoe?
iaaeeaeaiiy. C?icoi?ei, ui aeai?eoi aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai ae?aco ia iiaea
i?inoi i?iaiaeeoe nieaei-ai?ieneiaoe?th an?ia ae?acaie c? nieneo oa
ii??aithaaoe ?acoeueoaoe, ai oea iaaeoi ca?eueoeoue o?eaae?noue i?ioeano
iaaeeaeaiiy.

?ic?iaeaiee aeai?eoi aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai ai?ieneioth/iai ae?aco
aeei?enoiao? aeai?eoi iiaoaeiae ??aiii??iiai iaaeeaeaiiy nieaeiaie.
Aea?? iioeiaeueiiai ae?aco i?iaiaeeoueny ia ia?oiio i?ae?ioa?aae?
??aiii??iiai iie?iii?aeueiiai iaaeeaeaiiy c? caaeaiith iioeaeith. Oea
cia/ii i?enei?th? ?iaioo aeai?eoio, aea aiineoue aeayeo iioeaeo a eiai
?acoeueoaoe. O aeaa’yiinoi c? noa ia?aa??aieo aeiaaee?a aeai?eoi a??ii
aeae?a? iioeiaeueiee ae?ac.

Aeai?eoi ia?aae?a? an? iiaeeea? ?aoe?iiaeuei? ae?ace oa iie?iii c
iaeiaeiaith e?euee?noth ia?aiao??a. Aea?? e?eueeino? ia?aiao??a caeeoaii
ca ei?enooaa/ai.

— ?aoe?iiaeueiee ae?ac /e iie?iii. Ine?eueee oaoi?/ia ?aae?caoe?y
iae?i?eieo ae?ac?a neeaaei?oa, i?ae ?aoe?iiaeueieo /e iiiai/eaiieo, oi
oae? ae?ace aeae?athoueny o?eueee yeui ?o iioeaea iaaeeaeaiiy ia ia?oiio
i?ae?ioa?aae? ??aiii??ii? iie?iii?aeueii? nieaei-ai?ieneiaoe?? ? a?eueo
i?ae ia aeaaaeoeyoue a?aenioe?a iaioith a?ae iaee?aui? ?aoe?iiaeueii?
ai?ieneiaoe??.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a
noai e?iaa?ecaoe?? oa i?eaaaeaii i?eeeaae ?? aeei?enoaiiy aeey
iie?auaiiy oi/iino? aei??thaaiiy aeayeeo oeeo?iaeo oa?iiiao??a.

Aeai?eoi iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a noai e?iaa?ecaoe?? aaco?oueny ia
aeei?enoaii? iaoiaeo iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a. Ooeathoueny ia?aiao?e, ui
aeathoue i?i?ioi na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/iiai a?aeoeeaiiy caaaeueiiai
eiao?oe??ioo ia?aoai?aiiy noaie a?ae i?yii?.

sse a?aeiii, o aeiaaeeo oeeo?iaiai oa?iiiao?a eiiiainaoe?eiee cai?ioi?e
ca’ycie iae?i?eiino? ia?aeiiiai ia?aoai?thaa/a iiaeia oi?ioaaoe neaiaeii
?c ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai neaiaeo ia?aeiiiai ia?aoai?thaa/a. I?e aeei?enoaii?
AOeI oea iiaeia c?iaeoe, aeei?enoiaoth/e ao?ae iii?ii? iai?oae aeey
ci?ie caaaeueiiai eiao?oe??ioa ia?aaea/?.

A?aeiii, ui aeo?aeiee oeeo?iaee eiae aiaeiai-oeeo?iaiai ia?aoai?thaa/a
(AOeI) (iieace oeeo?iaiai ?iaeeeaoi?a) o oeueiio aeiaaeeo
i?aaenoaaey?oueny o aeaeyae?:

(5)

.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aeaaeueiiai aei??thaaeueiiai ia?aoai?aiiy iiaeiia aooe
e?i?eiith. Ioaea, ?aeaaeueiee aei??thaa/ iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe o aeaeyae?:

(6)

aea x — aei??thaaia oaiia?aoo?a.

iio??aii iioei?coaaoe oae, uia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aaeueiiai
ia?aoai?thaa/a (5) iaeneiaeueii iaaeeaeaeanue aei ?aeaaeueii? (6).

) :

, (7)

.

??aiyiiy iaaeeaeaiiy ae?aco (6) ae?acii (5) ca e?eoa???i i?i?ioio
na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/iiai a?aeoeeaiiy caieno?oueny o aeaeyae?

, (8)

— e?euee?noue oi/ie oeaee, ii yeeo i?iaiaeeoueny iioei?caoe?y.

Canoinoaaiiy aeaiiai niiniao i?eaiaeeoue aei nenoaie iae?i?eieo
??aiyiue, yea ?ica’yco?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeaiiai
?oa?aoe?eiiai aeai?eoio.

Aeei?enoaiiy iienaii? aeua iaoiaeeee aaoiiaoe/iiai ciaoiaeaeaiiy
ia?aiao??a aeayeeo e?iaa?ecoth/eo noai o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie niiniaaie
aea? iiaeeea?noue o aeaa-o?e ?ace ciaioeoe iioeaeo aei??thaaiue,
coiiaeaio iae?i?ei?noth ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a aei??thaaeueieo
i?eno?i?a, ? ia aiineoue aeiaeaoeiaeo oneeaaeiaiue a ?o no?oeoo?o.

Iienaii aeaye? iniaeeaino? i?ia?aiii? ?aae?caoe?? aeai?eoi?a
iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a oa iaa?oioiaaii
aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy nenoaie eiii’thoa?ii? aeaaa?e Maple V aeey
i?ia?aiii? ?aae?caoe?? ?ic?iaeaieo aeai?eoi?a.

Iienaii ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo aeai?eoi?a i?i?iaenii?
iae?i?eii? ai?ieneiaoe?? aeey iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeayeeo
ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a oaiia?aoo?e, ?iaeoeoe?? iaai?oiiai iiey oa
oeneo.

O ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui iioeiaeueiei ae?acii aeey
ai?ieneiaoe?? caeaaeiino? iii?o a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ieoeiiiae?aieo
a?nai?ae-aae??aeo oa?iiiao??a iii?o ?:

. (9)

?en. 1. Caeaaei?noue iii?o a?ae oaiia?aoo?e a?nai?ae-aae??aiai
oa?ii?acenoi?a.

Ia ?enoieo 1 iaaaaeaii oeiiao a?aaeothaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
a?nai?ae-aae??aiai oa?iiiao?a iii?o. Ia iueiio eaaae?aoeeaie iicia/aii
aenia?e-iaioaeueii io?eiai? oi/ee aeaieo, a e?i?y a?aeiia?aea?
iaaeeaeath/iio ae?aco.

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aea-i? aoei iiia?aaeiuei caeaaeaeaii ca aeiiiiiaith
caaaeaiiai aeua iiaeeo?-eiaaiiai aeai?eoio Eai-oeioa.

ae?acii oeio (9) aea? ?acoeueoao c i?eaaaeaiith iioeaeith 0.21%.
Iaaeeaeaiiy oe??? ae oa?aeoa?enoeee aeniiiaioe?eiei ae?acii aea? iioeaeo
0.29%, cae/aeiei iie?iii?aeueiei ae?acii c oaeith ae e?euee?noth
ia?aiao??a – 4.51%.

Aeey ii??aiyiiy, aeei?enoaiiy eeane/iiai niiniao ai?ieneiaoe?? c
ia?aoai?aiiyi ci?iieo oa iiaeaeueoei iie?iii?aeueiei iaaeeaeaiiyi (c
oaeith ae e?euee?noth ia?aiao??a, ye ? o iiia?aaei?o i?eeeaaeao) aea?
i?eaaaeaio iioeaeo iaaeeaeaiiy 7.10%.

caaacia/othoue aenieo /ooeea?noue ? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?e
“aeiaeaoieo” oaiia?aoo?ao. A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeoaaeenue iieueia?
caeaaeiino? i?e aeaio no?oiao aeeaeaiiy: 50 ? 100 iA (aeaio iai?yie?a:
i?yiiai ? cai?ioiiai), oa noaoe/i? aieueo-aiia?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey
??cieo aa??aio?a eiino?oeoeaiiai aeeiiaiiy. Eiioaeoe c i?e?iae?ioo
i?eaa?thaaee aei ??cieo ae?eyiie /ooeeaiai aeaiaioa. ?icaeyiaii o?eueee
o?e aeiaaeee. Ia ?enoieo 2 iaaaaeaii o?e noaie iiaeeeaiai ?icoaooaaiiy
eiioaeo?a.

?en. 2. ?icoaooaaiiy eiioaeo?a o /ooeeaeo aeaiaioao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieueo-aiia?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee iaai?oi?acenoi??a iieacaei,
ui aiie iaaeeaeathoueny c aeinoaoiueith oi/i?noth iie?iiiii i’yoiai
noaiaiy. Aeey ai?ieneiaoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaany ?ic?iaeaiee o ?iaio?
aeai?eoi i?i?iaeniiai iaaeeaeaiiy.

Aeei?enoaiiy ai?ieneiaoe?eieo iiaeaeae aea? iiaeeea?noue eaaei
ii??aithaaoe oa?aeoa?enoeee /ooeeaiai aeaiaioa i?e ??cieo eiino?oeoeaieo
?aae?caoe?yo oa aeae?aoe e?auee aa??aio. Aiae?c aieueo-aiia?ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee iieacaa, ui i?eaa?thaaiiy eiioaeo?a ca noaiith E3 ciaioo?
?icoiaeaeaiiy i?yii? oa cai?ioii? a?eie oa?aeoa?enoeee, iniaeeai ia
ii/aoeia?e ae?eyioe?, ciaioo?oueny i?e oeueiio ? ia?ao?aeia iaeanoue.

Aoei aeyaeaii, ui aeey aiae?oe/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiiy iieueiaeo
caeaaeiinoae iaai?oi?acenoi??a iioeiaeueiei ? aeei?enoaiiy iie?iiia
ae?oaiai noaiaiy. Oeae ?acoeueoao a?aeiia?aea? oai?aoe/iei iiaeaeyi.

.

Cai?iiiiiaaii aeai?eoi aiae?oe/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiiy oaaee/ii caaeaii?
ooieoe?? aeaio ci?iieo (oeneo ? oaiia?aoo?e) aeey i?iieneiaiai
ia?aoai?thaa/a oeneo OA 2.5 A a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Ine?eueee
aeiiae uiaei oi/iino? iaaeeaeaiiy ? aenie? ? aeei?enoaiiy
oe?ieiaaeeaaieo iaoiae?a (iai?eeeaae, iaoiaeo iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a) ia
aeathoue aaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aeai?eoi aaco?oueny ia iaoiae?
iaee?auiai iaaeeaeaiiy *aaeoiaa. I?yi? aeai?eoie i?i?iaeniiai
iaaeeaeaiiy o aeiaaeeo ooieoe?e aeaio ci?iieo ? aeineoue neeaaeieie ?
aeei?enoiaothoueny ??aeei. Oiio aoei cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoaoe aeaa
aeeaaeaieo i?i?iaenieo iaaeeaeaiiy iaei??? ci?iii?. ?ic?iaeaiee aeai?eoi
aeaa iiaeeea?noue cae?enieoe ai?ieneiaoe?th oaaee/ii? ooieoe?? aeaio
ci?iieo c i?eaaaeaiith iioeaeith 0.048%. Oeae ?acoeueoao a?aeiia?aea?
no/aniiio na?oiaiio ??aith oi/iino? aeey i?eeaae?a aeaiiai oeio.
Aeai?eoi ? aeinoaoiuei i?inoee aeey ?aae?caoe?? ia iiaao i?ia?aioaaiiy
nenoai eiii’thoa?ii? aeaaa?e ? iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey aiaeia?/ieo
iaaeeaeaiue oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aoai?thaa/?a, aeo?aeiee neaiae yeeo
caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaio ia?aiao??a.

iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe oa aeniiaee

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia aac? oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii
aeai?eoi?/ia oa i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy aeey iiaeaethaaiiy ia?aeiieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a o?ce/ieo aaee/ei ia iniia? ai?ieneiaoe?eieo iaoiae?a.
?acoeueoaoe aeiaaaeai? aei i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? ? ai?iaaaeaeai? a
aeaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo eaai?aoi??yo c iaoith aaeineiiaeaiiy
aei??thaaeueieo i?eno?i?a.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iaea?aeai? oae? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe:

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo i?i?iaeniiai iaaeeaeaiiy aeaaeeeo oaaee/ii caaeaieo
caeaaeiinoae aeayeeie iae?i?eieie ooieoe?yie a?ae ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
iie?iiia. Ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aeiieo, aeai?eoi aeei?enoiao? ?ica’ycaiiy
nenoai e?i?eieo ??aiyiue aac iiia?aaeiueiai ia?aoai?aiiy ci?iieo oa
cia/ii ?icoe?th? e?euee?noue iiaeeeaeo iae?i?eieo ai?ieneioth/eo
ae?ac?a. Aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeeee aeey iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeayeeo
oei?a ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a aea? oi/i?noue aeuo o e?eueea ?ac?a o
ii??aiyii? c eeane/ieie iaoiaeaie c oaeith ae e?euee?noth ia?aiao??a.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo aeai?o c iaai?o caaeaieo iaaeeaeath/eo ae?ac?a
iioeiaeueiiai (o nain? i?i?ioio iioeaee) aeey iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy a?aaeothaaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a
o?ce/ieo aaee/ei c caaeaiith iioeaeith oa e?euee?noth ia?aiao??a.

Iiaeeo?eiaaii aeai?eoi Eaioeioa aeey caeaaeaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?nioth/eo a?i iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey
ia?iaee aeaieo c ia??aiia?aeaeaeaieie cia/aiiyie a?aoiaioo.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeeo?eiaaio no?oeoo?o aeai?eoio i?i?iaeniiai iaaeeaeaiiy
aeaaeeeo oaaee/ii caaeaieo caeaaeiinoae ?aoe?iiaeueiei iie?iiiii.
?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi, ui, ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aeiieo, caaeia?eueii
ca?aa?oueny ? aea? a??iee ?acoeueoao o an?o ia?aa??aieo aeiaaeeao
ai?ieneiaoe?? aeaaeeeo ? iiiioiiieo oaaee/ii caaeaieo caeaaeiinoae.

Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo aeai?eoi?a iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ia?aeiieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a oa iaoiaeo iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo
iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a e?iaa?ecoth/eo no?oeoo?. Aeei?enoaiiy
?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aeey aaoiiaoe/iiai ciaoiaeaeaiiy ia?aiao??a
aeayeeo e?iaa?ecoth/eo noai oeeo?iaeo oa?iiiao??a aeaei ?acoeueooth/o
iioeaeo iae?i?eiino? o aeaa-o?e ?ace iaioo, i?ae o aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy
?ioeo iaoiae?a.

Cai?iiiiiaaii aeai?eoi i?i?iaenii? iie?iii?aeueii? ai?ieneiaoe??
oaaee/ii caaeaieo caeaaeiinoae aeaio ci?iieo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
?nioth/eo, ?ic?iaeaiee aeai?eoi aeicaiey? aeinyaiooe iaiao?aeio iioeaeo
i?e ai?ieneiaoe?? a?aaeothaaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aeiieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a oeneo na??? OA a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iiaoaeiaai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a o?ce/ieo
aaee/ei aeathoue iiaeeea?noue caaacia/eoe iaiao?aeio oi/i?noue iiaeaeae
? ? aeinoaoiuei oaeaeeiae?th/eie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o 10 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo:

Aeoaeeeaae/ A.A., Iiiia ss.A. Aiae?oe/ia i?aaenoaaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa?iiaeaaa/?a // A?niee Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”: Aaoiiaoeea, aei??thaaiiy oa
ea?oaaiiy. ? 312, 1997, n. 29-32.

Aeoaeeeaae/ A.A., Iio?iei O.?., Iiiia ss.A. Iaaeeaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa?iiaeaaa/?a c caaeaiith iioeaeith.
A?niee AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. Aaoiiaoeea, aei??thaaiiy oa
ea?oaaiiy. ? 324, 1998, n.59-65.

Aeoaeeeaae/ A.A., Iiiia ss.A. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy oa iioei?caoe?y
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo ia?aoai?thaa/?a oaiia?aoo?e // Aei??thaaeueia
oaoi?ea oa iao?ieia?y, ?53, 1998, n. 147-150.

Eaiiaaiei A.I., Aaneethe A.I., Iiiia ss.A. I?iaeooaaiiy oeeo?iaeo
cania?a aei??thaaiiy c iae?i?eieie naini?aie // A?aea?? ? ia?iaea
?ioi?iaoe??, ? 12, 1998, n. 81-85.

Aa?oaaa N., Aeoaeeeaae/ A., Iiiia ss. Iiaoaeiaa iiaeaeae
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo oa?ii?acenoi??a // Iaoa??aee ia?oi? i?aeia?iaeii?
oeiee-nai?ia? “Iiaeaethaaiiy ’96”, E?ei. Aeaeaii: AEaooa, 1996, n. 19.

Aeoaeeeaae/ A.A., Iiiia ss.A. Aiae?oe/ia i?aaenoaaeaiiy caeaaeiino?
oaiia?aoo?e a?ae ?aciiainii? /anoioe yaea?iiai eaaae?oiieueiiai
?aciiainiiai oa?iiiao?a // Iaoa??aee i?aeia?. iaoe.-oaoi. eiioa?aioe??
“I?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy — 96”. A?iieoey-Noaeae, 1996. *. 1. n. 45.

Varshava S., Dudykevych V., Popov I. Experimental Characteristics of
Semiconductor Thermoresistors Modelling // Proceedings of the 1-st
International Modelling School of AMSE-UA. — Crimea, Alushta, Ukraine,
12-17 September 1996. Published Rzeszow, 1996. pp. 71-73.

Aa?oaaa N.N., Aeoaeeeaae/ A.A., Iiiia ss.A. Noai?aiiy iaai?oi- oa
oa?ii?acenoi??a ia iniia? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo e?enoae?a a?oie A3A5 oa
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o oa?aeoa?enoee. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? «NCII?», Iaeana, 9-14 /a?aiy 1997 ?ieo,
n. 47.

Aieiaeeie? Aaneethe, ss?ineaa Iiiia. Aeai?eoi aiae?oe/iiai
i?aaenoaaeaiiy oaaee/ii caaeaii? ooieoe?? aeaio ci?iieo aeey
aei??thaaeueieo i?eno?i?a. Eieaa ca iaoa??aeaie /aoaa?oi?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? «EOON-97», A?iieoey, 1997, o. 2, n.
177-179.

Valery Dudykevych, Iaroslav Popov. Modeling Semiconductor Sensors Using
Nonlinear Minimax Splines. Proceedings of the International Conference
“Contribution of Cognition to Modelling”, Lyon, France, 6-8 July, 1998,
pp. 15.13-15.16.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iiiia ss.A. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a o?ce/ieo
aaee/ei ia iniia? ai?ieneiaoe?eieo iaoiae?a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.05.02 — iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy oa
ia/enethaaeuei? iaoiaee. — Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea”, Euea?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiith iiaoaeiae iae?i?eieo iaoaiaoe/ieo
iiaeaeae ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a o?ce/ieo aaee/ei. ?ic?iaeai?
iaoiaeeee oa aeai?eoie a?oioothoueny ia ai?ieneiaoe?ei?e oai???, cie?aia
i?i?iaeni?e ai?ieneiaoe?? oa iaoiae? iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a. Io?eiai?
niiniae ai?ieneiaoe?e a?aaeothaaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aeiieo
ia?aoai?thaa/?a aeicaieythoue aeinyaiooe a e?eueea ?ac?a aeui? oi/iino?
iaaeeaeaiue o ii??aiyii? c ?nioth/eie ca iaeiaeiai? e?eueeino?
ia?aiao??a. Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee aaoiiaoe/iiai
ciaoiaeaeaiiy ia?aiao??a aeayeeo e?iaa?ecoth/eo noai aea? iiaeeea?noue o
aeaa-o?e ?ace ciaioeoe iioeaeo aei??thaaiue, coiiaeaio iae?i?ei?noth
ia?aeiieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a aei??thaaeueieo i?eno?i?a, ia aiiny/e
aeiaeaoeiaeo oneeaaeiaiue a ?o no?oeoo?o.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?aaeothaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea, i?i?iaenia
ai?ieneiaoe?y, iioei?caoe?y ia?aiao??a noai e?iaa?ecaoe??, iaaeeaeaiiy
nieaeiaie, ia?aeiiee ia?aoai?thaa/ o?ce/ii? aaee/eie.

Iiiia ss.A. Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea ia?ae/iuo i?aia?aciaaoaeae
oece/aneeo aaee/ei ia iniiaa aii?ieneiaoeeiiiuo iaoiaeia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.05.02 — iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea e
au/eneeoaeueiua iaoiaeu. — Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao “Eueaeanueea
iieeoaoieea”, Eueaia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?ino iino?iaiey iaeeiaeiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iiaeaeae ia?ae/iuo i?aia?aciaaoaeae oece/aneeo aaee/ei. ?ac?aaioaiiua
iaoiaeeee e aeai?eoiu aace?othony ia aii?ieneiaoeeiiiie oai?ee, a
/anoiinoe, ieieiaeniie aii?ieneiaoeee e iaoiaea iaeiaiueoeo eaaae?aoia.

Aeey iiiaeo iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo i?aia?aciaaoaeae oa?aeoa?ia iaeeiaeiay
caaeneiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia io ecia?yaiie oece/aneie
aaee/eiu. Nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeu aii?ieneiaoeee a?aaeoe?iai/iuo
oa?aeoa?enoee i?aia?aciaaoaeae iaeeiaeiuie ioiineoaeueii ia?aiao?ia
au?aaeaieyie aace?othony, eae i?aaeei, ia iaoiaea iaeiaiueoeo eaaae?aoia
eee /aauoaaneii i?eaeeaeaiee. I?e yoii eeai ?aoatho nenoaio iaeeiaeiuo
o?aaiaiee, eeai nenoaio o?aaiaiee naiaeyo e eeiaeiie eniieuecoy
i?aia?aciaaiea ia?aiaiiuo. Iaaeinoaoee ia?aiai niiniaa i/aaeaeiu. Ai
aoi?ii neo/aa ieieiece?oaony ioeeiiaiea aii?ieneie?othuaai au?aaeaiey ia
io caaeaiie caaeneiinoe, a io i?aia?aciaaiiie, /oi /anoi yaeyaony
i?e/eiie eniieueciaaiey aeey i?eaeeaeaiey neeoeii neiaeiuo au?aaeaiee.
E?iia oiai, yenia?eiaioaeueiua oi/ee, ?aaiioaeaeaiiua aeey
iai?aia?aciaaiiie ia?aiaiiie, iiaoo ieacaoueny ia ?aaiioaeaeaiiuie aeey
i?aia?aciaaiiie ia?aiaiiie, /oi i?aaeuyaeyao aeiiieieoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey
e i?ioeanno iieo/aiey yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo.

A ?aaioa ?ac?aaioaii iaoiaeeeo ieieiaeniiai i?eaeeaeaiiy aeaaeeeo
oaaee/ii caaeaiuo caaeneiinoae iaeioi?uie iaeeiaeiuie ooieoeeyie io
?aoeeiiaeueiiai iieeiiia. Iieo/aiiua aeai?eoiu eniieuecotho ?aoaiea
oieueei eeiaeiuo nenoai o?aaiaiee aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai i?aia?aciaaiey
ia?aiaiiuo. E?iia oiai, cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?aii eieee/anoai iaeeiaeiuo
au?aaeaiee, eioi?ua iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey i?eaeeaeaiee. Iieo/aiiua
niiniau aii?ieneiaoeee a?aaeoe?iai/iuo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?ae/iuo
i?aia?aciaaoaeae iicaieytho aeinoe/ue a ianeieueei ?ac iaiueoae
iia?aoiinoe i?eaeeaeaiee ii n?aaiaieth n eeanne/aneeie i?e iaeeiaeiaii
eieee/anoaa ia?aiao?ia.

No?aieaiea aeinoe/ue caaeaiioth iia?aoiinoue aii?ieneiaoeee n
eniieueciaaieai iaeiiai i?eaeeaeathuaai au?aaeaiey ia anai eioa?aaea
aii?ieneiaoeee i?eaiaeeo e eceeoiaio oneiaeiaieth i?eaeeaeathuaai
au?aaeaiey. Iaeiei ec niiniaia aeinoeaeaiey caaeaiiie iia?aoiinoe
yaeyaony ?acaeaiea eioa?aaea i?eaeeaeaiey ia ?yae iiaeeioa?aaeia.
Niioaaonoaothuoth /anoue oa?aeoa?enoeee ia eaaeaeii iiaeeioa?aaea
aii?ieneie?otho, eae i?aaeei, iaeiioeiiui au?aaeaieai. I?e yoii,
nouanoaaiiui yaeyaony auai? iauaai aeaea aii?ieneie?othuaai au?aaeaiey,
iineieueeo a neo/aa i?eaeeaeaiey iaai?ii aiciiaeiuo au?aaeaiee ca?aiaa
ia ecaanoii, eioi?ia ec au?aaeaiee yaeyaony iioeiaeueiui. E?eoa?eai
iioeiaeueiinoe a iaoai neo/aa eiae/ii aua?aoue iia?aoiinoue i?eaeeaeaiey
eee eiee/anoai iiaeeioa?aaeia.

A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea auai?a ec iaai?a caaeaiiuo
i?eaeeaeathueo au?aaeaiee iioeiaeueiiai aeey iaoaiaoe/aneiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey n caaeaiie iia?aoiinoueth a?aaeoe?iai/iuo oa?aeoa?enoee
ia?ae/iuo i?aia?aciaaoaeae oece/aneeo aaee/ei.

?ac?aaioea aunieioi/iuo ecia?eoaeueiuo i?eai?ia ia iniiaa
iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo i?aia?aciaaoaeae /anoi auaaao oneiaeiaia
iaeeiaeiinoueth oa?aeoa?enoee yoeo aeao/eeia a oe?ieeo aeeaiaciiao
ecia?yaiuo oece/aneeo aaee/ei. A nayce n yoei aunieioi/iea n?aaenoaa
ecia?aiee, eae i?aaeei, eniieuecotho iaoiaeu eeiaa?ecaoeee.

Eniieueciaaiea i?inouo e aeinoaoi/ii oi/iuo iiaeaeae ia?ae/iuo
i?aia?aciaaoaeae, iieo/aiiuo n iiiiuueth iienaiiuo auoa iaoiaeee,
iicaieyao nicaeaaaoue aieaa iauea iiaeaee ecia?eoaeueiuo i?eai?ia e
i?iecaiaeeoue iioeiecaoeeth eo ia?aiao?ia ii ii?aaeaeaiiui e?eoa?eyi.

A ?aaioa ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea iioeiecaoeee ia?aiao?ia noai
eeiaa?ecaoeee, eioi?ay aace?oaony ia eniieueciaaiee iaoiaea iaeiaiueoeo
eaaae?aoia. Eniieueciaaiea ?ac?aaioaiiiai aeai?eoia aaoiiaoe/aneiai
iaoiaeaeaiey ia?aiao?ia iaeioi?uo eeiaa?ece?othueo noai aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue a aeaa-o?e ?aca oiaiueoeoue iia?aoiinoue ecia?aiee,
iaoneiaeaiioth iaeeiaeiinoueth ia?ae/iuo i?aia?aciaaoaeae ecia?eoaeueiuo
i?eai?ia, ia aiiny aeiiieieoaeueiuo oneiaeiaiee a eo no?oeoo?o.

Aeey oeaeie a?oiiu ia?ae/iuo i?aia?aciaaoaeae oece/aneeo aaee/ei
(aeaaeaiey, eiaeoeoeee iaaieoiiai iiey e o.i.) naienoaaiia caaeneiinoue
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ia?aiao?ia e io oaiia?aoo?u. A yoii neo/aa iaiaoiaeeii
eniieueciaaoue aii?ieneiaoeeiiiua aeai?eoiu aeaoo eee ianeieueeeo
ia?aiaiiuo.

A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaii aeai?eoi aiaeeoe/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey oaaee/ii
caaeaiie ooieoeee aeaoo ia?aiaiiuo aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aia?aciaaoaey
aeaaeaiey OA 2.5 A ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ue, a ioee/ee io
nouanoathueo, iicaieyao aeinoe/ue iaiaoiaeeiie iia?aoiinoe
aii?ieneiaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: a?aaeoe?iai/iay oa?aeoa?enoeea, ieieiaeniay
aii?ieneiaoeey, iioeiecaoeey ia?aiao?ia noai eeiaa?ecaoeee, i?eaeeaeaiea
nieaeiaie, ia?ae/iue i?aia?aciaaoaeue oece/aneie aaee/eiu.

Popov I.B. Mathematical modeling of physical quantities sensors on the
base of approximation methods. — Manuscript.

The thesis are presented for the Candidate of Sciences degree in
specialty 01.05.02 — mathematical modeling and numerical methods. — Lviv
Polytechnic State University, Lviv, 1998.

Thesis are dedicated to the question of development of nonlinear
mathematical models for sensors of physical quantities. The elaborated
methods and algorithms are based on approximation theory (minimax
approximation and least squares method). The obtained approximation
techniques of the sensors experimental characteristics allowed to
improve the approximation accuracy in several times in comparison with
other methods with the same number of parameters. The application of the
developed technique for automatic acquisition of some linearization
structures circuit parameters improve the accuracy of measurements in
two-three times without additional modernization of the structure.

Key words: experimental characteristic, minimax approximation,
linearization circuit parameters optimization, spline approximation,
physical quantity sensor.

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