4

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

?INOEOOO I?AEIA?IAeIEO A?AeIINEI

AIIA? OONI? IAOAe?

OAeE: 327.7 1975/1989

E?AAINUeEA I?IAEAIA A IE?IOAI?*?E

Ae?ssEUeI?NO? E?AE A?AANUeEEO AeA?AEAA

? I?AAI?CAOe?? IA’?AeIAIEO IAOe?E

(1975-1989 ??.)

23.00.04 — Iie?oe/i? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeieo

nenoai ? aeiaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

EIIIAEUe Ieaia A?iieueae?aia,

eaoaae?a i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei

oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee
?inoeoooo

i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
Ee?anueeiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea

aeioeaio

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EE?E*AIEI Aaneeue I?ioi?iae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei-

?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii iie?oe/ieo

a?aeiinei

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

NEI?IOIAe TH??e Noaiaiiae/,

eaoaae?a i?aeia?iaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e

oa aeeieiiaoe/ii? neoaeae ?inoeoooo

i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

aeioeaio

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa ?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ?

i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 22 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo i 14.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.29 a ?inoeooo?
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea
ca aae?anith: 254119, i.Ee?a, aoe.Iaeueieeiaa, 36/1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: Ee?a,
aoe.Aieiaeeie?nueea 58, e.10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 16 eeiiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Eaiaiaoeueeee I.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaeiei c ?noioieo aeaiaio?a
aeecueeino?aeii? ?aaeueiino? ae?oai? iieiaeie 70-o — ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a
noaa aioo??oiueie?aainueeee eiioe?eo, yeee aiane?aeie ?yaeo ianoaaei
cae?enithaaa ? a ye?enue i??? i?iaeiaaeo? cae?enithaaoe
aeanoaa?e?coth/ee aieea ia aanue eiiieaen aeecueeino?aeieo i?iaeai, ?
ianaiia?aae ia aeeiai?eo a?aai-?c?a?euenueeiai eiioe?eoo. Iiooee
iie?oe/iiai a?aaoethaaiiy aeecueeino?aeiiai eiioe?eoo ia?ic?eaii
iia’ycai? c a?aaoethaaiiyi e?aainueei? e?ece, ui ?, ii noo?,
“eiioe?eoii- noiooieeii». C?oeiaiiy, ui aeieeee a E?aai? ia
i?aeiaueiiiio ? i?ae?ae?a?eiiio a?oio?, caiaeii ia?a?inee a ca?ieia
i?ioenoiyiiy . Oeueiio ni?eyei ia o?eueee iiaeaeueoa iineeaiiy
aioo??oiueie?aainueeeo i?ioe??/ ? iiaeeaeaiiy e?ece ?nioth/i?
eiioan?eii? nenoaie, aea e aoyaiaiiy o aioo??oiueie?aainueeee eiioe?eo
ciai?oi?o nee ? eiai ?ioaa?aoe?y a a?aai-?c?a?euenueea i?ioenoiyiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, iacaaaeath/e ia iaaiee i?ia?an o ni?aa? aeecueeino?aeiiai
a?aaoethaaiiy ? ?ica’ycaiiy iaeanoeinueei? i?iaeaie, aeinyaioo? a ia?o?e
iieiaei? 90-o ?ie?a, i? aeecueeino?aeiee eiioe?eo, i? iaeanoeinueea
i?iaeaia ana ua ia ae??oai? ? caa??aa?oueny ?o aeanoaa?e?coth/ee aieea
ia neooaoe?th a E?aai?. C ?ioiai aieo, iai?oaeai?noue, ui caa??aa?oueny
a E?aai?, oaeiae neoaeeoue ia?aoeiaeith aeey aeinyaiaiiy ie?o ia
Aeecueeiio Noiae?, ine?eueee e?aainueea i?iaeaia ?noioii aieeaa? ia
iiceoe?? ??cieo a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa, ia?aaeon?i Ne???. Ia? aiia cia/iee
aieea ? ia iiceoe?th ?c?a?eth.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy anueiai eiiieaeno oeeo i?iaeai ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
aeey ?icoi?iiy i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a a?aanueeiio na?o? ? ia
Aeecueeiio Noiae? caaaeii, ye c oi/ee ci?o ?noi??? ? iie?oieia??, oae ?
c oi/ee ci?o i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? caeo/aieo a oeae i?ioean
aea?aeaa. Oe?a?ia, ui caeeaaea? iniiae nai?? aeecueeino?aeiee
iie?oeee, ui oi?io? naith nenoaio i??i?eoao?a ia oeueiio ?aa?iiaeueiiio
iai?yi? iiaea a?ae?a?aaaoe a?eueo aeoeaio ?ieue a aeinyaiaii?
aeecueeino?aeiiai a?aaoethaaiiy, a oiio /ene? a ?ica’ycaii? e?aainueei?
i?iaeaie.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia ? oei, ui
iacaaaeath/e ia cia/io ?iaioo, i?i?iaeaio ?in?enueeeie, oe?a?inueeeie ?
ca?oa?aeieie aaoi?aie, a no/ani?e ?noi??ia?ao?? i?aeoe/ii iaia?
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a yeiio ?icaeyaeaeany a ae?yeuei?noue E?ae
a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa ? I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e, ni?yiiaaia ia
?ica’ycaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece. E??i oiai, ca?aeaieia?ciaai?noue
i?aeoiae?a aaaaoueio aaoi??a, a oiio /ene? ? ?in?enueeiiiaieo,
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaaaeaeaaoiiai aena?oeaiiy ie?ioai?/i? ae?yeueiino?
aeacaieo ?inoeooo?a. Aanue oeae eiiieaen iioea?a ? iaoiiaea aea?? oaie
oeueiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie, ieaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea «?icaoaeiaa
aea?aeaaiino?» oa ?IA EO ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea «?ic?iaea
i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo, iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo iniia ?icaoaeiae
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae»;

Iaoeiaith i?iaeaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aecia/aiiy ?ie? E?ae a?aanueeeo
aea?aeaa ? I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e o a?aaoethaaii? e?aainueei?
e?ece c iiiaioo ?? aeieeiaiiy a ea?oi? 1975 ?. ? aei i?aeienaiiy
Ao-Oa?onueeeo 1989 ?ieo oaiae, ui caeeaee iniiao aeey i?eieiaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie ? anoaiiaeaiiy ie?o a E?aai?.

Iaoeiaa eiioeaioe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?iaeaia
a?aaoethaaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece caeiaea aaaeeeaa i?noea a ae?yeueiino?
E?ae a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa ? I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e, ui aoei
coiiaeaii iaiao?aei?noth iineaaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeii? iai?oaeaiino? ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ? aeiaaeueiiio ??ai?. I?aeo?ae oeeo i?aai?caoe?e aei
a?aaoethaaiiy e?aainueei? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaany ia iniia? ?aa?iiaeueieo ?
aeiaaeueieo i??i?eoao?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?ioa?an?a e?aainueeiai ia?iaeo.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aeoe/ia ae?yeuei?noue E?ae a?aanueeeo
aea?aeaa ? I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e c a?aaoethaaiiy
aioo??oiueie?aainueei? e?ece o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 70-o — 80-o ?ieao.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oi?ie ? iaoiaee cae?eniaiiy ie?ioai?/i?
ae?yeueiino? E?ae a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa ? I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e,
ni?yiiaaii? ia ?ica’ycaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia’?eoeaia ? anaa?/ia aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino?
E?ae a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa ? I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e, ni?yiiaaii?
ia i?eieiaiiy a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie a E?aai? ? aeinyaiaiiy
aioo??oiueie?aainueeiai a?aaoethaaiiy, aeyaeaiiy iniiaieo ia’?eoeaieo ?
noa’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a, ui ni?eyee aai ui ia?aoeiaeaeaee oeueiio, a
oaeiae aena?oeaiiy o??? ?ie?, yeo c?a?aee aeacai? ?inoeoooe a
aeinyaiaii? iinoaaeaii? iaoe.

O eiioaeno? noi?ioeueiaaii? iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

— aeyaeoe ? aeine?aeeoe aioo??oi? ? ciai?oi? /eiieee aeieeiaiiy
e?aainueei? e?ece;

— aecia/eoe oa?aeoa? ? niaoeeo?eo e?aainueeiai eiioe?eoo;

— aecia/eoe i??o aieeao ciai?oiueiai /eiieea ia iiaeeaeaiiy e?aainueei?
e?ece;

— aeine?aeeoe ae?yeuei?noue E?ae a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa ? aeaoe ioe?ieo ??
coneeeyi c ii?iae?caoe?? neooaoe?? a E?aai? c iiiaioo aeieeiaiiy
e?aainueei? e?ece ? aei i?aeienaiiy Ao-Oa?onueeeo oaiae, i?eae?eeaoe
aieiaio oaaao aiae?co ??oaiue, ye? aoee i?eeiyo? a a?aanueeeo aa?oao o
aeacaiee ia??iae;

— c?iaeoe ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c ? aeaoe ioe?ieo ae?yeueiino? I?aai?caoe??
Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e c i?eieiaiiy aa?aneaieo ae?e ?c?a?eth i?ioe
E?aainueei? ?anioae?ee, ui cia/ii aieeaaee ia oneeaaeiaiiy neooaoe?? a
oe?e e?a?i?, a oaeiae c?iaeoe aiae?c ? aeaoe ioe?ieo ae?yeueiino? III c
ii?iae?caoe?? noaiiaeua a E?aai?, i?eae?eeaoe iniiaio oaaao oaeei
eeth/iaei aeieoiaioai, ye ?aciethoe?? ? ??oaiiy ?aaee Aaciaee III;

— aecia/eoe i??o aieeao ?c?a?euenueei? aa?an?? 1982 ?ieo i?ioe E?aaio
ia iiaeeaeaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece;

— iieacaoe aieea iiey?ecaoe?? nee a a?aanueeiio na?o? ia ii/aoeo 80-o
?ie?a ia i?aeo?ae a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa aei e?aainueei? i?iaeaie;

— aena?oeeoe aieea aioeiaeanoeinueei? ni?yiiaaiino? iie?oeee
Aaoeiaoiia ia eiai iiceoe?th a III c e?aainueeiai ieoaiiy;

— aecia/eoe cia/aiiy Ao-Oa?onueeeo oaiae ? iieacaoe ?o ?ieue o
i?eieiaii? a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie ? anoaiiaeaii? ie?o a E?aai?.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae
c ae?oai? iieiaeie 70-o ?ie?a ? aei e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a. Ieaeiy iaaea
o?iiieia?/ieo ?aiie aecia/aia ii/aoeii a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie a E?aai?,
aeeeeeaii? ?yaeii i?e/ei ?noi?e/iiai ? aioo??oiueiai oa?aeoa?o. Aa?oiy —
i?aeienaiiyi Ao-Oa?onueeeo oaiae, ui iineoaeeee iniiaith aeey i?eieiaiiy
oe??? a?eie ? anoaiiaeaiiy ie?o a E?aai?. Aea?? oaeeo iaae
iiynith?oueny ia?aaeon?i i?noeai ? iane?aeeaie oeueiai ia??iaeo a
?noi??? E?aaio, a oaeiae iaaeinoaoiueith aea/ai?noth i?iaeaie a no/ani?e
?noi??ia?ao??. Aeaye? a?aenooie a?ae o?iiieia?/ieo iaae, a oea
noino?oueny o?eueee /aoaa?oiai ?icae?eo, aoee aeiiouai? aeeeth/ii c
iaoith aena?oeaiiy ae?yeueiino? I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e c
i?eieiaiiy aa?aneaieo ae?e ?c?a?eth i?ioe E?aaio i?ae i?eaiaeii
ai?ioueae c “iaeanoeinueeei oa?i?eciii” c e?aainueei? oa?eoi???.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue
ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae i?ciaiiy, yeee aeicaiey? aeine?aeeoe ae?yeuei?noue
E?ae a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa ? I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e c
a?aaoethaaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece ? a?aeiiaeaiiy ie?o a ae?aeaeoe/iiio
?icaeoeo. Aeena?oaio aeoiaeea c oiai, ui iaoeiaa ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiiaeeeaa aac aeio?eiaiiy caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo a
?noi??ia?ao?? i?eioeei?a ?noi?ecio ? ia’?eoeaiino?. A?i aeei?enoaa
oaeiae iaoiae nenoaiiiai aiae?co aeieoiaio?a ? e?oa?aoo?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny ia?aaeon?i oei,
ui aiia yaey? niaith iaeio c ia?oeo ni?ia a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??
ia iniia? aeieoiaio?a ? ?ai?oa ia aaaaeaieo a iaoeiaee ia?a aeaea?ae
ia’?eoeaii ? eiiieaenii aeine?aeeoe ae?yeuei?noue E?ae a?aanueeeo
aea?aeaa ? I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e, ni?yiiaaio ia a?aaoethaaiiy
aioo??oiueie?aainueei? e?ece, ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie aeecueeino?aeiiai
eiioe?eoo. A?aoiaoth/e oo ianoaaeio, ui ?noi?e/ia ei??iiy ? aaiaca
e?aainueei? e?ece ciaeoee, c iaoi? oi/ee ci?o, aeinoaoi? aena?oeaiiy a
e?oa?aoo??, aeena?oaio ii?ooea eeoa aniaeoe, iaiao?aei? aeey a?eueo
aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy i?iaeaie.

Aeena?oaio noi?ioethaaa eiei iieiaeaiue, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— a iniia? aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii? e?ece a E?aai? eaaeeoue oe?eee eiiieaen
i?e/ei ye aeanii e?aainueeiai, oae ?aa?iiaeueiiai ? iica?aa?iiaeueiiai
iioiaeaeaiiy;

— ao?o/aiiy E?ae a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa a 1975-1981 ?ieao o ae??oaiiy
e?aainueei? e?ece aoei iaiao?aeiei ? ei?eniei ? a oeueiio ni?aiaaeaee
?ioa?ane E?aaio oa a?aanueeeo e?a?i;

— ?aaeuei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ae??oaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece ? anoaiiaeaiiy
anainyaeiiai ie?o ia Aeecueeiio Noiae? noai?eei i?eeiyooy ia
caaaeueiia?aanueeiio ??ai? Oanueeiai ieaio;

— a ia??iae, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, i?ine?aeeiao?oueny caoe?eaaeai?noue
na?oiai? ni?eueiioe o aeinyaiaii? i?eieiaiiy aa?aneaieo aeoe?e ?c?a?eth
i?ioe E?aaio, ui yaeyeenue aaaeeeaei /eiieeii caaino?aiiy
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a oe?e e?a?i?;

— I?aai?caoe?y Ia»?aeiaiieo Iaoe?e a inia? ?aaee Aaciaee caeiaea aeoeaio
iiceoe?th ii a?aeiioaiith aei e?aainueei? e?ece ? aeieeaaeaea coneeue
aeey ?? a?aaoethaaiiy oeyoii i?eeiyooy oe?ei? iecee ?aciethoe?e;

— aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii noaa?e?caoe?? aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a
E?aai? iineoaeeee noai?ai? ?aaeith Aaciaee 19 aa?aciy 1978 ?. Oei/ania?
neee III i?ae ?? ea??aieoeoaii;

— iaiaaaiiy III ?ica»ycaoe e?aainueeo e?eco a ia??iae ? i?ney i»yoi?
a?aai-?c?a?euenueei? a?eie a?aeia?aaeaee ?? aioiai?noue ooeaoe ae??oaiiy
oe??? i?iaeaie ? aeecueeino?aeii? e?ece caaaeii;

— oi/a ?aaea Aaciaee III a oe?eiio i?iyaeyea iaeiinoaei?noue a
i?aeoiaeao aei ae??oaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece, iaaeineiiae?noue ?nioth/eo
iaoai?ci?a a?aaoethaaiiy oaeeo neooaoe?e ia aeicaieeea aeiaeoenue
iiceoeaieo iane?aee?a;

— i?aeoe/iei ae??oaeueiei e?ieii E?ae a?aanueeeo e?a?i aei a?aaoethaaiiy
e?aainueei? e?ece noaei neeeeaiiy a Ao-Oa?o? e?aainueeiai ia?eaiaioo,
yeee i?eeiya «Oa?o?th iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino?», ui noai?eea iniiao aeey
i?eieiaiiy a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie ? anoaiiaeaiiy ie?o a e?a?i?.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny
aeooaeuei?noth ? iaeiaeine?aeaeai?noth oaie. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c
ae?yeueiino? EAAe ? III c a?aaoethaaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece ia? aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy aeey oai?aoe/iiai ocaaaeueiaiiy i?iaeai aaiace ? aaiethoe??
?aa?iiaeueieo eiioe?eo?a, a oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, ui i?noeoueny a
aeena?oaoe??, ? aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e i?iaaaeaii?
iie?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, cie?aia, aeey ?ic?iaee iaoeiaeo
eiioeaioe?e ?icaeieoaaiiy eiioe?eo?a oeio e?aainueeiai, a i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? ??cieo i?aai?caoe?e aeey i?aeaioiaee aiae?oe/ieo iaoa??ae?a
c i?iaeai i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ia Aeecueeiio Noiae?.

Iaoa??aee ? ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
ei?enieie i?e iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe? aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee, a oaeiae a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? i?e /eoaii? ii?iaoeaieo ? niaoe?aeueieo eo?n?a c
?noi??? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee, i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei a aeecueeino?aeiiio ?aa?ii?, ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee ie?aieo
a?aanueeeo e?a?i.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca. Ia?aeiiei iaoa??aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy noaei,
ia?aaeon?i, oe?iea eiei i?ea?iaeueieo aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a III,
cia/ia e?euee?noue yeeo aia?oa cacia? aeeaieiai aiae?co a ?aieao oaie,
ui ?icaeyaea?oueny. Aoee ii?aoeueiaai? ?aciethoe?? ? ??oaiiy ?aaee
Aaciaee III, a oaeiae iaoa??aee aeayeeo ?aaoey?ieo nan?e Aaia?aeueii?
Anaiaea?, ui noinothoueny e?aainueei? i?iaeaie.

Iaoa??aeii aeey aeena?oaoe?? iineoaeeee oaeiae aeieoiaioe ia?aae aeaa
aea?aeaa ? o?yae?a a?aanueeeo e?a?i, a oaeiae aeieoiaioe i?i?noa?noaa
caei?aeiiieo ni?aa E?aainueei? ?anioae?ee, a?o?ai? iaoa??aee
Caaaeueiia?aanueeiai ea??aieoeoaa Ia?o?? a?aanueeiai nioe?ae?noe/iiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy (IANA) e ?io?. Oe? iaoa??aee aeicaieeee aeena?oaioo
c?iaeoe aiae?c ? aeaoe ia”?eoeaio, c eiai oi/ee ci?o, ioe?ieo coneeeyi
EAAe ? III, ni?yiiaaiei ia i?eieiaiiy a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie ?
a?aeiiaeaiiy ie?o ? niieith a E?aai?.

Ie?aii? oaaae caneoaiaothoue iaoa??aee a?o?ao Oeaio?o aeine?aeaeaiue
i?e I?aai?caoe?? aecaieaiiy Iaeanoeie (IAI) a Aae?oo?. Aae?oonueeee
oeaio? aeine?aeaeaiue a nai?e i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? iniiaio oaaao
i?eae?ey? cai?o ? aiae?co iaoa??ae?a c iaeanoeinueei? i?iaeaie ?
noaiiaeua a E?aai?.

Oe?eaaeie ? ei?enieie aeey ?iaioe aeyaeeeny iaoa??aee Ao-Oa?onueeeo
oaiae 1989 ?ieo , ye? aeicaieeee aaoi?o neeanoe aeania oyaeaiiy i?i
o?oaeiiu? aeinyaiaiiy eiii?ii?n?a i?ae noi?iiaie e?aainueeiai eiioe?eoo,
ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o i?ioeai?noa? i?ae niaith.

Iaaio ?ioi?iaoe?th iaoiaee/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o aaoi? io?eiaa a
?yae? niaoe?aeueieo aeaeaiue i?aeia?iaeieo i?aeo?yaeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e,
a oaeiae ca??ieeao aeieoiaio?a III, aeaeaieo a eieeoiueiio ?aaeyinueeiio
Nithc?.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie ? iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e.

I?e i?aeaioiaoe? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaio oaaaeii aea/ea ?iaioe
?in?enueeeo aaoi??a, ui noinothoueny e?aainueei? i?iaeaie ?
aeecueeino?aeii? e?ece caaaeii. Aeaye? aniaeoe ieoaiue, ui noinothoueny
ae?yeueiino? EAAe ? III c e?aainueei? i?iaeaie, aecia/aiiy ?o ?ie? a
ni?aa? i?eieiaiiy a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie ? a?aeiiaeaiiy ie?o a E?aai?,
?icaeyaeaeeny a ?iaioao Aaa?eoaaa A.A. Ai?aaoiaa I.I. ? *a?eanueeiai
E.ss. , Aei?o???aa A. I. , Een?eueiaa A.?. , Iaaeaaaeei E.?.,
Noiee?oeueeiai N.E. e ?ioeo aaoi??a.

Cia/iee ?ioa?an aeena?oaioa aeeeeeaee ?iaioe aeaaeai?ea I?eiaeiaa
?.I.” Aiaoii?y aeecueeino?aeiiai eiioe?eoo” oa “?noi??y iaeiiai
caiai?o”. A ieo aena?oeththoueny aoceia? ieoaiiy aeecueeino?aeii?
iie?oeee NOA a 70-o? — 80-o? ?iee, oiaoi ia??iaeo o?aa?/ieo iiae?e a
E?aai?, aee?eaa?oueny aeniain?ii?nonueea nooue iie?oeee ?c?a?eth uiaei
a?aanueeeo e?a?i, i?noeoueny cia/iee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae c iaeanoeinueei?
i?iaeaie, ae??oaiiy yei? o?nii iia’ycaia c a?aaoethaaiiyi
aioo??oiueie?aainueeiai eiioe?eoo ? iaaiaee.

Aaee/acia cia/aiiy aeey a?eueo aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy oaie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaa ?yae eieaeoeaieo ?ia?o ?in?enueeeo
a/aieo. O oeeo ?iaioao aena?oeththoueny ieoaiiy ?noi?e/iiai,
iie?oe/iiai ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?i A?aanueeiai
Noiaeo, aiae?co?oueny noai i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei a aeecueeino?aeiiio
?aa?ii?, aena?oeththoueny iniiai? aniaeoe ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee e?a?i
?aa?iio ? NOA, ieoaiiy ai?ioueae iaeanoeinueeiai ia?iaeo ca nai?
iaa?ae’?ii? i?aaa. Aiie aeiiiiiaee oaeiae aeena?oaioo aecia/eoe i?noea
e?aainueei? i?iaeaie a neeaaeiiio ? noia?a/eeaiio aoce? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei ia Aeecueeiio Noiae?.

Ei?eniith aeey aeena?oaioa noaea ?iaioa A.A.Coaiaa “Ia?eaiaionueea
aeaiie?ao?y ? iie?oe/i? o?aaeeoe?? Noiaeo”, a ye?e ?icaeyaeathoueny oae?
ieoaiiy, ye oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie eiioan?iiae?cio a E?aai?, ??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? e?ece. Oe? ae ieoaiiy ii?ooothoueny a o?e aai ?io?e
i??? ? c iaaieie iiaeyaeaie ? i?aeoiaeaie ? a ?iaioao aeayeeo
a?aanueeeo aaoi??a.

Aaaeeeai ie?aii coieieoeny ia ?iaioao oe?a?inueeeo aaoi??a , a yeeo
i?noeoueny oe?ieee oaeoieia?/iee ? aiae?oe/iee iaoa??ae c i?iaeai
aeecueeino?aeii? e?ece, i?aea?aanueeeo a?aeiinei, iie?oeee NOA e
?c?a?eth ia Aeecueeiio Noiae? e ?io. Oea, a ia?oo /a?ao, ?iaioe Ao?e
A.E., Eiiiaeue I.A., Ianoea I.Ae. ? ?ioeo. Aaciina?aaeiuei i?iaeaiai
e?aainueeiai eiioe?eoo ? iiae?yi iaaeiei iueiai i?enay/aiee ?yae
iaoeiaeo noaoae Nei?ioiaea TH.N. ? Nei?ioiae E. ?. Oe? ?iaioe aeyaeeeny
ei?enieie a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ne?ae,
iaeiae, i?aee?aneeoe, ui c ?noi?e/ii? aeenoaioe?? iaoiai /ano aeaye?
ioe?iee iiae?e ye ?in?enueeeie, oae ? oe?a?inueeeie aaoi?aie iathoue
yaii ca?aeaieia?ciaaiee, oaiaeaioe?eiee oa?aeoa? ? iio?aaothoue
ia?ainieneaiiy.

Aaeeeo oaaao a i?ioean? ?iaioe iaae aeena?oaoe??th aaoi? i?eae?eea
?iaioai a?aanueeeo aeine?aeiee?a, ui noiyoue ia ??cieo iiceoe?yo ?
a?aeia?aaeathoue oi/eo ci?o ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee ? nioe?aeueieo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy a?aanueeeo e?a?i. Ia iao iiaeyae, iaea?eueo ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c
?icaeoeo iiae?e ye o aeecueeino?aeiiio ?aa?ii? caaaeii, oae ? a
E?aai?, cie?aia, aea?oueny a ?iaioao oaeeo a?aanueeeo aaoi??a, ye Ia?aa
E. ? Aiaeue Iaaaae?.

Aaeeeee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae c i?iaeaie, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, i?noeoueny
a ?iaio? Aaaana ?. e ?ioeo a?aanueeeo aaoi??a , ui i?eieeathoue aei
ia’?eoea?nonueeiai iai?yio a a?aanuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??. Oe? aaoi?e
?ice?eaathoue i?e/eie caaino?aiiy aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a
E?aai?, aiae?cothoue aieea ??cieo /eiiee?a, a oiio /ene? ? ciai?oi?o, ia
?icaeoie e?aainueeeo iiae?e.

Aiae?coth/e ?iaioe a?aanueeeo aaoi??a, ia iiaeia, c iaoi? oi/ee ci?o,
ia caaaeaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy Aae?aaeoi? Ea??ia , yeee a?aeia?aaea? oi/eo
ci?o e?oiii? e?aainueei? ao?aeoac?? ? a?aee?eoi caeeeeaa aei a?aeiiae
a?ae ni?ai?aoe? c Ne???th, ?ieue yei? o a?aaoethaaii? noaiiaeua a
E?aai? aeciaia ia caaaeueiia?aanueeiio ??ai?. A?i ? i?eoeeueieeii
ci?oeiaiiy aei?noei? i?aceaeaionueei? aeaaee,. caa?aaeaiiy eiioan?eii?
nenoaie, yea, ye ? a iaaeaeaeiio ieioeiio, aa?aiooaaea a i?ea?ea?
aaeeei? ao?aeoac?? ia?iieonueei? iaueie, c /ei ie ia iiaeaii
nie?aea?ecoaaoeny.

Aoei a iaaei?aaaeaiei oi/ ae ei?ioei ia coieieoeny ia iaioa?ieo
?iaioao eieeoi?o aenieiiinoaaeaieo aea?aeaaieo ae?y/?a E?aaio, oaeeo ye
aen-i?aceaeaio A.AEiaeaeue ? aen-i?ai’??-i?i?no? N.Aeue-Oinn. Aiie
aoee ia o?eueee aaciina?aaei?ie o/anieeaie iiae?e, ui ?icii/aeeny a
E?aai?, aea e nai?ie ae?yie aieeaaee ia ?o ?icaeoie. Aaoi?nuee? ioe?iee
e?aainueeeo iiae?e aeicaieeee aeena?oaioo aeeaoa aieeiooe a ?o nooue.
Cie?aia, eieeoi?e e?aainueeee i?ai’??-i?i?no? ?iaeoue aeeaieee aiae?c
??cieo iiaeaeae iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie, ui aeaaaooaaeeny a
iie?oe/ieo, ae?eiaeo ? iaoeiaeo eieao E?aaio. Ia eiai aeoieo,
i?iaaaeaiiy iie?oe/ieo ?aoi?i a E?aai? noaei aino?ith iaiao?aei?noth.

Aaaeeeaeie ? iaiao?aeieie aeey aeena?oaioa aoee ciaeiinoai ? ?iaioa
iaae aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ui c’yaeeeny a e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie ? NOA,
oaeeo ye Ae.Iaein oa A.Caai?ei. Aeaye? c aaoi??a iaiaaathoueny c
iiceoe?e, ui i?aoaiaeothoue ia ia’?eoeai?noue aiae?coaaoe
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iee eo?n NOA ia Aeecueeiio Noiae?, iaaeaoe Aaoeiaoiio
aeaeyae ie?ioai?oey. Aiie caeeeeaee NOA aei a?aeiiae a?ae iie?oeee
“aeiaae?cio», i???ioaoe?y ia yeo caaaaeaea i?aaeeueiiio ?icoi?iith
neooaoe?? a a?aanueeiio na?o?. Ia ?o aeoieo, noaaea Aaoeiaoiia ia
?c?a?eue ia?aoai?thaaea eiai c ie?ioai?oey o ai?iaa a?aa?a, /iai ia
iiaee ia a?aoiaoaaoe a aiioo ?aaeyinueei-aia?eeainueeiai i?ioenoiyiiy ia
A?aanueeiio Noiae? iaa?oue a?aanuee? eiina?aaoeai? ?aaeeie. ?io?
canoaeaeothoue iaoiaee ae?e ?c?a?eueoyi ? e?aainueeeo oaeaia?no?a
a?aeiinii iaeanoeioe?a, ui ciaeoee i?eooeie ia e?aainuee?e oa?eoi???.
O?ao?o iio??aii a?aeianoe aei /enea aeine?aeiee?a eiina?aaoeaiiai oieeo
, ye? aei?aaaeiaothoue aei?noeee eo?n NOA ? ?c?a?eth a?aeiinii
a?aanueeeo e?a?i. I?e?iaeii, ui oe? ?iaioe aeiaaaee na?eiciiai
e?eoe/iiai inieneaiiy ? aiie aeiiiaieee i?aaenoaaeaiiy aeena?oaioa
aeayeeie oaeoe/ieie iaoa??aeaie.

Ia?aoo?, ??ciiiai?oiee oaeoe/iee ? aiae?oe/iee iaoa??ae aoa
aeei?enoaiee c oe?eiai ?yaeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, cie?aia ?in?enueeeo,
a?aanueeeo, cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo ? aia?eeainueeeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiiaithaaeenue ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia?ao, ui i?iaiaeeeeny a ?inoeooo?
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee, a oaeiae aeeeaaeai? a 4
iioae?eiaaieo noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Caaaeueiee ianya
?iaioe noaiiaeoue 180 noi??iie. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e caeia? 14
noi??iie (237 iaeiaioaaiue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??.

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aecia/athoueny
iaoa, caaaeaiiy, o?iiieia?/i? iaeae? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny
iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe, ?icaeyaea?oueny
aeaea?aeueia aaca ? aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea noaio iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee
oaie.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “I?e/eie aeieeiaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece oa aieea
ciai?oiueiai oaeoi?o ia ?? ?icaeoie” i?enay/aii aena?oeaiith aaiace
e?aainueei? i?iaeaie oa aiae?co eiiieaeno i?ioe??/, iia’ycaieo c
niaoeeo?/ieie iniaeeainoyie aioo??oiueiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie oa ??
ca’yceaie c ciai?oi?i na?oii, ui neeaeeny ?noi?e/ii.?noi??y E?aaio
i?ioyaii inoaii?o noi??/ ciaea /eiaei neeaaeieo aioo??oi?o
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo e?ec, ui /anoi ia?aoiaeeee o oaco ca?ieii?
ai?ioueae i?ae ie?aieie e?aainueeeie a?oiaie ianaeaiiy. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui a
eiaei?e c oeeo e?ec iniaeeao ?ieue a?aee ye ciai?oi?e /eiiee, oae ?
?aa?iiaeuei? neee, aeey yeeo E?aai, aiane?aeie nai?? aaiiie?oe/ii?
iniaeeaino?, aeiiii?/iiai ? ?ae?a?eiiai ono?ith, aoa c?o/iei ia’?eoii
aeey aeniain??.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui ae?aeaeoe/iee aca?iica’ycie aioo??oi?o oa ciai?oi?o
oaeoi??a ?icaeoeo E?aaio i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaino?aiiy aioo??oi?o
i?ioe??/, ui a naith /a?ao ni?e/eiy? ao?o/aiiy ciai?oi?o nee, a oea, a
naith /a?ao, aaaea aei iiaeaeueoiai caaino?aiiy i?ioe??/ aioo??oi?o.
Aioo??oiueie?aainueeee eiioe?eo iaa i?aeia?iaeiee aniaeo, ine?eueee eiai
iane?aeee aieeaaee ia i?aeia?iaeio neooaoe?th a oe?eiio, ia?o ca ana ia
noaiiaeua a non?aei?o e?a?iao ? ?aa?ii?. C ?ioiai aieo, ciai?oi?
oaeoi?e, a oi/i?oa ao?o/aiiy o e?aainueeo e?eco ciai?oi?o nee, ni?aaeyei
c?inoath/ee aieea ia eiai ?icaeoie. Aaiethoe?y e?aainueeiai eiioe?eoo
ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue, ui ??ci? oeie oa aeaee eiioe?eo?a o?nii
aca?iiiia’ycai?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ia e?eca a E?aai? oa ni?iae
?? a?aaoethaaiiy a?aanueeeie e?a?iaie a 1975-1981 ??.” ?icaeyaea?
coneeey a?aanueeeo e?a?i a oeueiio iai?yieo ia i?ioyc? o?ueio oac
?icaeoeo eiioe?eoo. Ia?oa oaca – a?ae ii/aoeo a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie a
ea?oi? 1975 ?ieo aei aaiaeo ne??enueeeo a?enuee – oae caaia
“o?enoeyinueei-iaeanoeinueea oaca”. Ae?oaa oaca –
“ne?eenueei-o?enoeyinueea” ioiieth? ia??iae c 1978 ?ieo ii 1981 ??e.
O?aoy – “?c?a?euenueea oaca” ii/aeany i?ney ?c?a?euenueeiai aoi?aiaiiy a
1982 ?ioe?. Inoaiiy oaca – “oaca i?ioenoiyiiy” ioiieth? ia??iae c 1983
?ieo aei i?aeienaiiy Ao-Oa?onueeeo oaiae.

A?aanuee? e?a?ie cae?enieee ia?o? ni?iae “a?aa?coaaoe” e?aainueeo e?eco,
?icoi?th/e i?ae oeei iiooe oa oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a a?aeiinei
noaa?eueiino? oa aaciaee a E?aai? a iaaeao i?aea?aanueeeo a?aeiinei.
Eiie?aoi? ae?? a oeueiio iai?yieo aoee c?iaeai? a aeiaoi? 1975 ?ieo a
Ea??? ia nan?? i?i?no??a caei?aeiiieo ni?aa e?a?i-/eai?a EAAe. Aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy iaee ??oaiiy nan?? EAAe ia ??ai? i?i?no??a caei?aeiiieo ni?aa a
/a?ai? 1976 ?ieo uiaei ?ici?uaiiy a E?aai? i?aea?aanueeeo nee aaciaee o
neeaae? a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue Aeaee?o, Ne???, Naoae?anueei? A?aa??,
Noaeaio, IAA, E?a?? oa IAe??.

EAAe ooai?eea eii?oao c E?aaio o neeaae? Naoae?anueei? A?aa??, ?aeioo oa
Noaeaio. E?aainueea i?iaeaia iaaiai?thaaeanue ia O?? caaaeueiia?aanuee?e
ia?aae? a i. Oan? a eenoiiaae? 1981 ?ieo.

Oaeei /eiii, ia i?ioyc? 1975 – 1981 ?ie?a ia a?aanueeiio ??ai? ?iaeeenue
/enaeuei? coneeey c iaoith a?aaoethaaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece. C oi/ee ci?o
aaoi?a, aiie ia caaaeaee oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue iine?aeiai?noth ?
cae?enithaaeenue c cai?ciaiiyi. Aei oiai aiie a iniiaiiio oi?eaeenue
ieoaiue e?aaii-iaeanoeii-ne??enueeeo a?aeiinei ? ia aoee ni?yiiaai? ia
eiiieaenia ae??oaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece.

?iciaaeoaaiiy a EAAe noiniaii e?aainueei? i?iaeaie ia
aeicaieeei aeinyaoe eiii?ii?no e?aainueeeo, iaeanoeinueeeo oa
ne??enueeeo ?ioa?an?a, ui iiaeeeai ? i?ecaaei aei ?c?a?euenueei? aa?an??
1982 ?ieo. A oie aea /an a?eueo?noue a?aanueeeo e?a?i aeciaaaee iniaeeao
?ieue Ne??? o a?aaoethaaii? e?aainueei? e?ece ? oaeoe/ii naieoe?iioaaee
?? a?enueeiao i?enooi?noue a E?aai? a iaaeao EAAe. ?ioa?ane Ne??? a
E?aai? oa i?ioeae?y ?i ye c aieo ai?iaoth/eo e?aainueeeo oa?oioaaiue,
oae ? ie?aieo a?aanueeeo e?a?i, ia’?eoeaii ia ni?eyee iie?oe/iiio
a?aaoethaaiith e?aainueei? e?ece.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “?c?a?euenueea aa?an?y 1982 ?ieo i?ioe
E?aaio oa ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?y aioo??oiueie?aainueei? e?ece”
aiae?co?oueny ao?o/aiiy ciai?oi?o nee — nii/aoeo ?c?a?eth, a iio?i
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo nee, oa ?o aieea ia ?icaeoie e?aainueei? e?ece,
eiai ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?th.

A oiiaao ?c?a?euenueei? aa?an?? oa caaino?aiiy aioo??oiueie?aainueei?
e?ece aeaye? a?aanuee? e?a?ie, cie?aia E?a?y, ?iaeee ni?iae ae??oeoe
oeth i?iaeaio ia i?aea?aanueeiio ??ai?. Oey i?iaeaia iaaiai?thaaeanue a
/a?ai? 1982 ?ieo ia cono??/? i?i?no??a caei?aeiiieo ni?aa e?a?i-/eai?a
EAAe. Aea ?aeeiei i?aeoe/iei ?acoeueoaoii oe??? cono??/? noaei ooai?aiiy
eii?n?? o neeaae? i?i?no??a caei?aeiiieo ni?aa Aeaee?o, Eoaaeoo, E?aaio,
Naoae?anueei? A?aa?? oa i?aaenoaaieea IAI c a?aaoethaaiiy e?aainueei?
e?ece. Aiia i?aeaiooaaea oae caaiee “Ieai ie?o”.

Iina?aaeieoeoai NOA o aeinyaiaii? ia?aie?’y i?ae ?c?a?eai oa IAI aoei
eiiiainiaaii caiaeith e?aainueeiai o?yaeo ia ia?aaoaaiiy
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo nee cao?aeieo e?a?i a Aae?oo?. Aei aaiaeo a E?aai
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo nee aeecueeino?aeiee eiioe?eo ia aeoiaeea ca iaae?
a?aai-?c?a?euenueeeo c?oeiaiue. NOA ia i?eeiaee i?yii? o/ano? o
a?enueeiaeo ae?yo ia aioe? ?c?a?eth, a cae?enithaaee eeoa eiai
a?enueeiao, o?iainiao, aeeieiiaoe/io oa ii?aeueio i?aeo?eieo. I?ney
i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy uiaei aaaaeaiiy a E?aai aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo nee oa
o/ano? a ieo aia?eeainueeiai a?enueeiaiai eiioeiaaioo aeieea? i?yia
a?aai-aia?eeainueea ai?iia eiio?iioaoe?y. Aaaaeaiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo
nee ia o?eueee ia ni?eyei ?icaeieoaaiith e?aainueei? e?ece, aea e
caaino?eei aioo??oiueiiie?oe/io neooaoe?th a e?a?i?. E?aainueea e?eca
aeeoea ca iaoe?iiaeuei? oa ?aa?iiaeuei? iaae? ? i?eeiyea i?aeia?iaeiee
oa?aeoa?.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aena?oeth?oueny oa aiae?co?oueny
ae?yeuei?noue III, ni?yiiaaia ia i?en?/aiiy aa?aneaieo ae?e ?c?a?eth
i?ioe E?aaio, i?eie?aiiy e?aainueeeo ai?iaeoth/eo iie?oe/ieo nee ?
aeinyaiaiiy aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii? noaa?e?caoe?? a e?a?i? a 70-? — ia?o?e
iieiaei? 90-o ?ie?a.

A 70-? ?iee a E?aai? ? iaaeiei iueiai neeaeanue iiaa ianoaiiaea. I?ney
«/i?iiai aa?aniy» 1970 ?ieo ca?iei? neee iaeanoeinueeiai ?ooo iii?o
ciooai? aoee caeeoeoe Ei?aeai?th ? ia?aaacoaaoenue a E?aai, yeee noaa
aieiaiith aacith eiai ae?yeueiino?. Oea noaei i?e/eiith iineeaiiy
aa?aneaieo ae?e ?c?a?eth i?ioe e?a?ie, yea oaeoe/ii ia aoea o/anieoeath
a?aai-?c?a?euenueeiai ai?iiiai i?ioeai?noaa.

Iaiaaee ?c?a?eth ia oa?eoi??th E?aaio aeeeeeaee ?iciaaeoaaiiy
e?aainueeeo iie?oe/ieo nee c ieoaiue ?c?a?euenueei? aa?an?? ?
a?aeiioaiiy aei iaeanoeinueei? i?enooiino? a e?a?i?. Oea ?iciaaeoaaiiy
iaei i?noea ia oe? caaino?aiiy nioe?aeueii? e?ece, ui ioiieea an? ?aeiie
E?aaio. Ni?iae e?aainueeeo i?aaey/eo e?e i?eaeooeoe ia?iaei? aenooie
iineethaaee iai?oao ai?ioueae, a yeo aeeth/aeenue ana a?eueo oe?ie? iane
e?aaioe?a. A oiiaao, ui neeaeenue, i?aaio?enoeyinuee? eiea ni?iaieoaaee
/a?aiaee eiioe?eo c iaeanoeioeyie, i?aea?oioy aeey yeiai i?aeaiooaaea
oa?i?enoe/ia aeoe?y ?c?a?eth i?ioe iaeanoeinueeiai ea??aieoeoaa a ia?o?e
aeaeaae? ea?oiy 1973 ?ieo. Ine?eueee aeoe aa?an?? ?c?a?eth i?ioe E?aaio
iaaoaaee ia?iaiaioiiai oa?aeoa?o, ?aaea Aaciaee III i?eeiyea ?yae
?aciethoe?e (?? 425, 426, 501, 508, 509), a yeeo aeiaaaea a?ae ?c?a?eth
iaaaeiiai i?eieiaiiy an?o ai?iieo ae?e i?ioe E?aaio, oo?eiaiiy a?ae
iiae?aiiai a iaeaooiueiio ? aac caie?eaiiy aeaanoe an? ?c?a?euenuee?
ca?iei? neee c e?aainueei? oa?eoi???. I?eieiaiiy aa?aneaieo aeoe?e
?c?a?eth i?ioe E?aaio ni?eyei a ciaioaiith aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii?
iai?oaeaiino? a e?a?i? ? aeicaieeei a oieeiooe ii/aoeo a?aoiaaea/i?
a?eie i?ae e?aaioeyie ? iaeanoeioeyie. I?ioa, ca?aeii c eia?eith
Oaeue-Aa?ao, oey a?eia iaea i?eaanoe aei iineaaeaiiy iaeanoeioe?a, ui
iieaaoeei a caaaeaiiy ?c?a?eth c ?ica?iio ca?ieieo oi?ioaaiue
iaeanoeinueeiai ?ooo iii?o.

A oiiaao ?icoe?aiiy aa?aneaieo ae?e ?c?a?eth i?ioe E?aaio ?
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie a E?aai? ?aaea Aaciaee III i?eeiyea 19 aa?aciy
1978 ?. ?aciethoe?th 425, yeith caeeeeaea ?c?a?eue aei noai?i? iiaaae
oa?eoi??aeueii? oe?einiino?, noaa?ai?oaoo ? iie?oe/ii? iacaeaaeiino?
E?aaio a iaaeao eiai i?aeia?iaeii aeciaieo ei?aeii?a, iaaaeiiai
aeaaaeaiiy ?c?a?euenueeeo a?enuee c on??? oa?eoi??? E?aaio (ioieoe 1,
2). Oe??th ae ?aciethoe??th (ioieo 3) ?aaea Aaciaee i?eeiyea ??oaiiy
iaaaeii noai?eoe i?ae ?? ea??aieoeoaii Oei/ania? neee III aeey
i?aaeaiii? /anoeie E?aaio c iaoith i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aeaaaeaiiy
?c?a?euenueeeo a?enuee, a?aeiiaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai ie?o ? aaciaee ?
iaaeaiiy aeiiiiiae o?yaeia? E?aaio a caaacia/aii? iiaa?iaiiy eiio eiai
aoaeoeaii? aeaaee a oeueiio ?aeii? e?a?i?. Oe? neee /enaeuei?noth a?ey
4000 in?a aoee noai?ai? c ia?niiaeo e?a?i-/eai?a III ? oa?i?ie ?oiueiai
ia?aaoaaiiy a E?aai? i?iaeiaaeoaaeenue a iaeaooiueiio iaiaeii?aciai a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ?icaeoeo iiae?e a I?aaeaiiiio E?aai?. I?eeiath/e
??oaiiy i?i /a?aiaa a?aeiiaeaiiy iaiaeaoo Nee III, ?aaea Aaciaee
aeneiaethaaea aeeaieee aeaeue c i?eaiaeo a?aenooiino? ni?eyiiy, iniaeeai
c aieo ?c?a?eth, coneeeyi ca?ieieo nee III c iiaiiai cae?eniaiiy
?oiueiai iaiaeaoo.

Aiae?coth/e ae?? ?aaee Aaciaee III a ca»yceo c aeoaie aa?an?? ?c?a?eth
i?ioe E?aaio, ne?ae iaaieineoe ia ?? ni?ia? iinaaeeoe caoe?eaaeai?
noi?iie ca no?e ia?aaiai??a. I?ioa c aeie ?c?a?eth ae?yeuei?noue
Ci?oaii? eii?n?? c i?eieiaiiy i?ae ?c?a?eai ? E?aaiii (?EIAE) aeyaeeanue
iaaoaeoeaiith (neeeeaia eeoa 1-ai a?oaeiy 1980 ?. i?aeaioia/a ia?aaea c
oeueiai ieoaiiy). A oeae aea /an oaaao ?aaee Aaciaee III i?eaa?oaea ia
eeoa ooo/ii i?aeo?eioaaia ?c?a?eai aeaooiiaaacia/ia neooaoe?y ia i?aaei?
E?aaio, a e e?eciaa neooaoe?y ia an?e oa?eoi???, aeeeeeaia caoyaeiith
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iith ai?ioueaith a e?a?i?, a ye?e ia inoaiith ?ieue
a?ae?a?aaaa ?c?a?euenueeee oaeoi?. ?aaea Aaciaee caeeeeaea an? aoyaioo?
o ai?ii? ae?? a E?aai? noi?iie iieeanoe e?ae aeoai ianeeuenoaa ?
?aoaeueii aeio?eioaaoenue iaaaeiiai ? aoaeoeaiiai i?eieiaiiy ai?iieo
ae?e aeey oiai, uia iiaeia aoei a?aeiiaeoe ie? a e?a?i? ? aeiaeoenue
iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?eie?aiiy ia iniia? caa?aaeaiiy ?aeiino?,
oa?eoi??aeueii? oe?einiino?, iacaeaaeiino? ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
noaa?ai?oaoo E?aaio.

*a?aiaaa 1982 ?ieo aa?an?y ?c?a?eth i?ioe E?aaio cono??ea ??oo/a
canoaeaeaiiy na?oiai? a?iiaaenueeino?. 5 /a?aiy ?aaea Aaciaee i?eeiyea
?aciethoe?th 508 (1982), a ioieo? 1 yei? caeeeeaea noi?iie eiioe?eoo
iaaaeii ? i?eieieoe an? ai?ii? ae?? ii e?aaii-?c?a?euenueeiio ei?aeiio
ia i?ci?oa 6 aiaeeie (?aieo) 6 /a?aiy 1982 ?ieo. Oea aoea ia?oa
?aciethoe?y ?aaee Aaciaee, a ye?e eiie?aoii aeacoaaeenue aeaiue ? /an
i?eieiaiiy ai?iieo ae?e an?ia noi?iiaie a eiioe?eo? a E?aai?.
?aciethoe?y iaea oa?aeoa? canoa?aaeaiiy ? aeaaaea iaae?th ia oa, ui ca
?? iaaeeiiaiiy iine?aeothoue na?eici? naieoe?? c aieo ?aaee Aaciaee ii
a?aeiioaiith aei ii?ooiee?a. I?ioa oey ?aciethoe?y ia coieieea ?c?a?eue,
yeee i?ioyaii aaaaoueio ?ie?a oaeoe/ii a?a iaiaieioaio a?eio i?ioe
E?aaio.

Ca oe??th ?aciethoe??th iine?aeoaaa ?yae ?ioeo, iaaeaeue i?i?aii?iaaieo
?c?a?eai, ui iiynithaaeinue a ia?oo /a?ao iie?oeeith iioo?aiiy c aieo
Aaoeiaoiia, yeee i?aaioa aeei?enoaoe aa?an?th ?c?a?eth i?ioe E?aaio a
nai?o no?aoaa?/ieo ?ioa?anao. A?i cionea e?aainueeee o?yae caa?iooenue
aei NOA, O?aioe??, ?oae?? ? Aaeeei? A?eoai?? c i?ioaiiyi iai?aaeoe a
Aae?oo ?oi? a?enueeia? eiioeiaaioe c iaoith ?ic»?aeiaiiy aithth/eo
noi??i ? noai?aiiy oiia aeey aaaeoaoe?? iaeanoeinueeeo ca?ieieo
oi?ioaaiue. Aaaaeaiiy a e?ioe? na?iiy 1982 ?ieo a Aae?oo
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueieo nee cao?aeieo e?a?i ia i?eaaei aei i?eieiaiiy
ai?iieo ae?e ? anoaiiaeaiiy ie?o a E?aai?. Aiae?c ae?yeueiino? III c
oeueiai ieoaiiy cana?ae/o? iecueeo aoaeoeai?noue i?eeiyoeo ?aaeith
Aaciaee III ??oaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeinyaiaiiy aeaaaeaiiy
?c?a?euenueeeo a?enuee c on??? oa?eoi??? E?aaio ? ia ae??oaiiy
e?aainueei? e?ece.

I’yoee ?icae?e “Aeoea?caoe?y ae?yeueiino? EAAe c a?aaoethaaiiy
e?aainueei? e?ece ia iaae? 90-o ?ie?a. Ao-Oa?onuee? oaiaee ye iniiaa
iie?oe/iiai a?aaoethaaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece”. Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui e?iaoeue
80-o ?ie?a noaa iaea?eueo oni?oiei a ae?yeueiino? EAAe c a?aaoethaaiiy
e?aainueei? e?ece. Oeueiio ni?eyea ye?nii iiaa neooaoe?y a ?aa?ii?, ui
aeieeea aiane?aeie cae?i/aiiy “oieiaeii? a?eie” ? iiaiai aoaio
aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae N?N? oa NOA. Cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?aea ? aeoea?caoe?y
aia?eeaii-ne??enueeeo eiioaeo?a, i?ae /an yeeo noi?iie ae?eoee aeniiaeo
uiaei iaiao?aeiino? i?iaaaeaiiy iie?oe/ieo ?aoi?i a E?aai? ? i?i
iniaeeao ?ieue Ne??? o ae??oaii? e?aainueei? e?ece.

Caaaeyee coneeeyi ooai?aii? EAAe Eii?n?? ii cono??/? a aa?oao a
Eanaaeaioe? a 1989 ?ioe? oa ae?yeueiino? “Eii?oaoo o?ueio”, ui ni?eyee
?ic?iaoe? i?aeia?iaeii aeciaieo iieiaeaiue aeoiaeo c e?aainueei? e?ece,
aaeaeinue noaa?e?coaaoe ianoaiiaeo a E?aai? ? ii/aoe a?aaoethaaiiy a
E?aai? aioo??oiueie?aainueei? e?ece.

O aeniiaeao noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ia e?eca a E?aai? aecia/a?oueny e?eueeiia
aei??aie.

— ia?oee — aioo??oiueie?aainueeee ? iia’ycaiee a?i c
aioo??oiueie?aainueeeie i?ioe??//yie ? i?aeiaueiiith ai?iaeia/ath.

— ae?oaee aei?? e?aainueei? e?ece — a?aeiineie i?ae i?ioa?eaie
e?aainueeiai noni?euenoaa, ye? i???ioothoueny ia ??ci? ciai?oi? neee. C
oaeeo nee ne?ae aeae?eeoe Ne??th, yea a 1976 ?ioe? i?oea ia ca?ieia
ao?o/aiiy a e?aainuee? iiae?? ? a?aeoiae? o?eia? oai na?e a?enueeiaee
eiioeiaaio, ine?eueee E?aai caeia? iniaeeaa i?noea ia oeae? ??
aeecueeino?aeieo i??i?eoao?a, coiiaeaieo eiiieaenii iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a, cie?aia, aeiiii?/ieo, aaiiie?oe/ieo, a?enueeiai-no?aoaa?/ieo,
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo, aai ?ioa?an?a iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee.

Caaino?aiiy ne??enueei-?c?a?euenueeiai i?ioeai?noaa a iaaeao
aeecueeino?aeiiai eiioe?eoo iaieio/a aieeaaei ia e?eciao neooaoe?th a
E?aai?, yeee aeyaeany aoyaiaiei o caaaeueiia?aanueea i?ioenoiyiiy c
?c?a?eai o ca’yceo c i?enooi?noth ia oa?eoi??? E?aaio oi?aae?inueeeo
i?aai?a iaeanoeinueeiai ?ooo iii?o. Ia oe? aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo ?
aeiiii?/ieo i?ioe??/ aoyaiaiiy E?aaio a iaeanoeii-?c?a?euenueea
i?ioeai?noai, noaei iaei??th c aaaeeeaeo i?e/ei iineeaiiy e?eciai?
neooaoe?? a e?a?i?.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iaa iaeanoeinueeee /eiiee, ui noaa iaeiei c
eaoae?caoi??a o?aa?/ieo iiae?e a E?aai?.

Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii iiaeeaeaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece noaei aoyaiaiiy a ia?
?ioeo a?aanueeeo ? iaa?aanueeeo e?a?i, cie?aia, ??aeo ? ??aio, ye?
c?iaeee noaaeo ia e?aainuee? oa?oioaaiiy, ui ciaoiaeeeenue o
i?ioeai?noa? i?ae niaith. ??ae — ia eieeoiueiai aeaao oei/aniaiai
a?enueeiaiai o?yaeo aaia?aea I?oaey Aoia, ??ai — ia oe?onueeee ?oo
“Oecaieeao».

— O?ao?e aei?? e?aainueei? e?ece — oea aoyaiaiiy a ia?
ciai?oiuei?aa?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa, ia?aaeon?i NOA, eieeoiueiai N?N? ?
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i. Aoyaiaiiy a e?aainueeo e?eco ?aa?iiaeueieo
? ciai?oiuei?aa?iiaeueieo nee i?eaaei aei oiai, ui, c iaeiiai aieo,
E?aai aeyaeany o oieon? oyae?iiy ?o ?ioa?an?a ? noa? aieeao, a c ?ioiai
— aei ?ioaa?oaaiiy e?aainueeiai eiioe?eoo a aeecueeino?aeiee.

Aoaeoeai?noue ae?e EAAe a E?aai? a 1975-1976 ??. iaiaaeoaaeany
cia/iith a?enueeiaith i?enooi?noth Ne??? a oe?e e?a?i? i?ney 1 /a?aiy
1976 ?ieo, ui, i?ioa, ia aoei ae??oaeueiei /eiieeii. Iaeiaoaeoeaieie
aeyaeeeny ae?? EAAe c i?eieiaiiy a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie a E?aai? ? a
1977- 1981 ??., i?ioyaii yeeo ii?iae?caoe?y noaiiaeua a e?a?i?
oneeaaeithaaeany aeaiaioaie a?aai-?c?a?euenueeiai i?ioeai?noaa.
Onoiaiiyi oeueiai i?ioeai?noaa iaee caeiyoeny a?aanuee? e?a?ie, aea naia
a oeae ia??iae noaeiny iiaeeaeaiiy iiey?ecaoe?? a a?aanueeiio na?o? a
ca’yceo c i?aeienaiiyi eaii-aeaa?aenueeeo oaiae i?i ie? i?ae ?aeioii ?
?c?a?eai ? ii/aoeii ??aii-??aenueei? a?eie. ?acii c oei ni?iae
a?aaoethaaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece coneeeyie EAAe ?iaeeeny, iniaeeai ia
eiai ?aii?e noaae??, ?c cai?ciaiiyi ? ia aoee aei e?ioey iine?aeiaieie.
O oeae ia??iae a?eueo?noue a?aanueeeo e?a?i aeciaee iniaeeao ?ieue
Ne??? o a?aaoethaaii? e?aainueei? e?ece ? oaeoe/ii naieoe?iioaaee ??
a?enueeiao i?enooi?noue a E?aai? a ?aieao EAAe.

I?eeiyoee 9 aa?aniy 1982 ?ieo ia caaaeueiia?aanueeiio ??ai? Oanueeee
ieai anoaiiaeaiiy ie?o ia Aeecueeiio Noiae? noai?ea ?aaeuei?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey ae??oaiiy e?aainueei? i?iaeaie. Aea ?c?a?eue ? eiai
caieaainueeee nithciee a?aeiiaeeeny i?oe ia caaeiaieaiiy caeiiieo aeiia
a?aanueeeo ia?iae?a ? ni?yioaaee coneeey ia cae?eniaiiy aeanieo
no?aoaa?/ieo ieai?a a?aeiinii E?aaio. 17 o?aaiy 1983 ?ieo aiie iaa’ycaee
E?aaio “oaiaeo i?i ie?» c ?c?a?eai. Ne??y aeieeaea an?o coneeue, uia
c??aaoe ie?io oaiaeo 1983 ?ieo i?ae E?aaiii ? ?c?a?eai, aea ? ?c?a?eue
ia aeicaieea /a?ac nai?o i?eoeeueiee?a a o?enoeyinuee?e iauei? oeeanoe a
1985 ?ioe? “o?ueionoi?iiith oaiaeo» i?ae aa?aeith Ne???.

Na?oiaa ni?eueiioa a inia? ?aaee Aaciaee III nai?ie /eneaiieie
?aciethoe?yie ??oo/a aeiaaaea iaaaeiiai i?eieiaiiy aa?aneaieo ae?e
?c?a?eth i?ioe E?aaio, oo?eioaaoeny a?ae iiae?aieo aeoe?e a iaeaooiueiio
? iaaaeii aeaanoe ?c?a?euenuee? ca?iei? neee c e?aainueei? oa?eoi???.
Aea ?c?a?eue ?aii?oaaa an? ?aciethoe?? III, iai?aaeai? ia i?eieiaiiy
eiai aa?an?? i?ioe E?aaio ? onoiaiiy ?c?a?euenueeiai /eiieea aieeao ia
?iciaethaaiiy aioo??oiueie?aainueeiai eiioe?eoo. III iaea cae?enieoe
a?eueo aeoeai? ae?? aeey oiai, uia, aeei?enoiaoth/e aanue na?e
aaoi?eoao, i?eioneoe ?c?a?eue a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae iano?oeoe?ii?nonueei? ?
aeniain?ii?nonueei? iie?oeee, a ?aaea Aaciaee iaea aaeeoe an?o
iaiao?aeieo caoiae?a a?aeiia?aeii aei Noaoooo III, uia caaacia/eoe
aeeiiaiiy nai?o ?aciethoe?e.

Noai?ai? 19 aa?aciy 1978 ?. Oei/ania? neee III o E?aaio a?ae?a?aee
iaaio ?ieue o noaa?e?caoe?? iieiaeaiiy a e?a?i?. I?ioa ae?yeuei?noue
oeeo nee ia a?aei?/aeany aoaeoeai?noth ? i?e/eiith oiio iiaea a aooe ia
o?eueee iano?oeoe?ii?nonueea iie?oeea Oaeue-Aa?aa, aea ? ?icieo?noue
oi?ioaaiue ?aciethoe?e ?aaee Aaciaee, ye? naieoe?iioaaee ia?aaoaaiiy Nee
III ia i?aaei? E?aaio aac /?oeiai aecia/aiiy eiie?aoieo ?aeii?a.

Ia aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? III c a?aaoethaaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece
a?aeaeaaeany iaaecae/aeia neeaaei?noue ? caieooai?noue neooaoe?? a
E?aai?, iie?oeea Aaoeiaoiio a aeecueeino?aeiiio ?aa?ii?,
iano?oeoe?ii?nonueea iiceoe?y ?c?a?eth a?aeiinii ??oaiue III,
a?aenooi?noue a?aei?aoeueiaaiiai iaoai?cio o/ano? i?aeia?iaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e a aeaaeieoaaii? oaeeo neeaaeieo eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e ye
e?aainueea. Aei oiai ae, iaea?eueo aeoeai? ae?? c a?aaoethaaiiy
e?aainueei? e?ece cae?enithaaeeny III a iniiaiiio oiae?, eiee oea
iia’ycoaaeiny c aa?an??th ?c?a?eth.

I?aeo?ae E?ae a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa aei i?iaeaie a?aaoethaaiiy
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii? e?ece a E?aai? o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 80-o ?ie?a
aacoaaany ia i?aaiaii? ianaiia?aae caaacia/eoe i?eieiaiiy i?aeiaueiieo
i?ioe??/ ? c?oeiaiue i?ae i?aai?caoe?yie, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ieo nee E?aaio, ? caa?aaeaiiy eiai
oa?eoi??aeueii? ?aeiino? oeyoii iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?aeiao. Oea caaaeaiiy
ae??oea neeeeaiee a ?aieao EAAe a Ao-Oa?o? c ?i?oe?aoeae Eii?oaoo o?ueio
(Aeaee?, Naoae?anueea A?aa?y, Ia?ieei) e?aainueeee ia?eaiaio. 22 aeiaoiy
1989 ?ieo a?i caoaa?aeea “Oa?o?th iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino?», yea
anoaiiaethaaea ??aia i?aaenoaaieoeoai o?enoeyi ? ionoeueiai a
ia?eaiaio?, iineethaaea i?ioeaaae i?aceaeaionueei? aeaaee ?
i?iaieiooaaea eo?n ia iiaiee aeaiiioaae eiioan?eii? nenoaie.

Ia aioo??oiueie?aainueeiio ??ai? eeth/ai aei iiaiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy ie?o
? caiaee a e?a?i? ? iinooiiaa iiaia e?ea?aeaoe?y eiioan?eii? nenoaie. Ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ? i?aeia?iaeiiio ??ai? e?eoe/ii aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy c
oi/ee ci?o caa?aaeaiiy oa?eoi??aeueii? oe?e?niino? ? ie?o a E?aai? ia?
i?iaeaia i?eieiaiiy ieoiaoe?? ?c?a?eai I?aaeaiiiai E?aaio, ine?eueee ??
iaae??oaii?noue noaaaea eaoae?caoi?ii i?ioe??/ a e?aainueeiio
noni?euenoa?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii a oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aeiaia?? «Aeue-Oa?o» ? ii/aoie ie?iiai aoaio a E?aai?. Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. Aei. 5, no.122. — E., 1998.

2. III ? i?iaeaie a?aaoethaaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece 1975-1989 ??.
Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. Aei. 4, no.65. — E., 1998.

3. Oe?a?ia — E?aai: ?icaeoie a?aeiinei ? ia?niaeoeae ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa.
A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y — I?aeia?iaei? a?aeiineie. — Aei.
7. *.1, no.116. — 1997.

4. ?c?a?euenueea aa?an?y 1982 ?. i?ioe E?aaio e ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?y
aioo??oiueie?aainueei? e?ece. Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei. Aei. 7, /.??, no.241. — E., 1998.

Aiia? Ooni? Iaoae?. E?aainueea i?iaeaia a ie?ioai?/?e ae?yeueiino? E?ae
a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa ? I?aai?caoe?? Ia”?aeiaieo Iaoe?e (1975-1989 ?.). —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe
c? niaoe?aeueiino? 23.00.04 — iie?oe/i? i?iaeaie i?aeia?iaeieo nenoai oa
aeiaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. — ?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aiae?co i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? E?ae a?aanueeeo
aea?aeaa ? I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e c a?aaoethaaiiy e?aainueei?
e?ece c iiiaioo ?? aeieeiaiiy a ea?oi? 1975 ?ieo aei i?aeienaiiy
Ao-Oa?onueeeo oaiae 1989 ?ieo, ui caeeaee iniiao aeey i?eieiaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie ? anoaiiaeaiiy ie?o a E?aai?. Aeyaeai? aioo??oi? ?
ciai?oi? /eiieee aeieeiaiiy e?aainueei? e?ece. Iieacai? oi?ie ? iaoiaee
cae?eniaiiy ie?ioai?/i? ae?yeueiino? E?ae a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa ?
I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e, ni?yiiaaii? ia ?ica’ycaiiy e?aainueei?
e?ece, i?eieiaiiy a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie a E?aai?, aeinyaiaiiy
aioo??oiueie?aainueeiai a?aaoethaaiiy. Aeyaeai? iniiai? ia’?eoeai? ?
noa’?eoeai? /eiieee, ui ni?eyee aai ia?aoeiaeaeaee oeueiio, a oaeiae
aena?oeaia ?ieue, yeo c?a?aee aeacai? ?inoeoooe a aeinyaiaii?
iinoaaeaii? iaoe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: e?aainueea e?eca, eiioan?eia nenoaia, aeecueeino?aeiee
eiioe?eo, E?aa a?aanueeeo aea?aeaa, I?aai?caoe?y Ia”?aeiaieo Iaoe?e,
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/i? neee, aeniain?ii?ci.

Ammar Hussni Mehdi. Lebanese problem in peacemaking activity of the
League of Arab States and the United Nations (1975-1989). — Manuscript.

Dissertation for candidate degree in political science with
specialities 23.00.04 — The political problems of international systems
and global development. — Institute of International Relations of Kyiv
Taras Shevchenko University. 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to analysis of practical activity of the
League of the Arab States and the United Nations on regulating the
Lebanese crisis in the second half 1975 until the Et-Taif agreements
were signed in 1989, which made ground to put the civil war to an end
and made peace in Lebanon. The internal and external factors of
emergence of the Lebanese crisis were descried. Shown are forms and
realization methods of peacemaking activities of the League of Arab
States and the United Nations, the Lebanese crisis was directed on
uniting suppression of civil war in Lebanon and achievement of an
intra-Lebanese settlement. Major objective and subjective factors that
facilitated or interfered with this, have been elucidated. Highlighted
has been the role which these institutions played in achieving this
goal.

Key words: Lebanese crisis, Confessional system, Mid-East conflict, the
League of Arab States, the United Nations, national-patriotic forces
expansionism.

Aiia? Oonie Iaoaee. Eeaaineay i?iaeaia a ie?ioai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
Eeae a?aaneeo ainoaea?noa e I?aaiecaoeee Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee (1975-1989
aa.). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iieeoe/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.04 — iieeoe/aneea i?iaeaiu iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
nenoai e aeiaaeueiiai ?acaeoey. — Einoeooo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee
Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe Eeae
a?aaneeo ainoaea?noa e I?aaiecaoeee Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee ii
o?aaoee?iaaieth eeaaineiai e?ecena a 1975 — 1989 aiaeao. Iieacaiu oi?iu
e iaoiaeu inouanoaeaiey ie?ioai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe EAA e III,
iai?aaeaiiua ia o?aaoee?iaaiea eeaaineiai e?ecena, i?ae?auaiea
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu e aeinoeaeaiea aioo?eeeaaineiai o?aaoee?iaaiey.
Auyaeaiu iniiaiua iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u, eioi?ua
niinianoaiaaee eee i?aiyonoaiaaee yoiio, a oaeaea inaauaia ?ieue,
eioi?oth nua?aee oeacaiiua einoeooou a aeinoeaeaiee yoie oeaee.

Iniaia aieiaiea a ?aaioa oaeaeaii auyaeaieth e enneaaeiaaieth
aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo oaeoi?ia aicieeiiaaiey eeaaineiai e?ecena,
ii?aaeaeaiu aai oa?aeoa? e niaoeeoeea. Iieacaia noaiaiue aicaeaenoaey
aiaoiaai oaeoi?a ia oaeoaeaiea eeaaineiai e?ecena. Enneaaeiaaia
aeayoaeueiinoue Eeae a?aaneeo ainoaea?noa e aeaia ioeaiea aa oneeeyi ii
ii?iaeecaoeee neooaoeee a Eeaaia n iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey eeaaineiai
e?ecena e aei iiaeienaiey Yo-Oaeoneeo niaeaoaiee, oaeaeaii aeaaiia
aieiaiea aiaeeco ?aoaiee, i?eiyouo a a?aaneeo aa?oao a oeacaiiue
ia?eiae.

Ia aaca iaoe?iiai aeieoiaioaeueiiai iaoa?eaea iieacaii, /oi
i?iaeaia o?aaoee?iaaiey eeaaineiai e?ecena caieiaea aaaeiia ianoi a
aeayoaeueiinoe Eeae a?aaneeo ainoaea?noa e I?aaiecaoeee Iauaaeeiaiiuo
Iaoeee, /oi auei iaoneiaeaii iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ineaaeaiey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iai?yaeaiiinoe ia ?aaeiiaeueiii e aeiaaeueiii o?iaia.
Iiaeoiae yoeo i?aaiecaoeee e o?aaoee?iaaieth eeaaineie i?iaeaiu
oi?ie?iaaeny ia iniiaa ?aaeiiaeueiuo e aeiaaeueiuo i?ei?eoaoia n o/aoii
eioa?ania eeaaineiai ia?iaea.

Aaoi?ii aeaiu iauaeoeaiue aiaeec e ioeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe I?aaiecaoeee
Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee ii i?ana/aieth aa?anneaiuo aeaenoaee Ec?aeey i?ioea
Eeaaineie ?anioaeeee, ieacuaaaoeo cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ineiaeiaiea
neooaoeee a yoie no?aia, a oaeaea aiaeec e ioeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe III ii
ii?iaeecaoeee iieiaeaiey a Eeaaia, oaeaeaii iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeei
eeth/aaui aeieoiaioai, eae ?aciethoeee e ?aoaiey Niaaoa Aaciianiinoe III
. Ii?aaeaeaia noaiaiue aicaeaenoaey ec?aeeueneie aa?annee 1982 aiaea
i?ioea Eeaaia ia oaeoaeaiea eeaaineiai e?ecena, iieacaii aeeyiea
iiey?ecaoeee nee a a?aaneii ie?a a ia/aea 80-o aiaeia ia iiaeoiae
a?aaneeo ainoaea?noa e eeaaineie i?iaeaia;

Aaoi? i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi ia yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe III ii
o?aaoee?iaaieth eeaaineiai e?ecena io?aaeaeanue /?acau/aeiay neiaeiinoue
e caiooaiiinoue neooaoeee a Eeaaia, iieeoeea Aaoeiaoiia a
aeeaeiaainoi/iii ?aaeiia, iano?oeoeeiienoneay iiceoeey Ec?aeey a
ioiioaiee ?aoaiee III, ionoonoaea io?aaioaiiiai iaoaiecia o/anoey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee a aeaaeiee?iaaiee oaeeo neiaeiuo
eiioeeeoiuo neooaoeee eae eeaaineay. E oiio aea, iaeaieaa aeoeaiua
aeaenoaey ii o?aaoee?iaaieth eeaaineiai e?ecena inouanoaeyeenue III a
iniiaiii oiaaea, eiaaea yoi naycuaaeinue n aa?anneae Ec?aeey. Ia
yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe III ii eeaaineiio aii?ino io?aceeanue,
ianiiiaiii, e iiceoeey i?aayueo e?oaia Eeaaia a ioiioaiee i aeaaiie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aaiecaoeee. Aianoi oiai, /oiau eniieueciaaoue
iaoaieci III aeey ii?iaeecaoeee iieiaeaiey a no?aia, a e?eoe/aneee
iiiaio eeaaineia ?oeiaiaenoai i?eaaaei e eniieueciaaieth
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuo nee iiae yaeaeie NOA, i?aauaaiea eioi?uo a Eeaaia
aua aieueoa ineiaeieei e?ecenioth neooaoeeth a no?aia.

A ?aaioa ioia/aii, /oi iiaeoiae EAA e i?iaeaia o?aaoee?iaaiey
aioo?eiieeoe/aneiai e?ecena a Eeaaia ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 80-o aiaeia
iniiauaaeny ia no?aieaiee iaania/eoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?ae?auaiea
iaaeiaueiiuo i?ioeai?a/ee e noieeiiaaiee iaaeaeo i?aaiecaoeeyie,
aoiaeyueie a ninoaa iaoeeiiaeueii-iao?eioe/aneeo nee Eeaaia, e
nio?aiaiea aai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai aaeeinoaa iooai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeeaeiaa. Yoo caaea/o ?aoee nicaaiiue a ?aieao EAA a Yo-Oaeoa ii
eieoeeaoeaa Eiieoaoa o?ao (Aeaee?, Naoaeianeay A?aaey, Ia?ieei)
eeaaineee ia?eaiaio. 22 ieoya?y 1989 aiaea ii ooaa?aeee “Oa?oeth
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaeeinoaa”, eioi?ay onoaiaaeeaaea ?aaiia
i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai o?enoeai e ionoeueiai a ia?eaiaioa, oneeeaaea
i?ioeaiaanu i?aceaeaioneie aeanoe e i?iaicaeaoaea eo?n ia iieiue
aeaiiioaae eiioanneiiaeueiie nenoaiu. Yo-Oaeoneea niaeaoaiey ieacaee
iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea
aioo?eiieeoe/aneie neooaoeee a Eeaaia, nicaeaee iniiao aeey i?ae?auaiey
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu e onoaiiaeaiey ie?a a no?aia. Aianoa n oai
Yo-Oaeoneea niaeaoaiey, nio?aieaoea eiioanneiiaeueioth nenoaio, aiany a
iaa eeoue ?yae eciaiaiee, ia ono?aieee aiciiaeiinoe iiaoi?aiey eeaaineeo
niauoee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eeaaineee e?ecen, eiioaneiiaeueiay nenoaia,
aeeaeiaainoi/iue eiioeeeo, Eeaa a?aaneeo ainoaea?noa, I?aaiecaoeey
Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee, iaoeeiiaeueii-iao?eioe/aneea neeu, yeniaineiieci.

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