4

EAA?IAO I?I?NO??A OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OEA*OE

Aieiaeeie? ?ee?/

OAeE 634.0:582.632.1(477+42)

E?N?AIE*? INIAEEAINO? OA IA?NIAEOEAE AE?IUOAAIIss AA?AC EA?AEUeNUeEI? ?
OE?A?INUeEI? A IIE?NN? OE?A?IE

06.03.03 — e?niciaanoai ? e?n?aieoeoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa

n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeieia?? e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa Aea?aeaaii?
aa?iaeieia?/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie, i. AEeoiie?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eeoaae Iao?i
Aaiaaeeeoiae/, Aea?aeaaia aa?iaeieia?/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e aeieia?? e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Aain??oe Noaiai
Aioiiiae/, Oe?a?inueeee Aea?aeaaiee e?nioaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e e?n?aieoeoaa;

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio Nae?eaeaiei
Aieiaeeie? ?o?aiiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e caaaeueiiai e?n?aieoeoaa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oeaio?aeueiee Aioai?/iee naae Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e aeaiae?ieia?? oa ia?eiciaanoaa, i.
Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 11 “ aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 14. 30. aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.004.09 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, i.Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a
Iai?iie, 15, iaa/. ei?i. ? 3, aoae. ? 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?-aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 252041 i. Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a
Iai?iie, 11, iaa/. ei?i. ? 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 10 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Iai?oa I. A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Caa?aaeaiiy ? caaaa/aiiy o?oia?ieia?/iiai
??ciiiai?ooy ? aeineoue aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith ethaenoaa. E?n?aie/a
iaoea caeaaia iaaeaaaea aaeeeiai cia/aiiy e?nia?aeoai?aiith. O ae??oaii?
oeeo ieoaiue e?n?aieee oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaee ?io?iaeooeaioe.

O no/anieo oiiaao ?icaeoeo ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?i? aaaeeeaiai
cia/aiiy a e?niaiio ainiiaea?noa? iaaoaa? i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy aoaeoeaii?
?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e a noa?? e?niae?iuoaaiiy. Ii?yae ?c noai?aiiyi
a?ieia?/ii no?eeeo, aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo e?niaeo eoeueoo? aaaeeeaiai
cia/aiiy iaaoaa? ieaioaoe?eia ae?iuoaaiiy aenieieiooiaii? aea?aaeie.
Aeineoue ia?niaeoeaiei ? noai?aiiy e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue c o/anoth aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? oa aa?ace oe?a?inueei?, ye? iathoue eiooiaio a?ca?oieiao
oaenoo?o aea?aaeie.

Aia?oa ?io?iaeoeoe?th aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? (Betula pendula (verrucosa)
var. carelica Soc.) a e?nia? ianaaeaeaiiy AEeoiie?ueie cae?eniea a 19a1
?. i?ioani? I. A. Eeoaae, a a eenoiiaae? 1995?. iaie aoea aeyaeaia a
i?e?iaeieo e?niaeo aea?aainoaiao Neiaa/ainueeiai aea?aee?nainio aa?aca
oe?a?inueea (Betula pendula (verrucosa) var. ucrainica Litvak).

Aeey Iie?nny Oe?a?ie aeooaeuei?noue oe??? i?iaeaie aecia/a?oueny a ia?oo
/a?ao oei, ui a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/i? oiiae ni?eythoue ?aae?caoe??
a?ieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo oeeo ii??ae. Oiio, aeineoue aaaeeeai aeey
ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aeineiiaei aea/eoe oa i?iaanoe iaoeiaee aiae?c
ae?iuoaaiiy 36-??/ie?o eoeueoo? aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? o Iaeeinueeiio oa
Ia?ooeueeiio aea?aee?nainiao ? c’ynoaaoe e?n?aie/? iniaeeaino?
i?e?iaeieo ianaaeaeaiue aa?ace oe?a?inueei? a Neiaa/ainueeiio
aea?aee?naini?. I?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue oeeo ia’?eo?a oa ae??oaiiy
ia?niaeoeae ae?iuoaaiiy ? caa?aaeaiiy aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? ?
oe?a?inueei? aecia/athoue aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
a?aeiia?aeii aei ?anioae?eainueei? oa ?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiaeo i?ia?ai
Aea?aeaaii? aa?iaeieia?/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ? ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
oaie: “Aea/aiiy ? caa?aaeaiiy aaiioiiaeo ?ineei c iaoith noai?aiiy
aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo aeey aeaaaeaiiy ni?o?a”, caoaa?aeaeaii? Aieiaiei
oi?aae?iiyi aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a I?iaa?ii?iio Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaaea o aea/aii?
e?n?aie/eo oa aeieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? iniaeeainoae ?inoo aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? a eoeue oo?ao ? aa?ace oe?a?inueei? a i?e?iaeieo
ianaaeaeaiiyo Iie?nny ye iniiae aeey ?ic?iaee ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
ae?iaieoeoao ii ?o caa?aaeaiith oa a?aeoai?aiith. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaii? iaoe caaaeaiiyi ia?aaeaa/aeinue ii?aoethaaoe oae? ieoaiiy:

— aea/eoe ??oioia? oiiae i?noeac?inoaiiy aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? oa aa?ace
oe?a?inueei? (iaoai?/iee neeaae, o?ce/i?, aa?io?i?/i? iieacieee ??oioo
oiui);

— i?iaanoe oaenaoe?eio ioe?ieo aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? a eoeueoo?ao ia
i?ioyc? ?o ?inoo, aecia/eaoe ii?oieia?/i? ia?aiao?e eiaeiiai aea?aaa oa
aeeoo?a? oi?ie;

— cae?enieoe iiaeaeueoee iiooe a i?e?iaeieo aea?aainoaiao
Neiaa/ainueeiai aea?aee?n-ainio aa?ace oe?a?inueei?, aeeiioaaoe
ea?oia?ao?th aea?aa, aecia/eoe ?o oaenaoe?ei?, ii?oieia?/i? ia?aiao?e oa
aeeoo?a? oi?ie; iaoa??aee aeei?enoaoe aeey noai?aiiy caeacieea;

— c’ynoaaoe o eoeueoo?ao iniaeeaino? ?inoo e ?icaeoeo ??cieo aeeoo?aeo
oi?i aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? oa ia?niaeoeae ?o ae?iuoaaiiy a oiiaao Iie?nny
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aeey ?aeiio
aeine?aeaeaiue aeyaeaii i?e?iaeia c?inoaiiy aa?ace oe?a?inueei? oa
aea/aii ?? e?n?aie/i-aeieia?/i? iniaeeaino?. Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ae?iaieoeoao ii ?? caa?aaeaiith
e a?aeoai?aiith a e?ninoaiao.

Aia?oa /a?ac 36 ?ie?a i?ney noai?aiiy e?niaeo eoeueoo? c aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? i?iaaaeai? i?aenoiee aieeao yeeie cae/aeii?, aeoaa
/a?aiiiai, aeaoe?? a?ei?, ninie cae/aeii? ia ??no oa ?icaeoie aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeaee iiaeeea?noue
ia??oiooaaoe aeioe?euei?noue noai?aiiy /enoeo ? ci?oaieo eoeueoo? aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? a Iie?nn? Oe?a?ie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue
?iaioe iieyaa? o anaa?/iiio e?n?aie/iio aea/aii? o?oia?ieia?/ieo
iniaeeainoae aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? e aa?ace oe?a?inueei?, yeei aeanoeaee
oi?iiaee iie?ii?o?ci c i?iaeoeoaaiiyi a?ca?oieiai? oaenoo?e aea?aaeie a
oiiaao Oeaio?aeueiiai Iie?nny Oe?a?ie, ui ? iaaiei aeeaaeii o ?icaeoie
oai??? ye?nii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? e?niaeo aeinenoai oa ?o eiiiiiaio?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oa oe?ii?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ia?
aeyaeaiiy e iiaea?aaia ?iaaioa?ecaoe?y aeeoo?aeo oi?i aa?ace
oe?a?inueei? oa aea/aiiy ?? aeieiai-a?ieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae a oiiaao
e?niaeo aeinenoai Neiaa/ainueei-Ia?ooeueeiai e?yaeo. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue noai?eee iaoeiao aaco aeey i?eiyooy i?aeoe/ieo ??oaiue
uiaei caa?aaeaiiy ? a?aeoai?aiiy oe??? oi?eaeueii? oa iaaecae/aeii
oe?iii? iiioeyoe??, a oaeiae iaaeaee i?iaeai? ae?iuoaaiiy a?ca?oieiai?
aea?aaeie aea?aeaaii? aaae.

Anoaiiaeaia e ia??oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue noai?aiiy eoeueoo? aa?ace
oe?a?inueei? oa aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? a oiiaao Oeaio?aeueiiai Iie?nny
Oe?a?ie ? iniaeeai ieaioaoe?eiiai ae?iuoaaiiy oeeo aea?aaieo ii??ae.
E??i oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiyie caii/aoeiaaia i?iaaaeaiiy
naeaeoe?eii-aaiaoe/ieo ?ia?o, ye? aoaeooue ni?eyoe noai?aiith
aenieioe?iieo ? i?iaeoeoeaieo oi?iiaeo a?ioei?a aea?aa c eiooiaiith
aea?aaeiith.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiaia /anoeia aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
iaoa??aeo ia i?iaieo ieiuao c ianaaeaeaiiyie aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? a
Iaeeinueeiio ? Ia?ooeueeiio aea?aee?nainiao aaciina?aaeiuei c?a?aia
aaoi?ii. Aeyaeaiiy, oaenaoe?ei? ?iaioe ? aea/aiiy oiia i?noeac?inoaiiy
aa?ace oe?a?inueei? oa ?? aeeoo?aeo oi?i a Iiaea??anueeiio ?
Iaai?yinueeiio e?nieoeoaao Neiaa/ainueeiai aea?aee?nainio aoei
i?iaaaeaii ca eiinoeueoaoea-iith ? iaoiaee/iith aeiiiiiaith iaoeiaiai
ea??aieea.

Iinoaiiaea caaea/?, ?ic?iaea i?ia?aie aeine?aeaeaiue, ca??, ia?iaea ?
aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo, ocaaaeueiaiiy e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae c aecia/aii? i?iaeaie, iaienaiiy oaenoo, oi?ioaaiiy iniiaieo
aeniiae?a, ye? aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, oa i?aeaioiaea ioae?eaoe?e
i?iaaaeaia aaoi?ii.

A aeiaaio?eaaeeo aeine?aeao aaoi?ii aoee aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiue i?io. I. A. Eeoaaea aeey aiae?co ca iaai? aoaie ?inoo ?
?icaeoeo eoeueoo? aa?ace ea?aeuenueei?. O?ce/i? ? o?i?/i? aiae?ce ??oioo
aeeiioaaeeny a AEeoiie?nuee?e ciiaeuei?e aa?io?i?/i?e eaai?aoi??? ? a
eaai?aoi??? ??oioiciaanoaa Aea?aeaaii? aa?iaeieia?/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie
(AEeoiie?).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui i?noyoueny a aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeenue ? io?eiaee
iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia can?aeaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ?aaee Iie?nueei?
e?niai? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? noaioe?? Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai
?inoeoooo e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?? ?i. A. I.
Aenioeueeiai. O iiaiiio ia’?i? aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ?icaeyiooa ia
?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? ?aaee aee?aeoi??a ia’?aeiaiiy “AEeoiie?e?n” oa
can?aeaii? eaoaae?e aeieia?? e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa Aea?aeaaii?
aa?iaeieia?/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a iiiia?ao??,
oanoe iaoeiaeo noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa i?iiiceoe?e, nienea e?oa?aoo?e ?c 241
iaeiaioaaiy (a oiio /ene? – 11 i?aoeue ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a). Iniiaiee
oaeno aeeeaaeaii ia 150 noi??ieao, ?ethno?iaaii54 oaaeeoeyie ? 6
?enoieaie.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

E?n?aie/? oa aioai?/i? a?aeiiino? i?i ?iaeeio oa ??ae aa?aciaeo

I?aaenoaaieee ?iaeeie iaea?eueo cina?aaeaeai? o oei?ao no?aeii? /anoeie
Ac?? oa I?ai?/ii? Aia?eee.Ia?aaaaeii an? i?aaenoaaieee oe??? ?iaeeie —
aeniei?icaeioo? ?ineeie, aeia?a i?enoiniaai? aei oiia i?noeac?inoaiiy,
iiaeooue aeo?eioaaoe etho? ii?ice.

Aa?acia? — iaeiiaeiii?, eenoiiaaei?, a?o?icaieeuei? ?ineeie. Eenoee
/a?aia? c ia?enoei aeeeeoaaiiyi.Nai???aeiee a?eee eie?? aa?ac? iaaea?
aaooe?i – ii?ioeiiiae?aia a?ea ?a/iaeia. Iathoue aeia?a ?icaeiooo
ei?aiaao nenoaio.

Ea?oee o aa?ace ae??ai?, iaiieaci?, oeeee?/i?, iaeiiiie?. Ie?ae —
e?eeaoee ai??oie. Oe/eieia? ea?oee o iaeiiea?oeiaeo aeeoac?yo c?a?ai? o
aeiaa? i’ye? na?aaeee, ye? oi?iothoueny aei ii/aoeo ceie. AE?ii/?
ceiothoue, cae/aeii, a a?oiueeao, aeoiaeyoue c ieo aaniith. Ea?oeothoue
iaeii/anii c ?icioneaiiyi eenoe?a. Ieiaee aeic??aathoue aei e?ioey e?oa.
?o ooai?th?oueny aaeeea e?euee?noue. Aeey noai?aiiy aa?aciaeo eoeueoo?
aeei?enoiaothoueny iin?a, ei?aiaa? ia?inoee, a?aea?aeee. A i?e?iaeieo
o?oioeaiicao Oe?a?ie iaea?eueo a?aeii? aeaee aa?ac: aa?aca iecueea (B.
humilis), aa?aca iiaenea (B. pendula) aa?aca iooianoa (B. pubescens),
aa?aca aei?i?ianueea (B. borysthenica). Inoaii? aeaa aeaea aeathoue
/enaeuei? a?a?eaee.

A Oe?a?io ?io?iaeoeoiaaii a?ey 31 aeaeo aa?ac ?c ??cieo ?aa?ii?a na?oo,
ye? ia?aaaaeii aeia?a ?inoooue, ieiaeiiinyoue o an?o i?e?iaeieo ciiao
Oe?a?ie (Ia?oiiaiei, Eioii, 1997). O e?nao Oe?a?ie iaea?eueo iioe?aia
aa?aca iiaenea ? iooianoa oa ?o i?aeaeaeia? a?a??aei? oi?ie. Aa?ace
iathoue a?oioiiie?iooth/o caeaoi?noue.

Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeee a Neiaa/ainueeiio aea?aee?naini? aa?aco c
a?ca?oi/anoith oaenoo?ith aea?aaeie, yeo aoei iacaaii oe?a?inueeith –
Betula pendula (verrucosa) var. ucrainica Litvak, Oey iiioeyoe?y
iioe?aia a Iiaea??anueeiio ? Iaai?yinueeiio e?nieoeoaao ia a?oioao c
aeecueeei i?aenoeeaiiyi eaa?oeeo?a.

Aei oeueiai /ano ieoaiiy i?i nenoaiaoe/ia iieiaeaiiy aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? oa oi?ioaaiiy a?ca?oi/anoi? aea?aaeie ? i?aaeiaoii
iaoeiai? aeeneon??. Iaei? aeine?aeieee aaaaeathoue, ui oaea aea?aaeia
oi?io?oueny i?ae aieeaii iaoieia?/ieo caoai?thaaiue aai i?ae ae??th
iani?eyoeeaeo ciai?oi?o oiia. I?e oeueiio iniiaiei a?aoiaioii ? cieaeaia
aeeoo?caeaoi?noue iniaei, /anoeiaa oniaaeeoaaiiy ian?ii?aeie iauaaeeaie
a?ca?oi/anoi? aea?aaeie, iica?/ia ?ici?uaiiy ioooiaeaeieo oa
eoeueiaeaeieo oeaiei ia noiaao?ao ? neaeaoieo a?eeao aea?aa.
I?eoeeueieee a?iioace aaiaoe/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy a?ca?oi/anoi? aea?aaeie
iineeathoueny ia ian?ii? iauaaeee, ye? ae?iuai? a ??ciiiai?oieo ?aeiiao,
oiaoi ia oa, ui ?io?iaeooeaioe no?eei oniaaeeiaothoue a?ca?oi/anoo
oaenoo?o aea?aaeie. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai a aaia?ao?/i? eoeueoo?e,
ye? i?aai?coaaa I. E. Nieieia.

O?ceei-aaia?ao?/i? oiiae oa aeaiae?ioei?a Oe?a?inueeiai Iie?nny

O ?icae?e? iienai? ciiaeueii-aaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy,
aaieiai-aaiii?oieia?/ia aoaeiaa, ee?iao, a?ae?ieia?/i? oiiae, ??oioe ?
?ineeii?noue ?aa?iio.

Ee?iaoe/i? ? ??oioia? oiiae a oe?eiio ni?eyoeea? aeey ?io?iaeoeoe??
aa?ace ea?aeuenueei?.

Ia’?eoe, i?ia?aia oa iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue

?iaioe c aea/aiiy ieoaiue ?io?iaeoeoe?? ? e?n?aie/eo iniaeeainoae aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? i?iaiaeeeeny a ?aiaoi?euenueeiio e?nieoeoa? Ia?ooeueeiai
aea?aee?nainio ? Oe?a?inueeiio e?nieoeoa? Iaeeinueeiai aea?aee?nainio
AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?, aioai?/ieo naaeao ? aeaiae?a-??yo Oe?a?ie. O
Iiaea??anueeiio ? Iaai?yinueeiio e?nieoeoaao Neiaa/ainueeiai
aea?aee?nainio i?iaiaeeeenue iieaa?oaeuei? aaiaioai?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aeyaeai? ia ie?aieo ae?eyieao aea?aaa aa?ace oe?a?inueei? ioia?oaaeeny,
i?iaiaeeeenue oaenaoe?eii-ii?oieia?/i? ?iaioe ? aea/aeenue ??oioia?
oiiae i?noeue ?o c?inoaiiy (Aio/?i, 1982, Aa?iaiaea? oa ?i., 1951).

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue ??oioiaeo oiia iienoaaeenue aaiaoe/i?
ai?eciioe, a?aeae?aeenue c?acee a?oioo oa aecia/aeenue ?o o?ceei-o?i?/i?
aeanoeaino?. Aeei?enoiaoaaeanue ii?iaoeaii-aeia?aeeiaa ?ioi?iaoe?y ii
??oioiai-e?nioeiieia?/iiio ianoaaeaiith e?niaiai oiiaeo AEeoiie?nueei?
iaeano?. Ei?aiaa? nenoaie aea/aeenue ca iaoiaeeeith I.A. Ea/einueeiai
(1975) c a?aooaaiiyi oaeineiiaeaiue I.N. Iia?aaiyea (1951) ? Ae. Ae.
Eaa?eiaiea (1969). Aieia?noue ??oioo, aaaaoaoeaieo ? aaia?aoeaieo
i?aai?a ?ineei aecia/aeanue oa?iiaaaiaei iaoiaeii. Ai?no acioo, oinoi?o,
eae?th a c?aceao aecia/aany ca A?icao?aii.

Ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue cae?enithaaeanue ia AII iaoiaeaie
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee (Aeiniaoia, 1979, Eaeei, 1980).

?io?iaeoeoe?y aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? a AEeoiie?nueeiio Iie?nn?

Aia?oa ?io?iaeoeoe?th aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? a Oe?a?i? cae?eniea Oe?AN o
1949 ?ioe?. I?ci?oa aiia aoea aaaaeaia a eieaeoe?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, Aeiiaoeueeiai aioai?/iiai naaeo, Aneai?y-Iiaa,
Aioai?/iiai naaeo Aea?aeaaii? aa?iaeieia?/ii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie,
Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?nioaoi?/iiai oa Oa?e?anueeiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai oi?aa?neoao?a.

Ian?iiy aeey ae?iuoaaiiy aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? a AEeoiie?nueeiio
aioai?/iiio naaeo AeAAO aoei c?a?aii a na?ii? 1976 ?. ia ian?ii?a?e
ae?eyioe? Oe?a?inueeiai e?nieoeoaa, yea aoea caeeaaeaia a 19a3 ?.
Iaoeiaa oe?ii?noue eieaeoe?? aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? AeAAO iieyaa? a oiio,
ui aiia na?ae/eoue, ye ? an? ?io? eieaeoe??, i?i iiaeeea?noue
ae?iuoaaiiy oe?iii? aea?aaeie c i?noeaaiai ian?iiy. I?eoaiaiiee oe?e
aa?ac? iie?ii?o?ci ? a?ca?oi/anoa oaenoo?a aea?aaeie iiai?noth
caa??aathoueny a iauaaeeao. 3 ian?iiy i?noeaaiai cai?o aoee io?eiai?
oae? aeeooaa? oi?ie: aa?aca ea?aeuenueea aenieinoiaao?iaa aac yaieo
iciae a?ca?oi/anoi? aea?aaeie oa c iciaeaie — aenieinoiaao?iaa,
na?aaeiueinoiaao?iaa, iecueeinoiaao?iaa, eouiaa oa eouiaeaeia.

Oa?i?i “aeeoo?aa oi?ia” canoiniao?ii, ia ye o?eiaaiaoe/ia /e
nenoaiaoe/ia iiiyooy, a ye aeaiaioa?io iaeeieoeth aaiethoe?eiiai
ii?oiaaiaco, oiaoi ii?oieia?/ii? i?enoiniaaii? aei oiia aeeooy, aei
??ciiiai?oieo oaeoi??a na?aaeiaeua. sse a?ieia?/ia ie?ai?noue, aeeoo?aa
oi?ia aeieeea i?ae ae??th noeoiiino? oiia na?aaeiaeua oa aaiaoe/ieo
ci?i.

Ian?iiy aeey caeeaaeee i?iaieo ieiu ? ian?ii?ai? ae?eyiee aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? a Oe?a?inueeiio oa ?aiaoi?euenueeiio e?nieoeoaao aoei
iaea?aeaia c ?aeiio eiai i?e?iaeiueiai a?aaea (Ea?ae??, Caiiaaenueeee
e?naini), yea iaae?neaa aeey caeeaaeee aaia?ao?/ieo eoeueoo? i?ioani? I.
E. Nieieia o 19a1 ?.

Aiae?c noai?aieo eoeueoo? aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? a oiiaao AEeoiie?nueeiai
Iie?nny na?ae/eoue, ui aaoi? iinaaeie noaaea caaea/o anaa?/ii aea/eoe
iniaeeaino? ?inoo e ?icaeoeo oe??? ii?iaee a /enoeo ? ci?oaieo
ianaaeaeaiiyo oa aieea aonoioe eoeueoo? ia i?iya iie?ii?o?cio ?
a?ca?oi/anoi? oaenoo?e aea?aaeie. Ae??oaiiy oeeo ieoaiue aeaaaei
iiaeeea?noue c’ynoaaoe e?n?aie/? iniaeeaino? aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? oa
ia?niaeoeae ?? ae?iuoaaiiy a Iie?nn? Oe?a?ie. E?nia? eoeueoo?e
caeeaaeai? a Oe?a?inueeiio e?nieoeoa? (ea.52) o noiaeeo e?ni?ineeiieo
oiiaao — A2 ? B2-3 ? iathoue a?aei?ie ca niiniaii ?ici?uaiiy oa noaiith
ci?ooaaiiy aea?aaieo ii??ae. Eoeueoo?e noai?ai? iinaaeeith 2-3-??/ieo
naaeaeaioe?a ia aea?iiai-na?aaeiuei-i?aecieenoeo ieeoaaoi-i?uaieo
a?oioao. Anueiai aoei caeeaaeaii 6 i?iaieo ieiu a Oe?a?inueeiio ? iaeia
– a ?aiaoi?euenueeiio e?nieoeoa? (ea. 50).

Ia i?iaieo ieiuao ??oio ca iaoai?/iei neeaaeii i?uaiee ca’ycaiee.
O?ce/i? aeanoeaino? a?oio?a (ia’?iia aaaa, ieoiia iana, caaaeueia
oia?oaao?noue, iiaia aieiai?ie?noue a % a?ae iane ??oioo oa a % a?ae
ia’?io ??oioo, iaeneiaeueia a?a?ineii?/i?noue ? iaaeinooiia aeey ?ineei
aieiaa a % a?ae iane ??oioo oa a % a?ae ia’?io a?oioo) aoee i?aeoe/ii
oioiaei?ie ia 1-5 i?iaieo ieiuao. Ia’?iia aaaa oa ieoiia iana ia oeeo
ae?eyieao c aeeaeiith c?inoaea (1,14-1,76 a/ni3), a ia oino?e noaiiaeea
1,30 — 1,7aa/ni3. Ieoiia iana ia 1-5 i?iaieo ieiuao noaiiaeea ia aeeaei?
0-10 ni-– 2,33 oa ia aeeaei? 150-200 ni — 2,77 a/ni3, a?aeiia?aeii ia
oino?e – 2,63 ? 2,70 a/ni3. Caaaeueia oia?oaao?noue, iaaiaee, c
aeeaeiith ciaiooaaeanue ?, a?aeiia?aeii, noaiiaeea – 51,6 ? 37,0% ia
oino?e – 50,4 ? 34,8%. Iaaia aieiai?ie?noue oaeiae ciaiooaaeany c
aeeaeiith ia 1-5 i?iaieo ieiuao – 39,8-41,0% ? 46,1 — 45,8% o aa?oiueiio
oa?? oa a?aeiia?aeii ia aeeaei? 200 ni. – 8,3-20,2% ? 31,7 — 32,0%,
a?aeiia?aeii ia oino?e -17,1 -34,9% ? 29,8 — 45,4%. Iaeneiaeueia
a?a?ineii?/i?noue o aa?oiueiio oa?? a?oioo noaiiaeea a?ae 1,29 aei
1,32%, ia aeeaei? 200 ni — 0,24 — 0,25% ia ia?oeo i’yoe i?iaieo ieiuao,
ia oino?e – 3,35 ? 0,35%. Iaaeinooiia aeey ?ineei aieiaa o aa?oiiio
oa?? – a?ae 1,76 aei 0,32% a?ae iane ??oioo ia aeeaei? 200 i. Ia oino?e
i?iai?e ieiu? iieacieee aoee a?eueoeie – a?ae 4,49 aei 0,47% a?ae iane
a?oioo.

Iieacieee o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae ??oioo na?ae/aoue, ui o?ioi?noue ia an?o
ae?eyieao iecueea ? neeaaeaea: aoion o iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? – a?ae 2,01 aei
2,20%, c aeeaeiith a?i ??cei cieaeo?oueny; eeneioi?noue a?oioo aei
aeeaeie 100 ni ia?aaaaeii cepeaeiy, aea iiaa?oia-aee oa? ??oioo (2-10
ni) ia? neeueiieeneo ?aaeoe?th. Ia aeeaei? 100,1 – 120 ni ?aaeoe?y
??oioiaiai ?ic/eio — neaaieenea. Y?oio ia 6 i?iai?e ieiu? ia aeeaei?
3-23 ni ia? neeueiieeneo ?aaeoe?th. Caiane ?ooiiiai oinoi?o oa iai?iiiai
eae?th — iecuee? (P205 a?ae 0,8 aei 5,8 ia ia 100 a ??oioo; E2I – a?ae
0,9 aei 2,4).

Aiae?c iieaciee?a ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? na?ae/eoue, ui
ia ia?oeo aoaiao iioiaaiaco a?aeaoaa?oueny aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y ?o ca
oi?iaie ?inoo, oiaoi ?ioaineaii i?inoaaeo?oueny iie?ii?o?ci iniaei, a
oi?ioaaiiy a?ca?oi/anoi? aea?aaeie cai?cith?oueny . Iniaeeaino? ?inoo ?
?icaeoeo eoeueoo? ?icaeyioo? a 5 ?icae?e?.

Aea/aiiy oi?ioaaiiy ei?aiaaeo nenoai aeicaiey? c’ynoaaoe iniiaio a?aio
i?aeaeaeiaeo oa aioo??oiueiaeaeiaeo aca?iia?aeiinei a e?niaeo oeaiicao.
I?iaeoeoeai?noue oa no?ee?noue e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue ciaoiaeeoueny a
i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy ?icaeoeo ei?aiaai? nenoaie, a aiia a
naith /a?ao caeaaeeoue a?ae aeanoeainoae a?oioo ? a oie aea /an aieeaa?
ia iueiai (?aooa?iei, 1963, sseooaa, 1973), Aea/aeenue ei?aiaa? nenoaie
?ineei ia ??cieo aoaiao iioiaaiaco a /enoeo ? ci?oaieo eoeueoo?ao. A?e
aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? i?e aeine?ae-aeaiiyo noaiiaea: 12,18 oa 35 ?ie?a, a
ci?oaieo eoeueoo?ao ‘yeeia aoea a 7-?C oa C0-??/iiio a?oe?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui /eno? aa?acia? eoeueoo?e neaai eiieo?othoue,
iniaeeai a iieiaeiio a?oe?, c o?aa’yienoith ?ineeii?noth o aa?oiueiio
?iaeth/iio oa??. Iana ei??iiy aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? o 12-??/iiio a?oe?
aoea a 7,3; 18-??/iiio a?oe? — a 4,1 oa 35-??/iiio a?oe? — a 3,5 ?ac
iaioith. O?aa’yia ?ineeii?noue caaaeyee aaeee?e ian? ei?ai?a o
?iaeth/iio oa?? ia? a?eueoo aeoeai?noue iiaeeiaiiy aeaiaio?a aeeaeaiiy
oa aaeueio? ?icaeoie ? iioe?aiiy o?c?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ei?ai?a aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? (?en. 1a).

Aa?aca ea?aeuenueea oi?io? i?oeio aeeaeiio ye??io ei?aiaao nenoaio,
oiae? ye yeeia cae/aeia — iiaa?oiaao. Iniiaia iana ei??iiy aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? 12-??/iiai a?eo cina?aaeaeaia o aa?oiueiio
30-naioeiao?iaiio oa?? (81%). O yeeie cae/aeii? 7-??/iiai a?eo a
eoeueoo?? iniiaia iana ei??iiy cina?aaeaeaia o aa?oiueiio
20-naioeiao?iaiio oa?? (93%), a o?aa’yienoa ?ineeii?noue o aa?oiueiio
0-10-naioeiao?i-aiio oa?? cina?aaeaeo? 85,6% ei??iiy. A ci?oaieo
eoeueoo?ao aei 13-??/iiai a?eo yeeie cae/aeii? o?aa’yienoa ?ineeii?noue
aoea aeo?niaia c-i?ae iaiaoo e?no. sseeia cae/aeia o ?C- oa 30-??/iiio
a?oe? iaea a?eueoo iano ae??aiiai ei??iiy, i?ae aa?aca ea?aeuenueea o
18- oa 35-??/iiio a?oe? (401,9 oa 267,7 ? 217,6 oa 193,6 a/i2 (?en. 1
a).

Iana ei?aiaaeo nenoai ci?oaieo eoeueoo? a 12-??/iiio a?oe? ia?aaaaeaea a
1,2 o 18-??/iiio — a 1,6, 1, a 35-??/iiio a?oe? -.a 1,9 ?ace iano /enoeo
eoeueoo?. Iaea?eueoi? i?iaeoeoeaiino? aeinyaathoue ei?ai? aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? aei 18 ?ie?a. Ca ia??iae c 12 aei 18 ?ie?a ?o iana c?inea
a 1,7 ?ac. Aa?aca ea?aeuenueea a /eno?e eoeueoo?? iiaiiao? iaio?
aeeaeie, i?ae a ci?oai?e, oa eiieo?o? c o?aa’yienoith ?ineeii?noth a
35-??/iiio a?oe?.

Iaiaeiai?noue oa aeaye? ii?oieia?/i? iniaeeaino? aaaaoaoeaieo oa
aaia?a-oeaieo i?aai?a aa?ace ea?aeuenueei?

Iaiaeiai?noue na?aaeie, eenoe?a, iaeii-aeai-o?ueio oa /ioe?ueio??/ieo
a?eie o aa?ace iiaenei? o an? no?iee aei??o aoee aeuith, i?ae a
?io?iaeoeiaaii? aa?ace ea?aeuenueei?. Oea na?ae/eoue, ui i?noeaaa
iiioeyoe?y a?eueo eaa?eueia aei oiia i?noeaae?anoaiiy oa i?i ??
no?ee?noue ? i?enoiniaai?noue ia?aiineoe aeno?aiaeuei? oiiae.

Na?aaeiy ieiua eenoea aa?ace iiaenei? neeaaea? 8,4 ni2 i?e noaiaea?oiiio
a?aeoeeaii? S=1,6. Aeia??/ee ?ioa?aae aaia?aeueii? noeoiiino? i?e
oeueiio aoa:

a) ia ??ai? eiia??iino? P0,95=7,7/8,9; a) ia ??ai? eiia??iino?
?0,96=7,52/9,2.

Na?aaeiy ieiua eenoea aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? – 15,9 ni2 i?e noaiaea?oiiio
a?aeoeeaii? S= 2,83. Aeia??/ee ?ioa?aae i?e ??ai? eiia??iino?
?095=14,3/17,6. sse ? a ia?oiio aeiaaeeo, oae ? ooo aeia??/ee ?ioa?aae
aecia/a? oaiioeiia? i?ieeaino?, ui aeicaiey? noaeeoe i?i iaeaaei?noue
iniaei aea??ee aei iaeiiai aaiioeio.

Ni?anoaaeyth/e aeai? na?aaeiueiai ?ici??a eenoea, aaee/eie noaiaea?oiiai
a?aeoeeaiiy oa aeia??/? ?ioa?aaee aea??ie aa?ace iiaenei? ? aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei?, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ??cia aaee/eia oeeo
iieaciee?a iaoiiaeaia ??cieie aaiioeiiaeie iniaeeainoyie.

I?ia?aeuei? aeaiaioe o aaaaoaoeaieo i?aaiao aa?ace ea?aeuenueei?

Aa?aca ea?aeuenueea o iieiaeiio a?oe? iaea?eueo aeiiaeeaa aei acioo ?
eae?th a ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie i?ia?aeueieie aeaiaioaie. Aiia a iaai?e
i??? ni?ey? c?inoaiith ai?noo iniiaieo aeaiaio?a i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy
o aaaaoaoeaieo i?aaiao yeeie cae/aeii?. Ai?no iniiaieo aeaiaio?a
i?ia?aeueiiai aeeaeaiiy o aaaaoaoeaieo i?aaiao aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? oa
yeeie cae/aeii? ? aeia?ei iieacieeii aca?iia?aeiinei oeeo aea?aaieo
ii??ae a oiiaao na?aeiai noai?o. A 15-??/iiio a?oe? aa?aca ea?aeuenueea
? a?eueo eiieo?aioiicaeaoiath a ii??aiyii? c 10-??/iith yeeiith
cae/aeiith. Aaaeeeai a?aecia/eoe e?n?aie/? iniaeeaino? aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? o iieiaeiio a?oe?, yea i?e ae?iuoaaii? ?? a oiiaao
na?aeiai noai?o, ia? ?noioi? ia?aaaae a eoeueoo?? c yeeiith cae/aeiith.

Ian?ii?aa i?iaeoeoeai?noue aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? a oiiaao AEeoiie?nueeiai
Iie?nny

Ii/aoie ieiaeiiioaiiy o eouiaeo oi?i aoa cao?eniaaiee o a-8 –
iecueeinoiaao?iaeo — o 10-12-??/iiio a?oe?. I?ci?oa anooieee a
ieiaeiiioaiiy na?aaeiueinoiaao?ia? oa aenieinoiaao?ia? – o 12-14-??/iiio
a?oe?.

Iae?e a?iaeath ian?iiy aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? ca ia??iae 1995-1997 ?. ?.
na?ae/eoue, ui na?aaeiy iana na?aaeie c naie iiaeaeueieo aea?aa
noaiiaeea o aenieinoiaao?iaeo oi?i a?ae 498 aei 547 a,
na?aaeiueinoiaao?iaeo -a?ae 503 aei 561 a ? o iecueeinoiaao?aaeo – a?ae
463 aei 498 a. Aeo?ae /enoiai ian?iiy c na?aaeie neeaaeaa a?ae 33,4 aei
33,7%. Iecueeinoiaao?ia? oi?ie aeaee iaeiaioo e?euee?noue ian?iiy, a
ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie oi?iaie. Ia?niaeoea-ieie aeey cai?o ian?iiy ? i?iai?
ieiu? 1,2,4,6, aea iiaeia caaioiaeyoe aei 30 ea ian?iiy.

Aeaye? ieoaiiy aa?ioaoi?ee ae?iuoaaiiy n?yioe?a aa?ace ea?aeuenueei?

Ae?iuoaaiiy naaeeaiiai iaoa??aeo aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? e?aua i?iaiaeeoe a
?icnaaeieeo, yeee caeeaaeaiee ia na?aeiio noai?iaiio c?oa?. Ne?ae
?aoaeueii i?iaanoe ia?ia?oie ??oioo, a aei iin?ao ian?iiy iaiao?aeii
cieueoe ao?’yie. Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui e?oi?e iin?a ? e?auei
no?ieii ia a?aei?io a?ae in?iiueiai /e aaniyiiai. I?e iin?a? a ??ci?
no?iee ian?iiy iiiaaea? a iaiaeiaeia? iiaiaei? ? a?oioia? oiiae, a
?acoeueoao? yeeo aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae ?ineeiaie (ian?iiyi) oa
aeieia?/ieie oaeoi?aie aoaathoue ??cieie, a oea aieeaa? ia ??no ?
?icaeoie noiae?a. Aaaeeeai i?aeaioiaeoe ian?iiy, caii/eaoe eiai o aiae?
(5 aiaeei oa caio?eoe ia?aae iin?aii a ?ic/ei 0,005% ,
ia?aaioeaaieeneiai eae?th). Ia?iaeaia ian?iiy ?ai?oa i?i?inoaei. Ia
niinoa??aaeeny a?eaeia? oai?iae. Ian?iiy ne?ae ioeue/oaaoe, a i?ney
i?i?inoaiiy ne?aeeoaaoe ca aieia?noth a?oioo oa anoaiiaeoe ueoe c
i?ina?oii 50%.

Ii?ia aen?ao ian?iiy 1,5-2,5 a ia 1 i. iin?aii? ai?icaiee. E?oi? iin?ae
ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe a a?eueo ?aii? no?iee, uia ca?eueoeoe ia??iae
aaaaoaoe??, ine?eueee ia an? n?yioe? ca 1,5 aaaaoaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo
aeinyaathoue iaiao?aeieo noaiaea?oieo ?ici???a. Oiio aeioe?eueii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe oae? n?yioe? aeey aei?iuoaaiiy a oe?eeao.

Caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? a oiiaao AEeoiie?nueeiai Iie?nny

??no aea?aaieo ii??ae ia i?ioyae? ?o iioiaaiaco ?aaoeth?oueny ye
aioo??oi?ie, oae ? ciai?oi?ie oaeoi?aie. Na?aae aioo??oi?o oaeoi??a, ui
aieeaathoue ia ??no aea?aaieo ii??ae, aeoaea iioe?aia ei?aeyoe?y,
ai?eaeueia aeii?iaioi?noue, ?aaoeyoi?e ?inoo, oioi — ? aaio?ii?ci,
?aaaia?aoe?y, ia??iaee/i?noue, ia??iae ?ia?oiino?. Aeey aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? aeineoue aaaeeeaa ? ei?aeyoe?y oa ai?eaeueia
aeii?iaioi?noue.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ?inoii ? ?icaeoeii naaeaeaioe?a iieacaei, ui
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y aeia?a aeyaey?oueny ca ?inoii aieiaii? in?.
I?ine?aeaeo?oueny ei?aeyoeaiee ya’ycie i?ae ?icaeoeii e?aea?ii? in? ?
aaeoaeaiiyi oa ?icaeoeii aieiaeo a?eie. Iioiaaiac aenieinoiaao?iaeo
oi?i, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a iieiaeiio a?oe? ?ioaineaiei ?inoii aieiaii?
in? oa a?aenooi?noth a oeae ia??iae aaeeeeo neaeaoieo a?eie. O
iecueeinoiaao?iaeo oi?i ?inoo c 3-5 ?ieo ao?a/a?oueny e?aea?ia ia?aaaaa
aieiaii? in? aea?aaa, a iineeth?oueny ??no aieiaeo neaeaoieo a?eie
ia?oiai ii?yaeeo. Ia a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy iiaiioe?iiiai noiaao?a.
Na?aaeiueinoiaao?ia? – ao?a/athoue ei?aeyoeaiee ca’ycie i?ae aieiaiith
inth oa neaeaoieie a?eeaie aeaui i?ci?oa, oiio o ieo oi?io?oueny a?eueo
?icaeiooee o aeiaaeeio oe?e?niee noiaao?. O eouiaeo ? eouenoeo – c
naiiai ii/aoeo ?inoo ao?a/a?oueny ai?eaeueia aeii?iaioi?noue ?
?icaeaathoueny iaaiie ia?oiai-ae?oaiai oa ?ioeo ii?yaee?a ? ?inoa
ei?aiaaa ii??noue.

Aa?aca ea?aeuenueea ia? a?eueo aia?a?eiee i?e??no o aenioo aieiaii? in?
ia ia?oee ia??iae aaaaoaoe??, a aa?aca iiaenea – ia ae?oaee. O
eeii?-na?ii? aa?aca iiaenea oi?io?75% ??/iiai i?e?inoo.

N?yioe? oa naaeaeaioe? aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? iathoue iaai? iniaeeaino? a
oiae? ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?aie iioiaaiaoe/iiai ?inoo oa ?icaeoeo. Iniaeeai
oea /?oei i?iyaey?oueny i?e aea/ai? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? i?ieeaino? a
??aeeeo ? aonoeo eoeueoo?ao. A eoeueoo?ao c ?ici?uaiiyi 3o3 i o
aeai??/iiio a?oe? /?oei i?iyaeythoueny eouia? oi?ie. Oiio a oeueiio
a?oe? an? naaeaeaioe? ia e?nieoeueoo?i?e ieiu? ca ?ioaineai?noth ?inoo
eeaneo?eoaaeeny ia aea? aeeoo?a? oi?ie: aea?aaiaeaeio (79,9%) ?
eouaaeaeio (20,1%). Na?aaeiy aenioa ?ineei aea?aaiaeaeii? oi?ie aeinyaea
31,4± 0,4 ni (d = 2,12; V=7,2% ; ?±1,3%), na?aaei?e ae?aiao? a?ey
ei?aiaai? oeeee noaiiaea 0,8±0,1 ni. A?aeiia?aeii eouiaeaeia –
28,44±0,32 ni (d =1,75; V=6,16%, P=1,1%), 0,7=0,2 ni.

O o?e??/iiio a?oe? aeaeueoa i?inoaaeo?oueny i?iya iniaeeainoae ?inoo oa
i?iya iie?ii?o?cio a iniaei. A oeae ia??iae aeyaeythoueny oi?ie:
aenieinoiaao?iaa (36,2%), noiaao?iaa (42,9%) ? eouiaeaeia (20,9%).
Na?aaeiy aenioa aenieinoiaao?iaeo oi?i noaiiaeea 61,4±2,9 ni (d=11,2;
V=18,3%, ? =4,9%), na?aaei?e ae?aiao? a?ey ei?aiaai? oeeee 1,1±0,1 ni.
A?aeiia?aeii noiaao?iai? – 48,4±1,7 ni (d=9,6; V=-19,9%; P=3,5%) ?
0,9+0,1 ni, eouiaeaeii? – 37,5±2,3 ni (d=12,8; V=34,4%; P=6,2%) ?
1,0±0,2 ni.

O /ioe?e??/iiio a?oe? eoeueoo? c’yaeeinue a?eueoa iiaeeea?noue o?aooaaoe
i?e ?iciiae?e? ia. aeeoo?a? oi?ie ia o?eueee iieacieee aenioe ?ineei oa
?ioaineai?noue ?o ?inoo, aea e ?io? iniaeeaino? iie?ii?o?cio (aaa?oon
iniaei, oi?ioaaiiy a?eie oa niin?a ?o aaeoaeaiiy, oiui). Eiiieaen
iieaciee?a aeaa ciiao aeae?eeoe aeeoo?a? oi?ie: aenieinoiaao?ia? –
4C,1%, noiaao?ia? – 35,9% ? eouiaeaei? – 20,9%. A?aeiia?aei? ?o
oaenaoe?ei? iieacieee: na?aaeiy aenioa ia?oi? oi?ie – 137,3±4,2 ni
(d=15,0; V=11,2%; ?=2,3%), na?aaei?e i?e??no ca inoaii?e ??e — 75,9±3,5
ni, na?aaei?e ae?aiao? a?ey ei?aiaai? oeeee – 1,9±0,2 ni, ae?oai? –
100,2±0,9 ni (d=5,7; V=5,7%, ?=0,9%), 57,4±2,8 ni ? 1,9±0,1 ni; o?aouei?
— 73,7±3,3 ni (d=13,6; V=18,4%; ?=6,1%), 34,7±2,4 ni i 1,8±0,3 ni.

*anoea aenieinoiaao?iaeo oi?i o oeueiio a?oe? a ?acoeueoao?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?ineei c?inea aei 43,1%, noiaao?iaeo – ciaioeeany a
ii??aiyii? c ieioeei ?ieii, a eouiaeaeieo, caeeoeeany i?aeoe/ii ia
iaeiiio ??ai?.

O i’yoe??/iiio a?oe? oaea c’yaeeany iiaeeea?noue aeae?eyoe /ioe?e
aeeoo?a? oi?ie (aeniei?ineo -214,8±10,6 ni, na?aaeiuei?ineo — 172,2±9,6
ni; iecueei?ineo – 121,82±7,4 ni ? eouiao oa eouenoo – 74,4±4,6 ni).

A 10-??/iiio a?oe? aoee aeae?eai? iniaeie, ye? iaee iaea?eueoee ??no
(AA) — aaca?ca?oi/ano? oi?ie aa?ace ea?aeuenueei?. Ne?aeoth/a a?oia —
iniaeie aeniei?ine? ? na?aaeiuei?ine? (AEA), o oeeo aea?aa iciaee
a?ca?oi/anoi? aea?aaeie aoee a?ae 4,8% aei 10,5% a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino?. O?aoy a?oia – iniaeie a iciaeaie iecueei?ineino?, eouia? oa
eoueno? (AEE). O oeeo a?oi iciaee ea?aeuenueei? aa?ace aoee aeyaeai?
aeey 79,0–81,5% iniaei. E??i oeeo o?ueio oi?i ?inoo, ie?aii aeae?eyee
noii?ai? iniaeie. Aeioe?euei?noue ia’?aeiaiiy aeniei?ineeo ?
na?aaeiuei?ineeo a a?oio AEA oa iecueei?ineeo, eouiaeo, eouenoeo a a?oio
AEE iiynith?oueny oei, ui iniaeie oeeo a?oi a iiaeaeueoiio ci?iththoue
nai? iieiaeaiiy: aeniei?ine? iiaeooue ia?aoiaeeoe a ?aia
na?aaeiuei?ineeo, a na?aaeiuei?ine? – aeniei?ineeo. Aiaeia?/i? i?ioeane
iiaeooue a?aeaoaaoeny a a?oi? AEE.

I?ioean ?ioaineaii? aeeoa?aioe?? niinoa??aaany ca oeae ia??iae. A
20-??/iiio a?oe? noaei iiaeeeaei, /?oei aeae?eeoe aea?aaa c iciaeaie
aeniei?ineino? ? aaca?ca?oi/anoino? aea?aaeie /AA/, aa?aca ea?aeuenueeo
aenieinoiaao?ia? ?c a?ca?oi?ni”i?” aea?aaeiith /AEA/, aa?aca
ea?aeuenueea iecueeinoiaao?iao c a?ca?oi/anoith aea?aaeiith (AEI) ?
/anoeiai noii?ai? iniaeie. A oeueiio a?oe? iieiaeia aea?aa ianooue
oe?ii? iciaee ea?aeuenueei? aa?ace, a?aenioie aenieinoiaao?iaeo neeaaea?
a?ae 26,1% aei 40,6%.

Aiae?c ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ianaaeaeaiue aa?ace ea?aeuenueei?
na?ae/eoue, ui a o?eaeoeyoe??/iiio a?oe? eoeueoo?a neeaaea?oueny c
noeoiiino? oi?i (ii?o), ye? ?ic??ciythoueny i?ae niaith ii?oieia?/ieie
iciaeaie oa o?c?ieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie. Eiaeia c iiioeyoe?eieo ii?o
ia? iaai? iniaeeaino? a thaai?eueiiio oa a iiaeaeueoeo oacao ?icaeoeo oa
?inoo. O 30-??/iiio a?oe? i?e iae?eo an? oi?ie aoee ?icae?eai? ia aa?aco
ea?aeuenueeo aeniei?ineo aaca?ca?oi/anoo oa c a?ca?oieaie aa?aco
ea?aeuenueeo aenieinoiaao?iao, aa?aco ea?aeuenueeo na?aaeiueinoiaao?iao
(AEN), aa?aco ea?aeuenueeo iecueeinoiaao?iao. A?aenioie aea?aa c /?oeeie
iciaeaie a?ca?oi/anoi? aea?aaeie noaiiaea a?ae 40,2 aei 60,1%. O
caaouai?e eoeueoo?? aaeueio?oueny i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aea?aaeie c
a?ca?oi/anoith oaenoo?ith. O o?eaeoeyoei’yoe??/iiio a?oe? iciaee aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? a ianaaeaeaiiyo i?iyaeeeny o 41,7% aei 62,0% caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? (oaae.).

Ia /aoaa?o?e i?iai?e ieiu?, aea c?inoa? yeeia cae/aeia, caa?aaeeny a
35-??/iiio a?oe? o?eueee AA oa AEA.?io? oi?ie aeiaee aei 20-??/iiai
a?eo. Ia i’yo?e i?iai?e ieiu?, aea aoa aaaaeaiee a eoeueoo?o aeoa
/a?aiiee, an? oi?ie aoee aeo?niai? a eiieo?aioi?e ai?iouea? ? aeiaee c
ianaaeaeaiiy. A?aeiii, ui ??no ? ?ioaa?aeueiei iieacieeii
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aea?aaieo ii??ae. A?i iaoiiaeaiee ye aioo??oi?ie oae
? aiai?oi?ie /eiieeaie. Aiae?c iieaciee?a ?inoo aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? a
??ci? a?eia? ia??iaee aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe ?? aii?oao, oiaoi
c’ynoaaoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue. Oeaea aii?oao?a i?ioani?a I. I.
I?eiaa aea? iiaeeea?noue iaaeyaeii i?ine?aeeaaoe ia o?eueee
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue, a ? na?ae/eoue i?i ?nioth/? ciai?oi?
/eiieee, ye? aieeaathoue ia i?ioean ?inoo ? ?icaeoeo aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei?. sseui a i’yoe??/iiio a?oe? aii?oao oi?i aa?ace
ea?aeuenueei? a?aeiia?aeii noaiiaea a?ae I aei IV eeano, oi a 35-??/iiio
a?oe? a?i aoa 1a, 1a,? o oi?i AA ? AEA ia ??cieo i?iaieo ieiuao. Aa?aca
ea?aeuenueea na?aaeiuei noiaao?iaa a aono?e eoeueoo?? c?inoaea ca I,
??aee?e — ca ? eeanii, aa?aca ea?aeuenueea iecueeinoiaao?iaa – ca O-IV.

Ioaea, neioaoe/iee e?n?aie/ee iieaciee — eean aii?oaoo a iiai?e i???
a?aeia?aaea? ?ioaa?aeuei? i?ioeane a ianaaeaaeaiiyo aa?ace ea?aeuenueei?
oa oa?aeoa?eao? ia?aiao?e iie?ii?o?cio oe??? iiioeyoe?? ca
o?eaeoeyoei’yoe??/iee ia??iae.

E?n?aie/? iniaeeaino? aa?ace oe?a?inueei?.

Iniiai? a?aeiiino? i?i i?noeac?inoaiiy iiioeyoe?? aa?ace oe?a?inueei?

Aa?aca oe?a?inueea, ye?e i?eoaiaiia a?ca?oi/anoa oaenoo?a aea?aaeie oa
??ci? aeeoo?a? oi?ie, aoea aeyaeaia iaie a eenoiiaae? 1995 ?ieo. Ia an?o
e?niaeo ae?eyieao, aea aoea aeyaeaia aa?aca oe?a?inueea — aeecueei aei
aeaiii? iiaa?oi? caeyaathoue ?iaeaa? eaa?oeeoe. Y?oio ca iaoai?/iei
neeaaeii eaaeinoaeeienoee, ia iaae? c eaa?oeeoii — noi?uaiee. Ca
o?i?/ieie aeanoeainoyie aeineoue a?aeiee (aoion o aa?oiueiio oa?? -1,01
— 1,28%, oinoi? — 0,2-3,04 oa 1,3-9,6 ia ia 100 a a?oioo, ?I —
3,3-4,3). Ai?no i?e?iaeaiaio?a (A,Ii,Nu,Zn, Pb, Ig, Nd, Ni) oaeiae
iecueeee.

Iecueea o?ioi?noue ??oio?a ni?eyea caa?aaeaiith oe??? iiioeyoe?? a
eiieo?aioi?e ai?iouea? c niniith cae/aeiith, ineeith oa ?ioeie
ii?iaeaie. Oei e?no — AA2-3.

Oaenaoe?eia ? oi?iiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea aa?ace oe?a?inueei?

O Iiaea??anueeiio e?nieoeoa? (ea. 78, aeae?ee 9 ? 15) aoei aeyaeaii ia
ieiu? 25 aa 285 aea?aa aa?ace oe?a?inueei?, c ieo aenieinoiaao?iaeo oi?i
85 oo. (29,8%, I=14,2 i.; Ae=16,2 ni, caian aea?aaeie – 15,04 i3),
na?aaeiueinoiaao?iaeo — 82 oo. (28,77%; I=11,8 i.; Ae=17,1 ni, caian
aea?aaeie — 11,25 i3), iecueei-noiaao?iaeo — 84 oo. (29,47%, I=8,8 i.;
Ae=12 ni, caian aea?aaeie — 5,61 i3), eoueno? oa eouia? — 34 oo.
(11,93%; I=6,4 i.; Ae=9,4 ni, caian aea?aaeie — 1,0 i3).

O Iaai?yinueeiio e?nieoeoa? (ea. 61, aeae?ee 10; 1C; 18, ea. 68, aeae?e
6) aoei aeyaeaii ia ieiu? 35,5 aa 667 aea?aa, c ieo aeniei-noiaao?iaeo
205 oo. (30,7%; I=12,6 i.; Ae=17,4 ni, caian aea?aaeie = 32,1 i3)
na?aaeiueinoiaao?iaeo 272 oo. (40,8%; I=11,6 i.; Ae =17,3ni; caian
aea?aaeie = 41,9 i3), iecueeinoiaao?iaeo 133 oo. (19,9%, I= 9,9 i.;
Ae=17,2 ni, caian aea?aaeie – 17,4 i3), eoueno? oa eouia? 57 oo. (8,5%;
I=7,6 i.; Ae=10,2 ni, caian aea?aaeie=1,5 i3). Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue
aea?aa (74,6%) ieiaeiiineoue.

Ioaea, iiioeyoe?y aa?ace oe?a?inueei? aeineoue oe?iia a ainiiaea?nueeiio
? iaoeiaiio a?aeiioaii?. Oiio aiia iio?aao? ioi?iie ? noai?aiiy ia
a?aeiia?aeieo ae?eyieao caeacieea. Aaaeeeai ia noa?ii?ieo caieyo oa
a?aeieo a?oioao noai?thaaoe eoeueoo?e aa?ace oe?a?inueei? ieaioaoe?eiiai
oeio.

AENIIAEE OA I?IIICEOe??

1. Ca iaaeath a?aaea aa?aca ea?aeuenueea a e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiiyo Iie?nny
ia? aeia?ee ??no, aaia?aoeaiee ?icaeoie ? ia ao?a/a? oe?ii? a?ieia?/i?
iniaeeaino? a iauaaeeao. Oiio ?? ?io?iaeoeoe?y ia o?eueee iiaeeeaa, a ?
aeineoue ia?niaeoeaia aeey ?aa?iio, aea ia?aaaaeathoue a?aei? ca
?iaeth/?noth a?oioe.

2. Aeyaeaia iaie iiioeyoe?y aa?ace oe?a?inueei? ia? eiooiaio
a?ca?oi/anoo oaenoo?o aea?aaeie oa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ??ciiiai?oieie
aeeoo?aeie oi?iaie (aenieinoiaao?iaa, na?aaeiueinoiaao?iaa,
iecueeinoiaao?iaa, eouenoa ? eouiaa).

C. Aa?aca ea?aeuenueea ? aa?aca oe?a?inueea iaaeiiaeea? aei o?ioiino?
a?oioo, oiio aiie aeey oiia Iie?nny Oe?a?ie iathoue aaaeeeaa
e?niainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy a oi?ioaaii? aoaeoeaii? ?eieiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e a noa?? e?niae?iuoaaiiy. A?oioiai-ee?iaoe/i? oiiae
?aa?iio ni?eythoue ?aae?caoe?? ?o a?ieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo.

4. Ian?ii?a? iauaaeee aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? /a?ac aeanoeaee ?e
iie?ii?o?ci aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny ia aeeoo?a? oi?ie, oiio ?? eoeueoo?e
i?eiee ia aoaathoue iaeii??aeieie (/enoeie), a iathoue a nai?io neeaae?
oi?ie (ii?oe) c aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? aenieinoiaao?iai? aac iciae
a?ca?oi/anoi? oaenoo?e aea?aaeie oa iniaeie c a?ca?oi/anoith oaenoo?ith
aea?aaeie — aa?aca ea?aeuenueea aenieinoiaao?iaa, na?aaeiueinoiaao?iaa,
iecueeinoiaao?iaa, eouenoa, eouiaa.

5. C e?n?aie/eo i??eoaaiue iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii a na?aeeo oa aieiaeo
noai?ao noai?thaaoe yeeiiai-aa?acia? eoeueoo?e, aea yeeio cae/aeio
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey iiai??/ieo iio?aa. A?e yeeie ia iiaeiai
ia?aaeuoaaoe 20 ?ie?a. Eoeueoo?e aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? iio??aii
noai?thaaoe oe?iei?yaeiei niiniaii (CoC i., 4o3); ia 5-6 ??e aaiaeeoe a
eoeueoo?o yeeio cae/aeio aocueei?yaeiei niiniaii (1,5o0,75 i., aai 1,5o1
i.). O oaeeo eoeueoo?ao ia?aaaaeii aoaeooue oi?ioaaoeny aenieinoiaao?ia?
iniaeie aac iciae a?ca?oieiai? aea?aaeie oa c iciaeaie ?
na?aaeiueanoiaao?ia? oi?ie, ye? aoaeooue ne?iaeiith aeey iaaeaai?
i?iieneiaino?.

6. O ??aeeeo eoeueoo?ao (3oC i.)caaaeyee e?auiio ina?oeaiith
?ioaineai?oa a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy a iniaei a?ca?oi/anoi? aea?aaeie
(a?ae 62,0 aei 63,7%). O aonoeo eoeueoo?ao aa?ace ea?aeuenueei?
(1o0,75i.) /anoeia a?ca?oi/anoeo aea?aa aoea ia 10% iaioith (53,4%).

7. O ci?oaieo eoeueoo?ao c aeoaii /a?aiiei, niniith cae/aeiith,
aeaoe??th a?eith /a?ac eiieo?aioio ai?ioueao aa?aca ea?aeuenueea
aeiaaea? c eoeueoo?. Ia e?nieoeueoo?i?e ieiu?, aea aoa aaaaeaiee aeoa
/a?aiiee ia 7-e ??e i?ney iinaaeee aa?ace ea?aeuenueei?, aiia aoea
aeo?niaia c ianaaeaeaiiy aei 30-??/iiai a?eo.

8. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui a AEeoiie?nueeiio Iie?nn? ? aeinoaoiy
ian?ii?aa aaca aeey ooo/iiai ?icaaaeaiiy aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? ? aa?ace
oe?a?inueei?. Iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii noai?thaaoe i?iieneia? ieaioaoe??
?oeyoii ?icae?eueiiai ae?iuoaaiiy oaeaeei?ineeo (aeniei- ?
na?aaeiueinoiaao?iaeo) oa iia?eueii?ineeo (iecueeinoiaao?iaeo, eouenoeo
? eouiaeo) oi?i. Oaeee ?iciiae?e aeicaieeoue ae?iuoaaoe ni?oeiaioe aeey
iaaeaai? i?iieneiaino? oa ie?aii ne?iaeio aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ooaeiaei?o
ae?ia?a.

9. Caaio?aeth ian?iiy ne?ae aanoe a ia?oo /a?ao c aeniei- oa
na?aaeiueinoiaao?iaeo oi?i aa?ac ea?aeuenueei? oa oe?a?inueei?. Na?aaeiy
iana ian?iiy c iiaeaeueieo aea?aa aenieinoiaao?iai? oi?ie (h=13,9 i; d
=11,2ni) ca 1995-1997?.?. noaiiaeea 515 a.; na?aaeiueinoiaao?iai? (h =
1C,1 i.; d = 9,8 ni) 533 a.

10. Ae?iuoaaiiy n?yioe?a aa?ac ia? iaai? iniaeeaino?, oiio ne?ae /?oei
aeeiioaaoe an? aa?ioaoi?/i? caoiaee (i?aeaioiaea ian?iiy aei iin?ao,
no?iee iin?ao, ioeue/oaaiiy, cao?ithaaiiy ?aaoey?iee iaaeyae ca
aieia?noth a?oioo, oiui).

11. Ei?aiaaa nenoaia aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? aeineoue ieanoe/ia, aiia ia
oi?io? /?oeiai aieiaiiai ei?aiy, a ia? aeineoue iiooaei? aeeaeii? ye??i?
ei?ai?, a oi?ioaaaii?? yeeo aa?ooue o/anoue ei?ai? ae?oaiai — o?aoueiai
oa ?ioeo ii?yaee?a, ii?yae c oeei ?icaeaathoueny /enaeuei?
o?c?ieiai-aeoeai? ie/eoaao? ei?ai?.

12. A iioiaaiac? aeniei-na?aaeiuei, iecueeinoiaao?iaeo, eouenoeo ?
eouiaeo oi?i i?ine?aeaeo?oueny iniaeea?noue o oi?ioaaii? ? ?inoo
aieiaii? in?. E?aea?iee iaa?i iaea?eueo ?icaeiooee o aenieinoiaao?iaeo
oi?i, a iaeiaio aeyaey?oueny o eouenoeo ? eouiaeo oi?i. Na?aaeiuei- ?
iecueeinoiaao?ia? oi?ie caeiathoue a?aeiia?aeii i?ii?aeia iieiaeaiiy,

13. Caaaeyee iniaeeainyi ‘i?iyao iie?ii?o?cio oa oi?ioaaiiy aeeoo?aeo
oi?i ?oaee aeiaeyaeo a ianaaeaeaiiyo aa?ac ne?ae ?icii/eiaoe o?eueee c
10-15-??/iiai a?eo. A ianaaeaeaiiyo c aenieith o/anoth iniaei c
a?ca?oi/anoith oaenoo?ith aea?aaeie aei 20-25 ?ie?a ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe
i?i??aeaeaiiy c ae?oaeith ie?aieo iecueeinoiaao?iaeo ? eouenoeo oi?i.
Aea?aaeia ?o iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeey aeaioiaeaiiy noaai???a ?
ooaeiaei?o ae?ia?a.

14. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aeyaeaiith aa?ace oe?a?inueei?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?? a?oioia? ? e?n?aie/? iniaeeaino? oa aeathoue iaoeiao
i?aenoaao aeey noai?aiiy caeaciee?a o Iiaea??anueeiio ? Iaai?yinueeiio
e?nieoeoaao Neiaa/ainueeiai aea?aee?nainio AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Eeoaae I. A., Oea/oe A, ?. Aa?ace ea?aeuenueea ? oe?a?inueea a
Oe?a?i?. — AEeoiie?: Aieeiue, 1998 — 144 n. Aeena?oaio iaiena ?icae?ee
1, 2, 5, 6.

2. Eeoaae I. A., Oea/oe A. ?, Oa?anaae/ I. A. Oe?iia ciao?aeea ia
Neiaa/ainueei-Ia?ooeueeiio e?yae? // O?ae a i?i?aoth??. I?e?iaei?
aaaaonoaa AEeoiie?ueie, ?o aea/aiiy oa ia?niaeoeae aeei?enoaiiy. —
AEeoiie?: I?aiaeia i?aei?e?inoai “AEeoiie?nueea iaeania ae?oea?iy”,
1996. — N. 80-81. Aeena?oaio aeyaeya ? iienaa ii?oieia?/i? iciaee aa?ace
oe?a?inueei?, aeiey o/ano? — 50%.

3. Oea/oe A.?. Eeoaae I. A. I?e?iaei? aaaaonoaa e?n?a AEeoiie?ueie //
Oai aea. — N. 94-104 // Oai aea. — N. 94-104. Aeena?oaioii iniaenoi
io?eiaii ? i?iaiae?ciaaii aanue aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoa??ae.

4. Eeoaae I. A., Oea/oe A. ?. Iie?ii?o?ci aa?ace ea?aeuenueei? a
35-??/ieo eoeueoo?ao // I?iaeaie aeieia?? e?n?a ? e?niei?enooaaiiy ia
Iie?nn? Oe?a?ie. — Aei. 5, — AEeoiie?, 1998. — N. 92-96. Aeena?oaioo
iaeaaeeoue iniiaia /anoeia aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae iaienaiiy oaenoo
noaoo?.

5. Oea/oe A.? . Ea?aeuenueea e?anoiy Iie?nny // E??niaee ? ieneeanueeee
aeo?iae. — 1997. -? 4. — N. 12-13.

6. Oea/oe A. ?. Aa?aca oe?a?inueea a Neiaa/ainueeiio aea?aee?naini? //
E?niaee ? ieneeanueeee aeo?iae — 1998.– ?1 — N. 29.

7. Oea/oe A. ?. A oiiaao Iie?nny // E?niaee ? ieneea. aeo?iae — 1998. –
?2. — N.27.

OEA*OE A. ?. E?n?aie/? iniaeeaino? oa ia?niaeoeae ae?iuoaaiiy aa?ac
ea?aeuenueei? ? oe?a?inueei? a Iie?nn? Oe?a?ie. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.03.03. —
e?niciaanoai ? e?n?aieoeoai. – Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,
Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii e?n?aie/ei iniaeeainoyi oa ia?aiaeoeaai
ae?iuoaaiiy eiooiaii? a?ca?oi/anoi? aea?aaeie, yeo i?iaeoeothoue aa?ace
ea?aeuenueea ? oe?a?inueea. Oei naiei a e?niaiio ainiiaea? noa? Oe?a?ie
caii/aoeiaaia i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy aoaeoeaii? ?eieiai ?io?ano?oeoo?e a
noa?? e?niae?iuoaaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a?oioiai-ee?iaoe/i? oiiae
ni?eythoue ?aae?caoe?? a?ieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo oeeo ii??ae. Ia iniia?
i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co e?niaeo eoeueoo? c ?io?iaeoeiaaiith aa?acith
ea?aeuenueeith, yea ae?iuo?oueny a?eueoa 35 ?ie?a a e?niaeo
ianaaeaeaiiyo Iie?nny, cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoaoe i?noeaaee ian?iiee
iaoa??ae aeey ae?iuoaaiiy n?yioe?a, naaeaeaioe?a oa /enoeo ? ci?oaieo
eoeueoo? ? ieaioaoe?ei? iinaaeee. Ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iiaeaie ia??oioiaaii
oai?aoe/ii ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaii i?aeoe/ii ae?iuoaaiiyi e?niaeo eoeueoo? oa
ciaoiaeaeaiiy i?e?iaeieo ianaaeaeaiue aa?ace oe?a?inueei? a
Neiaa/ainueeiio ? Iaeeinueeiio aea?aee?nainiao AEeoiie?nueei? iaeano?.

#OEA*OE A. E. Eaniaiaenoaaiiua iniaaiiinoe e ia?niaeoeau au?aueaaiey
aa?ac ea?aeueneie e oe?aeineie a Iieanuea Oe?aeiu. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.03,03. — eaniaaaeaiea e
eaniaiaenoai. –Iaoeeiiaeueiee aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eaniaiaenoaaiiui iniaaiiinoyi e ia?niaeoeaai
ae?aueaaiey oeaiiie oci?/aoie ae?aaaneiu, eioi?oth i?iaeooee?otho aa?acu
ea?aeueneay e oe?aeineay. Iiyoiio a eaniii oayenoaa Oe?aeiu iinoaaeaia
i?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey yooaeoeaiie ?uii/iie eio?ano?oeoo?u a noa?a
eaniau?aueaaiey. Onoaiaaeaii, /oi ii/aaiii-eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey
niinianoaotho ?aaeecaoeee aeieiae/aneiai iioaioeeaea yoeo ii?iae. Ia
iniiaaiee i?iecaaaeiiiai aiaeeca eaniuo eoeueoo? n eio?iaeooee?iaaiie
aa?acie ea?aeueneie, eioi?ay au?aueaaaony aieueoa 35 eao a eaniuo
ianaaeaeaieyo Iieanuey, i?aaeeiaeaii eniieueciaaoue ianoiue naiaiiae
iaoa?eae aeey au?aueaaiey nayioeaa, naaeaioeaa, /enouo e niaaeiuo
eoeueoo?, ieaioaoeeiiiua iinaaeee. ?aoaiea yoie i?iaeaiu iainiiaaii
oai?aoe/anee, iiaeoaa?aeaeaii i?aeoeee au?aueaaiey eaniuo eoeueoo? e
anoanoaaiiuo ianaaeaeaiee aa?acu oe?aeineie a Neaaa/aineii e Iaeeineii
aineanoicao AEeoiie?neie iaeanoe.

#Tkachuk V.I. Silvicultural peculiarities and prospects of the growth of
Karelian and Ukrainian birches in Polissya region of Ukraine.
Typescript.

Dissertation for a candidate’s degree of agricultural sciences on the
speciality 06.03.03. — Silvics and sil-viculture. The National Agrarian
University, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the silvicultural peculiari-ties and
prospects of the growth of the high-value veined wood which Karelian and
Ukrainian birches produce. There-fore the problem of the formation of
the effective market infrastructure in the sphere of the forest culture
is raised in the forestry of Ukraine. It was determined, that the
soil-climatic conditions pronote the realization of the biological
potential of these stocks. On the ground of the analysis carried out
with the introduction of Karelian birch into the forest culture
(Karelian birch has been grown more than 35 years in the forests of
Polissya), it was proposed to use the local seeds for the growing of the
seedlings, pure and mixed cultures, planting. The solution of this
problem is theoretically conformed and Proved by the practice of the
forest cultures in Malinsky forestry and natural plantations of the
Ukrainian birch in Slovechansky forestry on Shytomyr region.

II “Aeaeaaieoeoai “Aieeiue”

Caeaii aei ae?iaieoeoaa 18.08.98. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 29.01.99.

Oi?iao 60o84/16. Ianya 1,25 oi. ae?. a?e, 1,0 iae?eiai-aeaeaaie/. a?e.
1,1 oi. oa?ai-a?aeaeoee. O. 100 i?ei. Cai. ? 0049.

Iaae?oeiaaii c aioiaeo iie?a?ao?/ieo ie?aie aeeoiie?nueeiai
aeaeaaieoeoaa “Aieeiue”.

262025 AEeoiie?-25, aoe. A?o?oea, 29. Oae. 39-58-77

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