IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO A?OAIEIA??

OAEIIAIOeAA-OA?NUeEEE Nayoineaa Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 904:711.424 (477.82)

E o / a n ue e

X-XV no.

?noi?e/i? iaoee — 07.00.04. — a?oaieia?y

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

E e ? a — 1 9 9 9

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? aeaaiuei?onueei? oa na?aaeiueia?/ii?
a?oaieia?? ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

EO*A?A Ieoaeei
Iao?iae/,

?inoeooo
a?oaieia?? IAIO,

i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee-

eiinoeueoaio

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

?AAE?I Ae?a
TH??eiae/,

?inoeooo
a?oaieia?? IAIO,

i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

eaiaeeaeao
?noi?e/ieo iaoe

I?EUAIA Aiaaeai
Aiaoie?eiae/,

??aiainueeee
?inoeooo

ceia’yiiciaanoaa

Ee?anueeiai
?inoeoooo

“Neia’yinueeee
oi?aa?neoao”,

coa?oee aeeeaaea/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao

?i.?aaia O?aiea,
eaoaae?a a?oaieia??,

aioe/iino? ?
na?aaeiueia?//y

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «_27__»ea?oiy 1999 ?. i ___14:00__ aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.234.01 aeey caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
i?e ?inoeooo? a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

254655, Ee?a-210, i?-o Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea,12.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, i?-o.Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaea,12).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «_18__» aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
A.I.Iao?aoaiei

1

C A A A E Ue I A O A ? A E O A ? E N O E E A ? I A I O E

Iaoeiaa aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. No/aniee Eooeuee —
na?aaeiueia?/iee Eo/anuee — iaeaaeeoue aei iaeaecia/i?oeo noa?iaeaai?o
i?no Oe?a?ie. Ca /an?a Ee?anueei? ?on? Eo/anuee aoa oeaio?ii
eiyc?anoaa, aieiaiei i?noii No?aeii? Aieei?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aaaaoueio
aeaaiuei?onueeeo i?no, ye? c? ci?iith iie?-oe/ii? ianoaiiaee, aiane?aeie
Aaoe?aiai iaoanoy, i?eeoee a caiono?iiy /e ia?aoai?eeenue o naea,
Eo/anuee i?iaeiaaeoaaa ?icaeaaoenue ye aaeeea i?noi, aaaeeeaee
aeiiii?/iee ? eoeueoo?iee oeaio? Oe?a?ie.

Aea/aiiy aeaaiueiai Eo/anueea noaiiaeoue aaaiiee aianie a
?ic?iaeo i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo i?no aeiae
oaiaeae?cio ? ? aeooaeueiei aeey aena?oeaiiy ?noi??? Aieei?.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie Eo/anueea i?ioyaii X-XV no.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?? — aeine?aeeoe iaoa??aeueio eoeueoo?o,
?noi?e/io oiii-a?ao?th, aeiiii?/iee oa nioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie Eo/anueea,
iieacaoe eiai ?ieue o na?aaeiueia?/i?e ?noi??? Aieei? oa Oe?a?ie.
Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

a) aeeeanoe iie?oe/io ?noi??th Eo/anueea;

a) iieacaoe oa?eoi??aeueii-i?inoi?iaee ?icaeoie Eo/anueea ?
ioa?aeoa-?ecoaaoe eiai nioe?aeueii-oiiia?ao?/io no?oeoo?o;

a) iiaeaoe a?aeiiino? i?i iiioiaioaeueia aoae?aieoeoai, c’ynoaaoe
oeiiei-a?th aeeoae oa ainiiaea?nueeeo nii?oae, aecia/eoe ?o o?iiieia?/i?
iniaeeain-o?;

a) ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue aeeoae?a i?noa,
a?enueeiao ni?aao, eeaneo?eoaaoe a?oaieia?/iee iaoa??ae, aecia/eoe eiai
o?iiiei-a?th;

ae) aeine?aeeoe ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e a Eo/anueeo, ?icaeyiooe eiai
i?aeia?iae-i? ca’ycee;

a) aecia/eoe aoaie noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo Eo/anueea ye
oaiaeaeueiiai i?noa.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee ?iaioe. Ieaeiy iaaea — X co. a?aeiia?aea?
ia??iaeo oi?ioaaiiy iaeaeaai?oiai nooe?eueiiai eoeueoo?iiai oa?o ia
oa?eoi??? Eo-/anueea. Aa?oiy iaaea aecia/a?oueny XV no. — caaa?oaiiyi
i?ioeano ia?aoai-?aiiy Eo/anueea o aaeeea na?aaeiueia?/ia i?noi.

Aieiaiith aeaea?aeueiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?oaieia?/i?
iaoa??aee oa ienaii? aeai?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiiieaeniee aiae?c
aeaea?ae. Aeei?enoiaothoueny iaoiaee: ii??aiyeueiee, oeiieia?/iee,
noaoenoe/iee, eia?/iee, iaoiae iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo a?iioac.

2

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia ? ia?oei
iiiia?a-o?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeaaiueiai Eo/anueea. A aeena?oaoe??
aia?oa ocaaaeueiaii iaoa??aee a?oaieia?/ieo ?iceiiie ia oa?eoi??? i?noa.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny oei, ui a
i?e aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oa ?aii? aoaie ?icaeoeo
iaeiiai c iaeaeaai?oeo i?no Oe?a?ie ? aia?oa aaiaeyoueny a iaoeiaee
ia?a o nenoa-iaoeciaaiiio aeaeyae? a?oaieia?/i? iaoa??aee c ?iceiiie
Eo/anueea. In-iiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
i?e iaienaii? oca-aaeueithth/eo iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo i?aoeue,
i?aeaioiaoe? eaeoe?e, noai?aii? iocaeieo aeniiceoe?e.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? o iiiiaiaii? aeaea?aeueii? aace
ca ?aooiie aeanieo aaaaoi??/ieo a?oaieia?/ieo ?iceiiie a Eooeueeo,
eeane-o?eaoe?? e o?iiieia?caoe?? iayaiiai iaoa??aeo oa o noai?aii?
eiioeaioe?? ?noi-?e/iiai oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aeaaiueiai
Eo/anueea.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

— Eo/anuee, ye i?noi, ?icaeioany ia aac? iaeiiai c ieai?iieo
oeaio??a ai-eeiyi;

— i?ioyaii X-XV no. Eo/anuee i?ieoia ?icaeoie a?ae aea?aeaaii?
oi?oaoe? aei aecia/iiai oaiaeaeueiiai i?noa — noieeoe? No?aeii? Aieei?;

— Eo/anuee aoa aecia/iei aeiiii?/iei oa eoeueoo?iei oeaio?ii
Ee?a-nueei? ?on? oa Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai;

— iie?oe/i?e noaa?eueiino? oa aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo Eo/anueea
ni?eyei eiai i?noeaiieiaeaiiy ia ia?ao?auaii? i?aeia?iaeieo oi?aiaeo
oeyo?a oa iayai?noue ?icaeiaii? ainiiaea?nueei? ie?oae.

Ai?iaaoe?y. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeaieioai?
aaoi?ii ia i?aeia?iaeieo eiia?anao oa eiioa?aioe?yo: I?inuee 1997,
AEaooa — 1993, 1997, 1998, Eooeuee — 1992, 1995, Euea?a — 1990, 1998,
Aaee/ — 1993, *a?i?aoe? — 1998, A?eiaee?a — 1998 oa iioae?eiaai? o 26
noaooyo, ai?uaieo o iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao, aeaeaieo a Oe?a?i? oa ca
?oaaaeai.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’youeio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya
?iaioe: oaeno — 180 n.; nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e 39 c. (405
iaeiaioaaiue); /ioe?e aeiaeaoee (30 n.); aeueaii ?ethnoaoe?e (133
?en.).

C I ? N O ? I A I O E

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe,
aecia/athoueny ?? o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, oi?ioeth?oueny iaoa oa iniiai?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoiae, aecia/a?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oa-

3

oe??, aeacothoueny aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a oa iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy ?i-aioe, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

?ICAe?E 1.

?NOI??IA?AO?ss OA ?NOI??ss EO*ANUeEA

CA IENAIIEIE AeAEA?AEAIE

1.1. Iaeyae aeaea?ae. Iniiaith ?noi?e/ieo ciaiue i?i
na?aaeiueia?/iee Eo-/anuee iineoaeeee, ianaiia?aae, aeai? ?noi?e/ieo
o?ii?e. ?onuee? e?oiiene oa, a iaio?e i???, iieuenuee? o?ii?ee aeineoue
aeaoaeueii iia?aeiieythoue i?i ii-e?oe/i? iiae??, iia’ycai? c
Eo/anueeii i?ioyaii 1085-1288 ??.: ci?io eiyc?a ia aieeinueeeo
«noieao», ia?aa?a i?aeoniaieo a?ei, i?ioa a ieo i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?
aoaeue-ye? aeai? uiaei oiiia?ao?? i?noa oa eiai iaoa??aeueii?
eoeueoo-?e.

Iaaio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i na?aaeiueia?/ia i?noi iiaeia ciaeoe o
niiaaaeao iaiae??aiee?a, ye? a?aea?aeoaaee Eo/anuee.

Iaea?eueo iiaiee eiiieaen aeieoiaio?a, ui noino?oueny
Eo/anueea – na?aaeeie XVI-XVII no. A ieo cao?eniaaii noai caaoaeiae
i?noa o i?ci?oee a?ae aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaie ia??iae, i?ioa oey
?ioi?iaoe?y ? oe?iiith, ianai-ia?aae, aeey anoaiiaeaiiy
i?noeaiieiaeaiiy ao?a/aieo ia nueiaiaei? eeth/iaeo ia’?eo?a i?nueei?
oiiia?ao?? X-XV no. (iai?iiieo nii?oae, o?ai?a oiui).

Na?aae aeacaieo aeieoiaio?a iaea?eueoo oe?ii?noue iathoue iiene
ei?ie?anue-eeo oa oea?eiaieo aieiae?iue, o.ca. ethno?aoe?? caie?a,
noa?inoaa oa ?ieneii??.

1.2. ?noi??ia?ao?y. Iiae??, iia’ycai? c ?noi???th i?noa,
?icaeyaeathoueny a ?n-oi?e/ieo oa e?a?ciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
oe?a?inueeeo, ?in?enueeeo oa iieuenue-eeo ?noi?ee?a oa e?a?ciaaoe?a
XIX-1-? iie. XX no.: I.Aaeeinueeiai oa O.Ee-ieinueeiai (1845),
ss.Ia?eooaeia (1851), I.Iao?iaa (1867), A.Caiaeoeue-nueeiai (1872,1873),
O.-TH.Noaoeueeiai (1876), I.Aiae??yoaaa (1887), I.?aa-iiaa (1895),
E.I?aee (1897), I.Eaaeoeueeiai (1891;1903), I.Ia?aea?a (1910), A.Aiei?/a
(1922) oa ?ioeo, a oaeiae o neioaoe/ieo i?aoeyo I.Ea?aiciia (1816),
E.Eaeaaaey (1844), ?.Oa?aiaae/a (1863), I.A?ooaanueeiai (1905-1907).

O i?aeai?iiee ia??iae niaoe?aeueii caeiaany ?noi???th Eo/anueea
aa?oaa-nueeee aeine?aeiee I.Iaethoeinueeee (1939).

I?iaeai na?aaeiueia?/ii? ?noi??? Eo/anueea oi?eaeeny a oe?eiio
?yae? i?aoeue ?noi?eee 2-? iie. XX co. ?.I.E?ei’yeaae/ (1984),
A.O.Iaoooi (1950), I.I.?aiia (1977), I.I.Oiei/ei (1989), I.O.Eioey?
(1968, 1971, 1985), E.A.Aieoiae/ (1992, 1996) oa aaaaoi ?ioeo.

4

O i?neyai?iiee ia??iae ienoaoeuee? iai’yoee Eo/anueea
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny A.I.Eiaaeiii (1967).

Oe?ie? eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ?nioth/eo iai?iiieo
nii-?oae, ?noi??? caaoaeiae oa ?icaeoeo ieaioaaeueii? no?oeoo?e
noa?iaeeoiiai Eo/anueea ca aeaieie ienueiiaeo aeaea?ae, ?eiiia?ao?/iiai
oa ea?oia?ao?/ii-ai iaoa??aeo aeeiiaii o 1976-1998 ??. a?o?oaeoi?aie
A.Eieineii (1976a, 1976a, 1981, 1990 oa ?i.), ?.Iaoaeueieoeueeei (1998),
I.Ie?eiee (1989, 1993), I.Ieaiaieoeueeith (1998), ?noi?eeii A.Nae/oeii
(1991, 1992, 1998).

Niaoe?aeueii aea/aeenue ca ?a/iaeie iai’yoeaie ea?ai?/ia
ae?iaieoeoai (N.Oa?nueeee 1994-1996), eaoe? (I.O?iiaae/ 1996,1998) oa
iioe?aiiy ie-naiiino? o i?no? (N.Oa?nueeee 1996).

A i?ioeani ocaaaeueiaiiy ?aiioa caeiaooeo a?oaieiai/ieo aeaieo,
nie?a-th/enue ia ii?aoeueiaaii o iaoeiai-aeineiaeiiio aiaeaeiei
Eooeueeiai ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai caiia?aeieea (E?EC) ienaiii aeaea?aea,
ui noinothoueny na?aae-iueiai/iiai oa iiaiaeeoiiai Eooeueea, a oaeiae
ia e?a?ciaa/i oa inoi?eei-a?-oioaeoo?ii i?aoei eieeoi?o oa no/anieo
eiai aeineiaeieeia, c?iaeaii ni?iae aecia/eoe iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo
nioeiaeueii-oiiia?aoi/ii? no?oeoo?e iin-oa o X-XV no., eiai aeeoeiai?
caaoaeiae, eieaeicaoei? eiycianueeeo naaeea, ii-ianoe??a oiui (N.
Oa?nueeee 1990-1998).

1.3. ?noi??y a?oaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Ia?oi a?oaieiai/i?
aeineiaeaeai- iy o Eooeueeo iia’ycai? c iiooeaie a?iaieoe? aaeeeiai
eiycy Ethaa?oa Aaaee-i?iiae/a o niai?i?e oea?eai Na.Iaaia Aiaineiaa o
Aa?oiueiio caieo (I.?aaiioaa, ss.Aieioeinueeee 1854-1856 ??.). A
«A?oaieiai/iie ea?oi Aieeinueei? aoaa?ii?» (1901) A.A.Aioiiiae/ai aoei
nenoaiaoeciaaii ei-?ioei aeaii i?i iai’yoee a?oaieiai? oa aeiaaeeiai
ciaoiaeee a?oaieiai/ieo i?aaeiaoia ia oa?eoi??? Eo/anueea.
E.Iaeueiee-Aioiiiae/ o 1897-1898 ??. i?iaiaeeoue ia?oi oaoiai ?iceiiee
eo?aaiieo iiaeeueieeia VIII-XII no. a ieieeoeyo Eooeueea.

O 1920-1930-o ??. o i?no? oa ia eiai ieieeoe? i?iaiaeyoueny
?aaoey?i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca caieyieie ?iaioaie I.Ae?aaeii, ss.O?ooeea,
N.Eanueeei, yeeie ?icii/aoi aea/aiiy a?oaieia?/ieo ?aooie
na?aaeiueia?/ii? caaoaeiae.

O 1968-1973 ??. oaoia? ?iceiiee o Noa?iio i?no? oa ia eiai
ieieeoeyo cae?enithaaee I.Eo/a?a, A.Io??iaiei, I.Eo/?iei, a o 1978-1986
??. aeine?ae-aeoaaeenue iai’yoee iiioiaioaeueii? na?aaeiueia?/ii?
a?o?oaeoo?e Eo/anueea: Aa?oiie caiie (I.Aiaaeaiei, I.Eo/?iei,
I.Iaeaanueea), oea?eae Na.I. Aiai-neiaa oa Na.Iie?iae (I.Iaeaanueea).

Aieiaiei ?acoeueoaoii i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei iiaia
?ice?eooy ooiaeaiaio?a niai?o Na. ?aaia Aiaineiaa O?? no. oa i?ai?/ii?
iieiaeie ……

5

ooiaeaiaio?a eiyc?anueeiai iaeaoeo. ?iceiiee I.Iaeaanueei? aeicaieeee
a?ae-ianoe /an iiaoaeiae o?aio Na.Iaaia Aiaineiaa aei 1170-o ??.,
eiyc?anueeiai iaeaoeo oa o?aio Na.Iie?iae — aei ?oaaaeo XIII-XIV no.

I?ioa i?iaaaeaii aei eiioey 1980-o ?ieia a?oaieiai/ii
aeineiaeaeaiiy ia aeaaaee oeieinii? ea?oeie inoi?e/ii? oiiia?aoi?,
aoaiia ?icaeoeo oa nioeiaeue-ii-aeiiiii/ii? ? eoeueoo?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
Eo/anueea eiyaei? aeiae.

Aia?oa eiiieaeni? aeineiaeaeaiiy ia oa?eoi?i? Noa?iai iinoa oa
eiai ieieeoeue aoee i?iaaaeai? o 1988-1998 ??. niieueiith
a?oaieiai/iith aenia-aeeoei?th E?EC oa Eueaianueeiai inoi?e/iiai iocath.

A aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoaii a?o?ai?
iaoa??aee (a?a-o?/ia oa oioiaeieoiaioaoe?y, iiene ia’?eo?a ? ciao?aeie,
iieueia? ca?oe) oa oiiaeia? eieaeoe?? ciao?aeie, ye? caa??aathoueny o
E?EC, Euea?anueeiio ?noi?e/-iiio ioca?, Aieeinueeiio e?a?ciaa/iio ioca?
oa ?inoeooo? a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

1.4. ?noi??y i?noa ca ienaiieie aeaea?aeaie. O “Iia?no?
ieioeeo e?o” Eo/anuee aia?oa caaaeo?oueny i?ae 1085 ?. ye oe??ieaia
i?noi c ?aceaeaioe??th oae?eueiiai eiycy. Iieuenueeee o?ii?no ssi
Aeeoaio noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui Eo/anuee caniiaaii aaeeeei eiycai Aieiaeeie?ii
Nayoineaae/ai aeecueei 1000 ?. Ca I.No?eeeianueeei, Eo/anuee o 1008 ?.
aoa caoiieaiee a?enueeaie Aiean-eaaa Oi?ia?iai i?ae /an eiai iioiaeo ia
Ee?a.

I?ioyaii XII-XIII no. a Eo/anueeo iaiaeii?aciai ci?ithaaeenue
aieiaea?? a ca’yceo c i?aeoniaiith eiyc?anueeith ai?ioueaith. Ia
ii/aoeo 2-? iie. XII no. Eo/anuee noa? oeaio?ii ie?aiiai eiyc?anoaa, aei
yeiai iaeaaeaee caie? No?aeii? Aieei?. O 1257 ?. i?noi aeo?eiaei iaeiao
cieioii?aeeinueeiai a?e-nueea. 1259 ?. ca iaeacii Ao?oiaeay oe??ieaiiy
Eo/anueea, ye ? aeayeeo ?ioeo aieeinueeeo i?no, aoee c?oeiiaai?. C
na?aaeeie XIV no. Eo/anuee noa? ?ace-aeaioe??th Ethaa?oa oa ?ioeo
eeoianueei-aieeinueeeo eiyc?a, a e?ioe? XIV no. i?noii oi?aaey? iai?niee
ei?iey ssaaeea.

O neeaae? Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai Eo/anuee i?aeoe/ii
aoa ae?oaith noieeoeath aea?aeaae. Naia ooo o 1386-1388 ??. neeaee
i?enyao ia a??i?noue ssaaeeo a?eueo?noue caeaaeieo a?ae iueiai eiyc?a. O
1429 ?. a Eo/anueeo a?aeaoany c’?cae iiia?o?a ?a?iie a ca’yceo c
caa?icith oo?aoeueei? iaaaee. O 1430-1440-o ?ieao i?noi aoei aieiaiei
iii?iei ioieoii o ai?iouea? ee-oianueei-aieeinueeeo eiyc?a i?ioe
ca?ieiiai ianooio iieuenueei? aea?aeaae. Inoaii?i aieeinueeei eiycai o
Eo/anueeo aoa Naeae?eaaeei, yeee aeciaa th?enaeeeoe?th iieuenueeiai
ei?iey. Aea i?ney eiai nia?o? a 1452 ?. i?noi ciiao ia?aoiaeeoue aei
neeaaeo Aaeeeiai eiyc?anoaa Eeoianueeiai. O 1432 ?. Eo/anuee io?eio?
iaaaeaao?cueea i?aai (iiaoi?ii iaaeaia 1497 ?.).

6

?ICAe?E 2.

?NOI?E*IA OIIIA?AO?ss. NEEAAeIA? *ANOEIE I?NOA. OE??IEAIIss. I?EI?NUeEA
?IO?ANO?OEOO?A

Aieiai? neeaaeia? /anoeie Eo/anueea — aeeoeiaoeue, ieieueiee
ai?iae oa oe-??ieaiee oi?aiai-?ai?nie/ee iinaae caeiaee ino??a o caieaa?
?.Noe?, a ii-

?o/ ia i?aeaeuaii? i?aaiai aa?aaa ?.Aeooaoeue ciaoiaeeeiny ia?aaei?noy
Ii-iinoe/?. Oe? oe??ieai? /anoeie na?aaeiueia?/iiai i?noa aoee ioi/ai?
ia-oe??ieaieie iinaaeaie, ui oiiia?ao?/ii oa aeiiii?/ii oyae?ee aei
i?noa. Oea i?aaiaa?aaei? o?i/eua TH?ecaeeea, Aoeueea, ss?iaeoey oa ?i.,
e?aiaa?aaei? — Ai?aeaaa, E?ania, ?iaaioe?.

2.1. Aeeoeiaoeue ieiuath aeecueei 0,8 aa caeia? oeaio?aeueio
/anoeio iina-eainueeiai eiiieaeno. A?i aoa ioi/aiee iai?iiieie no?iaie
??ciiai /ano, eio?? ia?aaoaeiaoaaeenue ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio noie?oue.
No?aoea?ao?/i? nii-noa?aaeaiiy aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe aneio?iiio
caaoaeiao, a ?acoeueoao? /iai iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui aeeoeiaoeue aoa
canaeaiee c e?ioey IX-ii/aoeo X no., ciaeaeaii oaeiae aeeiyiee iinoae
VIII-IX co. Ia?a?ni? oe??ieaiiy ia caa?aa-eenue. A?aee?eoi
aea?aaicaieyi? oe??ieaiiy e?ioey X-XI no.

Ca iaoa??aeaie a?oaieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue 1982-1992 ??.
aecia/a?oueny /an iiaoaeiae eai’yii? oea?eae (2-a iie. XII no.),
eiyc?anueeiai oa ?ieneii-nueeiai iaeaoe?a (?oa?ae XIII-XIV no.),
eai’yiiai Aa?oiueiai caieo (na?aaeeia XIV no.).

2.2. Ieieueiee ai?iae (Ieaei?e caiie). Ieieueiee ai?iae
Eo/anueea, ia?-a?niee iinaae i?noa XII-XIII no. (6 aa), ?nioaaa ia
i?noe? i?ci?oiai (c na?a-aeeie XIV no.) Ieaeiueiai caieo aai ca
oa?i?iieia??th ethno?aoi??a OVI no. «i?eai?iaeea». ?icaeyiooi
oiiia?ao?th oa no?aoea?ao?th oe??? /anoeie i?noa, a?aeiiino? i?i
aea?aaicaieyi? oa io?iaai? oe??ieaiiy, /an iiaoaeiae o?ai?a.
Iaeaeaai?o? ciao?aeee ia Ieieueiiio ai?iae? i?aaenoaaeai?
?aiiueiaii/a?iith ea?ai?eith VIII-IX no.

Ooo, ca o?aaeeoe??th, ?iciiuoaaeeny aieiaii iinaaenueei oea?eae
iinoa (Nay-oeo Aeeieo??y, sseiaa, Eaoa?eie, Iao?a) oa aeai?e
iaeaieeaiaioeo eo/ai. Iaeaeaai?oa eai’yia oea?eaa Na.Aeeieo??y aoea
caoaeiaaia aeecueei ?oaaaeo XIII-XIV no.

2.3. Aieiaiee oi?aiai-?aiinie/ee iinaae Eo/anueea — nai???aeiee
Iiae?e, aeania i?noi, a caiaeii — na?aaei?noy, noi?ioaaeiny ia cao?aei?e
iiieaeai?e ae?eyioe? ino?iaa ca iaaeaie Ieieueiiai ai?iaea.

?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean canaeaiiy oa?eoi???, nenoaia
oe??ieaiue, no?aoe-a?ao?y, oa?eoi??aeueiee ?icaeoie, nenoaia caaoaeiae ?
eiioi?eaoe?e (ia?a- i?aae, a?aae? oa iinoe), nioe?aeueii-oiiia?ao?/ia
no?oeoo?a oa oiiia?ao?y

7

o?ai?a na?aaei?noy.

Nii/aoeo aoei canaeaii ?eieiaee iaai?a ia?aae a’?caeii a
Ieieueiee ai?iae ieiuath aeecueei 1 aa. C iaeaeaai?oeo ia’?eo?a ia
iueiio a?aee?eoi ?aooee caaeeaeaiiai aeeoea c ea?ai?eith VIII-IX no.
Iinooiiai caaoaei-aoaaeenue ? non?aei? iiieaeai? ae?eyiee.

Aeine?aeaeaii caeeoee ianeio aaeo XII no., ne??ieaiiai
c?oaaie-ai?iae-

iyie. I?ioyaii XIV-ii/aoeo XV no. oe??ieaiiy iiiiaethaaeenue
iiaoaei-aith aea?aaicaieyieo («ia?eai») ? oeaaeyieo no?i, ieiua
na?aaei?noy ?icoe-?eeanue aei 17 aa.

Aieiaieie no?oeoo?ieie a?nyie na?aaei?noy aoee aea? aoeeoe?
(Aaeeea oa O?i?oeueea), ye? ?icoiaeeeeny a??ciia?/ a?ae Aeooaoeueeeo
ai??o oa aeaaaee ii/aoie a?aaeyi, ui aaee /a?ac caieaao. Iae?ai?oa
caaaeea i?i a?aaeth o Eo/anueeo a?aeiineoueny aei 1150 ?.

?iceiieaie a?aee?eoi aeeoea caiiaeieo iaoeaioe?a XIV no.,
anoaiiaeaii i?noeaiieiaeaiiy oaanueeiai eaa?oaeo, caaaeoaaiiai a
ienaiieo aeaea?aeao, eieae?ciaaii aieiaio oi?aiaeoeth i?noa XII-XV no.
Ia oa?eoi??? na?aaei?noy a XIV-XV co. ?nioaaee Eaoeinueeee,
Ea?a?inueeee, ?a?aenueeee oa A??-iainueeee iaoe?iiaeuei? eaa?oaee c
a?aeiia?aeieie eoeueoiaeie aoaeeieaie, ciaoiaeeeiny e?eueea i?aaineaaieo
o?ai?a. Oae, o?ai Na.Ieeiee – iie?i-aeoaey oi?a?ae? ?nioaaa oaea a XIII
co.

2.4. I?aaiaa?aaei? ia?aaei?noy-iinaaee ciaoiaeeeenue a o?.
Iiiinoe/? oa TH?ecaeeea. Oey oa?eoi??y ii/aea canaeyoeny ia i?ci?oa
VIII-X co. ?iceii-eaie a?aee?eoi e?eueea aeaaiuei?onueeeo aeeoae,
iaenoa?ith thaae??a X no., ne?-aee cae?ci?iaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
Oe??ieaiiy ia Iiiinoe/ao, ui caaaeothoueny a aeaea?aeao na?aaeeie XV
no., ca a?oaieia?/ieie aeaieie, ?nioaaee aaea o 2-e iie. XIII-XIV no.

Ia aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy i?aaiaa?aaeieo iinaae?a aeaco? inioaaiiy ia
?o oa?eoi??? oanoe oea?eia, aeaio iiianoe?ia oa einoaea.

E?aiaa?aaeiee iinaae Eo/anueea — o?i/eua Aiiaeaaa aeine?aeaeaii
ia ieiu? iiiaae 1000 ea. i. Ooo a?aee?eoi oe?eee ?yae aeeoae oa nii?oae
?ai?nie/i-ain-iiaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iei oeaio?ii Ai?aeaae o ?icaeyaeoaai? /ane
aoea oa-?eoi??y Oea?eiaii? a??ee, yeo oa?i/oaaa o?ai Na.Iaioaeaeiiia.

Iaaa?/ noa?i? aeoaainueei? aei?iae ca 0,5-1,5 ei noiaeiioa
Aa?oiueiai caieo ia i?aeaeuaieo aeieyieao caieaae a o?i/eu? «Iainueeee
ai?iae» a?ae-e?eoi ?aooee caaoaeiae, ii/eiath/e c X no.

2.5. I?ei?nueea ?io?ano?oeoo?a. Aei ?? neeaaeo aoiaeea
eaioetha iinaeaiue VIII-XIV no., caoieniaaiee ?ica?aeeaie o aeaeyaei
iaeaea nooeieueieo cioa ii iaio aa?aaao ?.Noe? oa eiai i?eoieao ia
aiaeaeaei iiiaae aeanyoue eieiiao?ia

8

aiae Noa?iai iinoa. Oea aoea ie?oaa eiyaeiai Eo/anueea, ui aeoeaii
aieeaaea

ia ?icaeoie ani?? iinaeainueei? aaeiia?aoei?. Ii?yae c oeyoaie,
iniiaieie oi?ioth/eie /eiieeaie ie?oae, ?nioaaee no?oeoo?ii iaeeieoei,
oa?aeoa?ii aeey aaeeeeo eiyaeeo noieeoeue: eiycianueei oa aiy?nueei
naaeeae, iiianoe?i. ?o noiooieeaie aoee nieuenueei oa ?aiinie/i
iinaeaiiy.

O eioiien? caaaeaii eiyc?anueeee aea?? Aae, eieae?ciaaiee o
n.I?aeaaeoe?. C oaiaeaeueieie naaeeaaie — eiyaeeie aeai?aie XII-XIV no.
iia’ycai? oaeiae ai?iaeeua o n. Ci??iaoeue, AEeaee/ei, Inoeoei oa
ss?ineaae/?.

O eiiieaen? c eiyaeeie aeai?aie nii?oaeaeoaaeenue iiianoe??:
Nianueeee E?aniinaeuenueeee, ?icoaoiaaiee ia ino??aiiio ai?iaeeu? a
Ee/ea??aoe?, e?oiieniee Ieeiea?anueeee o AEeaee/ei?, iaa?aeiiiai ?iai?
o I?aeaaeoeyo, Aicaeaeaeainueeee o Iaaee??//? (*aeii) (ii?yae Inoeoeia
oa ss?ineaae/?a).

?ICAe?E 3.

CAAOAeIAA EO*ANUeEA

3.1. Iiioiaioaeueia oa aea?aa’yia o?aiiaa a?o?oaeoo?a. Ia?oith
iiio-iaioaeueiith aoae?aeath Eo/anueea aoea oea?eaa Na.?.Aiaineiaa, a?ae
yei? caa-?aaeeny ooiaeaiaioe. ?? nii?oaeaeaii o 1175-1180-o ??. ca /an?a
i?aae?iiy eiycy ss?ineaaa ?cyneaae/a.

?aeeia eioiienia caaaeea i?i o?ai noino?oueny 1288 ?., eiee
eiycue Aiei-aeeie? Aaneeueeiae/ «… A eooeueeo ?ieneiiith aeaa o?anoa
aaeeeiai n?iaiiai c *aniei aea?aaii». O?aiiaa aoaeiaey yaeyea niaith
/ioe?enoiaiio aacee?eo ieiuath aeecueei 180 ea.i, i?aaii/ii ca’ycaio c
iiaaeaiii-noiaeiei aiaoa?ai-eaieeoeath.

Ae?oaith ca cia/aiiyi aoea oea?eaa Na.Aeeieo??y, nii?oaeaeaia o
eaiai? aeecueei ?oaaaeo XIII-XIV no. Aiia aoea iaaaeeeith eaaae?aoiith a
ieai? ao-ae?aeath, ui iaea /ioe?e iiooaei? noiaie, iaeio aineaeo, ui
aenooiaea iacia-i?, oa aea? aieia? aineaee, neaai ae?aaeai? a oiau?
no?aeii? no?ie.

Iiioiaioaeueia o?aiiaa aoae?aieoeoai o Eo/anueeo iaaoei
iniaeeaiai ?iciaoo i?ioyaii O???-XIV no. Oeei /anii ne?ae aeaooaaoe
io?iaai? aoae?ae? o?ai?a ieieueiiai i?noa oa /anoeio o?ai?a na?aaei?noy.
Io?iaai? o?aie, ye ia oea aeacothoue a?oaieia?/i? ciao?aeee
aoae?aaeueiiai iaoa??aeo ia aeaai?o oea?eaeuao, nii?oaeaeoaaeeny o oeae
/an oaeiae ca iaaeaie aeania i?noa. I?ioa iniiaiei aeey anueiai
na?aaeiueia?/iiai ia??iaeo o Eo/anueeo caeeoa-einue aea?aa’yia o?aiiaa
aoae?aieoeoai.

I?i iniaeeaino? o?aiiaiai aea?aa’yiiai aoae?aieoeoaa iiaeaii
noaeeoe ia i?aenoaa? ?iceiiie oea?eae i?e no?aeiiio eoo? ?eieo
na?aaei?noy, yea ca no-

9

eoii?noth aeaieo ?aeaioeo?eiaaia c oea?eaith Na.?aaia O?anoeoaey,
nii?oaeaea-

iith o XIV no. O?ai caaaeueiith aeiaaeeiith 7 i caaaeaiee c oanaieo,
i?yii-eooieo o ia?a?ici a?onia, c’?aeiaieo «a caiie» c aeioneii eiioeia.
Aei oeai-o?aeueiiai c?oao, ui iaa ?icii?e i?i?ioiaii 4,3×4,2 i, ic
caoiaeo oa noiaeo ii oeaio?aeueiie ini aei iaoo i?eeyaaee aeaa iaioeo
c?oae ?icii?aie 3,0o1,5 i: aiaoa? oa aaaeiaoeue. Ii?o/ noiyea
aecaiieoey ea?eanii-noiaiiai? eiino?oeoei?, i?yiieooia a ieaii,
?icii?ii 3,0×3,0 i.

Iienai? nii?oaee — ia nueiaiaeii ?aeei? c aea/aieo iai’yoie
aea?aa’yii? o?aiiai? a?oioaeoo?e Oe?a?ie XIV no., yei ii?aeiothoue
aeia?a a?aeiia c iaoo-?e o?aiiaa aoaeiaieoeoai XVI-XVII no. oa iai’yoee
XII-XIII no., aeineiaeaeai? a?oaieiai/ii.

3.2. AEeoea oa ainiiaea?nuee? nii?oaee. AEeoea X-XI no. aoee
caaeeaeai? a ieaei?e /anoei? a ??oio, ?c no?iaie c?oaii? eiino?oeoe??.
Nii?oaee c ea?-eanii-noiaiiaith eiino?oeoe??th c’yaeythoueny o
na?aaei?no? a XI no. Ia/? nii-?oaeaeoaaeeny ?c aeeie.

O iai?acaieyieao ainiiaea?nueeiai oa ?ai?nie/iai i?ecia/aiiy
cia-oiaeeeenue i?oaiiae?ai? ia/?, ae??cai? a no?ieao eioeiaaio.

Ii/eiath/e c XII-XIII no. aeeoea a Eo/anueeo, ye ? a ?ioeo
i?noao ?on?, aoee iacaiieie. I?ioa aeey oeueiai /ano a?aeii? eeoa ?aooee
aeeiyieo aeie?-aie c ia/aie, ye? ia aeathoue aeinoaoiuei? ?ioi?iaoe??
aeey ia’?iii? ?aeiino?oe-oe?? naieo nii?oae.

Aeei?enoaiiy aaeeei? e?eueeino? aeeie o eiino?oeoe?yo no?i oa
ia?a-e?eooyo aoae?aaeue 2-? iie. XIII-XIV no. a?aeaeaa?, i/aaeaeii,
eoeueoo?iee aieea aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa i?no Cieioi? I?aee,
?icoaoiaaieo o noaiiaeo iaeicae?niaieo ?aeiiao. O anyeiio aeiaaeeo,
aaeeaaiiy naiaio a yeino? aoae?aaeueiiai iaoa??aeo i?e nii?oaeaeaii?
ia/?-eai?io o ?ieneiinueeiio ao-aeeieo ia?, aacnoii?aii, i?aaeaiia
iioiaeaeaiiy.

Ii/eiath/e c XIV no. a eiino?oeoe?? ooiaeaiaio?a ia/ae
aaeeaa?oueny a?oneiaa oeaaea. C’yaeythoueny iia? oeie iiaethaaeueieo
nii?oae. O Aa?oiuei-io caieo ia oa?eoi??? ?ieneiinueeiai aeai?o
aeine?aeaeaii o?e eai?ie, iaeei c yeeo iaeaaeaa aei aoaeeieo, ui ?nioaaa
o XIII no., a aeaa ?ioeo nii?oaeaeai? o XIV no. Aiie i?aeeiaiiiae?aii? a
ieai? oi?ie ae?aiao?ii 2,5-3,0 i c onoyi oe?eiith aeecueei 1 i. No?iee
ia/ae oiaueiith a iaeio-i?aoi?e oeaaeeie aeaio iniiaieo oi?iao?a,
neeaaeaieo ia aeei?.

Ia?o? oeaaeyi? aeeoeia? aoae?ae? c’yaeeenue o Eo/anueeo o XIV no.
?o iiyaa iia’ycaia ?c nii?oaeaeaiiyi Aa?oiueiai oa Ieaeiueiai caie?a.
Eiino?oeoe?y oa ?ici?uaiiy oeeo aoaeeie?a ia a inoaiith /a?ao
aeeeooaaeanue ?ioa?anaie iai-?iie, ine?eueee caaaeai? i?e eai’yi?e no?i?
aea?aa’yi? aoae?ae? i?ae /an iaeiae neeaaeaee a na?eicio iaaaciaeo ia
aeiaaeie iiaeaae?.

10

Aiae?c ia’?eo?a aeeoeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa aeaaiuei?onueeiai
Eo/anueea, aei-ne?aeaeaieo a?oaieia?/ii, aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe a eiai
?icaeoeo o?e aoaie: ia ia?aaei?nueeiio (VIII-X no.) aoai? aeeoea
iaeaaeaee aei iai?acaieyieiaiai oeio. Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (XI-XIII no.) o
naiiio i?no? ia ino?ia? oa iiaeeco a o?. «Iainueeee ai?iae»
nii?oaeaeothoueny iacaii? aeeoea, a o ia?aaei?noyo ?nio-thoue ana o? ae
iai?acaieyiee. Ia o?aoueiio aoai? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a oeiao aee-oae noa?
ua a?eueo iii?oiith: o caieao oa a oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? na?aaei?noy

c’yaeythoueny ia?o? oeaaeyi? nii?oaee. Oeueiio ni?ey? ia?aoai?aiiy
Eo/anueea

ia cia/iee eoeueoo?iee oa iie?oe/iee oeaio? No?aeii? ?a?iie. A
Ieieueii-io ai?iae? oa ia Ai?aeaa? a?aee?eoi ie?oae? ainiiaea?nuee? yie
X-XIII no. cae-/aeiiai aeaaiuei?onueeiai oeio, aea c XIV no. cai?noue
ieo ii/aee aoaeoaaoe aeeaie? iia?aae c ao?aeiei ei?eaei?ii
(na?aaei?noy).

?ICAe?E 4.

AINIIAeA?NUeEA Ae?ssEUeI?NOUe O I?NO?. A?ENUeEIAA NI?AAA

4.1. N?euenueea ainiiaea?noai ? i?iienee. Iaoa??aee ?iceiiie
na?ae/aoue i?i o?niee ca’ycie ianaeaiiy i?noa c
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei ae?iaieoeo-aii. O Eo/anueeo ciaeaeaii cae?ci?
aeaoae? ieoaa (ia?aeueiee, /a?anea), na?ie, ieoooy eiiao, eai’yi?
aei?ia.

Aioai?/i? ciao?aeee a nii?oaeao XI co. ia aeeoeioe? na?ae/aoue
i?i ae?iuo-aaiiy i?ina, a??/eoe? oa ai?ioo. O nii?oae? XIV no. a
na?aaei?no? ciaeaeaii ca?ii i?ina, y/iaith, iieae, ieiaee aiao.

Inoaieia?/iee aiae?c oaa?eiieo ?aooie, c?a?aieo o caiiaiaii?
nii-?oae X-XIV no., ia?aeiieeai aeia?a cia/io ia?aaaao na?enueeeo oaa?ei
iaae aeeeeie o ?aoe?ii? iaoeaioe?a na?aaeiueia?/iiai Eo/anueea.

«Iaith» aeeoae?a aoaeeieo XIV no. o Aa?oiueiio caieo, ca?aeii c
aeaieie inoaieia?/iiai aiae?co, i?iaaaeaiiai iaeaiciieiaii i?io.
E.A.Oaoa?eii-aei, neeaaeaeiny ia 40 % c aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, 25% —
na?enueeeo naeiae, 20 % — iaaoeue aai e?c, 5 % — aeeeeo naeiae. Ie??i
oeueiai ciaeaeaii oaeiae e?noee eiiy, niaaee na?enueei?, aonee n??i?,
eo??iee, oaoa?aaa oa aeaai?iae-iiai ieaiy.

Ia caiyooy neioa?noaii aeacothoue oaeiae ciao?aeee i?oaeeiieo
iiaeeoeue aeey no?eaeee iaaoeue (o?. «Iainueeee ai?iae»).

Iioe?aiei caiyooyi ai?iaeyi aoei aaeae?eueieoeoai, ieneeanoai
oa ?e-aieiaey. I?i oea na?ae/aoue ciao?aeee aoeee?a, ieneeanueeeo no??e,
?iaaoeie, ?eaaeuenueeeo aa/e?a oa ino?ia, iiieaae?a aei n?oae.

11

4.2. ?aianei. Aei i?ia?aeieo ?aianae Eo/anueea iaeaaeaee
ia?iaea aea?a-aa, aii/a?noai, cae?ci?iaia, thaae??ia, einoa??cia,
eaiaia??cia oa oe??yi? ?aianea.

?c cia?yaeue i?aoe? oaney??a ciaeaeaii naa?aeea, niee?e oa
oanei.

Aei aea?aa’yiiai iiaooiaiai ?iaaioa?y a?aeiineoueny
??ciiiai?oiee ii-noae, a?aa?ioe? oiui, c?a?ai? o aeeoeiaeo eaa?oaeao
na?aaei?noy, a oaeiae oeaa-?ee, ia?aa’ycaiee eicith, ae?aeee.

Aii/a?ia ?aianei i?aaenoaaeaia aaeeeith e?euee?noth iinoaeo,
c?a?aiiai o eoeueoo?iiio oa?? oa nii?oaeao. Aii/a?iee iinoae X-XV no.
?icae?eaii ia

14 o?iiieia?/ieo a?oi, iaaiaeeoueny ?o oa?aeoa?enoeea. Ani?oeiaio
iinoaeo iinooiiai c?inoaa. O oa?ao XIII-XV no. e??i ai?uee?a /anoi
o?aieythoueny

ei?/aae, ienee, na?oeeueieee, aecaaie ? neiai??aeee. ?icaeyaeathoueny
eeaeia ia aeaioeyo iinoaeei.

C O?V no. a?eueo ae?aci?oei noa? aieea
oeaio?aeueii-?a?iiaenueeeo o?aaeeoe?e ia aii/a?ia ae?iaieoeoai
Eo/anueea.

Ii?yae c oeei, i?ioyaii XIV no. o i?iaeoeoe?? eooeueeeo
aii/a??a caa??aa-thoueny iaee?au? caeiaooee aii/a?noaa aeiiiiaieuenueei?
aeiae, ui i?inoaaeothoueny o i?iii?oe?? oa ciai?oiueiio ioi?ieaii?
ae?ia?a. Oa?aeoa?iee aeey aeiiiiaieuenueei? aeiae iinoae c aaeeeii ia
a?ioeyo aoa o aaeeoeo aei e?ioey XIV no.

Ne?aee aii/a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa aeyaeai? a ieieeoeyo AEeaee/eia
(Ica?oea, 8 aii/a?ieo ai?i?a XII-XIII no.) oa a o?. «Iainueeee ai?iae»
(neeaae i?iaeoeoe?? aii/a?a ii/. XV no.).

Iaaiaeyoueny aeai? i?i ea?ai?/i? ieeoee c aeie?aee oea?eae XII
no. ia aee-oeioe?, eaoe? XIV-XV co. c aeeoeioey oa na?aaei?noy.

Eooeuee? iaeno?e-eiaae? ia?iaeyee aioiaa cae?ci, yea io?eioaaee,
ye ? a a?eueoino? ?ioeo i?no ?on?, ?c n?euenueei? ie?oae. Eieaeoe?y
i?aaeiao?a ?c cae?-ca, c?a?aia i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiue Eo/anueea,
aeeth/a? iiiaae ni?ie iaeiaio-aaiue ae?ia?a eiaae?a. Eiia??ii, ui yeonue
/anoeio ?a/ae aoei i?eaacaii o i?noi.

Ia aeeoeioe? oa TH?ecaeeoe? a?aee?eoi aea? a?iicieeaa?i?
iaenoa?i? X no. ?c ciao?aeeaie oeae?a oa oeaeo eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a.
Aiie aoee caaeeaeai? a ??oio ? iaee i?oiiiae?ai? ia/?. Oeaiee oeae?a XIV
no., i?aeiee oa naeioea-aee oeae, iieiaeio eeaa?ii? oi?ie aoei aeyaeaii
o na?aaei?no?.

C eaiaith (aaiiye) ae??caeeny i?yneeoey, ye? aoee iioe?ai? a
Eo/anue-eo oa eiai ieieeoeyo o X no. ??cueaeaiei eaiaiai
icaeiaethaaeenue eai?ie o ?ieneiinueeiio aoaeeieo ia aeeoeioe?.

12

O eoeueoo?iiio oa?? oaanueeiai eaa?oaeo na?aaei?noy c?a?aii
aaeeeo eieaeoe?th oe??yieo caaioiaie oa oe?eeo ae?ia?a, ia?aaaaeii,
acoooy XIV-XV no.

4.3. Oi?a?aey. I?noi Eo/anuee aeieeei o cia/i?e i??? ca ?aooiie
oi?a?a-e?, /iio ni?eyei eiai aea?aeia aaia?ao?/ia ?icoaooaaiiy. Aaea o
VIII-IX no. ooo i?ieyaaa aaaeeeaee oi?aiaaeueiee oeyo «?c oica? a
iaiaoe». Oea i?ae-oaa?aeaeo?oueny ciao?aeeaie nea?a?a oa ie?aieo iiiao.

Aei i?aaeiao?a ?iceio?, ui iinooiaee c Caoiaeo o XIV co., iiaeia
a?ae-ianoe e?anaei c a?iiciaith ?o/eith o aeaeyae? aeaio ae?aeii/ee?a,
ye? eiaoa-thoue nai? oainoe. A?oa?/iee noeeue icaeiaeaiiy ae?iao
eii?th? na?aaecaiiiii?nueeo eoeueoo?io o?aaeeoe?th ?aiiueiai
na?aaeiueia?//y.

C ii/aoeii ooieoe?iioaaiiy Aei?no?ianueeiai oeyoo iiaeia
iia’ycaoe /eneaii? ciao?aeee i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo /a?aiiiaeeiyieo aioi? o
eiiieaen?

?c neeyieie a?aneaoaie oa i?aeii? a?caio?enueei? iiiaoe ?iaiia IV
Eaioaeo-ceia (1341-1355).

Aaaeeeaa i?noea a aeiiii?oe? i?noa caeiaea oi?a?aey c? Noiaeii.
Ia?oa ienueiiaa caaaeea i?i i?aai neeaaeo no?aeieo oiaa??a o Eo/anueeo
a?aeiia c 1379 ?. O oe?e a?aiio? eiycy Ethaa?oa caoaaaeaii, ui o
Eo/anueeo «neeaaee caeaaia aoaaee».

I?i ianooaae no?aeii? oi?a?ae? Eo/anueea aeathoue iaaio oyao
ciao?aeee, ianaiia?aae, o aaaaoeo eaa?oaeao na?aaei?noy oa a caieao.

Ie??i /eneaiiiai ?icieniiai ea?ai?/iiai iinoaeo, oea e neeyi?
ae?iae, ieiaee eieino oiui. Eo/anuee iaa o?ni? aeiiii?/i? eiioaeoe ?c
cieioi-i?aeeinueeeie i?noaie I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?`y, ca?aeee iioiaeeee
ciao?ae-ee oaeeoeiai? ?icienii? ea?ai?ee, aeaioiaeaii? ca
a?caio?enueeeie o?aaeeoe?yie.

Aei /enea i?iaeoeoe?? ac?enueeeo oeaio??a Cieioi? I?aee
a?aeiineoueny iinoae, i?ee?aoaiee ooaiiiaaiei i?iaiaioii. O ieaeiueiio
ai?eciio? aaaaoiai aoaeeieo na?aaei?noy ciaeaeaii iaeio oaeo iinoaeeio
oeio inaaaeie?aoa?a.

Oe? ciao?aeee i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iia?aeiieaiiy ienueiiaeo
aeaea?ae i?i ?nio-aaiiy o XIV no. ea?aaaiiiai oeyoo, ui niieo/aa Aieeiue
c aieiaieie i?noaie Cieioi? I?aee o Iiaieae?.

Aeoeaia ?ieue Eo/anueea o i?aeia?iaei?e oi?a?ae? i?ioyaii X-XV
no. a?aei?/aia ciao?aeeaie iiiaoieo nea?a?a. Aeey X-XI no. oea
a?caio?enuee? oa no?aeiii?iaoeuee? iiiaoe, aeey XII-XIII no. — n??aia
a?eaiy ee?anueeiai oeio, aeey XIV-XV no. — a?eai? iiaai?iaenueeiai oeio,
a?caio?enueea iiiaoa. Eeoia- nuee? oa aeaeo/eaenuee?
(cieioii?aeeinuee?) iiiaoe ?c eiio?ia?eith o aeaeyae? ee-oianueeiai
aa?aa «eiethiie» /an?a A?oiaoa, ye? ciaeaeaii o aaeee?e e?eueeino?

13

ia oa?eoi??? Eo/anueea, iiaee ea?aoaaoeny ia i?noeaaiio iiiaoiiio aeai??
(I.O.Eioey?, 1971).

4.4. A?enueeiaa ni?aaa. O oeueiio i?ae?icae?e? iieno?oueny ca?iy
oa caoeniee iaeaaeoiie, nii?yaeaeaiiy aa?oieea oa aa?oiaiai eiiy, ui
iaaoee iioe-?aiiy o i?no?. Iaea?eueoa oaeeo ciao?aeie a?aeiii aeey
XIV-XV no. — oea ia/?, aieia? niee?e, a?no?y no??e oa nien?a, oieii,
aeaiaioe ieanoei/aoiai iai-oee?y oa aea? eieue/oae. Iaaiaeyoueny
i?eeeaaee iioe?aiiy iiaeo oei?a ica?i-?iiy o Eo/anueeo XIV-XV no., ye
iane?aeie eoeueoo?ieo aca?iica’yce?a ?c Ca-o?aeiith ?a?iiith oa
Oeaio?aeueiith Ac??th.

?ICAe?E 5.

EOEUeOO?A ? I?AEIA?IAeI? CA’ssCEE

5.1. ?icaeyaeathoueny aeio?enoeyinuee? aeaiaioe o eoeueoo??
?aiiueina?aae-iueia?/iiai i?noa, iioe?aiiy ienaiiino?, ?icaeoie
eieaiaeaeaiiy oa aeeai-ieno.

?icaeoie eoeueoo?e cana?ae/aiee ciao?aeeaie ienaea, a?ao?o? ia
ie?aieo i?aaeiaoao oa no?iao o?aio Na.?.Aiaineiaa. O ia?o?e /aa?o? XIV
no. o Nianueeiio iiianoe?? Eo/anueea oa a e?ioe? XV no. o
AEeaee/einueeiio iiia-noe?? ia?aienoaaeinue ?aaiaae??. A?aeiia eooeueea
Inaeoe? 1384 ?., yea caa??aaeanue a a?ae?ioaoe? Ei?aioei Iaae?/? o
Oei?aioe??. Oi?eaeueieie c?ac-eaie oe?a?inueeiai no?iiieno XIV co. ?
caeeoee iiioiaioaeueii? o?anee I?aia?aaeaiiy Ainiiaeiueiai, ui aoee
/anoeiith ia?oiai ?icieno o?aio Na.?.Aiaineiaa.

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi ?nioaaiiy a XIII-XIV no. o Eo/anueeo aeanii?
?eiii-ienii? iaenoa?i? ? ciaiaieoa ?eiia «Eooeueea Aiaiiao??», aeaoiaaia
?oaaaeai XIII-XIV no., yea iaeaaeaea Iie?ianuee?e oea?ea? ia
na?aaei?no?.

I?aaenoaaieeii Eooeueei? ooaeiaeiuei? oeiee XIV-XV no. aoa
Aiae??e ?o-nei. Eiai oai?e caa??aathoueny o iocayo Iineae oa Ee?aa, o
1418 ?. ia ca-iiaeaiiy iieuenueeiai ei?iey a?i ?icienoaaa eaieeoeth
Ethae?inueeiai caieo.

Caaaeyee i?aeia?iaeiei eiioaeoai, cie?aia, c? Noiaeii, o
Eo/anueeo ii-oe?th?oueny a?a a oaoe. I?i oea na?ae/aoue ciao?aeee
ie?aieo e?noyieo o?ao? ia oa?eoi??? aeeoeioey — aeaio aano?aeoieo o?ao?
neiia no?aeii? oa ?a?iiae-nueei? iiaeeo?eaoe?e, a oaeiae aeaio i?oae?a.

5.2. Aeeeaaeathoueny a?aeiiino? i?i i?aeia?iaei? ca’ycee
Eo/anueea ca ie-naiieie aeaea?aeaie oa a?oaieia?/ieie ciao?aeeaie.

Aieiaea?? Eooeueea, i?aaio/e ci?oeieoe nai? noaiiaeua a e?a?,
anoaii-aethaaee o?ni? aeeianoe/i? ca’ycee ?c cao?aeieie non?aeaie
Aieei?, ia?aaeia-n?i eiycyie Iacia??. Ia?anaeaioe? c Caoiaeo (i?ioe?)
caaaeothoueny a e?oiien?

14

na?aae iaoeaioe?a i?noa i?ae 1149 ?. I?ioa eoeueoo?a Eo/anueea i?ioyaii
X-XIV no. ia?aaoaaea i?ae aeii?ioth/eie aieeaaie Noiaeo.

I???ioaoe?y ia ca’ycee c I?ai?/iei I?e/i?iiii?’yi ia?aaaaeaea
o cia-i?oi?e iie?oeoe? Eo/anueea a?ae naieo ii/aoe?a i?noa. E?eca o
Cieio?e I?ae? o na?aaeei? XIV no., ui i?ecaaea aei caiaiaaeo oe???
aea?aeaae, a?aeia?aceeany ia nei?i/aii? no?aeieo ca’yce?a Eo/anueea.
No?ee? oi?aia? eiioaeoe o XV no. caa??aathoueny eeoa c E?eiii.

C e?ioey XIV no. o i?no? iineeth?oueny eoeueoo?iee aieea
Caoiaeo.

Aeoeaia o/anoue o i?aeia?iaei?e oi?a?ae? coiiaethaaea
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeue- iee neeaae ianaeaiiy na?aaei?noy. Iaei??th c
iae/enaeuei?oeo o i?no? aoea a??iainueea a?iiaaea, ui i???iooaaeany ia
oi?a?aeth ?c Noiaeii. Iai?ee?ioe? XIV no. a?aeaoany cia/iee i?eieea
eaoieeoeueeiai ianaeaiiy c Caoiaeo, na?aae yeiai ia?aaaaeaee i?ioe?.

I?ioyaii 2-? iie. XIII-XIV no. caa??aaeenue o?aaeeoe?ei? ca’ycee
Aieei-nueeiai eiyc?anoaa c A?caio??th oa I?ai?/ii-No?aeiith ?onnth. Aeey
oeueiai ia-??iaeo a?aeii? /eneaii? i?eeeaaee caiice/aiue c
a?caio?enueeiai ienoaoeoaa, ye?

iii?oi? a ioi?ieaii? ?ioa?’??o oea?eae Na.?.Aiaineiaa ca /an?a Ethaa?oa
oa ?eiie Aiaiiaoa?? c Iie?ianueei? oea?eae. O naith /a?ao, cia/iee
eoeueoo?iee aieea Eo/anueea caa??aa?oueny ii a?aeiioaiith aei caiaeue
I?ai?/ii-No?aeii? ?on? i?ioyaii XIII-XV no.

A E N I I A E E

Ia ia?oiio, ieai?iiiio, aoai? VIII-X no. iinaeaiiy ia ino?ia?
Eo-/anueea ciaoiaeeeinue a ioi/aii? neio?iiieo iinaeaiue ia iaio aa?aaao
Noe-?o ? aoei iaeiei c ieai?iieo oeaio??a aieeiyi.

Ia??iae VIII-IX no. aea/aiee iaaeinoaoiuei ? aeey eiai
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??ae?a ia aenoa/a?. Ae?acii i?aaenoaaeai? iaoa??aee X
co. AEeoea oeueiai /ano aeine?aeaeaii ia oa?eoi??? aeeoeioey, a
ieieeoeyo i?noa — ia Ai?aeaa?, a o?. «Iainueeee ai?iae» oa ia a?eueo
a?aeaeaeaieo iinaeaiiyo o Ai?aoei? oa Ai?iae-eo.

Ino??aia ?icoaooaaiiy iinaeaiiy c naiiai ii/aoeo iaei iai?iiia
cia/aiiy ? ia eiai iaeaeu?e /anoei? oaea ?nioaaee, i/aaeaeii, oe??ieaiiy
aeeoeioey ia ieiu? 0,8 aa. Iayai?noue ia aeeoeioe? iaoa??ae?a
eoaeeoeueei? eoeueoo?e aeicaiey? i?eioneaoe, ui a oeae /an ooo iiaee
aooe caoaeiaai? ? ia?o? oe??ieaiiy, ine?eueee naia c oe??th eoeueoo?ith
iia’yco?oueny ianiaa ii-yaa oe??ieaiue-ai?iaeeu ia oa?eoi??? ??
iioe?aiiy. Iiee ui ia aeeoeioe? a?aee?eoi caeeoee aaeo e?ioey X-XI no.

15

Ae?oaee aoai — e?iaoeue O-O? no. — ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy ia ino?ia?
iina-eaiiy oi?aiai-?ai?nie/iai oa?aeoa?o, aoae?aieoeoaa iiai?,
aea?aeaaii? oi?-

oaoe? – aaaeeeaiai eiyc?anueeiai aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai oeaio?o ?on? ia
Aieei?. Ia??iae a?aeiinii? iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino? ni?eyoeeai
a?aeia?aceany ia ?ic-aeoeo i?nueei? oa?eoi???. I?ioyaii oeueiai /ano
no?oeoo?a i?noa neeaaeaeanue c aeeoeioey oa iinaaeo (ieieueiiai i?noa)
ieiuath 6 aa.

I?ae i?ee?eooyi aaeeeieiyc?anueeeo oe??ieaiue oi?io?oueny
iinaeainue-ea aaeiia?aoe?y, ie?ai? aeaiaioe yei? a?aeii? c ?iceiiie oa
?ica?aeie o oaia-??oi?o naeao Iiainoaa, Ai?aoei, A??ea Iieiiea,
?iaaioe?, Ci??iaoeue, Eiyae-i?iie, Ieeoo?, Eeieyie, AEeaee/ei oa c
?iceiiie eo?aai?a o Oa?aiiiio, Ai?ioia?, Eeuiio, E?oi?, I?aeaeoaoeyo oa
Noaaeo.

O?ao?e aoai — XII–1-a iie. XI?? no. — ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy
aaeeeiai i?nueeiai oeaio?o oa oeaio?o ie?aiiai oae?eueiiai eiyc?anoaa. A
oeae /an nii-?oaeaeothoueny oe??ieaiiy o?aoueiai iaeaeai/eea ino?iaa —
Iiaeieo, aieiaii-ai oi?aiai-?ai?nie/iai iinaaeo Eo/anueea ieiuath 17 aa,
aoaeothoueny ia?o? iiioiaioaeuei? nii?oaee, caniiaothoueny ?ieneiinueea
eaoaae?a oa iiianoe??. Eo/anuee noa? iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeiiii?/ieo
oa eoeueoo?ieo oeaio??a I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeii? ?on?.

*aoaa?oee aoai – 2-a iie. XIII-80-90-o? ??. XIV no. Ia
aeeaey/enue ia oaoa?i-iiiaieuenueeo iaaaeo, Eo/anuee i?iaeiaaeo?
?icaeaaoenue ye aecia/ia i?noi ? caeeoa?oueny noieeoeath ie?aiiai
eiyc?anoaa, aieiaiei oeaio?ii Ai-eei? o neeaae? Eeoianueei-?onueei?
aea?aeaae. Iane?aeee i?aeeinueeeo iaa?a?a aoee oaeaeei iiaeieai?.
Cionoioaiiy Na?aaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y noai?eei oiiae aeey eiioeaio?aoe??
o aieino? eooeueeiai eiycy iie?oeei-aeiiii?/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy
Oe?a?ie. C?inoa? aonoioa canaeaiiy i?ei?nueeeo ii-naae?a.
Nii?oaeaeothoueny eai’yii-oeaaeyi? oe??ieaiiy eooeueeeo caie?a.
?icai?-oa?oueny oeaaeyia aoae?aieoeoai o i?no? oa eiai ieieeoe?.
Oi?io?oueny caaoaeiaa oa oe??ieaiiy Iiiinoe/a (I’yoieoeueeiai
ia?aaei?noy) c oa?aeoa?iei i?e-i?nueeei oi?aii. Eo/anuee noa? aecia/iei
oeaio?ii i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?.

I’yoee aoai — 80-90-o? ??. XIV-XV no. — oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iinooiiaith ao?aoith i?noii naiai iie?oe/iiai noaoono, oi/ aeae?
caeeoa?oueny aecia/-iei oeaio?ii ?aianea ? oi?a?ae? o No?aei?e ?a?ii?.
Oi?io?oueny aaaaoiiaoe?i-iaeueiee neeaae ianaeaiiy i?noa.
Nii?oaeaeothoueny oeaaeyi? oe??ieaiiy iaaei-ei iiaiinai?ieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo eaa?oae?a na?aaei?noy. Caniiaothoueny eaoi-eeoeueea oa
a??iainueea ?ieneiinuee? eaoaae?e.

16

Ca oaiith eaiaeeaeaonueei? aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii iioae?eiaai?
oae? ?iaioe:

1. ?icaiaeee a ieieeoeyo eiyaeiai Eo/anueea // A?oaieiai/ii
aeineiaeaeai-iy a Oe?a?ii 1991 ?. – Eooeuee: Iaaenoe?’y, 1993. —
C.120-121, 172.

2. Ianoaaeaiiy ai?iaeeu eiyaei? aeiae ia Aieei? a 1986-1991
?ieao // Iaoeia? caienee (Euea?anueeee ?noi?e/iee iocae). — Aei.1. —
Euea?a, 1993. — N.41-67.

3. Zespo?y ceramiczne Fucka okresu po?nego ?redniowiecza //
Garn-carstwo i kaflarstwo na ziemiach polskich od po?nego ?redniowiecza
do czasow wspolczesnych. Materialy z konferencji. Rzeszow,
21-23.IX.1993. — Rzeszow, 1994. — S.197-209.

4. Aieeiue a nenoai? i?aeia?iaeieo ca’yce?a Ee?anueei? ?on?
(X-XIV no.) (Aei iinoaiiaee i?iaeaie) // Iaoeia? caienee (Euea?anueeee
?noi?e/iee io-cae). — Aeione IV. — *anoeia I. — Euea?a, 1995. —
N.73-88.

5. Aei ieoaiiy i?i aea?aa’yia o?aiiaa aoae?aieoeoai o eiyaeiio
Eo/anue-eo // A?niee (Oe?cao?aei?iaeo?anoaa?aoe?y). — *enei 5. — Euea?a,
1996. — N.105-106.

6. I?i ienaii?noue o i?noao Cao?aeii? Aieei? X-XIV no. (ca
a?oaieia?/-ieie aeaieie) // Iaoeia? caienee (Euea?anueeee ?noi?e/iee
iocae). — Aeione V. — *anoeia I. — Euea?a, 1996. — C.74-95.

7. Ea?ai?/i? eiiieaene Eooeueea aeiae i?ciueiai na?aaeiueia?//y
(?acoeue-oaoe aeine?aeaeaiue 1987-1992 ?ie?a) // Oe?a?inueea aii/a?noai.
Iaoe?iiaeueiee eoeueoo?ieia?/iee ui??/iee ca ??e 1995. — Eieaa 3. —
Ii?oia, 1996. — N.83-98.

8. Noa?iaeeoiee Eo/anuee o na?oe? a?oaieia?? // Aaea?onue a
n?noyia ao?aiaene?o eoeueoo?iuo noaycyo // A?noa?u/ia-a?oaaeaa?/iu
cai?i?e. – ? 11. — I?ine, 1997. — N.116-140.

9. Eooeueeee Iiae?e: aei ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy na?aaei?noy //
A?noi?uy Aaea?on?: AEaeaciu aae ? Ny?yaeiyaa//a. Aea 70-aiaeaecy c aeiy
ia?aaeaeyiiy A.A.Oouoaaa. — I?ine, 1997. — N.66-69.

10. C ?noi??? ?icaeoeo a?oaieia?? oa ?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa ia
Aiee-i? aei Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie // Iaoeia? caienee (Euea?anueeee
?noi?e/iee iocae). — Aeione VI. — *anoeia I.- Euea?a, 1997.- N.148-179.

17

Oaeiiaioeaa-Oa?nueeee N.A. Eo/anuee X-XV no. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.04. — a?oaieia?y. — ?inoeooo
a?oaieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi ?icaeoeo i?noa Eo/anueea
na?aaeiuei-a?/iiai ia??iaeo. Eo/anuee, ye i?noi, noi?ioaaany ia aac?
iaeiiai c ieai?i-ieo oeaio??a aieeiyi. O e?ioe? X no. a iueiio aoei
caoaeiaaii iiooaeio oi?-oaoeth, yea noaea iii?iei ioieoii iioe?aiiy
aeaaee ee?anueeeo eiyc?a ia caie? a aanaei? ?.Noe?. Aeae?eaiiy Eo/anueea
a e?ioe? XI no. o oeaio? eiyc?a-nueeiai oae?eo i?enei?eei eiai ?icaeoie,
ui i?iyaeeiny a oaeaeeiio ca?eue-oaii? ieiu? iinaeaiiy, o no?oeoo??
yeiai ?nioaaee aea? /anoeie: aeeoeiaoeue ? ieieueiee ai?iae (iinaae). O
XII – 1-e iieiaei? XIII no. Eo/anuee oi?io?oueny ye aecia/iee
aeiiii?/iee oeaio? Aieei?, noieeoey eiyc?anoaa. A oeae /an aeieea? o?aoy
oe??ieaia /anoeia i?noa — oi?aiai-?ai?nie/ee Iiae?e. O 2-?e iieiaei?
XIII — 80-90-o ??. XIV no., ia aeeaey/enue ia i?aeeinuee? iaa?ae,
Eo/anuee i?iaeiaaeo? ?icaeaaoenue ye aecia/ia i?noi ? caeeoa?oueny
noieeoeath ie?aiiai eiyc?anoaa. Nii?oaeaeothoueny eai’yi? oe??ieaiiy
Aa?oiueiai ? Ieae-iueiai caie?a. C e?ioey XIV ? a XV no. Eo/anuee
iinooiiai ao?a/a? nai? ii-e?oe/ia cia/aiiy, aea caeeoa?oueny aecia/iei
oeaio?ii ?aianea ? oi?a?ae?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Eo/anuee, na?aaeiueia?/ia i?noi, oi?oaoey,
aeiiii?/iee oeaio?, Iiae?e.

Shelomencev-Ters’ki S.V. Lutches’k in the Xth-XVth centuries. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 07.00.04
archaeology. — The Institute of Archaeology of the Academy of sciences
of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

This thesis is explores the medieval city of Lutches`k. From its
origins as an early center of one of the Volyn’ Slavic tribes, Lutches`k
developed into a large urban center. At the end of the tenth century, a
large castle was built in the city. This castle was instrumental in
expanding the power base of the Kievan state system in the Styr river
basin. In the eleventh century, the power of the local prince expanded
and as a result, the city expanded. Two areas of settlement are clearly
demarcated during this period, the dytynets (residence of the prince)
and the outlying urban settlement. In the twelfth and the early
thirteenth century, Lutches`k is the largest urban center of Volyn’ and
the capital of the Volyn’ kingdom. The establishment of the Podil suburb
indicates continued growth. In the second half of the thirteenth century
and the early fourteenth century, Lutches`k continues to prosper and
remains an independent kingdom. During this period, stone
fortifications appear on the Upper and Lower Castle. At the

18

end of the fourteenth and the beginning of the fifteenth century,
Lutches`k begins to lose its political significance, but remains as
important urban center.

Key words: Lutches`k, medieval city, castle, urban center,
Podil.

Oaeiiaioeaa-Oa?neee N.A. Eo/ane X-XV aa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.04. — a?oaieiaey. – Einoeooo
a?oaieiaee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ?acaeoey ai?iaea Eo/anea
n?aaeiaaa-eiaiai ia?eiaea. Enoi?eei-a?oaieiae/aneeie ecuneaieyie
onoaiiaeaii ?aniieiaeaiea aeaoeioea, ieieueiiai ai?iaea, n?aaeianouey e
i?aaeianoee, iyoe eiyaeaneeo aeai?ia e oanoe iiianou?ae, nouanoaiaaaoeo
a ie?oaa ai?iaea XII-XIV aa. Eieaeece?iaaiu ecaanoiua ii ienueiaiiui
enoi/ieeai eoeue-oiaua nii?oaeaiey ai?iaea e i?aaeianoee. Ia iniiaaiee
a?oaieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee aeaoe?iaaii aicieeiiaaiea iai?iieoaeueiuo
oe?aieaiee. A ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony aii?inu ?acaeoey iiioiaioaeueiiai,
aeeeiai e oicyenoaaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ai?iaeneie
yeiiiieee, iaoa?eaeueiay e aeooiaiay eoeueoo?a ianaeaiey.

A Eo/anea, aeaaiaea?y eiina?ae?othuei niiniaiinoyi eoeueoo?iiai
neiy, enneaaeiaaiu oieeaeueiua ia?acoeu aea?aayiiai o?aiiaiai e
aeeeeuii-ai no?ieoaeuenoaa XIII-XVI aa. O?aon?oaiue o?ai e eieieieueiy
XIV a. yaeythony ae?aaiaeoeie oece/anee nio?aieaoeieny a Oe?aeia ia
o?iaia iniiaaiey nii?oaeaieyie yoiai oeia.

A ?aaioa ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey Eo/anea
n?aaeiaaaei-aiai ia?eiaea.

Ia ia?aii, ieaiaiiii, yoaia VIII-IX aa. iinaeaiea ia ino?iaa
Eo/anea iaoiaeeeinue a ie?oaeaiee neio?iiiuo iinaeaiee ia iaieo aa?aaao
Nou?y e auei iaeiei ec ieaiaiiuo oeaio?ia aieuiyi.

Ia?eiae VIII-IX aa. eco/ai iaaeinoaoi/ii e aeey aai
oa?aeoa?enoeee ia-oa?eaeia ia oaaoaao. Au?aceoaeueii i?aaenoaaeaiu
iaoa?eaeu X co. AEeee-ua yoiai a?aiaie enneaaeiaaiu ia oa??eoi?ee
aeaoeioea, a oaeaea ia ie?ae-iao ai?iaea — ia Aieaeaaa, a o?. «Iaineee
ai?iae» e ia aieaa ioaeaeaiiuo iinaeaieyo a Ai?aouia e Ai?iaeea.

Ino?iaiia ?aniieiaeaiea iinaeaiey n naiiai ia/aea eiaei
iai?iie-oaeueiia cia/aiea e ia aai naiie aunieie /anoe oaea
nouanoaiaaee, ii-aeaeeiiio, oe?aieaiey aeaoeioea ia ieiuaaee 0,8 aa.
Iaee/ea ia aeaoeioea ia-oa?eaeia eoaeeoeeie eoeueoo?u iicaieyao
i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi a oi a?aiy caeanue iiaee auoue iino?iaiu e ia?aua
oe?aieaiey, iineieueeo eae ?ac n yoie eoeueoo?ie naycuaaaony ianniaia
iiyaeaiea oe?aieaiee-ai?iaeeu ia oa??e-

19

oi?ee aa ?ani?ino?aiaiey. Iiea /oi ia aeaoeioea ioe?uou inoaoee aaea
eiioea X-XI aa.

Aoi?ie yoai — eiiaoe O-O? aa. — ia?eiae oi?ie?iaaiey ia
ino?iaa iinaeaiey oi?aiai-?aianeaiiiai oa?aeoa?a, no?ieoaeuenoaa iiaie,
ainoaea?-

noaaiiie e?aiinoe — aaaeiiai eiyaeaneiai aaeieieno?aoeaiiai oeaio?a ?one
ia Aieuie. Ia?eiae ioiineoaeueiie iieeoe/aneie noaaeeueiinoe
aeaai-i?eyoii ioia?aceeny ia ?acaeoee ai?iaeneie oa??eoi?ee. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee yoiai ia?eiaea no?oeoo?a ai?iaea ninoiyea ec aeaoeioea e
iinaaea (ieieueiiai ai?iaea) ieiuaaeueth 6 aa.

Iiae i?ee?uoeai aaeeeieiyaeaneeo oe?aieaiee oi?ie?oaony
iinaeai-/aneay aaeiia?aoeey, ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou eioi?ie ecaanoiu
aeyaiaea?y ?aneiieai e ?acaaaeeai iinaeaiee a naaiaeiyoieo naeao
Iiainoaa, Ai?a-oui, Ae?ea Iieiiea, ?iaaioeu, Cieeiaoe, Eiyauieiie,
Iueooe, Euieyiu, AEuaeu/ui, a oaeaea ?aneiieai eo?aaiia a Oa?aiiii,
Ai?ioiaa, Euua, E?oia, Iiaeaeoaoeao e Noaaea.

O?aoee yoai — XII – 1-y iie. XI?? aa. — ia?eiae oi?ie?iaaiey
aieueoiai ai?iaeneiai oeaio?a e oeaio?a ioaeaeueiiai oaeaeueiiai
eiyaeanoaa. A yoi a?aiy nii?oaeathony oe?aieaiey o?aoueae ieiuaaeee
ino?iaa – Iiaeiea, aeaaiiai oi?aiai-?aianeaiiiai iinaaea Eo/anea
ieiuaaeueth 17 aa, no?iyony ia?aua iiioiaioaeueiua nii?oaeaiey,
iniiauaathony aieneiineay eaoaae?a e ii-ianou?e. Eo/ane noaiiaeony
iaeiei ec naiuo aaaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo e eoeueoo?iuo oeaio?ia
THai-Caiaaeiie ?one.

*aoaa?oue yoai – 2-y iie. XIII — 80-90-a aa. XIV aa. Ianiio?y ia
oaoa-?i-iiiaieueneia iaoanoaea, Eo/ane i?iaeieaeaao ?acaeaaoueny eae
auaea-thueeny ai?iae e inoaaony noieeoeae ioaeaeueiiai eiyaeanoaa,
aeaaiui oeaio-?ii Aieuie a ninoaaa Eeoianei-?onneiai ainoaea?noaa.
Iineaaenoaey i?-aeuineeo iaaaaia auee auno?i i?aiaeieaiu. Iionoioaiea
N?aaeiaai Ii-aeiai?iauey nicaeaei oneiaey aeey eiioeaio?aoeee a
i?aaeaeao aieinoe eooeeiai eiycy iieeoeei-yeiiiie/aneie e eoeueoo?iie
aeecie Oe?aeiu. Aic?anoaao aonoioa canaeaiey i?eai?iaeiuo iinaaeia.
Nii?oaeathony eaiaiii-ee?ie/-iua oe?aieaiey eooeeeo caieia.
?acai?a/eaaaony eaiaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai a ai?iaea e ia aai ie?aeiao.
Oi?ie?oaony cano?ieea e oe?aieaiey Iiiin-oe/a (Iyoieoeeiai i?aaeianouey)
aianoa n oa?aeoa?iui i?eai?iaeiui oi?-aii. Eo/ane noaiiaeony
auaeathueiny oeaio?ii iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee.

Iyoue yoai — 80-90-a aa. XIV-XV aa. — oa?aeoa?ecoaony iinoaiaiiie
iioa?ae iieeoe/aneiai noaoona ai?iaea, oioy ii e a aeaeueiaeoai inoaaony
auaeathueiny oeaio?ii ?aianea e oi?aiaee a Ainoi/iie Aa?iia.
Oi?ie?o-aony iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiue ninoaa ianaeaiey ai?iaea. Nii?oaeathony
eaiai-iua oe?aieaiey aie?oa aiiaue inaiaiiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo
eaa?oaeia n?aae-

20

ianouey. Iniiauaathony eaoiee/aneay e a?iyineay aieneiineea eaoaae?u.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Eo/ane, n?aaeiaaaeiaue ai?iae, e?aiinoue,
yeiiiie/aneee oeaio?, Iiaeie.

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