IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO ?AY?IIAEUeIEO AeINE?AeAEAIUe

OAeE 339.5

Oo?aee/ei Ethaia ?aaai?aia

Ia?eaoeia o ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i?e

ae?yeueiino? oa eiai aoaeoeai?noue

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 08.06.02 – I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? ?a??iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?e?iueeee Iao?i
THoeiiae/, ?inoeooo ?a??iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oi/ee?i A?eoi?
Ieaenaiae?iae/, ?inoeooo aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo;

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iie?e Aiaoie?e ?aaiiae/,
Euea?anueea eiia?oe?eia aeaaeai?y, aeioeaio eaoaae?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo
I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e i?aeia?iaeieo aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.35.154.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe a ?inoeooo? ?a??iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

290026, i. Euea?a, aoe. Eicaeueieoeueea,
4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
?a??iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “28” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe A.?. AEiaoaiaoeueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeth?oueny aaaeeea?noth
ia?eaoeiao, ye oai??? ? i?aeoeee i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?,
iniiai? i?eioeeie oa oaoi?/i? caniae yeiai i?noyoue caaaeueiicia/ei?
canaaee ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ieaiii??iiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy, a eiai
canoinoaaiiy aeiiiiaaa? aeieaoe iaaaoeai? yaeua noeo?eiiai iaoai?cio
?eieo, ni?ey? aoaeoeaiiio ooieoe?iioaaiith i?aei?e?inoa oa caaeiaieaiith
iio?aa iieoioe?a.

Iaaaeueia iio?aaa a ia?eaoeiao iineeeeanue ia no/aniiio aoai? e?eciaiai
noaio oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee, eiee iaa?oue aeey i?aoethth/eo
i?aei?e?inoa aieiaiei iaiaaeoaa/ai c?inoaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa noaa
iaaeinoaoi?e ieaoini?iiiaeiee iiieo iieoioe?a.

Ae?oaith, ia iaio aaaeeeaith i?e/eiith ? ?icoe?aiiy iiey ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei. sseui a ieaiia?e oeaio?ae?ciaai?e aeiiii?oe? o noa?o
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, aenii?oii–?iii?oieo iia?aoe?e ?ai?oa
aoee aeiiouai? o?eueee aea?aeaai? ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeuei? ia’?aeiaiiy, oi
oaia? oe??th ae?yeuei?noth caeia?oueny aaeeea e?euee?noue th?eaee/ieo ?
o?ce/ieo in?a, ye? ciooai? ia i?aeoeoe? a?aoiaoaaoe aei?noe? caeiie
eiieo?aioe?? oa i?aeia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiao.

Aeo?ae c e?ece, ?aoi?ie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? eiai iaeaooi?
aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy iiaeeea? eeoa ca oiia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa
ocaiaeaeaiiy cania?a ia?eaoeiao oa iaiaaeaeiaioo aeey iiai?oi?
?aae?caoe?? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a aea?aeaae, oi/iiai a?aooaaiiy
iio?aa o aeioneo i?iaeoeoe?? aeey aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei?
?aae?caoe??, ocaiaeaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae aenii?oo e iio?aa ?iii?oo,
ia?aaeaa/eaoe aeione eiieo?aioini?iiiaeii? i?iaeoeoe??, iineeaiiy aieeao
ia i?aeia?iaeiee iiae?e i?aoe?, ia i?aeia?iaeio niaoe?ae?caoe?th oa
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?th ae?iaieoeoaa ?, a?aeiia?aeii, i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? (CAAe).

Oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie
aena?oethaaeenue o i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo.

?acii c oei, ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaiai na?aaeiaeua
ii?iaeaeo? ieceo iiaeo ? iaaeine?aeaeaieo i?iaeai, o o./. iia’ycaieo ?c
iiooeii oi?i aaeaioaoe?? ? iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ia?eaoeiao o CAAe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y iia’ycaia c aeine?aeaeaiiyie ii aea?aeathaeaeaoi?e oai?
3.1.9.2 “No?aoaa?y eiiieaeniiai ?icaeoeo nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy o
i?e?iaeiiii?/ieo ia’?eoao a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee”
i?ae?icae?e “Iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo”
(? 0194V03048 aea?ae?a?no?aoe??).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aoee aeei?enoai? o ?ic?iaeao ii
iaoeiai–aeine?aeieo oaiao “?io?ano?oeoo?ia caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaii?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? NAC o i?eei?aeiiieo ?aa?iiao” (AAe ? 7 a?ae 10.02.97
?. c I?i?noa?noaii aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie) oa “Ia?niaeoeae
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? I?ie?nainio Oe?a?ie a oiiaao
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo””(AAe ? 3–97 a?ae 02.04.1997 ?. c I?ie?nainiii
Oe?a?ie).

Iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iieyaa? o oai?aoeei–iaoiaeieia?/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ia?eaoeiao o CAAe a i?ioean? ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie oa ?ic?iaoe? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ? oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaiaith ae?yeuei?noth ia
i?aei?e?inoaao.

Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe coiiaeei iinoaiiaeo ? ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

· i?iaaaeaiiy nenoaiiiai aiae?co iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e uiaei aaiethoe??
oa no/anieo iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?eaoeiao;

· aecia/aiiy ?ie? i?aeia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiao ye i?aenenoaie caaaeueiiai
ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiiieaeno a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? oa aoaeoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy CAAe;

· aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e oa aeyaeaiiy noeoiiino? oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia
aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue i?aeia?iaeieo oaiae;

· aea/aiiy ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo c ieoaiue ia?eaoeiaiaiai oi?aae?iiy oa
ioe?iea iiaeeeainoae eiai aeei?enoaiiy aeey a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa;

· iiaeeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii oi?ioaaiith ?ioi?iaoe?eii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?;

· ?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii iioeiaeuei?e i?aai?caoe??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo neoaea;

· ?ice?eooy noo? aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo oa oeyo?a eiai ia?iuoaaiiy ca
?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??.

I?aaeiao, ia’?eo ? iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oai?aoe/i? ? i?eeeaaei? aniaeoe no/aniiai ia?eaoeiao,
ye oi?ie ?eieiai? eiioeaioe?? oi?aae?iiy on?ia a?aeoai?thaaeueieie
i?ioeanaie a aeiiii?oe?, aeeth/ath/e CAAe. Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy –
i?aei?e?inoaa oa ia’?aeiaiiy ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?, cie?aia, iaeani?
aea?aeaai? e?niainiiaea?nuee? ia’?aeiaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/io ? iaoiaee/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue no/ani?
oai??? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, nenoaiiee ? i?ia?aiii–oe?eueiaee i?aeoiaee,
ioae?eaoe?? a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo c ieoaiue ia?eaoeiao oa
oi?aae?iiy CAAe i?aei?e?inoa ? ia’?aeiaiue.

O ?iaio? aeei?enoai? caeiie oa caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee, ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?,
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e:

· aeyaeaii oa?aeoa?i? iciaee oa iniaeeaino? aieeao no/aniiai ia?eaoeiao
ia ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee, ui ie?aneththoue eiai
?iiiaaoe?eiee, no?aoaa?/iee oa i?aeia?iaeiee oa?aeoa?;

· aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? ia?eaoeiaiaiai oi?aae?iiy a Oe?a?i? oa
iaa?oioiaaii ?o aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ie?aieo eaiie
aeiiii?ee, cie?aia CAAe, c a?aooaaiiyi oaeoi??a ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo;

· iaa?oioiaaii, c a?aooaaiiyi ?aa?iiaeueieo aniaeo?a, aeioe?euei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiao a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy
oi?aae?inueei? no?aoaa?? caaaeueiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno oa eiai
ie?aii? eaiee – noa?e CAAe;

· ?ice?eoi nooue aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo (AI) oa ie?aneaii iniiai? oeyoe
eiai ia?iuoaaiiy ia i?aenoaa? aeei?enoaiiy no?aoaa?? aenii?oiiai
ia?eaoeiao;

· aecia/aii oaeoi?e aieeao ia aoaeoeai?noue aenii?oii–?iii?oieo
iia?aoe?e oa cai?iiiiiaai? iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeuei? eiia?iaoe?? aaciaeo
oiia iinoaaie i?iaeoeoe?? i?aei?e?inoaaie;

· ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy
ia?eaoeiaiaith ae?yeuei?noth ia i?aei?e?inoaao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a canoinoaaii?
cai?iiiiiaaieo ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?aeoiae?a oa no?aoaa?e a oi?aae?ii?
ainiiaea?nueeeie i?ioeanaie ia an?o ??aiyo ? a a?eueoino? noa?, aea
cae?enith?oueny CAAe, ca?aeii c nioe?aeueii–aeiiii?/ieie oa iie?oe/ieie
oiiaaie a aea?aeaa?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui
?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee uiaei
iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ia?eaoeiao oa
iaiaaeaeiaioo o CAAe ia i?aei?e?inoaao ? o ?aa?iiaeueiiio aniaeo?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. On? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, aeeeaaeai? a
aeena?oaoe??, io?eiai? aaoi?ii iniaenoi. C iaoeiaeo i?aoeue,
iioae?eiaaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?, a ?iaio? aeei?enoai? eeoa o? ?aea? ?
iieiaeaiiy, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii iniaenoi? i?aoe? caeiaoaa/a. Eiie?aoiee
aianie caeiaoaa/a a oe? i?aoe? aeacaiee a aaoi?aoa?ao? a ia?ae?eo
iniiaieo ioae?eaoe?e ii oai? aeena?oaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao a ?inoeooo? ?aa?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, ia i?aeia?iaeieo, caaaeueiioe?a?inueeeo ?
iaeanieo iaoeiai–i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, aaeocaaeo ? iaeanieo
ia?aaeao.

?ic?iaeai? ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiue iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei
i?aai?caoe?? ? oi?aae?iith ia?eaoeiaiaith ae?yeuei?noth ia i?aei?e?inoa?
i?eeiyo? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a IAeEAI Aea?aeeiie?nainio.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 5 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue caaaeueiei ianyaii 3,5 ae.a., a oiio /ene? iniaenoi aaoi?o
iaeaaeeoue 2,2 ae.a.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 3
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (13 iaeiaioaaiue),
aeiaeaoe?a caaaeueiei ianyaii noi??iie iaoeiiieno, aeeth/ath/e
?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?icae?e 1. Ia?eaoeia oa eiai ?ieue o nenoai? iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Ia?eaoeia, ye aeae eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, a?aeiiee c ii/aoeo OO no.
Aoaie eiai ianooiiiai ?icaeoeo noaiiaeee: ae?iaie/ee,
oiaa?ii–ooieoe?iiaeueiee, ?iciiae?eue/i–caooiaee ?, ia?aoo?, no/aniee
ia?eaoeia ye eiioeaioe?y oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/i–eiia?oe?eiith
ae?yeuei?noth o??ie, i???ioiaaia ia caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa iieoioe?a
(niiaeeaa/?a).

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, no/aniiio ia?eaoeiao aeanoeaee ?yae iniaeeainoae:

– “?ioaa?iaaia” ?ena i???ioaoe?? ia i?iaeoeo ? niiaeeaa/a iaeii/anii;
–“?iiiaaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?”, yeee i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iia?
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei? oiaa?e oa oaoiieia??; – “no?aoaa?/i?noue”, yea
a?aeaeaa?oueny o aeiaaino?ieiaeo i?ia?aiao ae?? o??i, ? iaeaaaeeea?oa –
“i?aeia?iaeiee oa?aeoa?”, yeee oi?io? ? nea?iao? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/io
ae?yeuei?noue (CAAe) o??i.

?icii/aoee ?aoi?iaie 90-o ?ie?a ?icaeoie ia?eaoeiao a Oe?a?i?
aaeueio?oueny ?yaeii oaeoi??a, oa?aeoa?ieo iao?e aeiiii?oe?:
ianoi?iiaai?noue ?io?ano?oeoo?e oiaa?ieo ?eie?a, iai?ioan?iiae?ci
niaoe?ae?no?a, ye? i?aoeththoue a noa?ao ia?eaoeiao, oi?aae?iiy ?
eiio?ieth, ao?o/aiiy i?aai?a aeaaee o i?ioeane ooieoe?iioaaiiy
eieaeueieo ?eie?a, aenie? o?ainii?oi? oa?eoe.

Ca oaeeo oiia iiaeeeai ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe i?aei?e?ioeyi aeiaeoe /?oeo
ia?eaoeiaiao no?aoaa?th iiaaae?iee.

Aaaaea?ii, ui c aaaaoueio a?aeiieo ia na?oiaiio ?eieo no?aoaa?e a iaoeo
oiiaao i?eeiyoi?: neeiaa no?aoaa?y (aeey o??i, ye? ae?thoue a noa??
aaeeeiai noaiaea?oiiai ae?iaieoeoaa), i?oaaa no?aoaa?y (ia?aaeaa/a?
aeaioiaeaiiy iniaeeai?, iao?aaeeoe?eii? i?iaeoeoe?? aeey aocueeiai eiea
niiaeeaa/?a), i?iia?nueea no?aoaa?y, iia’ycaia ?c noai?aiiyi iiaeo aai
?aaeeeaeueiei ia?aoai?aiiyi noa?eo naaiaio?a ?eieo.

Caoaaaeeii, ui cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?oaai? no?aoaa?? aeanoue a?o/eciyiei
ae?iaieeai oain aenoiyoe a aei?noe?e eiieo?aioi?e ai?iouea? c
i?ia?aeieie eiiiai?yie ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo, aea aiie ciiaee a
oo?eioaaoe iaaeinooii? aeey inoaii?o noa?e ae?yeueiino?.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c na?ae/eoue, ui iao? oiaa?iae?iaieee iaiaaeothoueny
caooii i?iaeoeoe?? ia i?noeaaeo ?eieao, aea eaaoa aiae?coaaoe
eii’thieoo?o ? iaio? o?ainii?oi? aeo?aoe, ? aeei?enoiaothoue i?e
oeueiio, c iaeyaeo ia nooe?eueii iecueeee ??aaiue aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy,
ia?aaaaeii oe?iiao eiieo?aioio no?aoaa?th.

Aea inoaiiy aei?aaaeiao? naaa eeoa ca oiiae aaeeeeo ianya?a
ae?iaieoeoaa, ye? iiee ui iacae?eniaii? a oiiaao e?ece oe?a?inueei?
aeiiii?ee. Oiio aaaaea?ii aeioe?eueiei ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeiiiaieoe oe?iiao
eiieo?aioio no?aoaa?th no?aoaa??th iiooeo “aeaniiai iieoioey” ?
oi?ioaaoe oe?ie o a?aeiia?aeiino? c eiai ieaoini?iiiaei?noth. I?e
oeueiio caoo iiaeiai cae?enithaaoeny /a?ac aeanio oi?aiaaeueio ia?aaeo.

Oa iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei oeyoii iaaoooy ? ianooiiiai canai?iiy iiaeo
?eie?a a?o/eciyieie o??iaie, ia iaoo aeoieo, ? CAAe o??i, caaaeueia
eiioeaioe?y yei? iiaeiia aecia/aoeny eiie?aoieie caoiaeaie anueiai
ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiiieaeno ?, a ia?oo /a?ao, i?aeia?iaeiei ia?eaoeiaii.

Ca eiai aeiiiiiaith iiaeiia aooe ?ic?iaeaia i?aeia?iaeia ia?eaoeiaiaa
no?aoaa?y, iniiao yei? iiaeii? neeaaeaoe ianooii? no?aoaa?/i? ??oaiiy:
aeioe?euei?noue aeoiaeo ia ciai?oi?e ?eiie; aecia/aiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo
?eie?a oa aea?? e?a?ie; iniiai? iaoiaee cae?eniaiiy CAAe
(aenii?oii–?iii?oi? iia?aoe??, ii?ooaeuei? aai i?yi? ?iaanoeoe??);
no?aoaa?y aeoiaeo ia ?eiie (aenii?o, ni?eueia i?aei?e?iieoeoai,
?iaanoeoe??); oi?ioaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ia?ai.

Oey no?aoaa?y ia eeoa eii?aeeio? aca?iiae?th an?o ?ano?n?a o??ie uiaei
ianooiii? oe?eueiai? ?aae?caoe??, aea e, ui aaaeeeai a iaoeo oiiaao,
aaeaioo? o??io aei ?aioiaeo ci?i a ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?.

Ooieoe?? ia?eaoeiaiai? neoaeae i?e oeueiio iieyaathoue a ieaioaaii? ?
?ic?iaoe? aenii?oiiai ani?oeiaioo oa oi?aae?iiy iei, i?iaaaeaii?
noaiaea?oecaoe?? ? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? aenii?oiiai oiaa?o, ?ic?iaoe?
oe?eueiai? iie?oeee a nenoai? aenii?oiiai ia?eaoeiao.

Na?aae aaaaoueio ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, ye? ?aaeaiaioothoue CAAe,
oe?a?inuee? i?aei?e?ioe?, ca?aeii c Oeacii I?aceaeaioa a?ae 4.O.1994 ?.
? 567/94, iiaeii? aeei?enoiaoaaoe I?aaeea ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? eiia?oe?eieo
oa?i?i?a. Ca?aeii c oeeie I?aaeeaie, noa’?eoe i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? iiaeooue nei?enoaoeny iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei c 13 oa?i?i?a
“?ieioa?in–90”, ui ca?oiiaai? a /ioe?e aaceni? eaoaai???: a?oia “A”
(a?aei?aaeaiiy); a?oia “F” (iniiaiee o?aoo ia iiea/aii); a?oia “N”
(iniiaiee o?aoo niea/aii); a?oia “Ae” (i?eaoooy).

O aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae, yeee aeicaiey? ei?aaoaaoe ieoio
aa?o?noue a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia iinoaaee i?e aenii?o? oiaa??a c
Oe?a?ie oa ?iii?o? oiaa??a a Oe?a?io, oiaoi /?oei aecia/eoe o eiaei?e
eiie?aoi?e ?iii?oii-aenii?oi?e iia?aoe??, yea ?c noi??i ca ui ? eiee
iiaeiia ieaoeoe (oaae. 1, oaae. 2).

Oaae.1

Aecia/aiiy ieoii? aa?oino? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia iinoaaee i?e ?iii?o?
oiaa??a a Oe?a?io

Aaceni? oiiae Oiaeiaea Iaaaioaaeaiiy ia o?ainii?oiee can?a Aeiaaaeaiiy
aei iniiaiiai ia?aa?cieea Aea?cia ieoi No?aooaaiiy ia?aaacaiiy
Iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ini. o?ainii?o Iieaoa ini. o?ainii?oo ?icaaioaaeaiiy
?iii?oia ieoi Aeiaacaiiy a?ae ini. o?ainii?oo ?icaaioaaeaiiy ia neeaae?
i?aei?e?inoaa

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

EXV ( + +

+ + +

FSA ( ( +

+ + +

FAS ( ( ( ( –

+

FOB ( ( ( ( –

(

CFR ( ( ( ( –

( ( –

CIF ( ( ( ( – ( ( ( –

CPT ( ( ( ( –

( (

CIP ( ( ( ( – ( ( (

DAF ( ( ( ( – ( ( (

DES ( ( ( ( – ( ( ( –

DEQ ( ( ( ( – ( ( ( – ( – ( –

DEV ( ( ( ( – ( ( ( ( –

DDP ( ( ( ( – ( ( ( ( – ( – ( – ( –

1. A?aoe 2–8 a?aoiaothoue aeo?aoe, ye? iaee i?noea aei ia?aoeio ieoiiai
ei?aeiio Oe?a?ie.

2. A?aoe 9–12 a?aoiaothoue aeo?aoe ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

3. Aeo?aoe ia no?aooaaiiy ia?aaacaiiy ? iieaoo iniiaiiai o?ainii?oo
a?aoiaothoueny c iiiaioo ia?aoeio ieoiiai ei?aeiio Oe?a?ie.

4. ( – aeo?aoe, ui aoiaeyoue o oe?io oiaa?o ca?aeii “?ieioa?in–90”

+ – i?e aecia/aii? ieoii? aa?oino? aeo?aoe aeiaeathoueny iacaeaaeii
a?ae oiai, ooi ?o iiea/o?.

6. – – i?e aecia/aii? ieoii? aa?oino? aeo?aoe a?aei?iathoueny
iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, ooi ?o iiea/o?.

A?aeiia?aeii aei ci?noo aacenieo oiia, a?eueo?noue i?aeia?iaeieo oaiae o
na?o? oeeaaeathoueny ia oiiaao, ca?aeii c yeeie ciaia’ycaiiy ii
o?ainii?ooaaiith ?iciiae?eythoueny i?ae noi?iiaie. A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao
noi?iia iiaea aeinyaoe aeiiii??, a?aeiia?aeath/e ca iiaia
o?ainii?ooaaiiy, yeui a?aei?aaiee aaioaaeo aciic? ia’?aeiaoe an? iayai?
o?ainii?oi? caniae (a?eueoa i?ae iaeei) a caaaeueiee eiio?aeo ia
ia?aaacaiiy.

Oaae.2

Aecia/aiiy ieoii? aa?oino? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia iinoaaee i?e aenii?o?
oiaa??a a Oe?a?io

Aaceni? oiiae Oiaeiaea Iaaaioaaeaiiy ia o?ainii?oiee can?a Aeiaaaeaiiy
aei iniiaiiai ia?aa?cieea Aea?cia ieoi No?aooaaiiy ia?aaacaiiy
Iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ini. o?ainii?o Iieaoa ini. o?ainii?oo ?icaaioaaeaiiy
?iii?oia ieoi Aeiaacaiiy a?ae ini. o?ainii?oo ?icaaioaaeaiiy ia neeaae?
i?aei?e?inoaa

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

EXV ( + +

+ + +

FSA ( ( +

+ + +

FAS ( ( ( ( + + +

FOB ( ( ( ( + ( +

CFR ( ( ( (

( (

CIF ( ( ( ( ( ( (

CPT ( ( ( (

( (

CIP ( ( ( ( ( ( (

DAF ( ( ( ( ( ( (

DES ( ( ( ( ( ( (

DEQ ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( – ( –

DEV ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( –

DDP ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( – ( – ( – ( –

1. A?aoe 2–8 a?aoiaothoue aeo?aoe, ye? iaee i?noea ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie.

2. A?aoe 9–12 a?aoiaothoue aeo?aoe, ye? iaee i?noea ia oa?eoi???
e?a?ie–?iii?oa?a.

3. Aeo?aoe ia no?aooaaiiy ia?aaacaiiy ? iieaoo iniiaiiai o?ainii?oo
a?aoiaothoueny c iiiaioo ia?aoeio ieoiiai ei?aeiio Oe?a?ie.

4. ( – aeo?aoe, ui aoiaeyoue o oe?io oiaa?o ca?aeii “?ieioa?in–90”

+ – i?e aecia/aii? ieoii? aa?oino? aeo?aoe aeiaeathoueny iacaeaaeii a?ae
oiai, ooi ?o iiea/o?.

6. – – i?e aecia/aii? ieoii? aa?oino? aeo?aoe a?aei?iathoueny
iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, ooi ?o iiea/o?.

Caaaeueiiaecia/aiee ii?yaeie canoinoaaiiy o eiio?aeoao oi?aiaaeueieo
oa?i?i?a iiaea ci?ithaaoenue a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?aeoiae?a, ui aeciai? a
ie?ai?e aea?aeaa?, cie?aia, a Oe?a?i? a?aenooi? eiia?iiaai? ia?aaacaiiy;
oa?i?i “DAF” (iinoaaea o?aiei-ei?aeii) ia ?aeiiaiaeiaaii canoiniaoaaoe
i?e o?ainii?ooaaii? ii aiae? oa iia?o?yiiio o?ainii?ooaaii?.

Oaaeeoe? iai/ii iieacothoue, ui aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue
aenii?oii-?iii?oieo iia?aoe?e iiai?noth caeaaeeoue a?ae i?aaeeueii
ia?aieo o?ainii?oieo ? aacenieo oiia iinoaaee oiaa??a, a oea a naith
/a?ao aieeaa? ia e?ioeaao oe?io oiaa?o ? aoaeoeai?noue CAAe oe?a?inueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa. A?aoiaoth/e, ui oaeee i?aeo?ae aeoeaii ni?ey? i?inoaaiith
oa cae??ieaiith oiaa??a ia ?eieao ?ioeo e?a?i, a?i iiaeiai noaoe
aoaeoeaiei ?ino?oiaioii i?aeia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiao.

?icae?e 2. I???ioaoe?y nenoai oi?aae?iiy ia i?aeia?iaeiee ia?eaoeia

Eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiinei o nenoai? “i?iaiicoaaiiy –
ae?iaieoeoai – niiaeeaaiiy” aea? i?aenoaae uiaei aeniiaeo i?i ia?eaoeia,
ye ?aeeii? eiioeaioe?? oi?aae?iiy, iaiaaeaea?nueeee iaoiae i?eeiyooy
??oaiue. Ia?ao?ae ia ia?eaoeiaiaa oi?aae?iiy cia/ii iineeth? ieaiii??io
i?aai?caoe?th ae?yeueiino? o??ie, aeaiaeeoue ?? ca aioo??oiueio??iia?
?aiee.

A?aecia/eii, ui ?icaeoie no/aniiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai oi?aae?iiy nie?a?oueny
ia nie?aeio iaoeiao oa ?ioi?iaoe?eio aaco ? aeinooiiee a onueiio
eiiieaen? eeoa aaeeeei ei?ii?aoe?yi. Iaeee oa na?aaei?e a?cian, ye
i?aaeei, aeei?enoiaothoue iaeiie/aio OIE ?ioi?iaoe?th.

Na?aae i?e/ei, ui niiioeaee iaiao?aei?noue ia?aoiaeo ia no/anio
ia?eaoeiaiao eiioeaioe?th oi?aae?iiy, aaaeeea?oith ? aei?noea
caeaaei?noue oaeaeei iiiaethaaiiai a oiiaao IO? no/aniiai ae?iaieoeoaa
a?ae oni?oo i?ioeano ?aae?caoe?? iiainoai?aii? i?iaeoeoe??. Iiieo noaa
ia eeoa aeeiai?/iei, aea e ?iaeea?aeoae?ciaaiei, a a?aeiia?aei? naaiaioe
?eieo – aocuee? oa aaaaoi/enaeuei?.

A?aeiia?aeii, aenieee nooi?iue niaoe?ae?caoe?? ie?aieo o??i aeiaaa?
ocaiaeaeaiino? ?o ae?yeueiino? a nenoai? ca’yce?a ?eieo, i?eaeecii
iaeiaeiaeo ??ai?a ?icaeoeo oeeo ainiiaea?thth/eo ??ai?a ?icaeoeo oeeo
ainiiaea?thth/eo noa’?eo?a. C iaeyaeo ia oea aeaui ci?iaiith
eiioeaioe??th ia?eaoeiaiaiai oi?aae?iiy aeaeyaea? oae caaiee
“network–i?aeo?ae”, ca yeei eiaeia eiie?aoia o??ia – oea noa’?eo
ainiiaea?nueeeo ca’yce?a, ia?oia? o nenoai? aca?iiae?th/eo ia ?eieo
i?aai?caoe?e.

Aca?iicaeaaei?noue noa’?eo?a, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaeei ?c aecia/aeueieo
oaeoi??a oeueiai i?aeoiaeo. Ca oaeeo iiceoe?e, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
CAAe ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? no?aoaa?/ii? iaoe ie?aii? o??ie iioe?th?oueny
ia an?o o/aniee?a ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei: ICAC?O, ieoi? i?aaie,
o?ainii?oio aaeocue.

?ieue ? ci?no ia?eaoeiaiaiai eiiieaeno, cie?aia i?aeia?iaeiiai
ia?eaoeiao, iieyaaoeia o aeeiiaii? ooieoe?? ocaiaeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
??cieo i?aai?caoe?e ? a?aeiinoa o nenoai? (ia?aae?) ?o aca?iiae??, a nai
ia?eaoeia ia?aoai?eoueny ia eiioeaioe?th oi?aae?iiy an??th ia?aaeath.

Aaaaea?ii, ui aoaeoeai?noue no?aoaa?? oi?aae?iiy aecia/athoue
noeoii?noue ia?aiao??a ??oaiiy aecia/aiiy a ? ?icae?e? no?aoaa?e, ui
caaeiaieueiythoue eiie?aoiiai niiaeeaa/a (i?oo ?eieo, ie?aiee ?eiie) ?
aa?aioothoue ?aaeuei?noue ?o ?aae?caoe??.

Na?aae aecia/aeueieo oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia aoaeoeai?noue
oi?aae?iiy CAAe, – i?aeia?iaeia ?ioaa?aoe?y, iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a
e?a?i?, nioe?aeueii–aeaiia?ao?/i? oa i?e?iaeii–ee?iaoe/i? iniaeeaino?
?aa?iio, iayai?noue ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, oaoi?/iee ??aaiue noa’?eoa
ainiiaea?thaaiiy aai aaeoc?, a?aeiinii yei? oi?io?oueny oi?aae?inueea
no?aoaa?y.

Aoaeoeai?noue CAAe aecia/athoue aenii?oia niaoe?ae?caoe?y ? ia’?ie
aenii?oo ie?aieo i?aei?e?inoa ? aaeocae ?aa?ii?a. Cie?aia, ca ia??iae
1992–1997 ??. ianya ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueiiai iai?ioo Euea?anueei? iae.
c??n a?eueo ye a 2 ?ace ? ca ?acoeueoaoaie 1997 ?. noaiiaea 712,7 iei.
aeie. NOA i?e aenii?o? oiaa??a ia noio 259,5 iei. aeie. NOA oa ?iii?o? –
453,2 iei. aeie. NOA. Iaeaaiaeaeai? ae?eia? noinoiee a?eueo ye c 100
e?a?iaie na?oo. A aaia?ao?/i?e no?oeoo?? aenii?oo ia?aaaaeathoue
iia?aoe?? c ?in??th – 34% a?ae caaaeueiiai ianyao aenii?oo, A?ei?onnth –
13%, O?I – 12%, ?oae??th – 6%, Iieueuath – 5% oa I?aea?eaiaeaie – 3%.
Oeueiio ni?eyei noai?aiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a a ie?aieo
i?aei?e?inoaao ? o??iao ? ?o ni?iae aeei?enoaoe ia?eaoeia ye
eiioeaioe?th oi?aae?iiy CAAe. O aeena?oaoe?? noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui ? nai
i?ioean noai?aiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo no?oeoo? ia i?aei?e?inoaao ? ni?iae oeeo
iiaiooai?aiue aieeaaoe ia iie?ioaiiy aeiiii?/iiai noaio ainiiaea?thth/eo
noa’?eo?a aeathoue iiee ui iecueeo a?aeaea/o. Iaea?eueo iioe?aia aaaea
ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a – oeaiee iai?yiie ae?yeueiino?, aeoaethaaiiy
caooiaeo ooieoe?e. Naia oiio, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi
caeeoa?oueny i?aai?caoe?y ? oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaiaith ae?yeuei?noth ia
i?aei?e?inoaao ? ?? nea?oaaiiy ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? CAAe.

?icae?e 3. Ia?iuoaaiiy aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo ? i?aai?caoe?y
ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?.

Na?aae aaaaoueio i?iaeai, c yeeie c?oeioeeny oe?a?inuee? ae?iaieee a
oiiaao ?eieo, iaeaino??oith aeyaeeany aei?noea eiieo?aioe?y, ui ye
iaaaeaaaiiee eaeioniaee iai??aoeue a?aeia?aceea iecueeo
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue ia eeoa eiie?aoieo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a, aea e
??aaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aea?aeaae. Iaeia ?c
aaaeeeaeo oa?aeoa?enoee inoaiiuei? – iiceoe?? oa ia’?i oe?a?inueeiai
aenii?oo a ie?aieo aaeocyo iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee.

Nie?ath/enue ia aecia/aiiy Anana?oiueiai aeiiii?/iiai Oi?oio, aaoi?
i?iiiio? a?aeianoe aei oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue e?a?ie, aeeiai?ci aeiiii?ee, aoaeoeai?noue
i?iieneiaino?, nooi?iue ?eieiai? i???ioaoe??, aeeiai?ci o?iainiai?
nenoaie, ethaenuee? ?ano?ne, i?e?iaei? aaaaonoaa, ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/io
oa ?iaanoeoe?eio i???ioaoe?th, nioe?aeueii–iie?oe/io noaa?euei?noue.
Iayaiee noai aenii?oii–?iii?oieo iia?aoe?e a Oe?a?i? aea? i?aenoaae
eiinoaooaaoe ?o iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue, aea e niiioeathoue aei iiooeo
eiie?aoieo eiieo?aioieo no?aoaa?e uiaei ?eieo.

Iae?ath/e eiieo?aioio no?aoaa?th, iaiao?aeii aecia/eoenue ?c no?oeoo?ith
aaeoc?, oiaoi ?? iniiaieie aeiiii?/ieie oa oaoi?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?
iiceoe??th, yeo o??ia (ainiiaea?thth/ee noa’?eo) caeia? o iaaeao aaeoc?.
Iiceoe?y o??ie a aaeoc? – oea ?? i?aeo?ae o oe?eiio aei eiieo?aioe??, a
ia eeoa ?? i?iaeoeoe?y, aai oa, ia eiai aiia ?ic?aoiaaia. Iiceoe?th
o??ie a aaeoc? aecia/athoue eiieo?aioi? ia?aaaae – iecuee? aeo?aoe ?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y oiaa??a.

Ae?oaa aaaeeeaa ci?ia, ui aecia/a? iiceoe?? o??ie a aaeoc? – noa?a
eiieo?aioe??, aai oe?ioa iaoe, ia yeo i???ioo?oueny o??ia o iaaeao nai??
aaeoc? – ne?eueee ??ciiaeae?a oiaa??a aeaioiaeyoe, yeeie eaiaeaie caooo
ei?enooaaoeny, yea eiei iieoioe?a ianeoaiaoaaoe, ia yeeo ?eieao
?aae?coaaoe i?iaeoeoe?th. I?e oeueiio ia ia?eoeny aac i?ioan?eii
?ic?iaeaii? ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??, yea a iiaeaethaaea aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieo oiaa?ieo ?eie?a, ?oiueiai ianyao, oa?aeoa?ieo
?en oa iniaeeainoae, aiae?c ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae, iayaieo ?
a?aenooi?o oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa. I?aee?aneeii, ui eeoa iiaia
aeinoia??ia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ianoaiiaeo ia eiie?aoiiio ?eieo (/e eiai
ie?aieo naaiaioao), aaethoiee ?ecee, iiaeeeaino? aeaacaiiy eai?oaeo,
caoenoo ?ioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniino?, iniaeeaino? o?yaeiai? iie?oeee o
noa?? oi?a?ae?, ??aaiue iiaeaoe?a ? oe?i, caaaeueiee noai
?io?ano?oeoo?e, iio??aii? aeey aenii?oii–?iii?oieo iia?aoe?e, yeith
iiaeii? aieiae?oe oe?a?inuee? aenii?oa?e, ia eeoa iaaeanoue iiooiao
CAAe, aea e nooo?ai aieeia ia ?? aoaeoeai?noue. I?aai?caoe?y cae?aiiy
oaei? ?ioi?iaoe?? c ?? ianooiiei aiae?cii ? ae?iaeaiiyi eiiieaeno
ia?eaoeiaiaeo caoiae?a noaiiaeoue iniiai? ooieoe?? neoaeae ia?eaoeiao ia
i?aei?e?inoa?.

O aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
i?aai?caoe?? ? oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aei?e?inoa?.
I?e oeueiio, /e ia iaeaaaeeea?oa a oeueiio i?ioean? – oea i?aea??
e?euee?niiai oa eaae?o?eiaaiiai neeaaeo eaae??a a?aeiia?aeii aei eiaeii?
ooieoe??, anoaiiaeaiiy ?o ?aeoeiao ca aaaeeea?noth aeey aeoea?caoe??
ae?yeueiino? oi?aaeyth/i? ? o???, ui oi?aaey?oueny, nenoai oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaii, ?aaeaiaioaoe?y ?o i?aa ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? a
ianoaa?eueieo ?eieiaeo oiiaao: a ianoaiiaoe? e?eciaeo yaeu, iineeaiiy
aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? eiieo?aioe?? oiui. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
iaoiaeeea ?ic?iaee iieiaeaiiy i?i neoaeao ia?eaoeiao ao?eth? naia
eiiieaeniee ia?eaoeiaiaee i?aeo?ae aei oi?ioaaiiy oa aiae?co aeiia ye
aei oiaa?o, oae ? ?eieo eiai ?aae?caoe?? (eiea niiaeeaa/?a).

Cie?aia, aiae?c ? i?iaiic ?eieo iiaea neeaaeaoeny c: aiae?co i?iaiico
eii’thieoo?e ?eieo; aiae?co eiieo?aio?a; aiae?co ? i?iaiico ?icaeoeo
no?oeoo?e ?eieo; aiae?co ? i?iaiico i?noeino? ?eieo; aiae?co
niiaeeaa/?a; aiae?co oe?i.

Aiae?c aeiia aei niiaeea/eo yeinoae oiaa??a iiaea aeeth/aoe: aiae?c
aieeao iaoeiai–oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano ia i?iaeoeoe?th, ui aeionea?oueny;
aea/aiiy iiaeeeainoae ci?i oaoi?/iiai ??aiy; a?aeiia?aei?noue iieaciee?a
yeino? aeiiaai niiaeeaa/?a a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo (o aeiaaeeo
aenii?oo oiaa?o); aecia/aiiy eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? oiaa?o ia ??cieo
?eieao; ieoaiiy iaoaioiiai caoenoo.

Cai?iiiiiaai? oi?ioethaaiiy ieoaiue neooaoe?eiiai aiae?co aeei?enoaii? o
a?aeiia?aei?e ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e iiaeae? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
(?en.1), aeicaieythoue i?eeiyoe iioeiaeuei? ??oaiiy a i?ioean? ?ic?iaee
? ?aae?caoe?? ia?eaoeiaiaeo i?ia?ai.

Noai?aiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao neoaea ia?eaoeiao aa?aioo? i?aeaeuaiiy
ianya?a ?aae?caoe?? oiaa??a oeyoii oi?ioaaiiy iiieoo ? noeioethaaiiy
caooo, aeyaeaiiy iiaeo eiia?oe?eieo, o oiio /ene? ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo
ca’yce?a, iiaeaeueo? i?aeo?eiea ? ?icaeoie yeeo i?ecaaaeooue aei
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? CAAe.

Aeniiaee

1. ?aeeiiai aecia/aiiy, caaaeueiii?eeiyoiai iiiyooy ia?eaoeiao oai??y ?
i?aeoeea ua ia ae?iaeea. ?acii c oei, ci?noiaia eiai /anoeia, yea
iieyaa? o ceeoo? ae?iaieoeoaa ? caooo a ?aeeiiio oaoiieia?/iiio,
aeiiii?/iiio ? nioe?aeueiiio i?ioean? iiaea aooe aeanoeaa an?i oi?iai
ia?eaoeiao. No/aniee ia?eaoeia io?eiaa iaea?eueo oe?ieiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy o oi?i? ?eieiai? eiioeaioe?? oi?aae?iiy,
i?eioeeiiaith a?aei?ii?noth yei? ? ii?aeiaiiy caaaeaieo aeua i?ioean?a,
i???ioaoe?y on?o aeae?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? aeoeaiino? ia caaeiaieaiiy
iio?aa iieoioe?a (niiaeeaa/?a).

Iaea?eueo ia?aaeiaei eiiiai?yi i?eoaiaiia cae?eniaiiy oae caaiiai
?ioaa?iaaiiai ia?eaoeiao, i???ioiaaiiai ye ia i?iaeoeo, oae ? ia
niiaeeaa/a. Aei oa?aeoa?ieo iciae no/aniiai ia?eaoeiao iiaeia a?aeianoe
eiai ?iiiaaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?, oiaoi ni?yiiaai?noue ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iiaeo i?iaeoeo?a ? oaoiieia?e (“?iiiaaoe?ei?noue”); c?inoaiiy
oe?eani?yiiaaiino? oa iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy ??oaiue, ui i?eeiathoueny
(“no?aoaa?/i?noue”); i?aeia?iaeia i???ioaoe?y, oiaoi i?aeiaoe?iiaeueia
iaiaa?oaaiiy i?e cae?eniaii? ae?iaie/eo oa caooiaeo iia?aoe?e
(“aeiaaeuei?noue”). Ia?eaoeia ca nai?th i?e?iaeith ? aeai?noei: c
iaeiiai aieo a?i aenooia? ye ooieoe?y oi?aae?iiy (aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo,
oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? ? iie?oeee o??ie ? o.i.), a c ae?oaiai – ye nooi
iniaeeaee aeae ae?yeueiino? (caoo, na?a?n, ?aeeaia).

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaiai oi?aae?iiy a Oe?a?i?, ia a?oio? yei?
aiii ?iaeoue ia?o? e?iee, iieaco? ?yae eiai iniaeeainoae o ii??aiyii? c
ii?iaoeaiith cao?aeiith iiaeaeeth. Na?aae oaeeo iniaeeainoae: aaeeea
e?euee?noue ci?iieo oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai a?aeiinii o??ie na?aaeiaeua,
caoaeaiiy ai?eciioo no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy (caoo i?iaeoeoe?? ia
?aa?iiaeueieo ?eieao, a?aenooi?noue a a?eueoino? o??i i?aeia?iaeiiai
ia?eaoeiao), iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaeyoe a?eueoa aeueoa?iaoeaieo aa??aio?a
no?aoaa?/ieo ieai?a ?icaeoeo o??ie; /ano?oa ei?aaoaaoe oe?e? oa
no?aoaa?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiai? neooaoe??.

Ia eieaeueieo (?aa?iiaeueieo, iaoe?iiaeueieo) oe?a?inueeeo ?eieao iao?
oiaa?iae?iaieee c on?o a?aeiieo no?aoaa?e aeei?enoiaothoue, aieiaiei
/eiii, oe?iiao eiieo?aioio no?aoaa?th, yea caiaeeoueny aei aiae?co oe?i
ia ?aeaioe/i? oiaa?e oa ioe?iee aeioiae?a iino?eieo oa iioaioe?eieo
niiaeeaa/?a. Oeth no?aoaa?th aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe a oiiaao e?ece
a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee, iecueei? ieaoini?iiiaeiino? a?eueoino?
niiaeeaa/?a, yeui aeiiiaieoe ?? no?aoaa??th iiooeo “aeaniiai iieoioey”,
ca?aeii c yeith oi?ioaaiiy oe?ie a?aeaoaa?oueny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
??aiai aeioiae?a oeueiai iieoioey. ?acii c oei, aei?a/i? no?aoaa??
iaenei?caoe?? i?eaooeo ca ?aooiie eiioeaio?aoe?? ia aeioneo oiaa??a, ye?
ei?enoothoueny iaea?eueoei iiieoii c iaeii/aniei cai?oaiiyi ?ioi?
ae?yeueiino?; ci?ia i?io?eth ae?yeueiino? ? aeione ye?nii? i?iaeoeoe?? a
oe?ieiio ani?oeiaio?.

O aaeeeeo o??iao, ye? cae?eniththoue ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/io ae?yeuei?noue,
ea??aieeai i?aei?e?inoaa iiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe noi?nieoeoai ae?iaie/i?
ae?yeueiino? c ooieoe?yie “oi?aa?naeueiiai iaiaaeaea?a”, ui aeeth/athoue
? iaia’ycee ia?eaoieiaa.

Aeoiaey/e c no/anieo oai??e ia?eaoeiaiai? eiioeaioe?? oi?aae?iiy,
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? CAAe ? caaaeaiiyi ia o?eueee oeaio?aeueieo
i?aai?a aeaaee, aea e an??? ia?aae?, yea neeaaea?oueny, e??i caaaeaieo
i?aai?a, ?c o??i ??cieo aaeocae, o?ainii?oo, ieoieo i?aai?a,
?aa?iiaeueieo i?aai?a aeaaee, eiinaeoeiaiaeo oa iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
onoaiia.

3. C ia?aoiaeii aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee aeieea? iio?aaa o ?icoe?aii?
i?aeaioiaee eaae??a ia?eaoieia?a. Aeioe?eueii aeeth/eoe ia?eaoeia aei
i?ia?ai on?o oi?i i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee eaae??a, a oaeiae
i?aeaeuaiiy ?o eaae?o?eaoe??. Iaiao?aeii ?ic?iaeyoe iaea?eueo aoaeoeai?
noaie ia?eaoeiaiaeo neoaea ia i?aei?e?inoaao. Oea aeanoue ciiao
ia?ai???ioaoe?? ieneaiiy ae?iaiee?a a?ae nooi oaoiieia?/ieo eaoaai??e
aei eaoaai??e ?eieo, iiieoo, ye? i???ioothoue aeione i?iaeoeoe?? ia
aeiiae niiaeeaa/?a. Nie?ath/enue ia nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei i?eeiyooy
??oaiue, ia?eaoeiaiao no?aoaa?th oi?aae?iiy ? a?aoiaoth/e aieea oiia, ui
caaacia/othoue ?o ye?noue ? eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue, iiaeia iae?aneeoe
noaio i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? CAAe i?aei?e?inoa, ui a aeena?oaoe??
iieacaii ia i?eeeaae? e?niai? aaeoc?.

4. C aiae?co aeieeaa? iaiao?aei?noue ii?aeiaiiy a ?aa?ii?
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? oa aioo??oiuei? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.
Ainiiaea?nueeee iaoai?ci oaei? ae?yeueiino? iiaeiai aacoaaoeny ia
i?eioeeiao aea?aaeaioiiai iai?io ?c na?oiaei ainiiaea?noaii ? ?aooith
oe?a?inueeiai ?eieo.

Canoiniaoth/e aei oi?aae?iiy CAAe i?aeia?iaeiee ia?eaoeia, ?aa?ii
(Euea?anueea iaeanoue) a noai? ia ao?aoeoe aeinyaiooeo ianya?a,
?ic?iaeoe ia?niaeoeaio no?aoaa?th aenii?oo–?iii?oo, aeoeaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe no/ani? iaoiaee ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.
?acii c oei, iaiao?aeii aianoe iaai? ci?ie oa aeiiiaiaiiy aei ?yaeo
caeii?a ? ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a uiaei CAAe, o o./. o ?aa?iiaeueiiio
aniaeo?. Iaeiei ?c oaeeo aniaeo?a ? iioe?aiiy i?eaaoecaoe?eiiai
ia?eaoeiao.

I?aeia?iaeiee ia?eaoeia yaey? niaith aaaeeeao oiiao anoaiiaeaiiy
ae?th/iai cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo i?ae iiieoii ? i?iiiceoe??th a
i?aeia?iaeiiio ianooaa?, ? nai???aeiei aa?aioii oiai, ui i?iaeoeoe?y
a?o/eciyieo ae?iaiee?a ciaeaea aoaeoeaiee oeyo aei e?ioeaaiai niiaeeaa/a
ca ei?aeiiii. I?aeia?iaeia ia?eaoeiaiaa ae?yeuei?noue c iaeiiai aieo
o?nii iia’ycaia c ?eieiaeie a?aeiineiaie, a c ae?oaiai, ia a?aei?io a?ae
?ioeo aeae?a ia?eaoeiao, ? nooo?aith neeaaeiaith nenoaie
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ? a oeueiio aniaeo? aaciina?aaeiuei
caeaaeeoue a?ae oi?i aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

5. Aoaeoeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiao iaiiaeeeaa aac
aeinoia??ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeiiii?ee, aeiiii?ee ?? ?aa?ii?a oa ainiiaea?thth/eo noa’?eo?a.

Aei oaeoi??a, ye? aecia/athoue eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue e?a?ie,
a?aeiinyoueny aeeiai?ci aeiiii?ee, aoaeoeai?noue i?iieneiaino?, nooi?iue
?eieiai? i???ioaoe??, aeeiai?ci o?iainiai? nenoai?, ethaenuee? ?ano?ne,
nooi?iue aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia o??ie, i?e?iaei? aaaaonoaa,
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ia oa ?iaanoeoe?eia i???ioaoe?y, nioe?aeueii–iie?oe/ia
noaa?euei?noue. Oe? ae oaeoi?e, aea a o?ainoi?iiaaiiio aeaeyae?, iiaeia
a?aeianoe ? aei ?ioeo ia’?eo?a.

Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie a eiioaeno? ?? eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? o aeaiee /an
ciaoiaeeoueny ia iecueeiio ??ai?. ?acii c oei, iai?oeeenue aeaye?
iiceoeai? c?ooaiiy a aenii?oii–?iii?oieo iia?aoe?yo. Aeoiaey/e c ioe?iee
??aiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ?ic?iaey?oueny no?aoaa?y ia?eaoeiao
ia’?eoa.

6. Aaaaoi a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa, ye? iaiaaathoueny i?iaiaeeoe
ia?eaoeiaiao iie?oeeo, iiee ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao oe???
?iaioe. Oiio ?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei i?aai?caoe?? ?
oi?aae?iiy ia?eaoeiaiaith ae?yeuei?noth, i?aeaioiaee a?aeiia?aeieo
eaae??a ? iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueiith.

Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? a?aecia/athoueny eiiieaeniei
i?aeoiaeii aei iaa?oiooaaiiy noai?aiiy neoaeae ia?eaoeiao, iniia
i?iaeooaaiiy oaei? neoaeae, iaoiaeeee ?ic?iaee iieiaeaiiy i?i neoaeao
ia?eaoeiao, i?aeaioiaee eaae??a ia?eaoieia?a. Aeei?enoaiiy
cai?iiiiiaaieo i?aeoiae?a ? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ia
i?aei?e?inoaao, cie?aia e?niai? aaeoc?, iieacaei ?o aenieo
aoaeoeai?noue.

7. Ia?eaoeia ia?aaeaa/a? aio/e?noue i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i oi?aae?iiy,
aeoeaio i?aei?e?ieea?noue, iino?eiee iiooe oeyo?a aoaeoeaiiai aieeao ia
?eiie niiaeeaa/a. Oiio aeey ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?e ia?eaoeiao
iaeaaaeeea?oa cia/aiiy ia? ?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy ia?eaoeiaiai?
ae?yeueiino?. I?ae ?ioi?iaoe?eiei caaacia/aiiyi (?ioi?iaoe?eiith
nenoaiith) ia?eaoeiao ne?ae ?icoi?oe a?aeiia?aeii i?aai?ciaaiee
nenoaiaoe/iee ? nenoaiaoeciaaiee ca??, ia?iaeo ? aiae?c ?ioi?iaoe?? ye
i?i nai ?eiie, oae ? i?i an? oaeoi?e, ui aecia/athoue eiai aeeiai?eo ?
no?oeoo?o, iiaeeeaino? ? oiiae ae?iaieoeoaa. O ca’yceo c i?aeaeuaiiyi
?ie? aeine?aeaeaiue a iaeano? ia?eaoeiao c?inoathoue ? aeiiae aei
ianya?a, yeino? ? oe?eani?yiiaaiino? ?ioi?iaoe??.

sse iieacothoue aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui ?nio? ia i?aei?e?inoaao,
a aaeocaaeo ? ?a??iiaeueieo i?aaiao, ia caaeiaieueiy? iio?aaai
aoaeoeaiiai ia?eaoeiao i? ca ianyaaie, i? ca ?? ye?noth. Cai?iiiiiaaia
nenoaiaoecaoe?y ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iiaeaeae ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
noaia iiaeeeaiai aeei?enoaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? oe?e?nia
eiioeaioe?y nenoaie ia?eaoeiaiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeathoue ciiao i?aeaeueoe
aoaeoeai?noue ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa ye ia aioo??oi?o,
oae ? ia ciai?oi?o ?eieao.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai?

a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Oo?aee/ei E.?. Ieoaiiy i???ioaoe?? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ia iaoiaee
i?aeia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiao // ?aa?iiaeueia iie?oeea Oe?a?ie: iaoeia?
iniiae, iaoiaee, iaoai?cie: Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue / A 3-o /. – Euea?a: ??Ae
IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. – N. 306–307.

2. Eie?nie/aiei I.A., Oo?aee/ei E.?. I?iaeaie ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii?
no?aoaa?? oa oi?aae?iiy CAAe // ?aa?iiaeueia iie?oeea Oe?a?ie: iaoeia?
iniiae, iaoiaee, iaoai?cie: Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue / A 3-o /. – Euea?a: ??Ae
IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. – N.303–305.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: aecia/aii ?ieue i?aeia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiao a
i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? oa aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy CAAe.

3. Oo?aee/ei E. Ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue ? ia?eaoeia //
Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae: Ui??/iee
iaoe.i?. Aei.??. – Euea?a: ??Ae IAI Oe?a?ie, 1997. – N.199–203.

4. Caoea?eiaia ?., Eiieethe I., Oo?aee/ei E. I?aai?caoe?y ? oi?aae?iiy
ia?eaoeiaiaith ae?yeuei?noth ia i?aei?e?inoa? (iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??). – IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo ?a??iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. –
Euea?a, 1998. – 34 n.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a: oeiiaa iaoiaeeea ?ic?iaee iieiaeaiiy i?i
neoaeao ia?eaoeiao.

Oo?aee/ei E.?. Ia?eaoeia o ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i?e ae?yeueiino? oa eiai
aoaeoeai?noue. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.02 – I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa
ia?eaoeia. – ?inoeooo ?aa?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, Euea?a,
1998. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ia?eaoeiao o ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/i?e ae?yeueiino? (CAAe) o i?ioean?
o?ainoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?. Ia iniia? aiae?co
iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e aaiethoe?? oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy no/aniiai ia?eaoeiao,
a oaeiae aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae ia?eaoeiaiaiai oi?aae?iiy, o
aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaiee eiiieaen iaoiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c
aeei?enoaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiao o i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy
oi?aae?inueei? no?aoaa?? ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a o noa?? CAAe,
aecia/ai? oeyoe ia?iuoaaiiy aenii?oiiai iioaioe?aeo. Cai?iiiiiaaia
iaoiaeeea aoaeoeaii? i?aai?caoe?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo neoaea
ia i?aei?e?inoa?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?eaoeia, eiieo?aioe?y, aenii?oiee iioaioe?ae,
no?aoaa?y oi?aae?iiy, iaiaaeaeiaio, ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue.

Oo?aee/ei E.A. Ia?eaoeia ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e aai
yooaeoeaiinoue. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.02 – I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iaiaaeaeiaio e
ia?eaoeia. – Einoeooo ?aaeiiaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eueaia,
1998. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
ia?eaoeiaa ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe (AYAe) a i?ioeanna
o?ainoi?iaoeee yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a Oe?aeia. Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca
iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee yaiethoeee e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nia?aiaiiiai
ia?eaoeiaa, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeaiey iniaaiiinoae ia?eaoeiaiaiai
oi?aaeaiey, a aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioai eiiieaen iaoiaeia e
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eniieueciaaieth iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ia?eaoeiaa a
i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey oi?aaeai/aneie no?aoaaee oicyenoaaiiuo eiiieaenia
a noa?a AYAe, ii?aaeaeaiu iooe ia?aueaaiey yenii?oiiai iioaioeeaea.
I?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea yooaeoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
ia?eaoeiaiauo neoaea ia i?aaei?eyoee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?eaoeia, eiieo?aioeey, yenii?oiue iioaioeeae,
no?aoaaey oi?aaeaiey, iaiaaeaeiaio, aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue.

Furdychko L.Ye. Marketing in foreign trade activities and its
efficiency. — Manuscript.

The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate
of economic sciences on a speciality 08.06.02 — Enterpreneueship,
management and marketing. — Institute of regional researches NAS of
Ukraine, Lviv, 1998. The dissertation is devoted to questions of
increase of efficiency of marketing in foreign trade activities (FTA)
during transformation of the economic relations in Ukraine. On the basis
of the analysis of the basic tendencies of evolution and functioning of
modern marketing, and also definition of features of marketing
management, in the dissertation the complex of methods and
recommendations for use of the international marketing is developed
during formation of administrative strategy of economic complexes in
sphere FTA, the ways of escalating of an export potential are
determined. The technique of effective organization of functioning of
marketing services at the enterprise is offered.

Key words: marketing, competition, export potential, strategy of
management, management, foreign trade activities.

PAGE 17

Neooaoe?ei? oaeoi?e

Ia?eaoeia –mix

?en. 1. Noaia ?ioi?iaoe?eii? iiaeae? ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.

A?aeiia?aeia iiaaae?iea niiaeeaa/?a

I??a aeeiiaiiy (i??a ?aae?caoe??)

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