2

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

CAII??CUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Naiieeia Aaaeei ?o?aiiae/

OAeE 669.14’893.256

EEO? EIINO?OEOe?EI? NOAE? C AA???I AeEss AeAOAEAE

I?AeAEUAII? IAAe?EIINO? A??IE*ICAAAA*OAAEUeIIAI

IAEAAeIAIIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.02.01 – “Iaoa??aeiciaanoai”

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Caii??aeaey – 1999 Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eoiueia Aaeaioei Aaneeueiae/, Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e “Iaoeie ? oaoiieia?y eeaa?iiai
ae?iaieoeoaa”.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, n.i.n.

Aoaaiei Na?oeaia ?aai?aia, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaoaeiciaanoaa Aea?aeaaii?
iaoaeo?a?eii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aiiaea?aiei Aiaoie?e Eaii?aeiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e “O?ce/ia
iaoa??aeiciaanoai”,Caii??cueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
i.Caii??aeaey.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a “Iaoa??aeiciaanoai”, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “26”aeiaoiy1999?. i 1330 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae17.052.01 a Caii??cueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: i. Caii??aeaey, aoe.
AEoeianueeiai, 64.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Caii??cueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: i. Caii??aeaey, aoe.
AEoeianueeiai, 64.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 16 ” aa?aniy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?.I.Aie/ie2

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. A oaia??oi?e /an aeey iaoeiiaoae?aiee?a
caeeoathoueny aeooaeueieie caaea/?, iia’ycai? c i?aeaeuaiiyi iaae?eiino?
oa aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae iaoei ? oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy. Aeo?ae c
eaaeo ie?aieo aeaoaeae /a?ac iieaiaiiy aai ciin iaiaaeo? o?eaae?noue
ii?iaeueii? aenieoaoaoe?? iaeaaeiaiiy, ni?e/eiy? i?aeaeuaiiy aeioneo
caianieo /anoei ? ??cei cieaeo? aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aiae?c i?e/ei aeoiaeo c eaaeo aeaoaeae ?c eiino?oeoe?eieo ia?ie noaeae
iieacaa, ui iaeiei ?c aecia/ieo oaeoi??a, ye? aieeaathoue ia
iaae?ei?noue ? aeiaaia?/i?noue eeoeo aeaoaeae, ? eiioeaio?aoe?y
oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie oa aac?a ye ?ic/eiaieo o noae?, oae ? oeo, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny o aeaeyae? iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue. Oiio aeooaeueiith
caaea/ath no/aniino? a iaoa??aeiciaanoa? ? oai??iiy iiaeo ?
oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo ia?ie noaeae oeyoii aaiaeo aei ?o neeaaeo
aeaiaio?a, ui caaacia/othoue i/euaiiy a?ae oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie,
aeicaieythoue ea?oaaoe i?e?iaeith iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue ? no?oeoo?ith c
iaoith iie?auaiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo ? neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae eeoeo
ae?ia?a.

Na?aae ??cieo eiiiiiaio?a, ye? iathoue iaea?eueo? ?ao?ioth/? aeanoeaino?
? aeicaieythoue ea?oaaoe i?e?iaeith, oi?iith ? oiiia?ao??th iaiaoaeaaeo
ae?aieaiue, a oaeiae no?oeoo?ith noae?, eoaeiicaiaeuei? iaoaee (ECI) ?
??aeeicaiaeuei? iaoaee (?CI) ciaeoee oe?iea canoinoaaiiy aeey io?eiaiiy
iioeiaeueieo o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae eeoeo aeaoaeae. I?e oeueiio aa??e ye ECI ? iaeiaioa
aea/aiee aeaiaio, yeee iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae ?c eiino?oeoe?eieo eeoeo noaeae.

Iayai?noue ?iaeiaeu aa???aeo ?oae ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ? e?a?i NIAe,
i?iieneiaa inai?iiy oaoiieia?e ii ae?iaieoeoao e?aaoo?, ui i?noyoue
aa??e, a oaeiae ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ECI ?iaeyoue
aeooaeueiith caaea/o canoinoaaiiy aa??th a i?aeoeoe? noaeaeeaa?ieo
oeao?a.

Aea aei oaia??oi?o /an?a iaia? ?aeeii? aeoiee uiaei ieoaiiy i?i
iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ye ie?aii aa??th, oae ? ?acii ?c
caaaeueiiaeciaieie iiaeeo?eaoi?aie eaeueoe??i ? ?CI aeey io?eiaiiy
e?auiai niieo/aiiy aeanoeainoae eiino?oeoe?eieo eeoeo noaeae. I?aeoe/ii
ia aea/aiee iaoai?ci iiaaae?iee aa??th a noaeyo. Ia ciaeoei iaeaaeiiai
aena?oethaaiiy ieoaiiy i?i iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aa??th aei
oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie o iaoae?, ui caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueiee aoaeo
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy. Ia aeineoue ?ice?eoee iaoai?ci ae?? aa??th, ui iiynith?
iie?ioaiiy iaoai?/ieo ? neoaeaiaeo aeanoeainoae noaeaaeo aeaoaeae.

Ana aeeeaaeaia aeua coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue ? aeooaeuei?noue oe???
?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue ca?aeii c caaea/aie, ye? aoee iinoaaeai? ?aa?iiaeueieie
oe?eueiaeie eiiieaenieie i?ia?aiaie “Noaeue” ? “I?i/iinoue” ( iaeac
I?i?noa?noaa aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a N?N? ?1290 a?ae 28.12.1982?.)
ii oaiao: “Ii?aoethaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa
aeaeo?inoae? c? cieaeaiei ai?noii oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie aeey aeeeae?a
a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy”, ? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 01870012364,
“Oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? ?iceeneaiiy ? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy
cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo nieaa?a aeey oaniiiiai eeooy ? ceeae?a”, ?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 01890015350 ? “Ii?aoethaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy aeeeae?a “?ao?oea” aeey ieei?a
eoeueiaiai ?iciaethaaiiy c iaoith ca?eueoaiiy i?ae?aiiioiiai oeeeeo”, ?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 01890016745.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe: i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino?
aeaoaeae ?c eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae, oeyoii aaiaeo aei ?o neeaaeo ie?aii
aa??th aai a eiiieaen? c eaeueoe??i oa ?CI, aeey iie?auaiiy iaoai?/ieo,
oaoiieia?/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae eeoeo ae?ia?a, a oaeiae
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ?o ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?:

1. I?iaiae?coaaoe iiaeeea?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy aa??th i?e
ae?iaieoeoa? eiino?oeoe?eieo eeoeo noaeae.

2. Aeine?aeeoe iaoai?ci aieeao aa??th i?e ie?aiiio ? eiiieaeniiio
iiaeeo?eoaaii? ia aeanoeaino? ??aeei? noae?, neeaae, oi?io ? oiiia?ao?th
iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue, aae ca?ia, aacii?noe?noue, i?iaea?thaaiiy ?, ye
iane?aeie, ia eiiieaen o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo ?
aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee noaeaaiai eeoaa.

3. Aecia/eoe iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaaaeaiiai aa??th aei
oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie o noae?, ui caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueiee aoaeo a?ae
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy.

4. Aeine?aeeoe ?ieue aa??th o iie?ioaii? ye?nieo iieaciee?a noae?
(o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae, no?oeoo?e, eiao?oe??ioo aeiaoey?ecaoe??
iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue, iayai?noue aac?a o iaoae?) i?e eiiieaeniiio
iiaeeo?eoaaii?.

5. ?ic?iaeoe neeaae eiino?oeoe?eieo eeoeo noaeae aeey aeaoaeae
i?aeaeuaii? iaae?eiino? oeyoii canoinoaaiiy e?aaoo?, ui i?noyoue aa??e ?
caaacia/othoue iayai?noue eiai o iaoae?.

6. Aeine?aeeoe niaoe?aeuei? oaoiieia?/i? i?eeiie aaaaeaiiy aa??th aei
neeaaeo noae? c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy inoaiiueiai
aeey iie?ioaiiy yeino? noaeaaeo eeoeo ae?ia?a.

7. I?iaanoe i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. I?e aeeiiaii? iinoaaeaieo caaea/
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue eaai?aoi?i? ? i?iieneia? iaoiaee ieaaeaiiy oa
oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iaoaeo, ??ciiiai?oi? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae i?e e?iiaoi?e, i?aeaeuai?e oa iecuee?e oaiia?aoo?ao,
a??ia?aei? iaoiaee aiae?co oaoiieia?/ieo ? neoaeaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee,
no/ani? iaoiaee aiae?co no?oeoo? ? iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue, ia’?eoeai?
iaoiaee aecia/aiiy aa??th ? aeoeaiino? eenith, niaoe?aeuei? i?eeiie
aaaaeaiiy aa??th aei neeaaeo noae?, a oaeiae niaoe?aeueii ?ic?iaeai?
iia? iaoiaee, ui aeicaieeee aeine?aeeoe iaoai?ci iiaaae?iee aa??th o
iaoae? ? eiai aieea ia aeanoeaino? noae?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?ae /an aeeiiaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?ii io?eiaii ianooii? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe:

— iia? a?aeiiino? i?i iaoai?ci iiaaae?iee aa??th o iaoae? ? eiai aieea
i?e ie?aiiio ? eiiieaeniiio iiaeeo?eoaaii? noae? ia neeaae, oi?io ?
oiiia?ao?th iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue, a?aioey?i?noue no?oeoo?e, ai?no
aac?a, i?iaea?thaaiiy ?, ye iane?aeie, ia eiiieaen iaoai?/ieo,
oaoiieia?/ieo oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae noaeaaiai eeoaa;

— aia?oa aecia/aii iioeiaeueia a?aeiioaiiy aaaaeaiiai aa??th aei n??ee,
ui i?noeoueny o iaoae?, yea aei??aith? 2,00,5 ? caaacia/o? iayai?noue
aa??th o noaeyo oa iaeneiaeueiee aoaeo a?ae iiaeeo?eoaaiiy;

— anoaiiaeaii aieea iaoiae?a aaiaeo aa??th aei neeaaeo noaeae ia
cieaeaiiy ai?noo n??ee oa iie?auaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
i?aeoe/ii i?aeoaa?aeeee iiceoeaiee aieea ye ie?aii aa??th, oae ? a
eiiieaen? c eaeueoe??i ? ?CI ia oaoiieia?/i?, iaoai?/i? ?
aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiino?oeoe?eieo eeoeo noaeae. A
?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii?aoethaaee ? ai?iaaaeeee o
ae?iaieoeoai noae?, ui i?noyoue aa??e, aeey aeaoaeae oaoiieia?/iiai
iaeaaeiaiiy a??ie/iia?a?iaii? oa a??ie/iaeiaoaii? i?iieneiaino?, neeaae
yeeo caoeuaii aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie (A.n. ?1654369 N?N?, IEE5 N 22
N 38/46; A.n. ?1752822 N?N?, IEE5 N 22 N 38/50; A.n. ?1650754 N?N?, IEE5
N 22 N 38/16). Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe o ae?iaieoeoai ia
E?eai??cueeiio oeaio?aeueiiio ?oaei?aiiioiiio caaiae? (EOe?C),
Iieoaanueeiio a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueiiio eiia?iao? (IieACE) ? I?ai?/iiio
a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueiiio eiia?iao? (I?aACE) aeicaieeei ?noioii iie?aueoe
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? iieacieee ae?iaieoeoaa ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy a?aeo
eeoaa, onoiooe iieaiaiiy aeaoaeae a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??, i?aeaeueoe
no?ee?noue eeoeo noaeaaeo ae?ia?a ? io?eiaoe aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?eueoee
ca 260 oen. ea?aiaaioe?a ia ??e (o oe?iao 1990 ?ieo).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “Iaiaoaeaa? ae?aieaiiy oa aace o
eeaa?ieo nieaaao” (aa?anaiue 1982, 1988, 1991, 1997, Caii??aeaey),
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “Iia? eiino?oeoe?ei? noae? oa noiie ?
iaoiaee ?o ia?iaee aeey i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino?
ae?ia?a” (aa?anaiue-aeiaoaiue 1989,1998,Caii??aeaey), iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? c no/anieo i?iaeai aeaeo?iiaoaeo?a?? noae? (1987,
*aeya?inuee), iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoai?caoe?y ? i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa aeeeae?a
iaoaeo?a?eiiai iaeaaeiaiiy (aeiaoaiue 1986, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee),
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?ano?nicaa??aath/? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane
o eeaa?iiio ae?iaieoeoa?” (1988, I?aeaeii?e?aeca), iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo “Oaoi?/ia ia?aica?i?iiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e o aeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?”
? “I?aeaeuaiiy oaoi?/iiai ??aiy ? oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a
ae?iaieoeoaa aeeeae?a” (1989, 1990, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio nai?ia?? “I?aeaeuaiiy yeino? aeeeae?a ? cieaeaiiy
oe?aeeeaiai aieeao eeaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua”
(/a?aaiue 1990, Caii??aeaey-Iineaa).

A iiaiiio ianyc? ?iaioa aeiiia?aeaeanue ia eaoaae?? “Iaoeie ? oaoiieia?y
eeaa?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa” CAeOO oa ia i?aeeaoaae?aeueiiio
iaoeiai-oaiaoe/iiio nai?ia?? “Iaoa??aeiciaanoai”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii iaoa??aeao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii
aeaaaeoeyoue iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, c ieo /ioe?e aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa ia
aeiaoiaee.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, ui aeeeaaeai? ia 144 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, yeee iae?/o? 149
iaeiaioaaiue, oa 9 aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa i?noeoue 40 oaaeeoeue oa 32
?enoiee.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aeeeaaeaii caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?iaioe, iaa?oioiaaii
aeooaeuei?noue oa aaaeeea?noue ieoaiue, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny a
aeena?oaoe??, aecia/ai? iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai?
iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ? oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ia?oee ?icae?e iineoue iaeyaeiaee oa?aeoa? ? i?enay/aiee aiae?co
iiaeeeaino?, aeioe?eueiino? ? ia?niaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy aa??th i?e
ae?iaieoeoa? eeoeo ae?ia?a ?c eiino?oeoe?eieo ia?ie noaeae.

Iaaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeanoeainoae aa??th oa eiai o?i?/ieo
niieoe c ?ioeie ECI. Aecia/aii oai?aoe/io iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy
e?aaoo?, ui i?noyoue aa??e aeey iie?ioaiiy yeino? noaeaaeo eeoeo
ae?ia?a.

A?aecia/aii noia?a/eea? aeai? ii ieoaiiyo ?iceeneyth/i? ? ?ao?ioth/i?
ni?iiiaeiino? aa??th o noaeyo oa eiai aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy iaiaoaeaaeo
ae?aieaiue, no?oeoo?o ? ai?no aac?a. Aea/aiiy oeeo ieoaiue aeooaeueii
aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee eeoeo aeaoaeae.

Iieacaii, ui aeey i?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae noaeae iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeaiaioe-iiaeeo?eaoi?e ECI, oiaoi iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai?
?a/iaeie. I?eaaaeai? a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ?acoeueoaoe iiaa?oiaai?
aeoeaiino? aa??th oai?aoe/ii aeoaea oe?eaa?, aea iio?aaothoue
aeiaeaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue iniaeeai a ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie ECI, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?aeoeoe? noaeaeeaa?ieo oeao?a.

Aecia/aii, ui ia o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? noaeae aieeaa? iaoiae
aaiaeo iiaeeo?eaoi??a. Oiio iaiao?aeii aei?iaiaoaaoe niaoe?aeuei?
oaoiieia?/i? i?eeiie aaaaeaiiy aa??th aei neeaaeo noaeae c iaoith
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy inoaiiueiai aeey iie?auaiiy yeino?
noaeaaeo eeoeo ae?ia?a.

Iieacaii, ui i?aeaeuaia ieenethaaii?noue aa??th ? eiai ia?ic/eii?noue o
iaoaeaa?e iao?eoe? cae?ca ooai?ththoue cia/i? neeaaeiiu? o aecia/aii?
ai?noo oeueiai aeaiaioa o noaeyo. ?nioth/? iaoiaee aeathoue noia?a/eea?
?acoeueoaoe. Iaiaeiicia/i?noue o aecia/aii? ai?noo aa??th o noaeyo
iio?aao? aeiaeaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o aeai?? i?inoi? ? ia’?eoeaii?
iaoiaeeee eiai aiae?co.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o iaoeiaeo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?aeao iaei aeaieo i?i
iaoai?ci aieeao aa??th ia iaoai?/i?, oaoiieia?/i? aeanoeaino? oa
no?oeoo?o eeoeo eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae. Oiio a aeai?e ?iaio? oe? ieoaiiy
aeiaeaoeiai aeine?aeaeoaaeenue.

C?iaeaii aeieia?/io ioe?ieo canoinoaaiiy o ae?iaieoeoa? nee?eiaa??th
cai?noue nee?eieaeueoe?th. Iieacaii ?o ??aiioe?ii?noue o aeieia?/iiio
a?aeiioaii?.

A?aecia/aii, ui aeey iie?auaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino? ? iaae?eiino?
eeoeo aeaoaeae iaiao?aeii i?aeaeuaiiy /enoioe noae? ii oe?aeeeaei
aeii?oeai aai iaeo?ae?caoe?y ?o iaaaoeaiiai aieeao, a oaeiae ea?oaaiiy
i?e?iaeith iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue c iaoith io?eiaiiy iio??aieo
aeanoeainoae noae?. Oiio iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe iioeiaeueia a?aeiioaiiy
aa??th aei oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie, ui caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueiee aoaeo a?ae
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui iacaaaeath/e ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue ?ia?o
a?o/eciyieo ? caei?aeiiieo aeine?aeiee?a o aaeoc? caaacia/aiiy aenieiai
??aiy oa?aeoa?enoee eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae, ieoaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? eeoeo aeaoaeae caeeoathoueny iaaeoi
aeooaeueieie. Iiceoeaia ??oaiiy oeeo ieoaiue iiaeeeai oeyoii aaiaeo aei
neeaaeo noaeae ie?aii aa??th aai a eiiieaen? ?c caaaeueiia?aeiieie
iiaeeo?eaoi?aie (eaeueoe??i ? ?CI) aeey iie?ioaiiy iaoai?/ieo,
oaoiieia?/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae eeoeo ae?ia?a, a oaeiae
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ?o ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iieno iaoa??ae?a ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ia?ai? eiino?oeoe?ei? noae? (aoaeaoeaa?,
aeiiiiiieaaiaai?, aenieieaaiaai?), iaoai?/i?, oaoiieia?/i? oa
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino? yeeo i?aeaeuoaaeenue ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy
ie?aii aa??th a ii??aiyii? c eaeueoe??i ? ?CI aai a eiiieaen? c oeeie
aeaiaioaie. Ia?ai? noae? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aeaoaeae
a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

Aeine?aei? ieaaee noaeae i?iaiaeeee o eeaa?i?e eaai?aoi??? CAeOO a
?iaeoeoe?eieo ia/ao i?noe?noth 9, 60, 120 ea c eeneith oa iniiaiith
oooa?iaeaie. I?iieneia? ieaaee noaeae i?iaiaeeee a oiiaao
oaniiinoaeaeeaa?ieo oeao?a EOe?C ? IieACE o aeaeo?iaeoaiaeo ia/ao c
iniiaiith oooa?iaeith oeio AeN-6I1 ? AeN-12I2. Ieaaee aaee ia na?ae?e
oeoo? iaoiaeii nieaaeaiiy a ?iaeoeoe?eieo ? c ieeneaiiyi a
aeaeo?iaeoaiaeo ia/ao. I?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeieo ieaaie canoiniaoaaee
ii?oe?eiee iaoiae a?aeai?o iaoaeo c ia/?, ui iicaieeei oieeiooe aieeao
noi?iii?o /eiiee?a ? io?eiaoe a?eueo a??ia?aei? ?acoeueoaoe.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia eeoeo c?aceao (AeANO 977-88) ? c?aceao
aeaioiaeaieo c eiie?aoieo i?iieneiaeo aeaoaeae.

Oa?iiia?iaeo c?ace?a aeine?aeiiai iaoaeo cae?enithaaee a eaai?aoi?ieo
aeaeo?iia/ao, a i?iieneiaeo ieaaie o eaia?ieo ia/ao ia aaciaiio iaeea? c
aaoiiaoe/iei ?aaoethaaiiyi ? eiio?ieai oaiia?aoo?.

Noae? ia?iaeyee oa?inee?eiaa???i ia?ie ON65Aa17 (18% aa??th) – ON55Aa32
(33% aa??th) ii OO 14-5-160-84. Aeey io?eiaiiy ii??aiyeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ? aea/aiiy eiiieaeniiai iiaeeo?eoaaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaee
nee?eieaeueoe?e (AeANO 4762-71) ia?ie NE-20 (18% eaeueoe?th) ? NE-30
(33% eaeueoe?th), a oaeiae e?aaoo?o c ?CI ia aac? e?aii?th ia?ee
ON30?CI30 ii OO 14-5-136-81, ui i?noeoue 33% ?CI.

Eiio?ieue o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, ai?noo aac?a, no?oeoo?e, ?ici???a ca?ia
aanoai?oo, caa?oaeiaiino? iaiaoaeaaeie ae?aieaiiyie ? iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae i?e iecueeeo oa i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao i?iaiaeeee o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?nioth/eie noaiaea?oaie. Aa??e aecia/aee ii
niaoe?aeueii i?ae?a?aiiio iaoiaeo ia niaeo?ia?ao? AeON-13. Aeey
oioiiao???oaaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaee aiae?oe/i? e?i?? aa??th 455,403 ii.
Eiao?oe??io aeiaoey?ecaoe?? iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue (Ea) aecia/aee ye
a?aeiioaiiy ?iaeaen?a caa?oaeiaiino? aeiaoey?ieie (Iae) ae?aieaiiyie aei
caaaeueiiai (Icaa). Iaiaoaeaa? ae?aieaiiy c aa???i aiae?coaaee ia
?aioaai?anueeiio i?e?iaiae?caoi?? o??ie “O?oa/?” OIA-5A.
I?e?io?aeoia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoaeo ? iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue
i?iaiaeeee ia aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? OAIA-100E. Eaai?aoi?i?
aei?iaoaaiiy ia oaea?ii-aa?aceaiee ciin noaeae i?iaiaeeee ia
iai?ai?iieneiaiio eoeueiaiio ieei?. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ??aeeioaeo/ino?
canoiniaoaaee ni??aeueio i?iao Ea???. I?iaea?thaaiiy noae? aecia/aee
iaoiaeii oi?oeaaiai aa?ooaaiiy ii AeANO 5657-69.

C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aa??th aei?iaiaoaaee
niaoe?aeueia iaeaaeiaiiy ? oaoiieia?/i? i?eeiie aaaaeaiiy aa??th aei
neeaaeo noaeae (aaeoaaiiy ii?ioeo o no?oiai? iaeo?aeueiiai aaco ?
i?enaaeee ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo).

Aeey aea/aiiy iaoai?ci?a iiaaae?iee ? ae?? aa??th i?e ?iceeneaii? oa
iiaeeo?eoaaii? noaeae c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo ? neoaeaiaeo
oa?aeoa?enoee aeaoaeae aeei?enoiaoaaee niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaeeee oa
onoaoeoaaiiy (onoaiiaeo ii aecia/aiith aeoeaiino? eenith o iaoae?,
oaeineiiaeaiee niin?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaa?oiaai? aeoeaiino? ECI iaoiaeii
eaaea/i? e?aie?, iaoiae eiio?ieth aaciai? oace o i?ioean? ia?iaee
??aeei? noae? e?aaoo?aie, ui i?noyoue ECI).

Iaoaiaoe/io ia?iaeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo cae?enithaaee ?c
canoinoaaiiyi no/anieo i?eeaae?a ? cania?a ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiiyi ii ooi/ithaaiith iaoai?cio
iiaaae?iee aa??th o noaeyo ? aiae?co no?eeino? oa i?e/ei aeoiaeo c eaaeo
noaeaaeo eeoeo aeaoaeae a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

A?aeiii, ui ye?noue eeoeo ae?ia?a a iniiaiiio aecia/a?oueny ??aeeei
noaiii noae? ia?aae caeeaeith ?? o oi?io. Oiio i?iaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoai?cio iiaaae?iee aa??th o noae? a ii??aiyii? ?c caaaeueiiaeciaiei
iiaeeo?eaoi?ii – eaeueoe??i.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e oaiia?aoo?ao iaoaeo aei 1923 E aa??e ia a?aei?io
a?ae eaeueoe?th ia aeia?iao?oueny ? ia ooai?th? aaciiiae?ai? niieo/aiiy,
a aca?iiae?? o ??aeeiio noai? c aeii?oeaie, ye? iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia
aenieoaoaoe?eio no?ee?noue eeoeo aeaoaeae.

I?aeoaa?aeaeaii iaeo ?ic/eii?noue aa??th o noaeyo oa eiai aenieo
iiaa?oiaao aeoeai?noue. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?eueoa /anoea aa??th
cae?a?oueny ia iiaa?oi? iaoaeo o neeaae? oeaeiai? ie?aee. Oea ?
aaaeeeaith oiiaith ooai?aiiy ? aeaeaeaiiy iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue oa
iniiaiei oaeoi?ii iie?auaiiy eeaa?ieo aeanoeainoae i?e aeaioiaeaii?
ye?nieo eeoeo ae?ia?a.

Iieacaii, ui aa??e ? neeueiei ?iceenethaa/ai-iiaeeo?eaoi?ii. I?e oeueiio
“aeeao/?noue” aa??th aeua i?ae eaeueoe?th, ui aaaeeeai i?e aca?iiae?? ?c
oe?aeeeaeie aeii?oeaie o noaeyo.

Aecia/aii i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? aa??th i?e eiai ni?eueiiio
aaaaeaii? aei neeaaeo noae? c eaeueoe??i, ca ?aooiie a?eueo ?ioaineaiiai
? ??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo aa??th o ia’?i? iaoaeo i?ae ae??th ia??a
eaeueoe?th.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co no?eeino? ? i?e/ei aeoiaeo c eaaeo
eeoeo aeaoaeae a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy iieacaee, ui iniiaiei
iai?yieii i?aeaeuaiiy ?o iaae?eiino? ? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy noaeae c iaoith
iaeo?ae?caoe?? oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie, aeiaoey?ecaoe?? iaiaoaeaaeo
ae?aieaiue, i/euaiiy iaae eeoeo ca?ai ? caaacia/aiiy aiiiaaiii?
no?oeoo?e. I?e oeueiio iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei iiaeeo?eaoi?ii ? aa??e.

Ia ?oaeicaaaa/oaaeueieo oaa?eeao aeey iiae??aiaiiy ?oaee
aeei?enoiaothoue ieeie eoeueiaiai ?iciaethaaiiy. Iaae?ei?noue ?iaioe
oeueiai iaeaaeiaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino? eeoeo
aeaoaeae: /a?iae?a oa i?in?th/eo ?ao?oie. Aiae?cii oiia ?iaioe eeoeo
aeaoaeae anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ao?oee oa /a?iaee i?aoeththoue o neeaaeieo
oiiaao a?ae?iaa?aceaiiai ciiooaaiiy, yea ii?aeio?oueny c oaea?ieie
iaaaioaaeaiiyie. Iniiai? i?e/eie aeoiaeo c eaaeo ? iaaeinoaoiy
no?ee?noue oeeo aeaoaeae oea oaeaeeee ciin ? ?oeioaaiiy o i?ioean?
aenieoaoaoe??.

Ia a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueieo i?aei?e?inoaao /a?iaee ? ?ao?oee
aeaioiaeythoueny ?c eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae, oaeeo ye 110A13E, 60O2NIE,
34OIIE, 40OE, 35AE, 45O2NE. Aiae?c no?eeino? eeoeo aeaoaeae iieacaa
iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeiiiiiieaaiaaii? noae? 45O2NE, ui ia?
i?aeaeuaio ciinino?ee?noue, oaa?ae?noue oa i?oei?noue i?e iaia’yceiaiio
a?aeiioaii? a ?? neeaae? aoaeaoeth aei e?aii?th 1:2,250,25 (A.n. ?
1502651 N?N?, IEE4 N22N38/18).

Aeey noaa?e?caoe?? iieaciee?a i?oeiino? aei neeaaeo noae? 45O2NE
aaaaeaii aaiaae?e a iaaeao 0,02-0,25%. Aeiaeaoeiaa iiaeeo?eoaaiiy noae?
e?aaoo?aie, ui i?noyoue aa??e, aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe a’yceiieanoe/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oa onoiooe aeo?ae c eaaeo aeaoaeae /a?ac iieaiaiiy.

Aiae?cii ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ii aieeao aa??th ia
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?, no?oeoo?o, ?iaeaen caa?oaeiaiino? iaoaeo,
a oaeiae neeaae, ?iciiae?e ? eiao?oe??io aeiaoey?ecaoe?? iaiaoaeaaeo
ae?aieaiue o noaeyo c ??ciei ai?noii oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie (n??ee,
oinoi?o) anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeueia a?aeiioaiiy aaaaeaiiai aa??th aei
n??ee, yea aei??aith? 2,00,5 ? caaacia/o? ca?eueoaiiy a’yceiieanoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae (oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 1 – Aieea aa??th ia aeanoeaino? noae? 45O2NOE c ??ciiiai?oiei

ai?noii n??ee (ii?iae?caoe?y a?ae 1163 E, a?aeione 873 E c
ioieiaeaeaiiyi o aiaeo)

Ianiaa

/anoea, %I?enaaeea,
%picscalex100010009000003af000000030017000000000005000000090200000000040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,

IIa, %, %KCU,

IAeae/i2SBaON65Aa17Aa0,008—-93019,033,90,460,00300,100,0182,2593020,33
4,80,540,020—-92017,029,10,300,00320,200,0361,8092819,233,40,440,032—
—91212,522,00,250,00470,400,0722,2591017,528,50,35

I?e?i?aioaaiiniaeo?aeueiee aiae?c aeiaoey?ieo iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue o
noaeyo 45O2NOE ? 35AE iieacaa iayai?noue a ?o neeaae? aa??th,
aethi?i?th, n??ee ? a?aenooi?noue oinoi?o. A?aenooi?noue e?aii?th o
neeaae? aeiaoey?ieo ae?aieaiue c aa???i i?aeoaa?aeeei aiaeiaaiiee
oa?aeoa? ?o ooai?aiiy. Oae? ienenoeueo?aei? ae?aieaiiy aeiaaeaee ia
ii/aoeia?e noaae?? e?enoae?caoe?? ? ?icoaoiaoaaeenue o na?aaeei? ca?ia,
ui aeicaieyei io?eiaoe a?eueo /eno? iaae? ca?ai.

Aeine?aeaeaii iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aa??th aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
aeeeae?a ?c noae? 110A13E, a ye?e i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?e aieea ai?noo
n??ee ia iieacieee yeino?. Aeei?enoiaoaaee oaeineiiaeaiee iaoiae
eaaea/i? e?aie? aeey aecia/aiiy iiaa?oiaai? aeoeaiino? aa??th o
ii??aiyii? c eaeueoe??i. Ioe?iea ?acoeueoao?a cii/oaaiiy ??aeeei iaoaeii
oaa?aeeo i?aeeeaaeeiie aeicaieeea aeyaeoe ianooiio iniaeea?noue: noaeue
iiaeeo?eiaaia aa???i iaea iaio? neee c/aieaiiy ia ?icae?e? ??aeei? ?
oaa?aei? oac i?e aeiaie? aenieiio eiao?oe??io? ?ico?eaiiy. A ?aaeueieo
oiiaao i?e caeeaaii? iiaeeo?eiaaii? aa???i noae? o eeaa?i? oi?ie
a?aeaoaaeiny i?aeaeuaiiy ??aeeioaeo/ino? c iaeii/aniei ciaioaiiyi nee
aca?iiae?? i?ae ??aeeei iaoaeii ? iaoa??aeii oi?ie. I?e oeueiio
a?aei?/aii cieaeaiiy i?eaa?o, e?eueeino? aeaoaeo?a oa iie?ioaiiy yeino?
iiaa?oi? aeeeae?a.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaee
oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae c aa???i aeey eeoeo
ae?ia?a.

Aea/aee ie?aiee oa eiiieaeniee aieea aa??th, eaeueoe?th ? ?CI ia ye?noue
noaeae 45O2NOE, 25O18I9IOONAE ? 25E. I?e oeueiio o?aoiaoaaee ??ci?
iaoai?cie ae?? iiaeeo?eaoi??a o noae?: eaeueoe?e aeia?iao?oueny ? ae?? a
aaciiiae?aiiio aeaeyae?, ?CI – ?ic/eiy?oueny, a aa??e i?aoeth? o
??aeeiio noai? ? i?aeoe/ii ia aeia?iao?oueny ? ia ?ic/eiy?oueny o
iaoae?.

I?aeaeuaiiy neoaeaiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee eeoeo aeaoaeae iiaeeeai ca ?aooiie
cieaeaiiy oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie. Aea oea aeoaea o?oaeii?noe? oaoiieia?/i?
iia?aoe?? ? a eeaa?ieo oeaoao ?i ia i?eae?eythoue iaeaaeii? oaaae.
Aiae?c caeaaaeueiiai eiio?ieth i?iieneiaeo ieaaie iieacaa, ui a a?eueo?e
?o /anoei? ai?no n??ee ? oinoi?o ia cieaeo?oueny ieae/a 0,025-0,030%, a
eenith 0,008-0,014%.

Aiae?c i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaa, ui ECI ? ?CI ni?eythoue
i?aeaeuaiith o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae noae? c ai?noii n??ee 0,03%.
I?e eiiieaeniiio iiaeeo?eoaaii? iiceoeaiee aoaeo a?ae ae?? ECI ? ?CI
noio?oueny ? i?aeneeth?oueny, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy
a’yceiieanoe/ieo iieaciee?a noae? a 1,5-2,0 ?ace (oaae. 2), a oea
ia?aaeuo? a’yceiieanoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee noae? c ai?noii n??ee 0,008%
i?e iaci?iieo iieacieeao i?oeiino? ? oaa?aeino? (aeea. oaae. 1).

Oaaeeoey 2 – Ii??aiyeueiee aieea iiaeeo?eaoi??a ia iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?

noae? 45O2NOE c ai?noii n??ee 0,030%

(Ii?iae?caoe?y a?ae 1163 E, a?aeione 873 E o aiaeo)

I?enaaeea, %Iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?NE-30ON55Aa32ON30?CI30A,

IIa,

%,

%KCU,

IAeae/i2Oaa?ae?noue ii A??iaeth,
IIa—90112,522,00,262150-0,2-92218,728,40,3522000,15—93118,827,20,3422
000,150,2-90720,638,00,512100—0,191919,436,00,402170-0,20,192520,843,70
,4422500,15-0,192820,043,00,4322300,150,20,192721,245,20,602290

I?aeaeuaiiy yeino? noae? iiynith?oueny iiaeeo?eoth/ath ae??th ECI ? ?CI.
I?e oeueiio ci?ithaaeanue i?e?iaea iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue. Ciaiooaaeanue
/anoeia naiino?eieo noeueo?ae?a ? ca?eueooaaeanue /anoeia
ienenoeueo?ae?a ia?aaaaeii eoeynoi? oi?ie. I?aeoe/ii iiai?noth cieeaee
aino?ieooi? ae?aieaiiy ei?oiaeo ? ca?eueooaaeanue /anoeia aeiaoey?ieo
ieneae?a.

Aecia/aii, ui /anoea aieeao aa??th ye ia cieaeaiiy ai?noo eenith, oae ?
ia i?aeaeuaiiy a’yceiieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae noaeae oa eiao?oe??ioo
aeiaoey?ecaoe?? iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue i?aeneethaaeanue o i?enooiino?
eaeueoe?th ? neaaioea i?e iayaiino? ?CI. Iaee?aua niieo/aiiy
aeanoeainoae caaacia/oaaeinue i?e eiiieaeniiio iiaeeo?eoaaii? aa???i,
eaeueoe??i ? ?CI. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo niinoa??aaee naiee aenieee
eiao?oe??io aeiaoey?ecaoe?? (80%) aeey noae? c ai?noii n??ee 0,030% ?
cieaeaiiy ai?noo eenith i?eaeecii a 2,0 ?ace.

A a??ie/iia?a?iai?e i?iieneiaino? aaeeea e?euee?noue eeoeo aeaoaeae a
i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? ni?aoeueiao?oueny ia cia/io aeeaeio. I?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? oaeeo aeeeae?a ia?ic’?iii iia’ycaii c?
ca?eueoaiiyi i?iaea?thaaiiy noae?. I?e ie?aiiio ? eiiieaeniiio
iiaeeo?eoaaii? ECI ? ?CI a niieo/aii? c aethi?i??i, ai?no yeiai a noae?
aei??aithaaa 0,025% a?aei?/aee iiae??aiaiiy ca?ai ca ?aooiie ae?? oeeo
aeaiaio?a, ye iiaeeo?eaoi??a ia?oiai ?iaeo, oiaoi iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo
?a/iaei, ?iaioa yeeo caiaeeoueny aei aeai?/i? aaeni?aoe?? ia iaaeao
e?enoae?a ui ooai?ththoueny, a oaeiae a iane?aeie ooai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo
oeaio??a e?enoae?caoe?? – ooaiieaaeeo ienenoeueo?aeieo ae?aieaiue. I?e
oeueiio i?iaea?thaaiiy noae? i?aeaeuoaaeinue ca ?aooiie eieae?caoe??
oe?aeeeaeo aeii?oie ? i/euaiiy a?ae ieo iaae ca?ai.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee io?eiaoe a noae? 45O2NOE aenie?
a’yceiieanoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ? iaeii/anii i?aeoe/ii iane??cia
i?iaea?thaaiiy aeeeaie c oiaueiith 120 ii.

Aeaeo?iiii?e?ineiie/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie aecia/aii, ui noae? c ai?noii
aethi?i?th iiiaae 0,025% iathoue e?eoe? ceiie, a yeeo niinoa??aathoue
ae?aieaiiy ieneae?a oa i?o?eae?a aethi?i?th. Iiaeeo?eoaaiiy noae?
e?aaoo?aie, ui i?noyoue aa??e, eaeueoe?e ? ?CI, ye? iathoue a?eueoa
o?i?/ia nii??aeiaiiy aei eenith oa acioo, i?ae ye aethi?i?e, aeicaieeei
caiia?aoe ooai?aiiy a?oaeo ae?aieaiue o aeaeyae? ie?aee. I?e oeueiio,
i?e?io?aeoia?aie ceii?a ??ciiiai?oieo aa??aio?a iiaeeo?eoaaiiy aa???i,
eaeueoe??i oa ?CI, iaee a’yceee yii/iee ceii c aeia?a aeyaeaieie o
na?aaeei? yiie aeiaoey?ieie ae?aieaiiyie. Ii ??aiii??iino? ?iciiae?eo
no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo ? aeiaoey?ieo ae?aieaiue, e?au?i aa??aioii ?
eiiieaenia iiaeeo?eoaaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iceii?a
i?aeoaa?aeeee io?eiai? aeai? i?i i?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
noae? o ?acoeueoao? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy aa???i, eaeueoe??i oa ?CI (A.n.
?1654369 N?N?, IEE5 N22N38/46).

Aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaeeio oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee aeeeae?a ?c noae?
45O2NOE, ui i?noeoue aa??e, aeicaieea iaeneiaeueii aeei?enoaoe
iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino? iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ? neeaaeo noae?.

Aecia/aii, ui ni?eyoeeaa niieo/aiiy iieaciee?a i?oeiino?, oaa?aeino?,
ieanoe/iino? ? oaea?ii? a’yceino? caaacia/oaaee oae? ?aaeeie
oa?iiia?iaee: ii?iae?caoe?y a?ae 1163 E ? a?aeione i?e 873 E c
ioieiaeaeaiiyi o aiaeo. A oaeiae aa?ooaaiiy c 1163 E o aiaeo ? a?aeione
i?e 923 E c ioieiaeaeaiiyi o aiaeo. I?e oeeo ?aaeeiao oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee
aeey noae? 45O2NOE io?eiaee ia eeoeo c?aceao iaeii??aeio
oa?eoi-oeaiaioeoio noi?o ??aiii??ii? aeenia?niino?, yea ia? aeniea
niieo/aiiy o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Aeey oianoino?iieo aeeeae?a,
oaeeo ye /a?iae ? ?ao?oea, ui iathoue iioeiaeueiee ia?a??c no?iie 120
ii, io?eiaiiy aaei?oii? no?oeoo?e i?e ii?iae?caoe?? i?aeoe/ii
iaiiaeeeai. Aeei?enoaiiy aa?ooaaiiy aeey oeeo aeeeae?a /a?ac neeaaeio ?o
eiio?ao?aoe?th i?eaiaeeei aei aeieeiaiiy o??uei. I?e ii?iae?caoe??
oaeaee?noue ioieiaeaeaiiy oianoino?iieo aeeeae?a caaacia/oaaea io?eiaiiy
ia?e?oi-oa?eoii? no?oeoo?e ii anueiio ia?a??co. Aeey ooi/iaiiy ?aaeeio
oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee aoea i?aai?ciaaia ni?iaa aeei?enoaiiy ia?a?ea/anoiai
aa?ooaaiiy. Aeey oeueiai aeeeaee caii/oaaee o aiae? c ?ioa?aaeii o 15
naeoiae. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey io?eiaiiy aaei?oii? no?oeoo?e ii anueiio
ia?a??co oianoino?iieo aeeeae?a (120 ii) iaiao?aeia ia?a?ea/anoa
aa?ooaaiiy ?c caii/oaaiiyi o aiae? ia 30 naeoiae c ianooiiei
ioieiaeaeaiiyi ia iia?o??.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iiaeeo?eoaaiiy oa?inee?eiaa???i aoaeoeaii aieeaaei ia
i?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ? ??aeeioaeo/ino?, a oaeiae
ciaioaiiy ai?noo aac?a ? a?aeo ii iiaa?oiaaei aeaoaeoai aeeeae?a ?c
noae? aanoai?oiiai eeano 25O18I9IOONAE. Iioeiaeuei? aeanoeaino? io?eiai?
i?e a?aeiioaii? i?enaaeee aa??th aei n??ee, ui i?noeoueny o iaoae?, yea
aei??aith? 2,25. Ca ?aooiie iioeiaeueieo o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
ciaiooaaany ciin ? i?aeaeuoaaany oa?i?i ?iaioe eeoeo ae?ia?a (A.n.
?1752822 N?N?, IEE5 N22N38/50).

Aeine?aeaeaii niaoe?aeuei? oaoiieia?/i? i?eeiie aaaaeaiiy aa??th aei
neeaaeo noaeae (ii?ioeiaee ae??o ? aaeoaaiiy ii?ioeo o no?oiai?
iaeo?aeueiiai aaco) c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
inoaiiueiai aeey iie?ioaiiy yeino? noaeaaeo eeoeo ae?ia?a.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia na?aaeiueiaoaeaoeaa?e noae? 25E
oa?eoi-ia?e?oiiai eeano c aaeeeei ai?noii n??ee (a?eueoa 0,04%). Ia?eo
noae? aea?aii c iaoith onoiaiiy aieeao aeiaeaoeiaeo
eaaoth/i-iiaeeo?eoth/eo aeaiaio?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaeaiiy iiaeeo?eaoi?a o noaeue iaoiaeii ii?ioeiaiai
ae?ioo aeicaiey? ciaioeoe i?enaaeeo aa??th o 2,0 ?ace ? io?eiaoe
aiaeia?/i? a’yceiieanoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa oieiaeino?ee?noue, ye ? i?e
caaaeueiia?aeiiiio eoneiaiio iaoiae?. I?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo iieaciee?a
iiynith?oueny onoiaiiyi eiioaeoo ECI c aoiinoa?ith ? a?eueo iiaiith eiai
?iaioith o ??aeeiio iaoae? c? oe?aeeeaeie aeii?oeaie.

Iieacaii, ui aeey iaeneiaeueiiai ciaioaiiy ai?noo n??ee o noaeyo (ia
40%) aa??e o?aaa aaiaeeoe o ??aeeee iaoae, iiia?aaeiuei ?iceeneaiee
aethi?i??i, ca aeiiiiiaith no?oiaiy a?aiio. I?e oeueiio a?aei?/aee ??no
ai?noo e?aii?th o noae?, ui ia aeicaieyei cia/ii ca?eueooaaoe i?enaaeeo
e?aaoo?e, oae ye oea i?eaiaeeei aei iaa?aeiia?aeiino? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo
noae? AeANO 977-88.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee i?iieneiaei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ? aei?iaoaaiiyi
?ic?iaeaieo iioeiaeueieo aa??aio?a iiaeeo?eoaaiiy aa???i eiino?oeoe?eieo
noaeae, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aeeeae?a, a oaeiae
ai?iaaaeaeaiith ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai.

Ae?iaieoeoai eeoeo aeaoaeae: /a?iae?a oa i?in?th/eo ?ao?oie ieei?a
eoeueiaiai ?iciaethaaiiy ?c iiaeeo?eiaaii? noae? 45O2NOE, ui i?noeoue
aa??e, ?c canoinoaaiiyi niaoe?aeueii? oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee cae?enithaaee o
eeaa?ieo oeaoao EOe?C ? IieACE. I?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeee a
oiiaao caaaa/oaaeueieo oaa?ee IieACE ? I?aACE. ?acoeueoaoe i?iieneiaeo
aei?iaoaaiue iieacaee i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? /a?iae?a a na?aaeiueiio o 2
?ace, a i?in?th/eo ?ao?oie o 1,4 ?ace i?e iiai?e a?aenooiino? iieaiaiiy
? aeaoi?iaoe??.

O?aoiaoth/e ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue (?icae?e 3) a oiiaao
noaeaeeaa?iiai oeaoo EOe?C aoei inai?ii i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai aeaoaeae
?c iiaeeo?eiaaii? noae? 110A13E, ui i?noeoue aa??e (A.n. ?1650754 N?N?,
IEE5 N22N38/16). Oea aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe ye?noue aeeeae?a ? ciaioeoe
a?ae eeoaa.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aiae?co ae?th/iai ae?iaieoeoaa
EOe?C aoea aei?iaoaaia o i?iieneiaeo oiiaao oaoiieia?y e?ioeaaiai
?iceeneaiiy-iiaeeo?eoaaiiy noaeae i?e ae?iaieoeoa? eeoeo ae?ia?a aeey
iieiaie. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ie?aiiai iiaeeo?eoaaiiy noaeae eaeueoe??i
aai aa???i aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i ??aiicia/io cai?io
nee?eieaeueoe?th ia oa?inee?eiaa??e. Ciaioaiiy ai?noo aeoeaiiai eenith o
noaeyo ca ?aooiie aethi?i?th ? aeiaeaoeiaa iiaeeo?eoaaiiy ie?aii aa???i
aai ?acii c ?CI aeicaieeei i?aeaeueoe canai?iiy iiaeeo?eaoi??a, ooai?eoe
aacia/i? ae?aieaiiy eoeynoi? oi?ie, iie?aueoe ye?noue eeoeo ae?ia?a oa
cieceoe a?ae o eiaaeuenueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

I?e ae?iaieoeoa? aeeeae?a ?c noae? 25O18I9IOONAE a oiiaao eeaa?ieo
oeao?a EOe?C, c iaoith iie?auaiiy yeino? iiaa?oi? eeoeo aeaoaeae,
cieaeaiiy ai?noo aac?a ? io?eiaiiy noaa?eueieo a’yceiieanoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae ai?iaaaeaeaii aeei?enoaiiy oa?inee?eiaa??th.

Acaaae? ae?iaieoeoai oa aenieoaoaoe?y aeaoaeae a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao E?eai??cueeiai ?oaeiiai aanaeio aeicaieeee
io?eiaoe aeiiii?/iee aoaeo o ?ici??? a?eueoiio ca 260 oen. ea?aiaaioe?a
ia ??e o oe?iao 1990 ?ieo, ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy iaoai?/ieo,
oaoiieia?/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae noaeaaiai eeoaa.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE

1. Na?aae ??cieo eiiiiiaio?a, ye? iathoue aieea ia neeaae, oi?io,
oiiia?ao?th iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue ? ia i?ioeane ?o aeaeaeaiiy c iaoaeo,
a oaeiae a?aioey?i?noue no?oeoo?e, ai?no aac?a oa i?iaea?thaaiiy noae?,
ECI ? ?CI ciaeoee oe?iea canoinoaaiiy aeey io?eiaiiy iioeiaeueieo
iaoai?/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae eeoeo
aeaoaeae. I?e oeueiio aa??e, ye ECI ? iaeiaioa aea/aiee aeaiaio, yeee
iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino?
aeaoaeae ?c eiino?oeoe?eieo eeoeo noaeae.

2. Aeiiiaiaii ? ocaaaeueiaii iaoai?ci aieeao aa??th ia aeanoeaino? eeoeo
noaeae i?e ie?aiiio ? eiiieaeniiio iiaeeo?eoaaii?:

— anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aaaaeaii? aa??th aei neeaaeo noae? i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao aei 1923 E a?i ia ooai?th? aaciiiae?ai? niieo/aiiy, ia
a?aei?io a?ae eaeueoe?th ia aeia?iao?oueny ? ia ?ic/eiy?oueny ye ?CI, a
aca?iiae?? o ??aeeiio noai? c n??eith, eeniai, aai aeeiicaiii oa
ooai?th? iaiaoaeaa? ae?aieaiiy – ienenoeueo?aee;

— aecia/aii, ui i?iaeoeoe aca?iiae?? aa??th c? oe?aeeeaeie aeii?oeaie
i?eeiathoue aeiaoey?io oi?io, ia eiaaoeththoue, aeiaaeathoue ia
ii/aoeia?e noaae?? e?enoae?caoe?? ? i?e cieaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e iaoaeo a
a?eueoino? (a?ey 65%) caoiieththoueny e?enoaeaie, ui ?inoooue. Oea
i?eaiaeeoue aei i/euaiiy iaae eeoeo ca?ai. I?e oeueiio iniiaia /anoeia
aa??th i?noeoueny ia iiaa?oi? iaoaeo o neeaae? oeaeiiiae?aii? oace;

— iieacaii, ui i?aeaeuaia “aeeao/?noue” aa??th o ii??aiyii? c
eaeueoe??i, aeniea eiai eiioeaio?aoe?y ia iiaa?oi? iaoaeo ? aaeeea
iiaa?oiaaa aeoeai?noue ni?eyoeeai aieeaathoue ia oiiae ooai?aiiy ?
aeaeaeaiiy iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue, a oaeiae iie?ioothoue eeaa?i?
aeanoeaino? ? ye?noue iiaa?oi? aeeeae?a;

— aecia/aii, ui /anoea aieeao aa??th ia cieaeaiiy ai?noo eenith ? ia
i?aeaeuaiiy a’yceiieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae noaeae oa eiao?oe??ioo
aeiaoey?ecaoe?? iaiaoaeaaeo ae?aieaiue i?aeneeth?oueny o i?enooiino?
eaeueoe?th ? neaaia i?e iayaiino? ?CI;

— aeine?aeaeaii, ui e?aua niieo/aiiy iaoai?/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo ?
aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee noaeaaiai eeoaa iiaeia io?eiaoe i?e
iiaeeo?eoaaii? aa???i ni?eueii c eaeueoe??i oa ?CI noaeae, ui i?noyoue
ia iaioa 0,025% aethi?i?th. I?e oeueiio i?aeaeuo?oueny aeoeai?noue
aa??th ca ?aooiie a?eueo ?ioaineaiiai ? ??aiii??iiai eiai ?iciiae?eo o
ia’?i? iaoaeo i?ae ae??th eaeueoe?th, ui aeia?iao?oueny;

— aeiaaaeaii, ui aeey noaeae c ai?noii aethi?i?th iiiaae 0,025% ? n??ee
0,03% eiiieaenia iiaeeo?eoaaiiy aa???i, eaeueoe??i oa ?CI aeicaiey?
caiia?aoe ooai?aiith a?oaeo ae?aieaiue o aeaeyae? ie?aee (ieneae?a ?
i?o?eae?a aethi?i?th) ii iaaeao ca?ai, io?eiaoe iaiaoaeaa? ae?aieaiiy c
eiao?oe??ioii aeiaoey?ecaoe?? 80%, cieceoe ai?no eenith a 2 ?ace,
io?eiaoe i?aeoe/ii iane??cia i?iaea?thaaiiy aeeeae?a oiaueiith aei 120
ii ? i?aeaeueoe a’yceiieanoe/i? aeanoeaino? o 1,5-2,0 ?ace, oiaoi
aeinyaoe ??aiy iieaciee?a noae? c ai?noii n??ee iaioa 0,01%.

3. Aecia/aii iioeiaeueio i?enaaeeo oa?inee?eiaa??th, ui aei??aith?
2,00,5 ? oyaey? niaith a?aeiioaiiy aaaaeaiiai aa??th aei n??ee ui
i?noeoueny o iaoae? ? caaacia/o? ai?no aa??th o noaeyo ia iaioa 0,001%.
Oea caaacia/o? o eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeyo i?e caeeoeiaiio ai?noo
aethi?i?th a ieo ia iaioa 0,025%, iaeneiaeueiee aoaeo a?ae
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy (ciaioaiiy ?iaeaeno caa?oaeiaiino? iaiaoaeaaeie
ae?aieaiiyie ? i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioo ?o aeiaoey?ecaoe??, cieaeaiiy
ai?noo aac?a, ciaioaiiy ?ici??o aanoai?oiiai ca?ia, iie?ioaiiy
i?iaea?thaaiiy ? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee).

4. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaaaeaiiy aa??th aei neeaaeo noaeae iaoiaeii
ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo i?aeaeuo? a’yceiieanoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee a 1,2 ?ace o
ii??aiyii? c caaaeueiiaeciaiei eoneiaei iaoiaeii aaiaeo. Aaaaeaiiy
oa?inee?eiaa??th o no?oiai? a?aiio o noaeue, ui i?noeoue iiiaae 0,025%
aethi?i?th, aeicaiey? cieceoe ai?no n??ee ia 40%. A?eueo aenieee
nooi?iue aeanoeueoo?aoe?? iaiaaeo?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi ai?noo e?aii?th o
noae?.

5. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii neeaae eiiieaenii
iiaeeo?eiaaii? ciinino?eei? noae? 45O2NOE c aa???i (A.n. ?1654369 N?N?,
IEE5 N22N38/46) ? oaoiieia?th ae?iaieoeoaa ?c ia? aeeeae?a aeey aeaoaeae
ieei?a eoeueiaiai ?iciaethaaiiy.

Aeey aeeeae?a, ui i?aoeththoue a oiiaao i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo? ?
aa?aneaiiio na?aaeiaeu? a??ie/i?oaeii? i?iieneiaino?, cai?iiiiiaaii
neeaae noae? 25O18I9IOONAE c aa???i (A.n. ?1752822 N?N?, IEE5
N22N38/50).

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? aeeeae?a, ui ae?iaeythoueny ?c noae? 110A13E,
cai?iiiiiaaii eeoo aenieiia?aaioeaao ciinino?eeo noaeue c aa???i (A.n.
?1650754 N?N?, IEE5 N22N38/16).

6. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy noaeae, ui i?noyoue aa??e o ae?iaieoeoai aeeeae?a ia
EOe?C ? IieACE aeaei iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeueoe oa?i?i aenieoaoaoe??
a?aeiia?aeaeueieo eeoeo aeaoaeae i?e iiai?e a?aenooiino? ?o iieaiaiiy, a
oaeiae ?noioii iie?aueoe oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? iieacieee ae?iaieoeoaa
aeeeae?a ? io?eiaoe aeiiii?/iee aoaeo o noi? a?eueoee ca 260 oen.
ea?aiaaioe?a ia ??e o oe?iao 1990 ?ieo.

IOAE?EAOe?? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

1. Naiieeia A.A., Eoiaa A.A., Oeeae?ei Y.E. Enneaaeiaaiea aa?ey a
i?ioeannao ?aneeneaiey, iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey e ?aoeie?iaaiey
aeaeacioaea?iaeenouo nieaaia aeey oaniiiiai eeouey // Iia?
eiino?oeoe?ei? noae? oa noiie ? iaoiaee ?o ia?iaee aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? ae?ia?a: Ca. iaoe. i?. — Caii??aeaey:
CAeOO. — 1998. — N. 150-151.

2. Naiieeia A.A. Eniieueciaaiea aa?eeniaea?aeaueo eeaaoo? i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa eiino?oeoeeiiiuo noaeae // Iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey e
aacu a eeoaeiuo nieaaao: Na. iao/. o?. – Caii?iaeuea: CAOO. – 1997. – N.
72-75.

3. Eoiaa A.A., Naiieeia A.A. E aii?ino i i?eiaiaiee aa?ey i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa noaeueiiai eeouey // I?ia?anneaiua oaoiieiae/aneea
i?ioeannu a eeoaeiii i?iecaiaenoaa: Na. noaoae – Iine. – IIE. — 1989. –
N. 4-11.

4. Naiieeia A.A., Eoiaa A.A. Ia?niaeoeau i?eiaiaiey aa?ey i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa noaeueiuo ioeeaie // Iiaua eiino?oeoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu e
yooaeoeaiua iaoiaeu eo iieo/aiey e ia?aaioee: Na. iao/. o?. – E.: OIE
AI. – 1988. – N. 128-131.

5. Naiieeia A.A., Eoiaa A.A., Aca?iaa E.I. Enneaaeiaaiea aiciiaeiinoe
i?eiaiaiey aa?ey i?e i?iecaiaenoaa noaeueiiai eeouey // Iiaua
eiino?oeoeeiiiua iaoa?eaeu, yooaeoeaiua iaoiaeu eo iieo/aiey e
ia?aaioee, iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe aeaoaeae iaoei e
eiino?oeoeee: Na. iao/. o?. – E.: OIE AI. – 1991. – N. 54-56.

6. A.n. 1654369 NNN?, IEE5 N22 N 38/46 Eeoay eciininoieeay noaeue /
A.A.Aii/a?aiei, I.A.Caaoauaaoueei, A.A.Eoiaa, A.A. Naiieeia, A.N.*oiae,
A.A.Oaeiiaaa, A.A.Oaeiiaaa, I.N.O?aiei (NNN?). – ?4701681/02; Cayaeaii
05.06.89; Iioae. 07.06.91; Athe. ?21. – 3 n.

7. A.n. 1752822 NNN?, IEE5 N22 N 38/50 Noaeue / TH.A.Aa?oaaneee,
A.A.Aii/a?aiei, A.O.Einye, A.O.Eoaeei, A.A.Eoiaa, A.A.Naiieeia,
A.A.Oaeiiaaa, A.A.Oaeiiaaa, I.N.O?aiei (NNN?). – ?48007229/02; Cayaeaii
29.03.90; Iioae. 07.08.92, Athe. ?29. – 3 n.

8. A.n. 1650754 NNN?, IEE5 N22 N 38/16 Eeoay eciininoieeay noaeue /
I.N.O?aiei, A.A.Oaeiiaaa, A.A.Naiieeia, A.I.Naaeiaa, A.A.Eoiaa,
E.A.*a?aieineee, A.Ae.Ieaoeaaiei, A.O.Einye (NNN?). – ?4699600/02;
Cayaeaii 31.05.89; Iioae. 23.05.91, Athe. ?19. – 3 n.

9. A.n. 1502651 NNN?, IEE4 N 22N 38/18 Eeoay eciininoieeay noaeue /
E.E.Aca?ia, A.O.Einye, A.A.Eoiaa, A.A.Naiieeia, A.A.Oaeiiaaa,
I.N.O?aiei, TH.A.Ooeueoa (NNN?). – ? 4372900/31-02; Cayaeaii 01.02.88;
Iioae. 23.08.89, Athe. ?31. – 3 n.

10. Naiieeia A.A., Eoiaa A.A., Aca?iaa E.I., Caieiaay A.O. Ia?niaeoeau
i?eiaiaiey aa?ey aeey aiaia/iie ia?aaioee noaee // O?oaeu Oanoie
Ananithciie iao/. eiio. ii nia?aiaiiui i?iaeaiai yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee
noaee. – *aeyaeine: *IE. – 1987. – N. 149.

11. Naiieeia A.A., Eoiaa A.A., Aca?iaa E.I. Aiaia/iay ia?aaioea eeneie
yeaeo?inoaee n oeaeueth aa aeanoeueoo?aoeee // Oac. aeiee. IV ?anioae.
iao/i.-oaoi. eiio. “Iaoaiecaoeey e iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia i?iecaiaenoaa ioeeaie iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai
iai?oaeiaaiey”. – Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeiaoE. – 1986. – N. 125.

12. Naiieeia A.A., Coaei A.A., Ea?aaaaiei A.A. Aeeyiea iannu e ?acia?ia
ia?acoeia i?e eco/aiee iiaa?oiinoiiai iaoyaeaiey noaee e aa
acaeiiaeaenoaey n iaiaoii?aie iaoiaeii eaaeauae eaiee // Oac. aeiee. III
?anioae. iao/. oaoi. eiio. “Iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey e aacu a eeoaeiuo
nieaaao”. – Caii?iaeuea: CIE. – 1982. – N. 78-79.

13. Aaeeoeeee TH.I., Eoiaa A.A., Aaeiiueueoeaa A.E., Aeaaeeee N.E.,
No?ieieeia A.TH., Naiieeia A.A. Iaoaie/aneea naienoaa ia?aaioeiaenouo
noaeae, auieaaeaiiuo a oeaea, oooa?iaaiiii ecaanoueth // Oaoiieiaey e
i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa. – 1981. – ?3. – N. 29-30.

14. Naiieeia A.A., O?aiei I.N., Oaeiiaaa A.A. I?eiaiaiea
aa?eeniaea?aeaueo eeaaoo? aeey iiauoaiey ea/anoaa noaee // Oac. aeiee.
iao/i.-oaoi. eiio. “?ano?ninaa?aaathuea oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu a
eeoaeiii i?iecaiaenoaa”. – I?aeaeiieeeaeca: Naa.-Eaae. AIE. – 1988. – N.
49.

15. Oaeiiaaa A.A., Naiieeia A.A., O?aiei I.N. Iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea
eciininoieeie yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiie noaee 45O2NOE // Oac. aeiee. V
?anioae. iao/. oaoi. eiio. “Iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey e aacu a eeoaeiuo
nieaaao”. – Caii?iaeuea: CIE, 1988. – N. 61.

16. Naiieeia A.A., Eoiaa A.A., Iaiyeei A.E., Einye A.O., Aca?iaa E.I. I
aiciiaeiinoe i?eiaiaiey iaoaeee/aneeo iooiaeia niaoeeaeueiuo
i?iecaiaenoa e oa??ineeeeiaa?ey i?e ecaioiaeaiee ioeeaie ec noaee
25O18I9IOONAE a yeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa // Oac. aeiee. III
?anioae. iao/i.-oaoi. eiio. “Oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea e aiaae?aiea
iiauo ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee a yeaeo?inoaeaieaaeeueiii
i?iecaiaenoaa”. – Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeiaoE. – 1989. – N. 76-77.

17. Naiieeia A.A., Oaeiiaaa A.A., O?aiei I.N., Aii/a?aiei A.A., Eciaeeia
A.I. Iee?ieaae?iaaiea e iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiie noaee
45O2NOE // Oac. aeiee. e Ananithciiio iao/i.-oaoi. nai. “Iiauoaiea
ea/anoaa ioeeaie e nieaeaiea a?aaeiiai aeeyiey eeoaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo”. – Caii?iaeuea: CIE. – 1990. – N. 27.

18. Naiieeia A.A., Eoiaa A.A., Oaeiiaaa A.A. I?eiaiaiea iooiaeia
niaoeeaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoa e oa??ineeeeiaa?ey i?e i?iecaiaenoaa ioeeaie
ec noaee 25O18I9IOONAE // Oac. aeiee. IV Ananithciie iao/i.-oaoi. eiio.
“Iiaua eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee e nieaau e iaoiaeu eo ia?aaioee aeey
iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe ecaeaeee”. – Caii?iaeuea: CIE. –
1989. – N. 204.

19. Oaeiiaaa A.A., Naiieeia A.A., O?aiei I.N., Ieeaeia N.I., Aiiaea?aae/
A.E. Aeeyiea eiiieaeniiai iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey ia oi?ie?iaaiea
iaiaoaeee/aneeo aeeth/aiee e aaciniaea?aeaiea eciininoieeie
yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiie noaee // Oac. aeiee. V ?anioae. iao/i.-oaoi. eiio.
“Iiauoaiea oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy e niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia i?iecaiaenoaa ioeeaie”. – Oii II. – Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeiaoE.
– 1990. – N. 28-29.

20. Naiieeia A.A., Oaeiiaaa A.A., Aii/a?aiei A.A. Iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea
noaee 45O2NOE aa?eeniaea?aeaueie eeaaoo?aie // Oac. aeiee. VI ?anioae.
iao/. oaoi. eiio. “Iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey e aacu a eeoaeiuo
nieaaao”. – Caii?iaeuea: CIE. – 1991. – N. 82.

AIIOAOe?ss

Naiieeia A.?. Eeo? eiino?oeoe?ei? noae? c aa???i aeey aeaoaeae
i?aeaeuaii? iaae?eiino? a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.01 – iaoa??aeiciaanoai. – Caii??cueeee
aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Caii??aeaey, 1999.

O ?iaio? ae??oaia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia caaea/a, iia’ycaia c i?aeaeuaiiyi
iaae?eiino? aeaoaeae a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy ?c
eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae. Aeey iie?auaiiy eiiieaeno aeanoeainoae eeoeo
ae?ia?a, a oaeiae oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ?o ae?iaieoeoaa aei
neeaaeo noaeae aaiaeeoueny aa??e.

Aecia/aii iioeiaeueia a?aeiioaiiy aaaaeaiiai aa??th aei n??ee, ui
i?noeoueny o noae?, yea caaacia/o? iaeneiaeueiee aoaeo a?ae
iiaeeo?eoaaiiy.

Anoaiiaeaii iia? a?aeiiino? i?i iaoai?ci iiaaae?iee aa??th o iaoae? oa
eiai aieea i?e ie?aiiio ? eiiieaeniiio iiaeeo?eoaaii? ia iaoai?/i?,
oaoiieia?/i? oa neoaeaia? aeanoeaino? noaeaaiai eeoaa.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy i?e
aeaioiaeai? aeaoaeae o a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeuei?e aaeoc?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aa??e, iiaeeo?eoaaiiy, noaeue, aeanoeaino?.

SUMMARY

Samoylov V.E. Cast machine steel with barium for high-reliability
details of mining equipment. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the Degree of Candidate of Technical Sciencesin speciality
05.02.01 – material science. – Zaporozhye State Technical University,
Zaporozhye, 1999.

In this work the scientific and technical problem associated with
improvement of safety of mining equipment details made from machine
steel was solved. Barium is injected in to steel composition to improve
the set of properties of castings and technical and economic factors of
it’s manufacturing.

The optimum ratio of the barium been introduced to sulphur been
contained in steel wich is provide the most heat effect of modifier was
determinated. There was found the new date about barium behavious
mechanism in the metal and about his influence at separate and complex
modification on mechanical, technological and maintenancive properties
of steel casting.

The fundamental results of the work founds a practical implementation in
detail producing in mining field.

Key words: barium, modification, steel, properties.

AIIIOAOeEss

Naiieeia A.A. Eeoua eiino?oeoeeiiiua noaee n aa?eai aeey aeaoaeae
iiauoaiiie iaaeaaeiinoe ai?iiiaiaaoeoaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.01 – iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea. – Caii?iaeneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Caii?iaeuea, 1999.

A ?aaioa ?aoaia iao/ii-oaoie/aneay caaea/a, naycaiiay n iiauoaieai
iaaeaaeiinoe aeaoaeae ai?iiiaiaaoeoaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey ec
eiino?oeoeeiiiuo noaeae. Aeey oeo/oaiey iaoaie/aneeo, oaoiieiae/aneeo e
yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo naienoa eeouo ecaeaeee, a oaeaea oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae eo i?iecaiaenoaa a ninoaa noaeae aaiaeeony ioaeaeueii aa?ee
eee a eiiieaena n eaeueoeeai e ?CI.

Onoaiiaeaiu iiaua naaaeaiey i iaoaiecia iiaaaeaiey aa?ey a iaoaeea e i
aai aeeyiee i?e ?acaeaeueiii e eiiieaeniii iiaeeoeoee?iaaiee ia naienoaa
noaeueiiai eeouey.

Aeieacaii, /oi i?e aaiaea aa?ey a ninoaa noaee i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aei 1923
E ii ia ia?acoao aaciia?aciuo niaaeeiaiee, ia enia?yaony, eae eaeueoeee,
ia ?anoai?yaony, eae ?CI, a iaoiaeynue a aeeaeeii ninoiyiee, yooaeoeaii
acaeiiaeaenoaoao n na?ie, eenei?iaeii eee aeeiicaiii, ia?acoy
iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey – ienenoeueoeaeu.

Iieacaii, /oi eiee/anoai iaiaoaeee/aneeo aeeth/aiee a noaee /anoe/ii
oiaiueoaaony ca n/ao eioaineaiiai aeaeaeaiey e oaeaeaiey aa?ey. I?e yoii
iiaa?oiinoue iaoaeea i?ee?uaaaony oeaeiia?aciie oacie, niaea?aeauae
iniiaioth aeieth aaaaeaiiiai aa?ey, caueuay aai io iiaoi?iiai ieeneaiey.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?iaeoeou acaeiiaeaenoaey aa?ey n a?aaeiuie i?eianyie
i?eieiatho aeiaoey?ioth oi?io, ia eiaaoee?otho, auiaaeatho ia ia/aeueiie
noaaeee e?enoaeeecaoeee e i?e nieaeaiee oaiia?aoo?u iaoaeea a
aieueoeinoaa naiai (ieiei 65%) caoaaouaathony ?anooueie e?enoaeeaie,
i/euay a?aieoeu eeoiai ca?ia e aeaeay eo aieaa oiieeie.

Iieacaii, /oi iiauoaiiay “aeeao/anoue” aa?ey ii n?aaiaieth n eaeueoeeai,
a oaeaea aieueoay eiioeaio?aoeey aa?ey ia iiaa?oiinoe iaoaeea e aai
aunieay iiaa?oiinoiay aeoeaiinoue aeaaii?eyoii aeeytho ia oneiaey
ia?aciaaiey e oaeaeaiey iaiaoaeee/aneeo aeeth/aiee, oeo/oay eeoaeiua
naienoaa e ea/anoai iiaa?oiinoe ioeeaie.

Ii?aaeaeaii, /oi iioeiaeueiay i?enaaeea oa??ineeeeiaa?ey a noaeue
aeieaeia ii?aaeaeyoueny ec ioiioaiey aaaaeaiiiai aa?ey e na?a,
niaea?aeauaeny a iaoaeea, eioi?ia ?aaii 2,00,5. Yoi iaania/eaaao a
eiino?oeoeeiiiuo noaeyo iaeneiaeueiue iiaeeoeoee?othuee yooaeo, i?e
inoaoi/iii niaea?aeaiee aethieiey a iaoaeea ia iaiaa 0,025%.

Enneaaeiaaii, /oi iioeiaeueiua i?enaaeee aa?ey a noaee oiaiueoatho
eiaeaen caa?yciaiiinoe iaiaoaeee/aneeie aeeth/aieyie e iiauoatho
eiyooeoeeaio eo aeiaoey?ecaoeee, nieaeatho aaciniaea?aeaiea, oiaiueoatho
?acia? aonoaieoiiai ca?ia, oeo/oatho i?ieaeeaaaiinoue e
oeceei-iaoaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoaeea.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaiae aa?ey a ninoaa noaeae iaoiaeii ii?ioeiaie
i?iaieiee iiauoaao ayceiieanoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee a 1,2 ?aca ii
n?aaiaieth n iauai?eciaiiui eoneiaui iaoiaeii aaiaea. Aaiae
oa??ineeeeiaa?ey a no?oa a?aiia a noaeue, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo aieaa
0,025% aethieiey, iicaieyao nieceoue niaea?aeaiea na?u a iaoaeea ia 40%.
Aieaa aunieay noaiaiue aeanoeueoo?aoeee ia?aie/eaaeanue iiauoaieai
niaea?aeaiey e?aiiey a noaee.

Auyaeaii, /oi eo/oaa ni/aoaiea iaoaie/aneeo, oaoiieiae/aneeo e
neoaeaaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee noaeueiiai eeouey iiaeii iieo/eoue i?e
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiee aa?eai niaianoii n eaeueoeeai e ?CI noaeae,
niaea?aeaueo aieaa 0,025% aethieiey. I?e yoii iiauoaaony aeoeaiinoue
aa?ey ca n/ao aieaa eioaineaiiai e ?aaiiia?iiai aai ?ani?aaeaeaiey a
iauaia iaoaeea iiae aeaenoaeai ia?ia eaeueoeey. Aa?ee, eaeueoeee e ?CI,
eiay aieueoaa oeie/aneia n?iaenoai e eenei?iaeo e acioo, /ai aethieiee,
i?aaeioa?aoeee ia?aciaaiea a?oauo ieaii/iuo aeeth/aiee ieneaeia e
ieo?eaeia aethieiey ii a?aieoeai ca?ai e ia?aciaaee aeiaoey?iua
iaiaoaeee/aneea aeeth/aiey. I?e yoii nio?aieeanue oaiaeaioeey
eciaeue/aiey ca?ia ca n/ao aeaenoaey UCI e ?CI eae iiaeeoeeaoi?ia
ia?aiai ?iaea, oi anoue iiaa?oiinoii-aeoeaiuo aauanoa, ?aaioa eioi?uo
naiaeeeanue e ecae?aoaeueiie aaeni?aoeee ia a?aiyo ia?acothueony
e?enoaeeia, a oaeaea aneaaenoaea ia?aciaaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo oeaio?ia
e?enoaeeecaoeee – ooaiieaaeeo ienenoeueoeaeiuo aeeth/aiee.

Aeieacaii, /oi aeey ?aneeneaiuo aethieieai noaeae n niaea?aeaiea na?u
0,03% eiiieaeniia iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea aa?eai, eaeueoeeai e ?CI iicaieyao
iieo/eoue eiyooeoeeaio aeiaoey?ecaoeee iaiaoaeee/aneeo aeeth/aiee 80%,
nieceoue niaea?aeaiea eenei?iaea a 2 ?aca, aeiaeoueny i?aeoe/anee
neaiciie i?ieaeeaaaiinoe ioeeaie oieueiie aei 120 ii e iiauneoue
ayceiieanoe/aneea naienoaa a 1,5-2,0 ?aca, oi anoue aeinoe/ue o?iaiy
iieacaoaeae noaee n niaea?aeaieai na?u iaiueoa 0,01%.

Aiaae?aiea aa?eeniaea?aeaueo noaeae ia E?eai?iaeneii Oeaio?aeueiii
?oaei?aiiioiii caaiaea ai?iiiaiaaoeoaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e Iieoaaneii
ai?iiiaiaaoeoaeueiii eiiaeiaoa aeaei aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaaiii oeo/oeoue
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee i?iecaiaenoaa ioeeaie, iieiinoueth
ono?aieoue iieiiee ioaaonoaaiiuo eeouo aeaoaeae e oaaee/eoue n?ie eo
neoaeau.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aa?ee, iiaeeoeoee?iaaiea, noaeue, naienoaa.

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