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OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OAeE 130.001

I?uaiei Iaoae?y Aeieo??aia

IANIAA EOEUeOO?A ssE I?AAeIAO O?EINIONUeEIAI AIAE?CO

09.00.04 – O?EINIONUeEA AIO?IIIEIA?ss OA O?EINIO?ss EOEUeOO?E

AAOI?AOA?AO

AeENA?OAOe?? IA CAeIAOOOss IAOEIAIAI NOOIAIss

EAIAeEAeAOA O?EINIONUeEEO IAOE

Xapeia- 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?.

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: Noa?iaieo A?eoi??y
Na?a??aia,

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oai??? eoeueoo?e ?

o?einio?? iaoee Oa?e?anueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Ao?iaa Ieueaa
Eocuei?aia,

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?einio?? Oa?e?anueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Noaiaiaiei ??eia Aieiaeeie??aia,

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?einio?? Oa?e?anueeiai

iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

ii.
A.N.Neiai?iaee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aea?aeaaiee
aa?ieini?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i.I.?.AEoeianueeiai “OA?”,

eaoaae?a o?einio??. I?i?noa?noai ina?oe

Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “23_”_06_ 1999 ?ieo i 15:15 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.64. 051. 06 i?e
Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:

310077. Oa?e?a, ie.Naiaiaee,4, aoae._______

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? OAeO ca aae?anith: 310077, ie.Naiaiaee,4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “18”05.1999?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Noa?iaieo A.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ianiaa eoeueoo?a ye iaeei c
iaea?eueo yne?aaeo i?iya?a nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? ?aaeueiino? no/anieo
?icaeiooeo noni?euenoa caeeoa?oueny ii??aiyii iaei aea/aiei oaiiiaiii c
oi/ee ci?o caaaeueii? oai??? eoeueoo?e. Oea iaoiiaeaii oei, ui ?
noni?eueia na?aeii?noue, ? iaoeiaee aeeneo?n, iia’ycai? c aeaiith
i?iaeaiith, aei inoaiiueiai /ano eieeaathoueny i?ae e?aeiiuaie. Aeiaaee
/an i?i ianiao eoeueoo?o noaeeee c iiceoe?? «?ici??eiaoth/i? iaioino?»,
aea ae?eni?noue iieaco?, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia e?eoeeo, aiia i?iaeiaaeo?
?icaeaaoeny ? ioiieth? aeaaeae? oe?oee eoeueoo?iee i?ino??, iia’ycaiee
ia o?eueee c iaeaaoaeyie oa ?o ia?icaeiooeie niaeaie.

Ioaea, i?iaeaio ianiai? eoeueoo?e a?ae??ciy? oa, ui aiia /a?ac naith
iaiaeiicia/i?noue, caieooai?noue ? ia/aaoi i/aaeaei?noue iaeaaeeoue aei
iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaieo. A?aeii? eoeueoo?i? yaeua, ye? ne?ae
a?aeianoe aei ianiai? eoeueoo?e, iio?aaothoue ia?aaeyaeo ia iiaiio
??ai?, ui a?aeiia?aea? no/ani?e nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e ?aaeueiino?.

?ioa?an aei aeaii? i?iaeaie coiiaeaiee ? iiaith nioe?ieoeueoo?iith
neooaoe??th, iia’ycaiith c iinoiiaea?i?nonueeith ianoaiiaith, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?aeyoea?ciii oiaei aoaeue-yeeo eoeueoo?ieo i?iya?a ?
ni?ey? eaaae?caoe?? oaiiiaio ianiai? eoeueoo?e.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe iaaoaaeee aeieane ?ioa?ano aei aeaii? i?iaeaie ? a
iao?e e?a?i?. I?ney o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo iaioaaiiy nioe?ae?noe/ii?
?aeaieia?? aiae?c a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e ii/eia? noi?iaiaeaeoaaoenue
iineeaiith oaaaith oa ?aaa?e?oaoe??th iianyeaeaiiiai, uiaeaiiiai – oiai,
ui yaey? niaith aeeoo?aee na?o ethaeae.

I/aaeaeii oaeiae, ui i?iyae ianiai? eoeueoo?e a ??cieo e?a?iao oa
noni?euenoaao iathoue nai? iniaeeaino?. Ona oea na?ae/eoue i?i
aaaeeea?noue aiae?co oaiiiaia ianiai? eoeueoo?e.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia oa ci?no
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeathoue oai? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e
oai??? eoeueoo?e oa o?einio?? iaoee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo «I?iaeaia aeooiaiino? a iaooe? ? eoeueoo??», yea
aeeiio?oueny ca ?anioae?eainueeith i?ia?aiith ? 64 «Eeaneea, iiaea?i,
iinoiiaea?i o o?einio??, iaooe? ? eoeueoo??: i?iaeaie aeooiaiino? ia
ceai? oeny/ie?ooy».

Noai iaoeiai? i?iaeaie . I?iaeaia ianiai? eoeueoo?e ia? iaaio
o?aaeeoe?th a aeine?aeaeaii?. I?ioa ia?aeiieeaiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai
aa/aiiy nooiino? ianiai? eoeueoo?e oa iai?yie?a ?? ?icaeoeo iaia?.

I?ioyaii e?eueeio aeanyoe??/ c iiiaioo naiai aeieeiaiiy ianiaa eoeueoo?a
?icaeaaeanue noeo?eii, oaeoe/ii ia iath/e aeeaieiai oai?aoe/iiai
oeoia/aiiy. Iiaeaeueoa inieneaiiy oaiiiaio ianiai? eoeueoo?e, iia’ycai?
c aeineoue no??ieei ?? iioe?aiiyi, aeeeeeaei iaaio o?eaiao aaaaoueio
ieneeoae?a (O.I?oeoa, I.Oiaiaea?, O.?e?io, O.I?oaaa-?-Aannao oa ?io?).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ianiai? eoeueoo?e aoei o?nii iia’ycaia c
eiioeaioe??th «ianiaiai noni?euenoaa», yea a?aeaeaa? aeaa i?ioeeaaeieo
ca aeniiaeaie eiiieaena ?aeae.

Ianaiia?aae oea ia?aaaaeath/ee c 50-o ?ie?a OO noi??//y aiae?c ianiai?
eoeueoo?e c iiceoe?? o?aaeeoe?eiiai cao?aeiiai e?aa?aeueiiai aoiai?cia.
Aeey i?aaenoaaiee?a oeueiai iai?yio (A.O?iii, Ae.??niai, A.Ia?eoca oa
?io?) aoea oa?aeoa?iith oyaa i?i iaieio/o caaeaaeue
«caaaeueiiethaenueei? eoeueoo?e» a ?acoeueoao? «iineaaeaiiy ae?oe»,
«iaoeneo aoeueaa?ieo ian oa aacaeooii? oaoi?ee».

E?eoeee ianiai? eoeueoo?e ?aii?oaaee ?? aaaeeea? iniaeeaino?, ye? ?
noaee iniiaith aeey aeieeiaiiy ?yaeo aiieiaaoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e, ui
aei?aaaeiaothoue aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th eoeueoo?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? oa
noaa?aeaeothoue, ui oey eoeueoo?a a?aeiia?aea? iiieoo ianiaiai
niiaeeaa/a (O.Ia?niin, A.O?en, E.?inoai, A.Ii?ai oa ?io? aaoi?e).

Aiieiaaoe/i? eiioeaioe?? ianiai? eoeueoo?e iia’ycoaaee ?? ?icaeoie c
oni?oaie a aaeoc? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy ethaenoaa
(AE.O??aeiai, Ae.Aaee, Ae.Iaeaeiiaeueae, A.?icaiaa?a). Aei ieo
iaeaaeeoue ? aeineoue aaoi?eoaoia eiioeaioe?y I.Iaeethaia i?i ii/aoie
?icaeoeo «o?aouei?» nenoaie eoeueoo?e, ca?aeii c yeith ianiaa eoeueoo?a
aenooia? ye i?e?iaeiee ?icaeoie cania?a ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? (CIE).

A iao /an i?aaenoaaeai? ??ciiiai?oi? oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei ?icoi?iiy
ianiai? eoeueoo?e. Ia aac i?aenoaa aeine?aeieee aaa/athoue ca’ycie
ianiai? eoeueoo?e c ??cieie o?einionueeeie a/aiiyie (c o?aeaeeciii,
aaaeii?ciii, iiceoea?ciii, c o?einio??th i?aaiaoecio).

O a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? inieneaiiy i?iaeai ianiai? eoeueoo?e
caaaeaee oneeaaeithaaeinue ?aeaieia?/iei i?aeoaenoii. A ?aaeyinuee?e
aea?aeaa? caia?a/oaaany oaeo ?nioaaiiy ianiai? eoeueoo?e, a yeui a?i ?
aeciaaaany, oi aeiyoeiai a nai?o ie?aieo i?iyaao, ui ?icoe?ithaaeinue ye
?aeaieia?/i? aeeaa?n??, iia’ycai? c e?ecith ao?aeoacii? eoeueoo?e. *a?ac
oea aaaaoi ye? c a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a aea/aee oaiiiai ianiai?
eoeueoo?e a e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie oa Aia?eee, i?aeaeath/e eiai
ieu?ai?e e?eoeoe? (I.Aoei, I.Ea?oeaaa, I.Eoea?e?i, I.I?aeea?,
A.Iie/aiia, I.Ia/ae,A.Oanoaeia. I.*aaiaea?aa oa ?io?).

Eeoa a inoaii? aeenyoe??//y ?yae a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a ona?aeiieee, ui
eaeaoueny i?i ye?nii iiaee oaiiiai eoeueoo?e. Oea aeeeeeaei ?ioa?an aei
i?iaeaie ianiai? eoeueoo?e ?in?enueeeo, oe?a?inueeeo, a?ei?onueeeo oa
?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a (E.?aceiaia, I.Eiceiaa, I.Aaa?a, A.Iaoa??a,
I.Aioiai, I.Caaoaeei, Ae.Ieeeothe, A.Iea?a, I.Cieiooo?ia-Aaie?ia oa
?io?). C’yaeeenue oe?eaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy c oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee, ye?
aeyaeee ?nioaaiiy oe?eiai ?yaeo iaeiaea/aieo ? aeeneon?eieo ieoaiue,
iia’ycaieo c oaiiiaiii ianiai? eoeueoo?e.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a eiioeaiooaeueiiio i?aeoiae? aei aiae?co
oaiiiaia ianiai? eoeueoo?e oa ?? noa’?eoa “ethaeeie-iane” ia iniia?
?aaeueieo i?ioean?a ?? ?icaeoeo a OO noi??//?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe ae??oothoueny oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aeyaeoe iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioean?a iianiaeaiiy no/anieo
noni?euenoa oa iieacaoe i?ia?aeio ?ieue o ieo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo
oaeoi??a.

2. ?ice?eoe ? i?iaiae?coaaoe iniiai? iniaeeaino? «ethaeeie-iane» ye
iaaiiai eoeueoo?ii-aio?iiieia?/iiai oeio.

3. ?icaeyiooe ??ci? eiioeaioe??, iia’ycai? c i?iaeaiith aeieeiaiiy
oaiiiaia ianiai? eoeueoo?e ? aeiaanoe, ui ianiaa eoeueoo?a – yaeua,
iaaeiaaeeiaa aeey OO noi??//y.

4. Aecia/eoe nooi?noue ianiai? eoeueoo?e ? aeiaanoe aaci?aenoaai?noue ??
iaeiia?/ii? iaaaoeaii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??.

5. Iaa?oiooaaoe iinoaiiao ieoaiiy i?i ianiao eoeueoo?o ye i?i iiao
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/io ia?aaeeaio.

6. Aeyaeoe aaaeeea? caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe??, i?eoaiaii? ?icaeoeo ianiai?
eoeueoo?e a OO noi??//?.

7. ?ice?eoe oa?aeoa? ? iniaeeaino? ?nioaaiiy ianiai? eoeueoo?e a
no/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio eoeueoo?iiio i?inoi?? ia?aaaaeii ia iniia?
aiae?co ooaeiaeiuei? ianiai? eoeueoo?e ye oaei?, ui ni?aaey? aaeeeee
aaciina?aaei?e aieea ia aeooiaiee na?o ethaeeie.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia ? oai?aoe/ia iniiaa, aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. A
iaoiaeieia?/iiio aia?ao? aeena?oaoe?? o?ao?othoue i?eioeeie
ia’?eoeaiino?, ?noi?ecio, ieth?ae?cio ye caaaeuei? iaoiaeieia?/i?
canaaee iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy. Aeei?enoai? oaeiae oae? iaoiaee oai?aoe/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy.

Niaoeeo?ea ia’?eoo aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue ia?iaee
oe?ieiai eiea oai?aoeei-o?einionueeeo oa ooaeiaeiuei-e?eoe/ieo aeaea?ae.
?o iniiao neeaee i?enay/ai? oai?aoe/iiio aiae?co i?iaeai ianiai?
eoeueoo?e i?aoe? O.I?oaae-?-Aannaoa, I.Oiaiaea?a, Ae.Aaeea, A.O?iiia,
Ae.??niaia, A.Ia?eoca, I.Iaeethaia, C.O?aeaea, I.Eiceiai?, E.?aceiaiaa
oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo aaoi??a.

Aii??e/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee /eneaii? i?iyae ianiai? eoeueoo?e a
?aaeuei?e ae?eniino?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia ?c ni?yiiaai?noth
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ia ?icaeyae ?aaeueieo i?ioean?a ?icaeoeo oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ianiai? eoeueoo?e ye iaa?ae’?iiiai ieanoa no/anii?
eoeueoo?e. C oeei iia’ycaiee aiae?c oaiiiaia ianiai? eoeueoo?e oa ??
noa’?eoa «ethaeeie-iane» a o?einionueei-aio?iiieia?/iiio eeth/?.
Aeyaeai? ? aeine?aeaeai? iaai? oaiaeaioe??, oa?aeoa?i? aeey ?icaeoeo
ianiai? eoeueoo?e a OO noi??//?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa?:

1. A iaa?oiooaaii? aeniiae?a i?i oa, ui iaeiicia/ii iaaaoeaia
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ianiai? eoeueoo?e ia a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei
nioe?ieoeueoo?iei i?ioeanai. Ianiaa eoeueoo?a a OO noi??//? iinoa? ye
iiaa anaioiiethth/a ?aaeuei?noue, yea oi?io? no/anio ethaeeio oa ??
na?o, ui aeicaiey? noaaeoe ieoaiiy i?i ianiao eoeueoo?o ye i?i iiao
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/io ia?aaeeaio.

I??i?eoaoiith i?e/eiith anaioiiethth/iai oaiiiaio iianiaeaiiy ?
nioe?ieoeueoo?i? i?ioeane. Iaioth/a aei oeueiai /ano oaca i?i aieiaio
?ieue a i?ioean? iianiaeaiiy aenieiai ??aiy ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee, aieiaiei
/eiii CIE, ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye iaeio c aiaaoueio, oi/ ? aeoaea ?noioio
i?e/eio iianiaeaiiy, ui aecia/eea eiai no??ie? oaiie. Iniiaiee noa’?eo
ianiai? eoeueoo?e – iano i?iiiio?oueny o?aeooaaoe ye noa’?eo iiaiai
oeio, aai ae e?iaoeue e?ioeai iiaiaeeoenue c oei, ui iiiyooy “iana” o OO
noi??//? iaaoaa? ye?nii iiaiai ?icoi?iiy ye ?acoeueoao noaiaea?oecaoe??
iniaenoino? a no/anieo noni?euenoaao, yeee noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
o?ainoi?iaoe??th (c o?aooaaiiyi ?yaeo iniaeeainoae) ethaeeie o
eoeueoo?ii-aio?iiieia?/iee oei «ethaeeie-iane». Iacaaaeath/e ia
ona?aaeiaiee oa?aeoa? ?? aeooiaieo iio?aa, «ethaeeia-iana» aa?oa oiai,
uia a i?e iiaaaeaee iniaeno?noue.

2. A aeiaaaeaii? oiai, ui ianiaieoeueoo?i? oai?e i?noyoue aacia?
a?oaoeiia? i?oieiaaie, i?eoaiaii? aoaeue yeiio oeio na?aeiiino?. Oea
ciaoiaeeoue a?aeaeooy o i?oao, noai?thaaieo ianiaith eoeueoo?ith OO
noi??//y. Aiia cai?iiiioaaea iiaee oei i?o?a, ui i?iyaey?oueny,
iai?eeeaae, a eoeueo? “c??ie”.

3. A iieac? ci?iaiiy ianiai? eoeueoo?e a neooaoe?? iinoiiaea?io,
ca’ycaiiai c a?aeoiaeii ianiai? eoeueoo?e a?ae aeeiiaiiy o?eueee
eiiiainoaaeueii? ? ?icaaaeath/i? ooieoe?e oa ?? caa?iaiiyi aei aaaeeeaeo
nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, i?iaeai iniaenoino?; c ia?aaaaeaiiyi a?coaeueiiai
ia/aea; c o?ainoi?iaoe??th aaoi?nueeiai ia/aea a iania?e ooaeiaei?e
i?iaeoeoe??; c aeyaeaiiyi iaaaoeaiiai aieeao iinoiiaea?i?cio ia
“ethaeeio-iano”, e?aei?e i?iya yeiai iieyaa? a “oioaeueiiio aeooiaiiio
“iaia?ao?aaethaaii?” ianiaith ethaeeiith iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? oai?/ino?.

4. A iaa?oiooaaii? i?aeoiaeo aei ienoaoeoaa nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?aae?cio c
o?aooaaiiyi eiai niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae, ye aei iaeiiai c i?iya?a
ianiai? eoeueoo?e, ine?eueee oea ienoaoeoai i?aaioei ni?eyoe oi?ioaaiith
?aaeyinueei? ianiai? ethaeeie.

5. A iaei?e c ia?oeo ni?ia i?iaiae?coaaoe ia oai?aoe/iiio ??ai? noai
no/anii? ianiai? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?iciaae N?N? ?
caeiaoooy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?iith aecia/eee aaaeeea? ci?ie a ieano?
ianiai? eoeueoo?e, ye? ciaeoee a?aeaeooy a ia?ai??aioaoe?? c
a?iiaaenueeiai iaoino ia ?icaaaeaeueia ia/aei, a ci?i? aeii?ioth/eo
oe?iiinieo i??i?eoao?a o ianiaeo niaeao, o caneee? cao?aeii?
ianiaieoeueoo?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? ia oe?a?inueeiio eoeueoo?iiio ?eieo.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy
ni?ey? a?eueo aeeaieiio ?icoi?iith oeo i?ioean?a o aeooiaiiio aeeoo?, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a no/anieo noni?euenoaao.

Aeena?oaio i?aaioea i?ae?eoe eiioeaiooaeueii aei ?ice?eooy nooiino?
ianiai? eoeueoo?e ia iniia? ?aaeueieo i?ioean?a ?? ?icaeoeo a OO
noi??//?. Aiae?c iinoaaeaieo ieoaiue aeaa ciiao aeyaeoe ieceo i?iaeai,
ia?aae yeeie iieieeinue no/ania ethaenoai, oa iieacaa iaiao?aei?noue
oi?ioaaiiy a?eueo ci?noiaieo e?eoa???a ianiaiai niaeo, ui iiaeeeai
aeinyaiooe oeyoii oe?eaiai?aaeaii? ? ci?noiaii? eoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee,
yea i?iaiaeeoueny no/anieie aea?aeaaaie.

Iiaeai? a ?iaio? iaoa??aee ii iaea?eueo aeeneon?eiei ? iaeiaea/aiei
aniaeoai a oe?eiio oe?iei? iae?o?e ianiaieoeueoo?ii? i?iaeaiaoeee
iiaeooue aeiiiaieoe iiaei ci?noii ?yae iaoe, ui aea/athoue i?iaeaie,
iia’ycai? c oaiiiaiii ianiaino? (o?einio?y eoeueoo?e, nioe?aeueia
o?einio?y ? ineoieia?y, nioe?ieia?y, ienoaoeoaiciaanoai, anoaoeea).

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe oe?iei aeei?enoai? a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? (c o?einio?? eoeueoo?e, oe?a?inueei? ? ca?oa?aeii? eoeueoo?e, c
anoaoeee), i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a, o
eaeoe?ei?e ?iaio? ??ciiiai?oieo aoiai?oa?ieo oeaio??a, i?e aea/aii? oa
i?iaiicoaaii? eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo iaoiai noni?euenoaa, a oaeiae o
??ciiiai?oieo oi?iao aeoiaii? ?iaioe c nooaeaionueeith iieiaeaeth ?
ianaeaiiyi.

Iaoa??aee oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy
caiyoue a Oa?e?anueeiio ?inoeooo? a?ciano oa iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy
ciaeoee a?aeaeooy a i’yoe ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a.

Aaaeeea? ieoaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aacia?a?aii? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a”
(Oa?e?a, 1994) ? ia can?aeaii? oai?aoe/iiai nai?ia?o eaoaae?e oai???
eoeueoo?e ? o?einio?? iaoee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a
? aeniiae?a, ye? ocaaaeueiththoue ?acoeueoaoe ?icaeyaeo ieoaiue,
iinoaaeaieo a aeine?aeaeaii?, a oaeiae i?noyoue i??eoaaiiy aaoi?a uiaei
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ianiai? eoeueoo?e. Ianya ?oeiieno aeena?oaoe??
neeaaea? 166 noi??iie eiii’thoa?iiai iaai?o, ia aeeth/ath/e nieneo
e?oa?aoo?e, yeee neeaaea?oueny c 211aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie oa ?? aeooaeuei?noue, aiae?co?oueny
noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, aaoi?nueeee i?aeo?ae aei ??
?ica’ycaiiy, aecia/athoueny ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoa oa
caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, iaoiaeieia?/i? ? oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Iaaieioaii iaoeiao iiaecio ?ic?iaeaiiai aeena?oaioii i?aeoiaeo oa
iieiaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, aeacaii oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaoith ia?oiai ?icae?eo “Ianiaa eoeueoo?a: o?einionueei-aio?iiieia?/iee
aiae?c”, yeee ia? /ioe?e i?ae?icae?ea, ? iieac iaaeiaaeeiaiai oa?aeoa?o
aeieeiaiiy ianiai? eoeueoo?e a OO noi??//?, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy ??
i?noey ? ?ie? a no/ani?e eoeueoo??. Iinoaaeaia caaaeaiiy aeeiioaaeinue
oaeei oeyoii:

A i?ae?icae?e? 1.1 “I?ioeane iianiaeaiiy eoeueoo?e ? noni?euenoaa
iai?ee?ioe? OIO – ii/aoeo OO noi??//y” aieiaia oaaaa a?aeaiaeeoueny
aiae?co “iane” ye noa’?eoa ianiai? eoeueoo?e, a oaeiae ?icaeyaeo
i?ioean?a, ui ni?eythoue oi?ioaaiith ? no??ieiio iioe?aiith ianiai?
eoeueoo?e a iei?oiueiio noi??//?.

Iai?ee?ioe? OIO – ii/aoeo OO noi??//y a ?a?ii? oa Aia?eoe? iicia/eany
iaaiee ia?aeii o na?oia?ae/oaaiii ethaeae oa ?oiueiio noaaeaii? aei
ae?eniino?. A oeae /an ao?oeeai ?icaeaaeeny iaoea ? oaoi?ea,
iaoa??aeueia ae?iaieoeoai, noni?eueia aeeooy, a?aeaoaaeiny iineaaeaiiy
?ae?a?eii? na?aeiiino?, ci?ithaaeeny e ?io? noi?iie ethaenueeiai aoooy.
Naia a oeae ia??iae noaea oa?aeoa?iith anainyaeia ianiaecaoe?y aeeooy,
yea ioiieea an? ?? noa?e: aeiiii?eo, iie?oeeo, ae?iaieoeoai ?
aaciina?aaeiuei ni?eeoaaiiy ethaeae. Aeai? i?ioeane i?ecaaee aei oiai,
ui a oe?eiio a ?a?iiaenuee?e eoeueoo?? 30-o – ii/aoeo 40-o ?ie?a OO
noi??//y a?aeaoaaeeny aeeaeii? c?ooaiiy, noi?iaiaeaeoaai? e?ecith
aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae oa ?aeaae?a, ye? oi?ioaaeeny a ?a?iiaenuee?e
eoeueoo?? i?ioyaii OVII – OIO noie?oue. Oe? c?ooaiiy ni?eyee
?ioaineaiiio iioe?aiith ianiai? eoeueoo?e.

Oae? yaeua, ye iania?noue, oaoi?oeeci, aacaeooiai?noue oa ?io?, ui
iioe?eeenue, aoee aeeeeeai? ?oeioaaiiyi o?aaeeoe?eieo oi?i aeeooy, ui,
ye aeyaeeiny, a?eueoith i??ith, i?ae iaoa??aeuei? oiiae, aecia/aee iiaoo
? na?aeii?noue ??ciiiai?oieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi aei?iaeono??aeueiiai
noni?euenoaa. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aieiaieie a i?ioean? iianiaeaiiy
? nioe?ieoeueoo?i? i?ioeane.

Aeai? ci?ie i?ecaaee aei oiai, ui a oeaio?? aeeooy no/anieo noni?euenoa
aeyaeeanue oae caaia “iana” – noa’?eo oiai oeio eoeueoo?e OO noi??//y,
yea aecia/a? oi?aa?naeueio cia/ou?noue ianiaieoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a. A
oe?eiio ianiaa eoeueoo?a ioiieth? aeoaea oe?ie? nioe?aeuei? ieanoe
no/anieo noni?euenoa. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aoei a a?eueo i?aaeeueiei
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ianiaa eoeueoo?a noi?ioaaea na?e noa’?eo –
“ethaeeio-iano”, yeee cian?i ia ?aeaioe/iee iiiyooth “iana” a
o?aaeeoe?eiiio ?icoi?ii?.

Iioe?aiiy ianiai? eoeueoo?e ? o?nii iia’ycai? c iath i?ioeane
iianiaeaiiy no/anieo noni?euenoa ni?eyee oi?ioaaiith
eoeueoo?ii-aio?iiieia?/iiai oeio, aeieeaaeiee aiae?c yeiai iaaaaeaii a
i?ae?icae?e? 1.2. “Ianiaa ethaeeia: i?iaeaie ? i?aeoiaee aei ieo”.

Ia ii/aoeo OO noi??//y aeey ?a?iie ? Aia?eee noa? aeaaeae? a?eueo
i/aaeaeiei ?noi?e/iee oaeo, iia’ycaiee c aeoea?caoe??th “ona?aaeiaii?”
ethaeeie. Naia oeei iioe?thaaiei eoeueoo?ii-aio?iiieia?/iei oeiii
ethaeeie ? aoea aeeeeeaia aei aeeooy ianiaa eoeueoo?a.

I?i aeieeiaiiy “iaeiii??ii?”, “ianiaeaeii?”
“ethaeeie-iaoiaio”, “iaeaooiueiai oaia” ienaee i?aeoe/ii an? aaeee?
eoeueoo?o?einioe OO noi??//y. Aeieeaaeiee ? aeeneo/ee ca noeeai aiae?c
aeaiiio oeio ethaeeie aeaa O.I?oaaa-?-Aannao, yeee ? iacaaa eiai
“ethaeeiith-ianith”.

OO noi??//y i?aeaeaei noii?ao ye ?aeaae a?eueii? aaoiiiiii? iniae, yeee
i?ioyaii noie?oue aoa no?eaeiai eeane/ii? eoeueoo?e, oae ?
?aeaieia?/iee aia?ao oa o?einionueeee ?ino?oiaioa??e, yeee eiai
iaa?oioiaoaaa. Oea noaei ooiaeaiaioii aeey a?aeoai?aiiy iiaiai ia?aco
ethaeeie ye ina?aaeaey iiai? eoeueoo?e, yeeie a oieoth/eie ?
iac?icoi?eeie ia c’yaeyeeny a aiie c iiceoe?e “aeniei?” eoeueoo?e.

Ni?iaa aeaoe ia’?eoeaio ioe?ieo “ethaeeie-iane” – iaei??? c iniiaieo
ae?th/eo o?ao? a eoeueoo?? OO noi??//y iia’ycaia c ona?aeiieaiiyi
iaiao?aeiino? a?aooaaiiy ii?aeueiiai ia/aea a ethaeei?, caniiaaiiai ia
i?eioeeiao aeooiaiino?, cai?iiiioaaiiai ?.Aaa?ae?i?, A.Oaaeoea?ii oa
?ioeie aaoi?aie, a ia ??aiai anoaoe/iiai ?icaeoeo, ia yeee nie?aany
I?oaaa.

I?iaeaie ii?aeueiino? a no/anio aiioo ii i?aao noathoue aooo?aeie
iniiaaie ethaenueei? eoeueoo?e. Ii?aeuei?noue, ? a?aeiia?aeii
aeooiai?noue, iieeeeai? aeeiiaoe a iao neeaaeiee /an ?ieue caai?iie ia
an? caiaoe i?ioe ?aea? naiioe?iiino? ethaenueeiai aeeooy, iacaeaaeii
a?ae oiai, yeei oi?iai eoeueoo?e a?aeaea? ia?aaaao ethaeeia. E??i
oeueiai, aeoiaey/e c iei?oiuei? neooaoe?? ieth?aeueiino? aeeoo?aeo
iiaieo i?aeoee, ?aeaieia?e, ineoieia?e, na?aeiiinoae, iaioaeueiinoae,
noa? aaaeeei aiai?eoe, iai?eeeaae, i?i “a?aeoeeueio” iiaaae?ieo. Oaeei
/eiii, i?iaeaia “ethaeeie-iane” yaey? niaith ae?aiaoe/io, ?iiae?
o?aa?/io ? aeineoue iai?inoo i?iaeaio. Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaenie? aeooiai?
caieoe “ethaeeie-iane”, aiia, ye ? aoaeue-yea ethaeeia, a?aeia oiai, uia
a i?e iiaaaeaee ?? iniao.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea “ethaeeie-iane” ? niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae, ui
i?eoaiaii? ?? na?aeiiino?, ia? ia iiaiee aeaeyae aac aiae?co iaoai?ci?a
“nioe?aeueiiai ia?aoai?aiiy”, iienaieo A. Eaiaoo?, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei
noai?eee aeaiee aio?iiieia?/iee oei. Oeae i?ioean ia iniia? aeeooy ?
ae?yeueiino? ianiai? ?aaeyinueei? ethaeeie a nioe?ae?noe/iiio
noni?euenoa? ?icaeyaea?oueny a i?ae?icae?e? 1. 3. “I?eioeei
nioe?aeueiiai ia?aoai?aiiy ? eiai cia/aiiy aeey iiyniaiiy ethaenueei?
nooiino? a o?einionuee?e aio?iiieia?? OO noi??//y”.

A oiae? aeeaieeo ci?i, ui a?aeaoeeny a nioe?ieoeueoo?iiio i?inoi?? OO
noi??//y, ye? aecia/eee ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie ianiai? eoeueoo?e, i?eioeei
“nioe?aeueiiai ia?aoai?aiiy”iaaoaa? iniaeeai? cia/ouino?. A?i aeyaey?
i?e/eie ? iaoai?cie, ye? naia a OO noi??//? (a ia c noa?iaeaai?o /an?a,
ye oea aaaaeathoue aeaye? aaoi?e) ia?aoai?thaaee ethaeae ia iano.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiy na?ae/aoue, ui oei ?aaeyinueei? ianiai?
ethaeeie oi?eaeueiee, ine?eueee oi?eaeuei? oiiae eiai aoiaeaeaiiy a
iiaea?i, iia’ycai? c niaoeeoi/ieie iniaeeainoyie noni?eueiiai oa
iniaenoiai aeeooy a iao?e eieeoi?e e?a?i?. Aea a oeieiio ye
eoeueoo?ii-aio?iiieia?/iee oei oaea ethaeeia cian?i ia oi?eaeueia. Oaeei
/eiii, i?eioeei «nioe?aeueiiai ia?aoai?aiiy», iiaeaiee ia oi?eaeueiiio a
nai?io ?iae? iaoa??ae? ?aaeyinueei? “ethaeeie-iane”, — yaeua
iaaecae/aeii a?aeiia ? iioe?aia a on?o no/anieo noni?euenoaao.

I?aeoeea OO noi??//y iieacaea, ui ianiaa eoeueoo?a — yaeua iaaeoi
iaiaeii??aeia ? iio?aao? anaa?/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei naiai aea/aiiy.
Aiae?co aaaaoicia/iino? i?aeoiae?a aei oaiiiaio ianiai? eoeueoo?e,
caniiaaiiio ia aeyaeaii? nooi?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee oeueiai ieanoa
eoeueoo?e, i?enay/aiee i?ae?icae?e 1.4. “E?eoeea ianiai? eoeueoo?e:
aeeeaie ni?aaaei? oa oyai?”.

E?eoe/i? ioe?iee aaaeeeaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ianiai? eoeueoo?e aoee
i?aaii??ieie ia ii/aoeo OO noi??//y, eiee ?? iianthaeia iioe?aiiy eeoa
iai?/oaaeiny a oaiaeaioe??. Nueiaiaei?, iai?eeiioei noi??//y, neooaoe?y
aaaaoi a /iio ci?ieeany, ui niiioea? ii-iiaiio iiaeeaeoenue ia i?iaeaio
ianiai? eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio. A OO noi??//? ianiaa eoeueoo?a noaea iaeiei
?c aeiiiioth/eo eoeueoo?ieo ieano?a. Aiia ia?aoai?eeanue ia a?aeiioiee
ciae /ano ? iinoaaeea ethaenoai ia?aae iiaei eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iei
oaiiiaiii.

Iayai?noue aeaiiai ieanoa a no/ani?e eoeueoo?? ia ?iaeoue ??
a?eueo-iaio i?ia?aneaiith, ui ? aeoaea aaaeeeaith iniaeea?noth
iei?oiuei? nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? neooaoe??. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai,
iaa?yae /e aa?oi iaiaaaoeny aeaaaoe ioe?ieo oaiiiaio ianiai? eoeueoo?e
ye iiceoeaiiai /e iaaaoeaiiai yaeua no/anii? eoeueoo?e. ? yeui a?ae
iaaaoeaii-ioe?ii/iiai oeoia/aiiy oeueiai yaeua ia?aeoe aei ia’?eoeaiiai
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai oa o?einionueei-nioe?ieia?/iiai aiae?co, yeui ia
aeaeaaaoe (na?aeiii /e ia na?aeiii) iaaaoeaio /anoeio ca oe?ea, oi
aeyaeoueny, ui ianiaa eoeueoo?a — ia iniaeeaa, aei?noei oieniaaia
ooai?aiiy c iaaiei iaai?ii iciae, a aeayeee noai eoeueoo?e, coiiaeaiee
no/aniei aoaiii ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Ianiaa eoeueoo?a ao?eth? a nia? nooo?a? ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoeeny a
eoeueoo?? OO noi??//y: ?icaeoie cania?a ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??,
noaiiaeaiiy ?iaeono??aeueii-eiia?oe?eiiai oeio ae?iaieoeoaa oa
?iciiae?eo, yea nooo?ai aieeioei ia oi?ioaaiiy aeooiaiiai na?oo ethaeeie
? noni?euenoaa, aeaiie?aoecaoe?y eoeueoo?e, cie?aia iioe?aiiy
na?aaeiueiai ??aiy ina?/aiino? ian, c?inoaiiy /ano aeica?eey ? aeeo/aiiy
eioo?a ia iueiai a iniaenoiio ? n?iaeiiio athaeaeao?.

Aeuaia?ae?/ai? i?ioeane aieeioee ia ??ci? noa?e eoeueoo?e, ni??yth/e
oeei ?icaeoeo ianiai? eoeueoo?e, yea aeaaeae? caeia? a?eueoee
eoeueoo?iee i?ino?? ? aei yei? ne?ae a?aeianoe ona oa, ui caaeiaieueiy?
eoeueoo?i? iio?aae ianiai? ethaeeie.

Niaoeeo?ea ianiai? eoeueoo?e iieyaa? ia a oiio, ui aiia “iiaaia” ca
nai?i ci?noii, a a oiio, ye ia o?ea?aeueii aeaeyaea? oea noaa?aeaeaiiy,
ui aiia ianiaa. A noa?? ianiai? eoeueoo?e a ??ciee /an iiaeooue
aeyaeoeny ??ciiiai?oi? ?? i?iyae, a oiio /ene? aeecuee? aei eeane/i?o
aai oieueeei?ieo c?ace?a.

C iaeiiai aieo, ?icaeoie ianiai? eoeueoo?e i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy
caaaeueii? eoeueoo?e ethaeeie, ??aiy ?? ina?oe. O aaeeei? e?eueeino?
ethaeae ca aeiiiiiaith no/anieo CIE c’yaeeanue iiaeeea?noue iciaeiieoeny
c iae??ciiiai?oiioeie oai?aie ienoaoeoaa, c inoaii?ie aeinyaiaiiyie
iaoee, oi/a, cae/aeii, ia aeoaea iiioey?iiio ??ai?. Oea ? aeoaea
aaaeeeaei i?e ioe?ioe? iae??ciiiai?oiioeo yaeu no/aniiai aeeooy, aeai??
a/eie?a, oiio ui oe?ieee naioiaeyae aea? ?iaeea?aeo iiaeeea?noue
a?aoiaoaaoe aaaaoi yei ianoaaeie. Aea aiaeii/an iioe?aiiy ianiai?
eoeueoo?e ? ?icaeoie oaoi?ee i?ecaiaeeoue aei ni?iuaiiy aeooiaiiai na?oo
ethaeeie, aei iaioaaiiy /enoi ooee?oa?iiai, aai?noe/iiai noaaeaiiy aei
aeeooy, aei i?iya?a aacaeooiaiino?, aei oi?ioaaiiy oaeiai ieneaiiy, yea
ia aeoaea caiaiiei?ia noooth aeueo oe?iiinoae, nainiaeeoo?aeie
ieoaiiyie. Oaeith ? ia’?eoeaia ae?eni?noue, yea aeaiiino?o? iai onth
neeaaei?noue, iaiaeiicia/i?noue e noia?a/eea?noue oaiiiaio ianiai?
eoeueoo?e.

Iaoith ae?oaiai ?icae?eo “Ianiaa eoeueoo?a a OO noie?oo?” ? ?icaeyae
?aaeueieo i?ioean?a ?icaeoeo ianiai? eoeueoo?e a iei?oiueiio noi??//? a
iaaeao aeae?eaieo iaie aeayeeo caaaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e, i?eoaiaiieo
iioe?aiith ? ?icaeoeo oe??? eoeueoo?e a no/anieo noni?euenoaao.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.1. “I?oe ianiai? eoeueoo?e” iaa?oioiao?oueny, ui aoei
a iai?aaii??iei aaaaeaoe ianiao eoeueoo?o eoeueoo?ith i?o?a aeoiaey/e c
oiai, ui any ?? nooi?noue aecia/a?oueny noai?aiiyi i?o?a, c iaoith
i?oieia?caoe?? na?aeiiino?, ui oey eoeueoo?a iieeeeaia eeoa
i?noeo?eoaaoe ?aaeuei? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny o ethaenueeiio
noni?euenoa?. ?nio? a?eueo niaoeeo?/iee ca’ycie i?oa c ianiaith
eoeueoo?ith, ui iieyaa? o “i?e?iaeiiio ia/ae? ethaeeie”(C.O?aeae), yeee
iia’ycaiee c ?? na?aeii?noth, ineo?eith ? ianaiia?aae c a?oa?/ieie
no?oeoo?aie ethaenueei? na?aeiiino?.

OO noi??//y na?aae ?ioeo aeeeeeaei ? oaeo aeoaea aeeaieo noia?a/iinoue,
nooue yei? iieyaa? o iacae/aeiiio iineeaii? ?iaeea?aeoae?cio ? aiaeii/an
iaieio/iio iauano? iaeeie/ii? ethaeeie, i?i ui ienaa ua E.THia. O
neeaae? no/aniiai ethaenoaa aaaaoi iieeiooeo oa a?ae/oaeaieo
?iaeea?ae?a, ye? caaaeaee aoaeooue i?aaiooe aei oiai, uia aa?iiiicoaaoe
naaa c iaaeieeoiii na?oii. Oiio oe?eeii iaa?oioiaaiei ? oa, ui ianiaa
ethaeeia ia iiaea ia i?aaiooe aei iaaii? i?oieia?caoe?? na?oo, a ianiaa
eoeueoo?a ia nai?io ??ai? a?aeiia?aea? oeei caieoai. I?e/iio i?oe
ianiai? eoeueoo?e iathoue nai? a?aeiioi? iniaeeaino?. Iaeia c ieo
i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyae? eoeueoo “c??ie”, ui aeiee caaaeyee ?icaeoeo CIE
? iia’ycaiee c ao?aoith oe?iiinieo i???ioaoe?e, aea o?aaeeoe?ei? aa?i? c
?o iaa?ae’?iieie aeinoi?inoaaie ao?aoeee naith i?eaaaeea?noue.

A?aeiii ui a?oaoeie eieaeoeaiiai iana?aeiiiai ia’?eoeaothoueny a
ia?acao i?oieia?? oa ?ae?a??. A i?oieia?? eaea oe?oiaea ia?ac?a, ye?
ia?aoai?ththoueny ia i?ae?ani? /e aeaoeea? neiaiee. Oe? neiaiee ? ii /ei
iioei, ye i?enoinoaaeueiith ?aaeoei?th ethaeeie aei ciai?oiueiai ?,
aieiaia, aei naiai aioo??oiueiai na?oo. Caiaene a?aeiioiith iniaeea?noth
ianiaieoeueoo?ieo oai??a yaey?oueny oa, ui a ieo i?noyoueny aacia?
a?oaoeiia? i?oieiaaie. A oai?ao ianiai? eoeueoo?e, ?ic?aoiaaieo ia
ni?eeiyooy iai?aeaioiaaii? ioae?ee, i?noeoueny aaeeea e?euee?noue
iineeaiue aei i?oieia?? ye oi?aa?naeueii? ? aeaaiuei? nenoaie ia?ac?a,
ye? iiaeii? ca/iiaoe aeaye? aeeaeii?, caaaeuei? aeey an?o oyaeaiiy oa
?aea?, ye? aa?ooue naie ii/aoie a a?oaoeiao.

Oa?aeoa?i? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ianiai? eoeueoo?e a OO noi??//?
aeine?aeaeothoueny a i?ae?icae?e? 2.2. “Ianiaa eoeueoo?a a neooaoe??
iinoiiaea?io”.

Iniiaiiieiaei? i?eioeeie iinoiiaea?i?cio — iaa??a a i?ia?aneaiee
?icaeoie noni?euenoaa ? a iiaeeea?noue ciaeoe ?noeie, ye? aeaee a
ethaeyi ciinoiaeeoo?ai oeiei ? i???ioaoe?? aeey ?o ae?yeueiino?, ia
iiaee ia ni?eyoe iioe?aiith ianiai? eoeueoo?e ? aiaeii/an aecia/eee
inoioi? c?ooaiiy ye o ?icoi?ii? noo? oaiiiaia ianiai? eoeueoo?e, oae ?
iia’ycaii c oeei iaai? ci?ie a ?? oi?iao, oa aieea naii? ianiai?
eoeueoo?e ia no/anio nioe?ieoeueoo?io neooaoe?th.

Iinoiiaea?i?ci ?aaa?e?ooaaa ?, iaa?oue a?eueoa oiai, c?iaea ia’?eoii
nai?? ieeueii? oaaae oa, ui iia’ycaia c aeeoo?aei na?oii na?aaeiuei?
ethaeeie, oei naiei coiiaeaoe iiaecio i?aeoiaeo aei i?iaeai ianiai?
eoeueoo?e, yea ii/aea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye i?iaeaia iaaiiai eooa ci?o ia
ioiiethaaia iath eiei aeeoo?aeo yaeu. ?nioaaiiy ianiai? eoeueoo?e a
neooaoe?? iinoiiaea?io aeicaieeei ?e (ye ? ienoaoeoao a oe?eiio) aeeoe
ca iaae? o?aaeeoe?eieo ? cae/ieo aecia/aiue oa ?nioaaoe o a?eueo oe?ieeo
aeeoo?aeo eiioaenoao. Oae, iai?eeeaae, aeinoathoue noaoon ianiaiai
ienoaoeoaa aeaee ae?yeueiino?, ui ia iio?aaothoue i? ?ioaeaeoo, i?
ooaeiaeiueiai niaeo, yei eeoa ?i?oothoue (ia?iaeothoue) ooaeiaeith
ae?yeuei?noue (ui iiaeia neacaoe i?i a?eueoo /anoeio oai??a iii-a?oo,
??ciiai ?iaeo oaii?iae oa iioi).

Aeieeiaiiy iiaeo neeaaeieo, /anii noia?a/eeaeo i?iaeo?a
aeaiiino?othoue iai ?ai?oa iaa?aeii? iiaeeeaino? ienoaoeoaa ? aiaeii/an
aino?i a?aeia?aaeothoue iaaiaaiaii?noue, ianoaa?euei?noue,
aeaci???ioaoe?th, oain, ye? iathoue i?noea a no/aniiio noni?euenoa?.
Ianiaa eoeueoo?a i?aeoi i?aaia oa?a?aoe a naaa ana ?
?iniianthaeaeo?oueny ooe?, a ia a aeeaeio (ui oe?eeii i?eoaiaiia
ia??iaeo iinoiiaea?i?cio, yeee noaa?aeaeo?, ui eiai na?o – oea na?o
iiaa?oiinoae, a?e /anoeiainoyie).

Oaeiio ?iciianthaeaeaiith ianiai? eoeueoo?e ni?ey? “iaae?aoeciaaiee”
oa?aeoa? no/anii? eoeueoo?e, eio?ee ni?aaey? aaeeeee aieea ia iano
ethaeae, ?o na?aeii?noue, ii?iaeaeoth/e i?e oeueiio iia? i?iaeaie. Iaeia
c ieo iia’ycaia c iaaaoeaiei aieeaii iinoiiaea?i?cio ia
“ethaeeio-iano”, e?aei?e i?iya yeiai iieyaa? a “oioaeueiiio aeooiaiiio
iaia?ao?aaethaaii?” ianiaith ethaeeiith iinoiiaea?i?nonueei? oai?/ino?.
O ca’yceo c oeei c iniaeeaith aino?ioith iinoa? ieoaiiy i?i oa, ui
eoeueoo?a iinoiiaea?i?cio, noaaoe nii/aoeo ?ioaeaeooaeueiith iiaeith,
ia?aoai?th?oueny ia iaaia ?aeaeia oa iaoiaeieia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeey
cania?a ianiai? eiioieeaoe??, ui yaey? niaith caa?ico aeey
“ethaeeie-iane”, ??aaiue yei? aeicaiey? ?e ni?eeiaoe i?iyae
iinoiiaea?i?cio a eoeueoo?? aai ye caiao ia a?oioiai? i?aeaaeeie eiai
aoooy, aai ye ao?eaiiy onaaeicaieaiino?.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe??,
iia’ycai? c ?aaeueieie ianiaieoeueoo?ieie i?ioeanaie, a eiaei?e e?a?i?
iathoue naith niaoeeo?eo. A ??cieo e?a?iao iioe?aiith oa ?icaeoeo
ianiai? eoeueoo?e i?eoaiaii? nai? iniaeeaino?.

Aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ? nooi?ni?o oa?aeoa?enoee iniiaiiai ooaeiaeiueiai
iaoiaeo nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?aae?cio a iao?e eieeoi?e e?a?i? N?N?, ni?eyei
aeyaeaiith ua iaei??? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ianiai? eoeueoo?e a OO
noi??//?, aiae?co yei? i?enay/aiee i?ae?icae?e 2.3. “Ooaeiaeiy eoeueoo?a
nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?aae?cio ye iaeei c i?iya?a ianiai? eoeueoo?e”.
Nioe?aeenoe/iee ?aae?ci ye ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia yaeua ia? aooe i?aaeiaoii
niaoe?aeueiiai aiae?co. Ie caa?oa?iiny aei oeueiai ieoaiiy eeoa c
iaei??th iaoith: i?iaiae?coaaoe oai?e nioe?aeenoe/iiai ?aae?cio a
aniaeo? ianiai? eoeueoo?e.

Iayai?noue ni?eueiinoi i?ae nioe?ae?noe/iei ?aae?ciii ? ianiaith
eoeueoo?ith ? aiaeii/an aeyaeaiiy ?yaeo a?aei?oieo iniaeeainoae,
aeanoeaeo nioe?ae?noe/iiio ?aae?cio, aeicaiey? a?ae??ciyoe ?o c
o?aooaaiiyi ?o caaaeueii? nooi.

Aieiaiith iniaeea?noth nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?aae?cio, yea aecia/eea eiai
niaoeeo?eo, aoei oa, ui a?i i?aee?aneaii aaaaeaa naaa ooee?oa?iei,
?ici?uoth/e an? yaeua aeeooy i?ae iaiaei?iieie ?aeaieia?/ieie eicoiaaie.
Ae?oaa eiai iniaeea?noue iieyaaea o oiio, ui ca aeiaa? ?iee naiai
?nioaaiiy nioe?ae?noe/iee ?aae?ci ooieoe?iioaaa aac o?aooaaiiy ?aaeueieo
niae?a ian, oiaei ye aaaeeeaith oiiaith ?nioaaiiy ianiai? eoeueoo?e ?
i???ioaoe?y ia oe?ieee ianiaee niae, ia eiia?oe?eiee oni?o.

Aiaeii/an aeey nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?aae?cio aoee oa?aeoa?i? oae?
iniiaiiieiaei? i?eioeeie ianiai? eoeueoo?e, ye a?aenooi?noue noeeth a ??
ooaeiaei?o oai?ao, ineieueee ci?no eiaeiiai c ieo iaiaei?iii iaa aooe
aooe aeinooiiei ? c?icoi?eei ianai. sse ? ianiaa eoeueoo?a,
nioe?ae?noe/iee ?aae?ci aeei?enoiaoaaa a nai?o oe?eyo c?acee “aeniei?”
eoeueoo?e, i?aeaeeaethth/enue a?ae ieo.

Ienoaoeoai nioe?ae?noe/iiai ?aae?cio aoei nai???aeiei aniaeoii ianiai?
eoeueoo?e ua e c o??? i?e/ei?, ui aiii ni?eyei oi?ioaaiith ?aaeyinueei?
ianiai? ethaeeie, ai i?aaioei i???iooaaoe aeoiee ? a/eiee ethaeae ia
iaai? noaiaea?oe, noi?iiaai? nioe?ae?noe/iith ?aeaieia??th.

Aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e, iia’ycaieo c ?icaeoeii ianiai? eoeueoo?e a OO
noi??//?, iio?aao? iaoe ia oaac?, ui nueiaiaei? iai?oeeeny iiaenoaae
aeey aeae?eaiiy e ?ioeo oa?aeoa?ieo oaiaeaioe?e, iia’ycaieo c iioe?aiiyi
ianiai? eoeueoo?e.

Aeinoaoith oaaao i?eae?eaii a aeena?oaoe?? noaio ianiai? eoeueoo?e a
no/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoai. Oeueiio ieoaiith i?enay/aiee
i?ae?icae?e 2.4. “Iniaeeaino? ianiai? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?:
aei aiae?co i?iaeaie”. Iioe?aiiy ianiai? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i? ca’ycaia c
oeie naieie i?ioeanaie ianiaecaoe??, ye? aoee ioa?aeoa?eciaai? aeua.
Aiie ? iaeiioeiiaeie aeey anueiai iino?aaeyinueeiai eoeueoo?iiai
i?inoi?o.

Iniaeeaino? ianiai? eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?ii a ?aaeyinueeee ia?iiae aoee
coiiaeai? oaeoii ?? aoiaeaeaiiy a N?N?. Ia ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e a ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae aieeaaea iaioth/a ?aeaieia?y ,
a?aeiia?aeii c yeith aoaeue-yea iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a iaea i?aaa ia
?icaeoie, aea i?e oeueiio iiaeiia aoea iaia’yceiai caeeoaoeny
nioe?ae?noe/iith ca ci?noii, a iaoe?iiaeueiith ca oi?iith. Oaeee
?iciiae?e oi?ie ? ci?noo eoeueoo?e aeoaea iaaaoeaii iicia/eany ia ??
?icaeoeo.

?iciaae N?N?, eaoano?ioa eiioi?noe/ieo ?aeaae?a, e?eoeea
ia?enenonueei-eai?inueei? ?aeaieia?? aeyaeeeny ia?aeaiieie iiiaioaie ye
aeey ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e a oe?eiio, oae ? aeey ieanoa ianiai? eoeueoo?e
cie?aia. Aeeaie? ci?ie a iaioae?oao? i?ecaaee aei iiaeeaeaiiy
i???ioaoe?? ia noa?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?nioaaiiy: ethaee ii/aee
ona?aeiiethaaoe naaa ia o?eueee a noni?eueii-aecia/aiiio noaoon?
(aea?aeaaiiio, ia?o?eiiio, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiio), a ? a n?iaeiiio,
aeiiaoiueiio noaiiaeu?, eieaeueieo ca’yceao, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
a?aeiineiao ? oae ?ioa, aieiaiei /eiii, a ia?aeaieia?ciaaieo
a?aeiineiao.

Ona oea ni?eyei eaaae?caoe?? ianiai? eoeueoo?e. A aaeoc? ooaeiaeiuei?
eoeueoo?e i?aeoe/ii ieoo?ai iioe?eeenue ia?ace o?ea?aeueiiai a?aeai,
e?oa?aoo?e, ae?caeio, noaa?aeaeoth/e aoeeo iniaenoiai oni?oo,
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ae??, a??e a naaa, ui aoei ia oa?aeoa?iei aeey
eieeoiueiai ?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. Aeai? i?ioean? aecia/eee
aaaeeea? ci?ie o a?o/eciyi?e iania?e eoeueoo??.

Oaeei /eiii, ianiaa eoeueoo?a iino?aaeyinueeiai eoeueoo?iiai i?inoi?o
aeaiiino?o? naiai ?iaeo ?eooaee iiaea?i?caoe??, iieacoth/e
iiaeaethaaiiy a?aeiinei, ye? ia o?aieyeenue aei iaaeaaiueiai /ano,
a?aeiinei ia iie?oeciaaiiai noni?euenoaa.

I?iaaaeaiee a aeena?oaoe?? aiae?c iieacaa, ui oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai,
yea i?aaia aei aeaiie?aoecio, ia iiiie?o, ? a?aeiia?aeia oaeiio
noni?euenoao eoeueoo?a ? ??ciiiai?oiith, aaaaoiiiaa?oiaith,
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiith. A oaeiio noni?euenoa? ia iiaea aooe iaioaaiiy
yeiainue iaeiiai oeio eoeueoo?e — ae?oa?ii? /e ianiai?. O eiaeiiai c ieo
? naiy nioe?aeueia oa?eoi??y, na?e “iiaa?o”.

Iaeaooi? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e aaaaoi a /iio aoaea caeaaeaoe a?ae
aea?aeaaii? eoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee a oe?eiio, ? nenoaie aeoiaaiiy ethaeeie
cie?aia.

O aeniiaeo aaoi? iaa?oioiao? aeoieo i?i oa, ui aei ianiai? eoeueoo?e ia
iiaeia noaaeoeny iaeiicia/ii. Oaiiiai ianiai? eoeueoo?e yaey? niaith
aeineoue neeaaeiee, aaaaoi a /iio noia?a/eeaee ieano no/anii? eoeueoo?e.

Aeey ?icaeoeo ianiai? eoeueoo?e a OO noi??//? noai?ththoue ia’?eoeaio
iniiao i?ioeane iianiaeaiiy no/anieo noni?euenoa. Oaea no??iea
ca?eueoaiiy ianooaa?a iioe?aiiy ianiai? eoeueoo?e ? oie niaoeeo?/iee
oa?aeoa?, yeei caaacia/eei ?o oaoiieia?/ia c?iuaiiy c iiaeie CIE,
aeicaieythoue iaa?oue iinoaaeoe ieoaiiy i?i ianiao eoeueoo?o ye i?i iiao
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/io ia?aaeeaio.

Ianiaa eoeueoo?a ia ? a?aeoeeaiiyi a?ae ii?iaeueiiai aoooy eoeueoo?e,
yea iiaei a aooe iiaeieaia ii?aeueieie ? ?ioaeaeooaeueieie coneeeyie.
Iioe?aiiy ianiai? eoeueoo?e — oea ianaiia?aae a?aeaeooy aeooiaiiai noaio
noni?euenoaa, iia’ycaiiai ?c ci?iaie ?noi?e/ii noai?thaaieo
eoeueoo?ii-oe?iiinieo i???ioaoe?e.

A iao /an ianiaa eoeueoo?a caaieiao? aeaaeaei a?eueo oe?ieee
eoeueoo?iee i?ino?? ? ni?inoiao? aeoieo i?i oa, ui aiia ia iiaea
?nioaaoe c aenieith eoeueoo?ith. A ?aaeuei?e ae?eniino? aiie aaea
?niothoue ?acii ? i/aaeaeii aoaeooue ni?a?nioaaoe ? aeae?, noai?thth/e
niaith ?aeeiee i?ioean ooieoe?iioaaiiy no/anii? eoeueoo?e.

A ciaaaiiyo ca ethaeeio ianiaa eoeueoo?a iiee ui /anoi iaea?aeo? aa?o,
ui ua ?ac na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ?? aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoie ia aeiaaeeia?.
Aeiee aoaeooue ethaee iane — aoaea ? ianiaa eoeueoo?a. Oaeei /eiii, an?
ni?iae caai?iieoe aai iiaeieaoe ianiao eoeueoo?o ? ia?aaeueieie, iaeiae
coneeey ci?ieoe ?? ? iie?auaoe caeeoathoueny oe?eeii aeooaeueieie ?
?aaeueieie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a :

1.Ianniaay eoeueoo?a: e aiaeeco i?iaeaiu //A?niee OAeO. Eiioeaioe?y
oe?einiino?. I?iaeaia aeooiaiino? a eoeueoo?? ? iaooe?.- Oa?e?a, 1996.-?
385/2. – N.42-47.

2.Ianniaay eoeueoo?a a eiioaenoa iinoiiaea?iecia // A?niee OAeO.
O?einio?y ? eoeueoo?a. – Oa?e?a, 1997-98.- ? 397. – N.85-90.

3.Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay eoeueoo?a nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ?aaeecia eae iaeii ec
i?iyaeaiee ianniaie eoeueoo?u // A/ai? caienee Oa?e?anueeiai
aoiai?oa?iiai ?inoeoooo “Ia?iaeia oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y”.- O.4. –
Oa?eia, 1998. – N.146-151.

4.Ianniaay eoeueoo?a eae iiaay enoi?e/aneay ia?aaeeaia? (E iinoaiiaea
i?iaeaiu)// A?niee OAeO. O?einio?y ? eoeueoo?a .– Oa?e?a, 1997-98. -?
397.– N.58-59.

5.Nia?aiaiiua iiaeoiaeu e i?iaeaia ianniaie eoeueoo?u // A?niee OAeO.
Eiioeaioe?y oe?e?niino?. I?iaeaia aeooiaiino? a eoeueoo?? ? iaooe?. –
Oa?e?a, 1996. -? 385/1. — N.52-56.

A I I O A Oe ? ?

I?uaiei I.Ae. Ianiaa eoeueoo?a ye i?aaeiao o?einionueeiai aiae?co. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.04 — o?einionueea aio?iiieia?y ?
o?einio?y eoeueoo?e. — Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao. — Oa?e?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia oai?aoe/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith oaiiiaio ianiai?
eoeueoo?e oa ?? noa’?eoa — “ethaeeie-iane” a OO noi??//?.
I?aee?aneth?oueny aeooaeuei?noue caaaeaiiy ia’?eoeaiiai ? anaa?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiai neeaaeiiai, noia?a/eeaiai, aaaaoianiaeoiiai yaeua,
ye ianiaa eoeueoo?a, ui i?aaenoaaey? aaaeeeaee ieano no/anii? eoeueoo?e,
cia/iith ii?ith aecia/a? ?? iei?oi?e noai ? ia?niaeoeae.

Ianiaa eoeueoo?a iino?eii iioe?th?oueny. A c’ayceo c oeei iniaeeaa oaaaa
a ?iaio? i?eae?ey?oueny i?iaeaiai, ca’ycaiei c ?aaeueieie i?ioeanaie
?icaeoeo ianiai? eoeueoo?e a no/anieo noni?euenoaao. Aeinoaoiy oaaaa
i?eae?eaia ye aecia/aiith aaaeeeaeo oaiaeaioe?e, ui i?inoaaeothoueny a
iania?e eoeueoo?? i?ioyaii OO noi??//y, oae ? aiae?co ianiai? eoeueoo?e
a ?aaeyinueeiio ? iino?aaeyinueeiio eoeueoo?iiio i?inoi??, cie?aia a
Oe?a?i?. Iaoa aaoi?a iieyaaea a ?ice?eoo? nooiino? ianiai? eoeueoo?e ye
iiai? eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? ia?aaeeaie no/aniino? ? aiaeii/an iniaeeaiai
ieanoo eoeueoo?e OO noi??//y oa iieac? iaaeiaaeeiaiai oa?aeoa?o
oi?ioaaiiy ianiai? eoeueoo?e ? i?e/ei c?inoaiiy ?? ?ie? a no/ani?e
eoeueoo??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?ioean iianiaeaiiy, ianiaa eoeueoo?a,
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ia ia?aaeeaia, ianiaa na?aeii?noue, “ethaeeia-iana”,
i?oe ianiai? eoeueoo?e.

Ieuaiei I.Ae. Ianniaay eoeueoo?a eae i?aaeiao oeeinioneiai aiaeeca. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.04. — oeeinioneay aio?iiieiaey e oeeinioey
eoeueoo?u. — Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao.- Oa?ueeia,
1999.Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oai?aoe/aneiio enneaaeiaaieth oaiiiaia
ianniaie eoeueoo?u a OO aaea. I?iaaaeaiiue a ?aaioa aiaeec iieacuaaao,
/oi a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey i?iecioae /?acau/aeii aaaeiue naeaea a
eoeueoo?a a ?acoeueoaoa i?ioeannia iianniaeaiey. A niioaaonoaee n yoei
ianniaoth eoeueoo?o neaaeoao o?aeoiaaoue ia eae i?aiaeieeiue iaeeie
ii?aeueii-eioaeeaeooaeueiuie oneeeyie iaaeoa eoeueoo?u ia oiia
“ii?iaeueiiai auoey” eoeueoo?u, a eae iiaoth anaiauaiethuoth
eoeueoo?ioth ?aaeueiinoue, oi?ie?othuoth nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea e aai
ie?.

E ia/aeo OO aaea aeey Aa?iiu e Aia?eee noaiiaeony ana aieaa i/aaeaeiie
aeoeaecaoeey “on?aaeiaiiiai” /aeiaaea. Eiaiii yoei ?ani?ino?aiythueiny
oeiii “/aeiaaeii-iannu”, ioi?aaaoeiny io eoeueoo?iie ii/au
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iauanoaa, e auea aucaaia e aeecie ianniaay eoeueoo?a.

Ianniaay eoeueoo?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiaue a nioeeieoeueoo?iie
i?aeoeea, i?eioeeieaeueii aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue noaiaea?oecaoeee
nenoaiu ia?acoeia nioeeaeueiie aaeaeaaoiinoe e i?anoeaeiinoe, iiaoth
oi?io i?aaiecaoeee “eoeueoo?iie eiiiaoaioiinoe” nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea.

Noieue no?aieoaeueiia oaaee/aiea ianooaaia ?ani?ino?aiaiey ianniaie
eoeueoo?u e oio niaoeeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, eioi?ui iaania/eei eo
oaoiieiae/aneia n?auaiea n iiauie n?aaenoaaie ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, a
iieiie ia?a iicaieyao ?anniao?eaaoue ianniaoth eoeueoo?o eae
iaiouaieaiue ieano eoeueoo?u OO aaea. I?e/ai naii nouanoaiaaiea yoiai
ieanoa a iuiaoiae eoeueoo?a ia aeaeaao aa aieaa eee iaiaa i?ia?anneaiie,
aeoeaio ia?aiineony ia aeoaeiioth cia/eiinoue ianniaieoeueoo?iuo
i?ioeannia.

Ianniaay eoeueoo?a — yaeaiea auno?i aeaeieciaiythuaany, iiyoiio a
aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeoaony oe?ieee e?oa aii?inia, naycaiiuo n ?aaeueiuie
i?ioeannaie ?acaeoey ianniaie eoeueoo?u a nia?aiaiiuo iauanoaao. Oae,
iai?eia?, auee auyaeaiu iaeioi?ua aaaeiua oaiaeaioeee, i?enouea
?acaeoeth ianniaie eoeueoo?u a OO aaea.

A iuiaoiai noieaoee iniai io/aoeeai i?iyaeeanue oaiaeaioeey, naycaiiay n
ia?auaieai ethaeae e ieoieiaee, /oi iauyniyaony aeoai/aeoeie
i?ioeai?a/eyie, ii?iaeaeaiiuie OO aaeii. Ieano ianniaie eoeueoo?u oaeaea
o/anoaoao a yoii i?ioeanna, nicaeaaay ieou ia naiai o?iaia. Ieou
ianniaie eoeueoo?u a ecaanoiie noaiaie iiiiaatho “/aeiaaeo-ianna”
aa?iooue oo?a/aiioth naiieaeaioeoeeaoeeth e iuouaiea oeaeinoiinoe.

Ae?oaie oa?aeoa?iie oaiaeaioeeae ?acaeoey ianniaie eoeueoo?u a OO aaea
yaeyaony aa nouanoaiaaiea a neooaoeee iinoiiaea?ia. I?aaei?eiyoay
iiiuoea aiaeeca ianniaie eoeueoo?u a neooaoeee iinoiiaea?iecia,
iicaieyao oaeaeaoue neiaeiinoue ninoiyiey eoeueoo?u ia nia?aiaiiii
yoaia, ooi/ieoue eciaiaiey, i?ienoaaeoea a eoeueoo?a a ?anniio?aiiii
iaie aniaeoa e aeoaaea iiiyoue i?iaeaiu, ia?aae eioi?uie noieo naaiaeiy
aeooiaiia ?acaeoea iauanoaa.

Iaoa?eaeu enneaaeiaaiey iicaieytho ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi iauea oaiaeaioeee,
naycaiiua n ?acaeoeai ianniaie eoeueoo?u, a eaaeaeie no?aia eiatho naith
niaoeeoeeo.

Enneaaeiaaiea iniaaiiinoae e nouiinoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iniiaiiai
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai iaoiaea nioeeaeenoe/aneie eoeueoo?u – iaoiaea
nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ?aaeecia a iaoae auaoae no?aia aeaei aiciiaeiinoue
auyaeoue aua iaeio oa?aeoa?ioth oaiaeaioeeth ianniaie eoeueoo?u a OO
aaea. Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi eneonnoai nioeeaeenoe/aneiai ?aaeecia
aunooiaao eae iaeei ec aniaeoia ianniaie eoeueoo?u. Iaee/ea iaueo
nouiinoiuo /a?o nioe?aaeecia n ianniaie eoeueoo?ie e aianoa n oai
auyaeaiea ?yaea ioee/eoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae, i?enoueo nioe?aaeenoe/aneie
eoeueoo?a, iicaieyao ?acee/aoue eo , o/eouaay eo iauoth nooue.

A ?aaioa i?iaiaeece?iaai aii?in i ninoiyiee ianniaie eoeueoo?u, a
iniiaiii ia iaoa?eaea aa ooaeiaeanoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, a iinoniaaoneii
eoeueoo?iii i?ino?ainoaa, a /anoiinoe a Oe?aeia.

?anniio?aiiua a aeenna?oaoeee aii?inu, naycaiiua n nouiinoiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e iniiaiuie oaiaeaioeeyie ?acaeoey ianniaie eoeueoo?u a
OO aaea, n iaecaaaeiinoueth noaayo aii?in i oii, eae a aeaeueiaeoai
neiaeeony ninouanoaiaaiea ieanoia aunieie e ianniaie eoeueoo?u. A ?aaioa
iainiiauaaaony auaiae i oii, /oi ai iiiaii ioaao ia yoio aii?in aoaeao
caaenaoue io eoeueoo?iie iieeoeee, i?iaiaeeiie nia?aiaiiuie
ainoaea?noaaie. Aa oeaeueth aeieaeia auoue, ai-ia?auo, ananoi?iiiyy
iiaeaea?aeea e ?acaeoea aeooiaiiai iioaioeeaea iaoeee — ioa/anoaaiiie
eioaeeeaaioeee, niinianoaothuae ?acaeoeth aunieie eoeueoo?u, ai-aoi?uo,
niaeaenoaea oi?ie?iaaieth a iauanoaa oaeeo nioeeaeueiuo neiaa, eioi?uie
anaaaea aue au aino?aaiaai ieano “aunieie” eoeueoo?u.Eeth/aaua neiaa:
i?ioeann iianniaeaiey, ianniaay eoeueoo?a, eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneay
ia?aaeeaia, ianniaia niciaiea, “/aeiaae-ianna”, ieou ianniaie eoeueoo?u.

Mishchenko N.D. Mass culture as a subject of philosophical analysis.
-Manuscript.

The dissertation competing for the Candidate degree in
Philosophy, speciality 09.00.04. – Philosophical anthropology and
philosophy of culture.

Kharkiv State University. Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation is a theoretical study of the phenomenon of the OOth
century mass culture. The work emphasises the topicality of objective
and thorough research in the complex, contradictory and multi-aspect
phenomenon of mass culture, which is an important layer of modern
culture and determines its present state and prospects.

Mass culture is constantly spreading. Therefore much prominence has
been given to issues associated with factual processes of the
development of mass culture in modern societies. Certain important
tendencies in mass culture that have appeared in the OOth century, as
well as the analysis of mass culture in the Soviet and post-Soviet
cultural space, including Ukraine, have been considered.

The author’s aim was to show mass culture as a new cultural and
historical paradigm of modern times and a specific layer of modern
culture, as well as to show the natural character of the formation of
mass culture and the causes for growth of its importance in the OOth
century culture.

Key words: massification process, mass culture, cultural and historical
paradigm, mass consciousness, mass-man, myths of mass culture.

A?aeiia?aeaeueia ca aeione A.N.Noa?iaieo

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 99?.

Oi?iao 60 o 84 1/16 Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0

Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

Iaae?oeiaaii RISO Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoa.

Oa?e?a, 310077, ie. Naiaiaee, 4.

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