1

IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?i. ?.?. Ia/i?eiaa

AA?AA Ethaeieea Aaea???aia

E?iaaieiai?oeai? iniaeeaino? oaenoiai? neooaoe??
«cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue» o ??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noeeyo no/anii?
aiae?enueei? iiae .

OAeE 802.0.561

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.04 –aa?iainuee? iiae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio e?iaa?noe/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

Aeieoi? ?aeieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?iaeiaa Ieueaa Iao??aia,
Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
eaeneeieia?? oa noee?noeee aiae?enueei? iiae

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Eooa?aiei Aaea??y Aiae???aia , aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ii
eaoaae?? eaeneeieia?? oa noee?noeee aia-

e?enueei? iiae, Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e eaeneeieia?? oa noee?noeee aiae?enueei?
iiae,

*oao Na?oeaia Aeieo??aia, eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo, aeioeaio ii eaoaae??
aiae?enueei? iiae, A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i.I.Eioethaeinueeiai, aeaeai oaeoeueoaoo ?iicaiieo iia

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

II Oe?a?ie, i. Oaeai?iae, Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 30 aa?aniy 1999 i 13 30 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 41.051.02 a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?.?. Ia/i?eiaa (270058, i. Iaeana, O?aioeocueeee
aoeueaa?, 24/26, aoae..91)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciae?iieoeny a Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?. Ia/i?eiaa (270058, i. Iaeana, aoe.
I?aia?aaeainueea, 24)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 25 na?iiy 1999?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee *a?ii?aaiaiei ?.I.

?aoa?iaaia aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith e?iaaieiai?oeaieo
iniaeeainoae oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, ye?
ae/eaiiaothoueny o ??cieo ca noeeai no/anieo aiaeiiiaieo oaenoao —
th?eaee/ieo, aacaoii-ioae?oeenoe/ieo oa ooaeiaei?o.

I?ae oaenoiaith neooaoe??th o ?iaio? ?icoi??oueny oaiaoe/ii ii?aeiaiee
ci?noiaee eiiiiiaio oaenoo, yeee ?ai?acaioo? iaaio eiioeaiooaeueio
neooaoe?th, oiaoi a?aeaeoie no?oeoo?iaaiiai ciaiiy i?i a?aeiia?aeiee
o?aaiaio ae?eniino?, /a?ac eiiieaen iiaieo cania?a, cina?aaeaeaieo o
eiiiiceoe?eii oa no?oeoo?ii oe?e?niiio o?aaiaio? oaenoo aai
?icna?aaeaeaieo ii oaenoia?e oeaiei? (I.I.Ai?iaeiaa).

Aiae?c oaeno?a, cie?aia ooaeiaei?o, c iiaeyaeo neooaoe?eiiai ?aeo?no
?oiueiai /eaioaaiiy aaea aoa i?aaeiaoii e?iaa?noe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
(N.Ae.*oao, A.ss.Oaaan). Aea aei oeueiai /ano iiaeaethaaiiy oa iien oeo
/e ?ioeo oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e ia aeoiaeeee ia ??aaiue oaenoiai?
?ai?acaioaoe?? ciaiue ? ia a?aoiaoaaee noeeueia? ?ica?aeiino?, ui
aieeaathoue ia ?oith ?aae?caoe?th.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aiii
aeeiiaii ia oa?aiao iia?oiuei? e?iaaieiai?oeaii? ia?aaeeaie, yea
aeicaiey? iiaeeaeoe naiaioe/iee iien ??cieo oei?a oaenoo ye aa?aaeueiiai
ia’?eoo ca ?aooiie aeei?enoaiiy a?eueo aeeaeiiiai, eiioeaiooaeueiiai
aiae?co eiai neeaaeiaeo ?, o oaeee niin?a, ?ice?eoe iia?, aeiaeaoeia?
aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy oaenoo oa ooi/ieoe niaoeeo?eo iiaoaeiae eiai ??cieo
oei?a. Aeooaeueiei aeaea?oueny ? naiee ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — oaenoiaa
neooaoe?y cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, yea iiina?aaeeiaaii
a?aeaeca?eaeth? oaea noni?eueia yaeua, ye cei/eii?noue, cie?aia a
iaeiiio c ?? no/anieo i?iya?a — i?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia a iaaeao
eieaeoeaii? iaoeiai? oaie “Noee?noeea oa e?iaa?noeea oaenoo o neio?ii??
oa ae?ao?ii??” oa aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaie “Oeiieia?y oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iiaieo iaeeieoeue oiiaoe/ii?, a?aiaoe/ii? oa eaene/ii? nenoaie no/anieo
aa?iainueeeo oa ?iiainueeeo iia: eiai?oeaiee, eiioi?eaoeaiee oa
i?aaiaoe/iee aniaeoe” (caoaa?aeaeaia ?aaeith EAeEO, i?ioieie ? 5 a?ae 27
n?/iy 1997 ?ieo), ui ?ic?iaeythoueny eaoaae?ith eaeneeieia?? oa
noee?noeee aiae?enueei? iiae Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy a aeena?oaoe?? ? o? eiioeaiooaeuei?, naiaioe/i? oa
no?oeoo?i? iniaeeaino? oaenoiai? neooaoe?? cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue,
ye? iia’ycai? c aa??thaaiiyi iiaieo niinia?a oa cania?a ao?eaiiy ciaiiy
i?i a?aeiia?aeiee o?aaiaio ae?eniino? — aa??thaaiiyi, ui aecia/a?oueny
ianaiia?aae ooeoe?iiaeueii-noeeueiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ii??aithaaieo
oaeno?a.

A?iioaca, yeo aoei iieeaaeaii a iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, caiaeeoueny aei
oiai, ui aoaeue-yea oaenoiaa neooaoe?y ? a?aeaeoeii no?oeoo?iaaiiai
ciaiiy i?i iaaiee o?aaiaio ae?eniino? ? c aieo naiaioeee iiaea aooe
ciiaeaeueiaaia a oa?i?iao i?aaeiaoii-iiae?eiaiai o?aeio (noeaia??th) ye
iaeiiai c oi?iao?a ?ai?acaioaoe?? ciaiue. Iiaiioa i?aaenoaaeaiino? oiai
/e ?ioiai aocea o?aeio ? oa?aeoa? aca?iica’yceo i?ae ieie o cia/i?e i???
caeaaeaoue a?ae eiiiiceoe?eii-noee?noe/ieo iniaeeainoae oa eaiii?a
oaenoiiiaoaeiae, niaoeeo?/ieo aeey eiie?aoiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noeeth.

Iaiao?aei?noue ia?aa??ee a?iioace, ui aoea noi?ioeueiaaia, aecia/eea
iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy, yeith ? anoaiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae
iiaii? ?aae?caoe?? oaenoiai? neooaoe?? cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oa
aecia/aiiy iai?yie?a ?? aa??thaaiiy a no/anieo aiaeiiiaieo oaenoao
??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noee?a.

Eiie?aoieie caaaeaiiyie, ye? aeieeaathoue ?c cacia/aii? iaoe, aoee:

? ia?aaeyae iiaeeeaeo niinia?a oa iai?yie?a neooaoe?eiiai /eaioaaiiy
oaenoo c iaeyaeo ia eiai?oeaiee ?aeo?n iieno eiai naiaioeee;

? aecia/aiiy iniiaieo aoce?a o?aeiiai? no?oeoo?e oaenoiai? neooaoe??
cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oa iien ?oiueiai oeiiaiai naiaioe/iiai
iaiiaiaiiy;

? anoaiiaeaiiy iniiaieo /eiiee?a aa??thaaiiy oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e c
a?eueo aeaoaeueiei ?icaeyaeii oaeoi?o ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noeeth;

? c?noaaiee aiae?c naiaioe/ieo iniaeeainoae oa iiaieo cania?a
?aae?caoe?? oaenoiai? neooaoe?? cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue o no/anieo
aiaeiiiaieo th?eaee/ieo, aacaoii-ioae?oeenoe/ieo oa ooaeiaei?o oaenoao.

Iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy iineoaoaaee 398 oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e,
ii?aeiaieo oaiaoeeith iieno i?iya?a i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino?,
ia?aaaaeii o Niieo/aieo Ooaoao Aia?eee, ye? aoei aeeo/aii c aiaeiiiaieo
oaeno?a cacia/aieo aeua noee?a (a?aeiia?aeii, 183 oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e c
Oaaea?aeueiiai eiaeaeno NOA, th?eaee/ieo noaoae oa iin?aiee?a, 124
oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e c aacaoe “Moscow News” ca 1995-1996 ??e oa 91
oaenoiao neooaoe?th c /ioe?ueio aeaoaeoeaieo ?iiai?a no/anieo
aia?eeainueeeo ienueiaiiee?a).

I?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoiaee
eiioeaiooaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy (cie?aia iaoiaeeee o?aeiiaiai ?
i?ioioeiiaiai aiae?co) oa c?noaaiiai eiioaenooaeueii-?ioa?i?aoaoe?eiiai
aiae?co, ye? i?aee??iethaaeenue e?euee?nieie i?ae?aooieaie iiaieo
aeaieo.

Iiaecia i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui o aeena?oaoe??
aia?oa aoei iinoaaeaii ieoaiiy i?i aca?iica’ycie i?ae oa?aeoa?ii
?ai?acaioaoe?? ciaiue o oaeno? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii-noeeueiaeie
ia?aiao?aie inoaiiueiai. Iiaei ? oaeiae ? canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeniiai
o?aeiiaiai aiae?co aeey iiaeaethaaiiy oeo ae?eyiie oaenoiai? naiaioeee,
ye? iathoue eeth/iaa cia/aiiy aeey oaeno?a c iaaii? oaiaoeee. Oea
aeicaieeei ae?eoe iiaeo aeniiae?a uiaei iniaeeainoae naiaioe/ii?
iiaoaeiae ??cieo oei?a oaenoo, a oaeiae a?aeiinii iiaieo cania?a, ye?
a?aeaeaathoue niaoeeo?eo oe??? iiaoaeiae. Aeaiaio iiaecie i?eoaiaiiee
oaeiae ? naiiio o?aeooaaiith iiiyooy “oaenoiaa neooaoe?y”, aeaaaeaiith
aaciaeo ia?aiao??a oaenoiai? neooaoe?? cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oa
anoaiiaeaiith iai?yie?a ?? ei?aeyoe?? c a?aeiia?aeiith eiioeaiooaeueiith
neooaoe??th.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeaia oei
aianeii, yeee ?iaeyoue iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee, ui i?noyoueny o
aeena?oaoe??, o iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy naiaioeee oaenoo ye
e?iaaieiai?oeaiiai ia’?eoo, ni?eyth/e oaeiae ?icoe?aiith oa
iiaeeaeaiith iaoeo oyaeaiue i?i no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
oaeno?a, aeecueeeo ca oaiaoeeith, aea ??cieo ca noeeai oa eaiiiaie
oaenoiaoaeoaaiiy. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ? oai?aoe/ii cia/ouei ye ua iaeei
aeieac eiino?oeoeaiino? iaoiaeeee o?aeiiaiai aiae?co, ui canoiniao?oueny
ye can?a iiaeaethaaiiy naiaioeee ??cieo oei?a oaenoo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeoo?oueny
iiaeeea?noth aeei?enoaiiy eiai ?acoeueoao?a oa aeniiae?a o iaa/aii?
aiae?enueei? iiae ye nooaeaio?a-o?eieia?a (ia caiyooyo c aiae?oe/iiai
/eoaiiy oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oaenoo, a oaeiae o eo?n? noee?noeee, cie?aia o
?icae?eao “Ooieoe?iiaeuei? noee?” oa “Noee?noeea oaenoo”), oae ?
nooaeaio?a th?eaee/ieo aoc?a i?ae /an iiaioaaiiy ieie ia caiyooyo c
aiae?enueei? iiae oaiaoeee “I?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue o NOA”.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee naith
ai?iaaoe?th o /ioe?ueio noaooyo, /ioe?ueio oacao ? aenooiao ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e eaeneeieia?? oa noee?noeee aiae?enueei? iiae
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? eaoaae?e iiaii?
i?aeaioiaee Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa
(1996-1999 ?iee), a oaeiae ia iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo ca ianooiiith oaiaoeeith: “Eoeueoo?ieia?/iee aniaeo
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiae” (Ee?a, EAeEO, 1995), “sscue. Eoeueoo?a.
Acaeiiiiieiaiea” (Euea?a, IAI?ssE/ Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
?i. ?aaia O?aiea, 1997), “Ia?aaeeaiu aio?iiioeaio?ecia”: 2-ee
I?aeia?iaeiee neiiic?oi “*aeiaae: ycue, eoeueoo?a, iiciaiea” (E?eaee
??a, E?eai??cueeee aea?aeaaiee iaae?inoeooo/ I?aeia?iaeiee aeine?aeiee
oeaio? “*aeiaae: ycue, eoeueoo?a, iiciaiea”, 1997), “E?iaa?noe/i? oa
iaoiaee/i? aniaeoe aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia o aeueo th?eaee/ieo
caeeaaeao ina?oe” (Ee?a, Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa
Oe?a?ie, 1997).

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, niene?a aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa
aeaea?ae ?ethno?aoeaiiai iaoa??aeo

O anooi? iiaea?oueny ei?ioeee iaeyae oai?aoe/ieo ia?aaeoiia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaa?oioiaothoueny aea?? oaie oa ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
aecia/athoueny iaoa oa eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue
?iaioe, oi?ioeththoueny iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
iieno?oueny no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e ?iaioe “E?iaaieiai?oeaia ia?aaeeaia o aea/aii? oaenoo”
i?enay/aiee ?icaeyaeo i?iaeai oaenoiai? ?aoa?aioe??, cie?aia o ?aeo?n?
neooaoeaiiai /eaioaaiiy oaenoo, i?ae eooii ci?o iniiaieo iieiaeaiue
eiai?oeaii? e?iaa?noeee, a naia oeo, ui iia’ycai? c oi?iaoaie
?ai?acaioaoe?? ciaiue oa i?eioeeiaie i?ioioeiiaiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “O?aeiiaee oa i?ioioeiiaee aiae?c oaenoiai?
neooaoe?? cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue” i?noeoue iien no?oeoo?e o?aeio
cacia/aii? neooaoe?? oa aecia/aiiy iniiaieo /eiiee?a ? iai?yie?a ??
i?ioioeiiaiai aa??thaaiiy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe “Aa??thaaiiy oaenoiai? neooaoe??
cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue o ??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noeeyo no/anii?
aiae?enueei? iiae” i?iaiaeeoueny iine?aeiaiee iien niaoeeo?ee iiaii?
?aae?caoe?? neooaoe??, ui aiae?co?oueny, a aiaeiiiaieo th?eaee/ieo,
aacaoii-ioae?oeenoe/ieo oa ooaeiaei?o oaenoao.

Caaaeuei? aeniiaee ci???ioiaai? ia ocaaaeueiaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
oi?ioethaaiiy iniiaieo aeniiae?a ?iaioe oa ie?aneaiiy iiaeeeaeo
iai?yie?a iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaiaoeee, ui aea/a?oueny.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe. No/aniee noai oai?aoe/ii? e?iaa?noeee, yeee
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny neioacii eiai?oeaii? oa eiioi?eaoeaii?
aeine?aeieoeueeeo ia?aaeeai, a?aecia/a?oueny i?aeaeuaiei ?ioa?anii aei
aea/aiiy oa iieno cania?a ? niinia?a no?oeoo?aoe?? ciaiiy o ??cieo oeiao
oaeno?a ye eiioi?eaoeaii-eiai?oeaieo ooai?aiue. Ona?aeiieaiiy oiai
oaeoo, ui naia /a?ac oaenoe, aea o?eno?oueny iiina?aaeeiaaia iiaith
?ioi?iaoe?y i?i na?o, ie caeaa?eueoiai io?eio?ii ye caaaeuei?, oae ?
niaoe?aeuei? ciaiiy), ni?e/eieei iiyao aeeneo?neaiiai (oaenoiaiai)
iai?yieo eiai?oeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, yeee “iia’ycaiee c ?ic?iaeith ?aeae
a?aeiinii eiai?oeaieo iaoai?ci?a ?icoi?iiy aeeneo?no” (I.N.Eoa?yeiaa) oa
niinia?a eiai eiioeaiooaeueii? i?aai?caoe??.

Oaeno, a??i?oa eiai naiaioeea, aenooia?, oaeei /eiii, ye ii?aaeiaoiaia,
iniaeeaei e?iaa?noe/iei /eiii i?aaenoaaeaia ciaiiy, “ye aa?aaeueii
eiaeiaaiee o?aaiaio ciaiue, yeee ? i?aai?/iith /anoeiith oe?e?nii?
nenoaie ciaiue i?i na?o” (A.ss.Oaaan). Naia ieoaiiy ?ai?acaioaoe??
ae?eniino?, oiaoi i?iaeaia ?aoa?aioe??, caaaeaee aoei iaeiei c
oeaio?aeueieo caaaeaiue e?iaa?noeee oaenoo. Aeey aeine?aeiee?a oaenoo
aaaeeeaith aenooiaea ? aenooia? “aenie?oeeoia ? ca iiaeeea?noth /?oea
?aeiino?oeoe?y oiai, ye ?ioa?i?aoaoi? ciooo? oaeno ni?aa?aeiineoenue c?
na?oii, oiaoi oiai, ye a?aeaoaa?oueny ?icoi?iiy iaeiiai c ia’?eo?a na?oo
ye ciaeo” (A.C.Aeai’yieia).

Inoaii?i /anii aaaaea?oueny, ui aaciaith no?oeoo?ith, aai oi?iaoii
?ai?acaioaoe?? ii?aaeiaoiaieo o oaeno? (aeeneo?n?) ciaiue ? “iiaeaeue
neooaoe??” (I.N.Eoa?yeiaa, O.A. aai Aeaee), aai oae caai? ?aeaae?ciaai?
eiai?oeai? iiaeae?, ye? caaacia/othoue eiiaaioe?ae?ciaaiee niin?a
?icoi?iiy na?oo oa iaoiai aeina?aeo o iueiio (aeea. G.Lakoff). I?e
oeueiio, aeneiaethaaiiy oa oe?e? oaenoe ii-??ciiio “iaeththoue ea?oeie”
na?oo, oiaoi niia?uathoue i?i ?a/?, ethaeae, ?oi? iciaee, ae??, i?i ?oi?
ca’ycee oa a?aeiineie (I.A.I?e?o?i). Ae?eni?noue i?iaeoo?oueny o
naiaioeeo iiae oa oaenoo, ? a ?acoeueoao?, ii?iaeaeo?oueny oa, uo
?.Aeaeaeaiaeioo (aeea. R.Jackendoff) iaceaa? ni?iaeoiaaiei na?oii
(projected world), a ?io? aeine?aeieee — oii?yaeeiaaiei naiaioe/iei
i?inoi?ii (O.I.I?eieaaaa), yeee aa??th?, cie?aia, ? caeaaeii a?ae
oa?aeoa?o /eaioaaiiy oeueiai i?inoi?o. sse caoaaaeo? TH.N.Noaiaiia,
“ne?aeoth/e ??ciei /eaioaaiiyi, ie noai?th?ii aeineoue nooo?ai ??ci?
ea?oeie iaeiiai e oiai ae naiiai ia’?eoa”. Oea i?aeaiaeeoue aei
iaiao?aeiino? ua ?ac caa?iooeny aei i?iaeaie /eaioaaiiy oaenoo, cie?aia
o eiai neooaoeaiiio ?aeo?n?.

*eaioaaiiy oaenoo ye i?ioean /e ?acoeueoao, yeee a?aeaeaa? /eaioaaiiy
ia’?eoeaii? aai aeaaaeaii? ae?eniino?, i?aaenoaaeaii? o iueiio, iiaea
a?aeaoaaoeny ca ??cieie i?eioeeiaie (C.ss.Oo?aaaa). Ci?ii?noue oa
aa??thaaiiy ?aeo?no /eaioaaiiy ae?eniino? caeaaeeoue ? a?ae oiai, a yeeo
iiaeaii?aeo (cie?aia ? oaenoiaeo) oi?iao oea /eaioaaiiy cae??ieth?oueny.

Naia iiiyooy neooaoe?eiiai /eaioaaiiy oaenoo o?aaeeoe?eii ia?aaeaa/a?
“aeie?aieaiiy a ci?noiaiio oa no?oeoo?ii-eiiiiceoe?eiiio i?inoi?? oaenoo
iaaieo o?aaiaio?a, ye? ?aeaioeo?eothoueny ye aeene?aoi? neooaoe??, ui
a?aeaeca?eaeththoue o caaaeueieo ?enao no?oeoo?o oa aaaaoianiaeoi?noue
neooaoe?e ia’?eoeaii? ae?eniino?” (N.Ae.*oao). I?e oeueiio
?ic??ciththoue ?aaeueio (ia’?eoeaio, aai ?aoa?aioio neooaoe?th),
neooaoe?th-eiioeaio (eiioeaiooaeueio neooaoe?th) oa oaenoiao neooaoe?th.

?aoa?aioia neooaoe?y, aai iaaia neooaoe?y (neeaaeiee aeeiai?/iee
aeaiioao), ui ? ?aoa?aioii oaenoo, — oea a?ae??cie, /anoeia ae?eniino?,
i?inoi?iai-/aniaa ni?aiieiaeaiiy ia’?eo?a, ye? neioeueoaiii
ni?eeiathoueny ?iaeea?aeii (A.A.Aa?aiia) oa a?aeaeaathoueny o iia? /e
oaeno? ye iicia/aiiy oe?e?nieo iiae?e aai iaaiiai eiiieaeniiai yaeua
ae?eniino? (C.ss.Oo?aaaa). Eiioeaiooaeueia (iiiyo?eia, iaioaeueia)
neooaoe?y, neooaoe?eia iiaeaeue ca O.A. aai Aeaeeii, aai aeeiai?/ia
iiaeaeue neooaoe?? ye iaaia noeoii?noue aeaiioao?a ca E.?. Iia?eiaei,
i?aaenoaaey? niaith ocaaaeueiaiee ia?ac ia’?eoeaii? neooaoe??, oiaoi ia
neooaoe?th ye o?aaiaio ?aaeueiiai na?oo, a caaaeueia oyaeaiiy i?i
neooaoe?th.

Ine?eueee oaeno oei?co? yaeua ia’?eoeaii? ae?eniino?, iniiai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aoa?aioii? neooaoe?? iiina?aaeeiaaii, /a?ac
eiioeaiooaeueio neooaoe?th /e neooaoe??, a?aeaeaathoueny o oaenoia?e
neooaoe??. Naia oiio “caa?iaiiy aei eiioeaiooaeueii? neooaoe?? aeicaiey?
aeyaeoe “aioo??oith” no?oeoo?o oaenoiai? neooaoe??, oiaoi i?aaenoaaeoe
?? ye ?aeyoe?eio no?oeoo?iaaio iiaeaeue, aa?o/e aei oaaae oie oaeo, ui
eiie?aoia ia’?eoeaia neooaoe?y oaeiae ia? iaaio no?oeoo?o” (N.Ae.*oao).

Neooaoeaia /eaioaaiiy oaenoo o ci?noiaiio ? no?oeoo?iiio aniaeoao
aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe iaai? ??ciiaeaee oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e, ye?
ni?aa?aeiinyoueny c ??cieie ?aoa?aioieie neooaoe?yie oa i?aaenoaaeythoue
niaith: a) cae?i/ai? eiiiiceoe?eii ? no?oeoo?ii o?aaiaioe oaenoo, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ooieoe?iiaeueiith oa eiinoeoothth/ith aaoinaiaio??th
i?e oaenoia?e ?ai?acaioaoe?? a?aeiia?aeii? iiiyo?eii? neooaoe??, aai a)
?icna?aaeaeai? ii oaenoia?e oeaiei? ??ci? ca ianyaii iicia/aiiy
aeaiaio?a ?aoa?aioii? neooaoe??, ia aac? yeeo a?aeiia?aeia oaenoiaa
neooaoe?y iiaea aooe ?aeiino?oeiaaia.

O na?oe? no/anieo aeaieo eiai?oea?noeee aaaaea?oueny, ui i?e ni?eeiyoo?
oaenoo ? ae/eaiiaoaaii? o eiai ci?no? oa no?oeoo?? iaaii? oaenoiai?
neooaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny aeo ieneaiiy, yeee iieyaa? o ni?aa?aeianaii?
eiioeaiooaeueii? iiaeae? oe??? neooaoe?? c o?aeiii-ea?oeiith aeaiiai
eeano neooaoe?e o na?aeiiino? nioe?ae?ciaaiiai ?iaeea?aea oa aeyaeaii?
ca?ao ni?eeiyoi? neooaoe?? c aeoeaiaaiei o?aeiii-ea?oeiith aai ?oiueiai
iaaiiai ?icoiaeaeaiiy (A.A.Aa?aiia). Oaeei /eiii, iiiyooy oaenoiai?
neooaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ni?aa?aeiinia c iiiyooyi o?aeio ye iaeiiai
c oi?iao?a ?ai?acaioaoe?? ciaiue.

Iiiyooy o?aeio noaei aaea aeineoue cae/iei aeey no/anieo e?iaa?noe/ieo
nooae?e. Nie?ath/enue ia eeane/ia aecia/aiiy I.I?inueeiai, i?ae o?aeiii
?icoi??ii “no?oeoo?o aeaieo, o ye?e a?aeaeca?eaeaii iaaoo? a ?acoeueoao?
iiia?aaeiueiai aeina?aeo ciaiiy i?i iaaio noa?aioeiio neooaoe?th oa i?i
oaeno, yeee iieno? oeth neooaoe?th” (I.I?inueeee). Iacaaaeath/e ia naith
aeaeeio cae/i?noue, o?aei ye c?o/iee ?ino?oiaio eiioeaiooaeueiiai
aiae?co iiaieo oa iiaeaii?aeo yaeu ??ciiai ?aiao aeeth/a? oe?eo ieceo
oa?aeoa?enoee, ye? iio?aaothoue c aieo aeine?aeiee?a iiaeaeueoiai
ona?aeiieaiiy oa oii?yaeeoaaiiy. E??i oiai, aeaea?oueny iaiao?aeiei, a
iaaeao iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaiae?coaaoe iniiai? ia?aiao?e o?aeio ye
eiai?oeaii? no?oeoo?e /a?ac c?noaaeaiiy oe??? no?oeoo?e c? no?oeoo?ith
oaenoiai? neooaoe?? o ?? ??cieo aei??ao, ye oeo aieieii, c yeeo nieaoaii
oaenoiao oeaieio, aai aeie?a, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo oaeno iiaoaeiaaii
(A.Neubert, G.M.Shreve).

Eiioeaiooaeueia neooaoe?y nei?iiy cei/eio oa i/?eoaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iueiai iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia ye a?aeiia?aeia
oaenoiaa neooaoe?y cei/ei- a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oa iiaeaeth?oueny ye
i?aaeiaoii-iiae?eiaee o?aei, ye? i?noeoue eiiieaen aoce?a, ye?
a?oiothoueny o /ioe?e iniiaieo eeane: aeoaioii-iiae?eia? aocee o?aeio
(cei/eiaoeue, aea?oaa cei/eio oa oa?aeoa? naiiai cei/eio),
/ani-i?inoi?ia? aocee o?aeio (/an oa i?noea nei?iiy cei/eio),
niiniaiai-?ino?oiaioaeuei? aocee o?aeio (niin?a oa caniae nei?iiy
cei/eio) ? iioeaaoe?eii-iane?aeeia? aocee o?aeio (iioeaaoe?y cei/eio oa
iane?aeee cei/eiii? ae??, aeeth/ath/e i/?eoaaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
nei?ia).

Aeacai? aocee c ??ciei nooiaiai iiaiioe aeooae?cothoueny o a?aeiia?aeieo
eiiiiiaioao eiie?aoii? oaenoiai? neooaoe??. No?oeoo?a oa caiiaiaiiy
eiaeiiai aocea o?aeio iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai? /a?ac ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th,
aiae?c oa ni?aa?aeianaiiy eeth/iaeo (anioe?eiaaieo) ne?a aai ae?ac?a,
oaiaoe/ii iia’ycaieo ?c oei /e ?ioei eiiiiiaioii oaenoiai? neooaoe??.
Iaaaaeaii ye i?eeeaae oaenoiao neooaoe?th, aeeo/aio c Oaaea?aeueiiai
Eiaeaeno NOA (1993):

Arson within special maritime and territorial jurisdiction

Whoever [cei/eiaoeue], within the special maritime and territorial
jurisdiction of the United States [i?noea cei/eio], willfully and
maliciously [iioeaaoe?y] sets fire to or burns, or attempts to set fire
or burn any building, structure or vessel, any machinery or building
materials or supplies, military or naval stores, munitions of war, or
any structural aids or appliances for navigation or shipping [oa?aeoa?
cei/eio], shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more
than five years, or both [iane?aeee].

If the building be a dwelling or if the life of any person be placed in
jeopardy [oa?aeoa? cei/eio], he [cei/eiaoeue] shall be fined not more
than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than twenty years, or both
[iane?aeee] (FCCR, 391).

O caiiaiaii? aaciaeo neio?a o?aeio niinoa??aathoueny iaai? oaiaeaioe??,
iaeaaaeeea?oeie na?aae yeeo ? oae?:

i?e iicia/aii? cei/eioey niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y a?ae aaeeaaiiy
ia?aaaaeii ocaaaeueiaieo iii?iaoe?e o io?oe?eii-th?eaee/ieo oaenoao aei
aaeeaaiiy ia?aaaaeii eiie?aoeciaaieo oa ?iaeea?aeoae?ciaaieo iii?iaoe?e
o oaenoao ooaeiaei?o;

i?e iicia/aii? neioo aea?oaa aeacai? ?ica?aeiino? i?ae noeeyie
i?aaeththoueny o iai?yieo ia?aaaaeiiai aaeeaaiiy ocaaaeueiaieo
iii?iaoe?e a ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ieo iaoa??aeao, aacaoieo noaooyo oa
ooaeiaei?o oaenoao ia oe? ?icoe?aiiy ae?aiaciio a?aeiia?aeieo iii?iaoe?e
a io?oe?eii-th?eaee/ieo oaenoao;

iaa?? iiaieo cania?a ia iicia/aiiy neioo oa?aeoa? cei/eio o ??cieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo noeeyo ? oaeoe/ii noaiaea?oiei c iaaieie a?aeoeeaiiyie
a?ae oeueiai noaiaea?oo oai, aea eaeaoueny i?i /anoioi?noue iicia/aiiy
oeo /e ?ioeo eaoaai??e cei/eio oa aaeeaaiiy ocaaaeueiaieo,
?aeaioeo?eoth/eo aai aeaoae?ciaaieo aeane?eioe?e;

/ani-i?inoi?iaee aocie o?aeio i?aaenoaaeaiee a aiae?ciaaieo oaenoiaeo
neooaoe?yo ia?aaaaeii ia?icai?iooeie, noaiaea?oeciaaieie aeey an?o
ooieoe?iiaeueieo noee?a, ui ?icaeyaeaeeny, iicia/aiiyie, a
eiie?aoecaoe?y inoaii?o (yeui oea ia? i?noea) ia noaiiaeoue aeey
aiae?ciaaieo oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e ae??oaeueiiai /eiieea. Naia oiio oeae
aocie o?aeio iiaeia aaaaeaoe caaaeii ae?oai?yaeiei aeey oaenoiai?
neooaoe?? cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue. A oie aea /an, neio i?noea
nei?iiy cei/eio iiaea iaaoaaoe o ooaeiaei?o oaenoao iaaii? aeoeaiooaoe??
oa eiie?aoecaoe??, iia”ycaieo c ia?aaaaeii ?iaeea?aeoae?ciaaiei
oa?aeoa?ii cei/ei?a, ui iienothoueny;

niiniaiai-?ino?oiaioaeueiee aocie o?aeio aa??th?oueny o ??cieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo noeeyo ca?aeii c oaeith oaiaeaioe??th: a?ae
iaeo?ae?caoe?? neioo ?ino?oiaio o io?oe?eii-th?eaee/ieo oaenoao aei
?icai?iooiai i?aaenoaaeaiiy oeueiai neioo o ooaeiaei?o oaenoao, aea eiai
iicia/aiiy iiaeooue iaaoaaoe noaoono ooaeiaeiuei? aeaoae?;

iioeaaoe?eii-iane?aeeiaee aocie o?aeio aa??th? oaeei /eiii: yeui o
th?eaee/ieo oaenoao caiiaiaiiy neioo iane?aeee caaaeaee iaaoaa?
oa?aeoa?o ia?aaeaa/aiiai iiea?aiiy cei/eioey, yea cae?enith?oueny
i?aainoaeaeyi, oi o ooaeiaei?o oaenoao iiea?aiiy cae?enith?oueny naieie
cei/eioeyie, aac o/ano? i?aainoaeaey. Neio iioeaaoe?y iaaoaa? o
ooaeiaei?o oaenoao iniaeeai? cia/ouino? c aeoeaioii ia aeii?ioaaiiy ia
iaoa??aeueii? aeaiaee, ye o ?ioeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noeeyo, a iicia/aiue
ia iiinoo /e iiea?aiiy /a?ac iaeiyeuei?noue /e c?aaeo.

?ica?aeiino? o caiiaiaii? aaciaeo aoce?a o?aeio oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e
cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue o ??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noeeyo oa iai?yiee
aa??thaaiiy oeeo neooaoe?e iiaeooue aooe iiyniai? ca oiiae canoinoaaiiy,
o aeiaeaoie aei o?aeiiaiai aiae?co, i?ioioeiiaiai aiae?co oaenoiaiai
iaoa??aeo, ui nie?a?oueny ia aecia/aiiy iniiaieo /eiiee?a oaeiai
aa??thaaiiy. Oe? inoaii? iia’ycai?: a) c oaeoi?ii ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
noeeth oa/aai aeai?o oaenoo, cie?aia ?oiuei? eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ii?
ianoaiiae oa oa?aeoa?ieo eaiii?a oaenoiiiaoaeiae, ui aecia/athoue
nooi?iue ?icai?iooino? ie?aieo eiiiiiaio?a oaenoiai? neooaoe?? oa
nooi?iue cina?aaeaeaiino? /e ?icna?aaeaeaiino? oaenoiai? neooaoe?? a
oe?eiio, oa a) c? niaoeeo?eith oaiaoe/iiai oieono oaenoiai? neooaoe??,
ui aieeaa? ia ae?aaeai?noue aai iaae?aaeai?noue o oaeno? oeo /e ?ioeo
neio?a a?aeiia?aeii? eiioeaiooaeueii? neooaoe??.

Iniiaieie iai?yieaie aa??thaaiiy oaenoiai? neooaoe??
cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue a aiae?ciaaiiio iaoa??ae? aeyaeeenue
noeaia?ecaoe?y o?aeio, oiaoi aeeth/aiiy o o?aeiiao no?oeoo?o
i?ioeanoaeueiiai (i?ioeaaeo?iiai) ciaiiy, oa aeeiai?ea caaeainiaaiino?/
?icaaeainiaaiino? aoce?a o?aeio. Caaeainiaaieie aaaaeathoueny o?
oaenoia? neooaoe??, o noeoiiino? yeeo o oiio /e ?ioiio ooieoe?iiaeueiiio
noee? /e aeai?? iiaeia aecia/eoe iaaio aeii?ioth/o a?nue, ca yeith
aaeainothoue aeecuee? ca /anoioi?noth caiiaiaiiy aocee o?aeio.
?icaaeainiaaieie ? o? oaenoia? neooaoe??, o noeoiiino? yeeo o oiio /e
?ioiio ooieoe?iiaeueiiio noee? /e aeai?? oaea aeii?ioth/a a?nue ia
aeiaeueiao?oueny ? aea neioe o?aeio cia/ii ?ic??ciththoueny iaeia a?ae
iaeiiai ca /anoioi?noth caiiaiaiiy.

Iaiiaiaiiy aoce?a o?aeio, c o?aooaaiiyi yeiai iiaeaeth?oueny
eiioeaiooaeueia neooaoe?y nei?iiy cei/eio oa i/?eoaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iueiai, ui ciaoiaeeoue naith ?aae?caoe?th o
no/anieo aiaeiiiaieo oaenoao ??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noee?a, oa
caaeainiaai?noue aoce?a o iaaeao cacia/aiiai o?aeio aecia/athoueny
ae??th eiai?oeaiiai iaoai?cio aena?oeaiiy/ caoaiiaiiy ? aa??ththoue
caeaaeii a?ae oaiaoe/iiai oieono oaenoiai? neooaoe??
cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oa cina?aaeaeaiino? aai ?icna?aaeaeaiino?
aaciaeo eiiiiiaio?a inoaiiuei?, ui o cia/i?e i??? coiiaeaii
ooieoe?iiaeueii-noeeueiaith iaeaaei?noth eiie?aoiiai oaenoo. ?oo
noeaia?ecaoe?? — a?ae iiaii? noaoeee (ea?oeiiino?) oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e a
io?oe?eii-th?eaee/ieo oaenoao aei iiaeeeai? aeeiai?caoe?? an?o aoce?a
o?aeio o oaenoao ooaeiaei?o.

Aeey oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, ye?
ae/eaiiaothoueny a aiaeiiiaieo io?oe?eii-th?eaee/ieo oaenoao,
ni?yiiaaieo o i?aaiaoe/iiio ieai? ia ?aaoeyoe?th nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei
o noni?euenoa?, oa?aeoa?ieie ? cina?aaeaeai?noue oaenoiai? neooaoe?? o
oe?e?niiio o?aaiaio? oaenoo, aena?oeai?noue oa caaeainiaai?noue
aeoaioii-iiae?eiaeo ? iane?aeeiaeo aoce?a o?aeio ia oe? caoaiiaiiy
iioeaaoe??, /ano oa cania?a (?ino?oiaioo) nei?iiy cei/eio. Iaea?eueo
/anoioiith o cacia/aieo oaenoao ? caiiaiai?noue o?aeio, yea
iiaeaeth?oueny ca noaiith cei/eiaoeue-oa?aeoa? cei/eio-i?noea nei?iiy
cei/eio-iiea?aiiy. Oeaio?aeueiei aeey io?oe?eii-th?eaee/ieo oaeno?a ?
iien oa?aeoa?o cei/eio, niaoeeo?ea yeiai ye oaiaoe/iiai oieono oaenoiai?
neooaoe?? aecia/a? nooi?iue aano?aeoiino? aai eiie?aoiino?, a oaeiae
/?oeino? aai ?icieea/anoino? caiiaiaiiy an?o ?ioeo aoce?a o?aeio.

Aeey oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e, ye? ae/eaiiaothoueny a
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ieo th?eaee/ieo iaoa??aeao, oa?aeoa?iith ?
caaeainiaai?noue aeoaioii-iiae?eiaeo oa /ani-i?inoi?iaeo aoce?a o?aeio.
Iniaeeai? aioace o cacia/aieo oaenoao iaaoaathoue iioea oa niin?a
(iiaeaeoaee ?ino?oiaio) nei?iiy cei/eio ia oe? caoaiiaiiy neioo
iiea?aiiy. Niaoeeo?/iith ? iayai?noue eaeneee (iiiaieeaoo?ieo ne?a,
aea?aii?ci?a, caiice/aiue, ?ioiiiaieo ne?a, eaeueie), ui iicia/a?
iaoe?iiaeueii-niaoeeo?/iee eiiiiiaio neioo cei/eiaoeue. Iae/anoioi?oeie
aeyaeeenue iiaeae?, ye? aeeth/athoue neioe cei/eiaoeue-oa?aeoa?
cei/eio-i?noea nei?iiy cei/eio, cei/ei-oa?aeoa? cei/eio-i?noea nei?iiy
cei/eio-niin?a nei?iiy cei/eio oa cei/eiaoeue-oa?aeoa? cei/eio-i?noea
cei/eio-niin?a nei?iiy cei/eio-iioea cei/eio. Aeaoae?caoe?y ie?aieo
eiiiiiaio?a oaenoiai? neooaoe?? a ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ieo th?eaee/ieo
iaoa??aeao ? ?acoeueoaoii ?oiuei? i?aaiaoe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino? aei
?icai?iooiai oaeooaeueiiai ?ioi?ioaaiiy.

Oaenoia? neooaoe?? cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, ye? ae/eaiiaothoueny o
aiaeiiiaieo aacaoii-ioae?oeenoe/ieo noaooyo, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/ii
oe?oei ae?aiaciiii aa??thaaiiy, i?ae a io?oe?eii-th?eaee/ieo
aeieoiaioao, oa aeaui a?eueoith aa??aoeai?noth, i?ae a
?ioi?iaoe?eii-th?eaee/ieo iaoa??aeao, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei iayaiino?
cia/ii? e?eueeino? ??cieo o?aeiiaeo iiaeaeae, eiaeia c yeeo
i?aaenoaaeaia iaei??th-aeaiia neooaoe?yie. Iaia’yceiaei aeey
aiae?ciaaieo aacaoieo iaoa??ae?a ? o?eueee iaeei neio — oa?aeoa?
cei/eio, iien yeiai ia? o cia/i?e i??? ocaaaeueiaiee oa?aeoa?. Nooo?ao
?ieue o oeeo oaenoao, ia a?aei?io a?ae io?oe?eii-th?eaee/ieo, a?ae?a?a?
iioeaaoe?y. Caaaeii aeey oaenoiai? neooaoe?? cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
o aacaoieo iaoa??aeao oa?aeoa?iith ? ia?aaaaeia, aea ia iaia’yceiaa
cina?aaeaeai?noue o /?oei ie?aneaiiio o?aaiaio? oaenoo. Aeiionea?oueny
ia?a?eaaiiy aa?aaeueii? ?ai?acaioaoe?? aoce?a o?aeio, ui iaaea?
oaenoia?e oeaiei? ioieoe?iiai oa?aeoa?o. Oeiiaith aeey oeueiai
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noeeth, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? ?aoe?iiaeueii-aiioe?eiee
aieea ia aae?anaoa, ? aena?oeai?noue oa ?icaaeainiaai?noue aeoaioieo,
/ani-i?inoi?iaeo oa niiniaiai-?ino?oiaioaeueieo aoce?a o?aeio ia oe?
i?aee?aneaii? aeoeaiooaoe?? iiaeeeaeo iioea?a cei/eio oa
oaeoeueoaoeaiino? aena?oeaiiy /e caoaiiaiiy eiai iiaeeeaeo iane?aee?a.

Ii??aiyeii aeaa o?aaiaioe oaenoo. A ia?oiio, ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/iiio
th?eaee/iiio iaoa??ae?, aea?oueny aiae?c ae?yeueiino? yiiinueeiai ca
iioiaeaeaiiyi cei/eiiiai oa?oiiaaiiy Ai??ieoaeai (sseoaeca), yeee
i?noeoue aeaoaeueiee iien neeaaeo, iioiaeaeaiiy oa ?noi??? Ai??ieoaeaio,
oa?aeoa?o eiai cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino?, aea aea eeoa iaceaathoueny
i?noea oa /an ?? cae?eniaiiy ? iioaioe?ei? aea?oae. Eiiiiiaioe
oaenoiai? neooaoe??, yea ioiieth? aanue o?aaiaio oaenoo ?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny na?aaei?i nooiaiai ?icna?aaeaeaiino?, neeaaeathoue, ca
?aooiie iiaoi??a, ioieoe?iee iaethiie ?icai?oaiiy o?aeio:

(a) The Boryokudan, with more than 2500 groups comprised of over 85, 000
members, is perhaps the largest criminal organization in the world
[cei/eiaoeue].

The roots of the Boryokudan revert back more than 300 years during which
time many of them were committed to the old customs and traditions of
Japan and the Samurai, ancient Japanese warriors.

During the Edo period, a consideration of powers ended a civil war in
Japan and many, finding themselves unable to cope during relatively
peaceful times, became violent predators.

The outlaws then organized themselves into Bakuto (illegal gamblers) and
Tekiya (street stall keepers) and recruited the majority of their
members from “Buraku” or ghetto people [?icai?oaiiy neioo
“cei/eiaoeue”].

The most significant change in the operation of the Boryokudan
[cei/eiaoeue] was a result of the social and economic changes after the
World War II [/an cei/eio] which allowed them to control the black
markets and further increase and expand their illegal activities
[oa?aeoa? cei/eio].

The estimated income of the Boryokudan [cei/eiaoeue] in 1988 [/an
cei/eio] was $9.8 billion, the majority of which was realized from
gambling enterprises and drug trafficking [niin?a nei?iiy cei/eio] in
Japan [i?noea nei?iiy cei/eio].

<…>

The primary criminal activities [oa?aeoa? cei/eio] in which the
Boryokudan [cei/eiaoeue] are involved in the United States [i?noea
nei?iiy cei/eio] are money laundering, the infiltration of legitimate
business [aea?oaa cei/eio], and gun smuggling [oa?aeoa? cei/eio].

<…>

The threat posed by the Boryokudan [cei/eiaoeue] does not depend upon
their actual physical presence. The Boryokudan [cei/eiaoeue] perhaps
more than any other OO group, rely on the development of associates in
the United States to facilitate their criminal enterprises [niin?a
nei?iiy cei/eio].

<…>

Boryokudan [cei/eiaoeue] are co-mingling their ill-gotten gains with
legitimate Japanese investment in the United States, especially in real
estate purchases and the development of golf courses [niin?a nei?iiy
cei/eio]. <…>

The Boryokudan [cei/eiaoeue] are increasing their insulation by
utilizing apparently legitimate “front men” in Japan to develop
influential associates in the U.S. [niin?a cei/eio] who often may be
totally unaware of the criminal affiliation [aea?oaa cei/eio] (AOC,
7-8).

Ae?oaee o?aaiaio, aeeo/aiee c aacaoii-ioae?oeenoe/iiai oaenoo “The
Businesses of Bandits and the Bandits of Business” (MN No. 30, August
1-7, 1996, 12), aea eaeaoueny i?i ?in?enueeo iao?th o Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c?,
aeeth/a? i’youe oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e, ui a?aeiia?aeii ei?aeththoue ?c
o?aeiaie cei/eiaoeue-oa?aeoa? cei/eio-/an cei/eio, cei/eiaoeue-oa?aeoa?
cei/eio-i?noea cei/eio-niin?a nei?iiy cei/eio-iioeaaoe?y,
cei/eiaoeue-oa?aeoa? cei/eio-i?noea cei/eio-/an cei/eio-iioeaaoe?y,
oa?aeoa? cei/eio-i?noea cei/eio-/an cei/eio-niin?a cei/eio oa
cei/eiaoeue-i?noea cei/eio-iioeaaoe?y ? ia’?aeiothoueny i?aeo?aeiiaeie
ca’yceaie. Nooi?iue cina?aaeaeaiino?/ ?icna?aaeaeaiino?, iine?aeiaiino?
iiyae o oaenoia?e oeaiei? i?iyao oiai /e ?ioiai aocea o?aeio, nooi?iue
aeaoae?caoe?? eiie?aoiiai eiiiiiaioo neooaoe?? ? aeey eiaeii? c oeeo
oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e ??cieie. Oae, iai?eeeaae, o?aoy c iicia/aieo
neooaoe?e oaenoo cina?aaeaeaia a iaeiiio aacaoe?, aea eiiiiiaioe
neooaoe?? i?aaenoaaeai? iaaeaoae?ciaaii, a naia neooaoe?y aeooae?co?
aacia? neioe o?aeio — aeoaioii-iiae?eiaee, /ani-i?inoi?iaee oa
iioeaaoe?eii-iane?aeeiaee:

In Petersburg [i?noea cei/eio] last summer [/an cei/eio] an illegal
narcotics operation [oa?aeoa? cei/eio] was uncovered [iane?aeee cei/eio
— iiea?aiiy]. It was run by the people from Petersburg, Moscow, and
Nizhni Novgorod [cei/eiaoeue]. This interregional corporation
[cei/eiaoeue] was selling methadone and phenamine [niin?a nei?iiy
cei/eio]. During the arrest [iane?aeee cei/eio-iiea?aiiy] a kilogram of
methadone was seized, with a street value of approximately $100,000
[iioeaaoe?y]. <…> Today [/an nei?iiy cei/eio], St. Petersburg [i?noea
cei/eio] is literally flooded with narcotics, mainly synthetic drugs
[iane?aeee cei/eio]. In rave nightclubs and ACID discos [i?noea nei?iiy
cei/eio] Russian-made phenamine and phencyclidine enjoy great popularity
[iane?aeee cei/eio] <…> [MN 1996, 12].

A oie aea /an o caeeth/i?e oaenoia?e neooaoe?? ia? i?noea
ia?aaeoeaiooaoe?y no?oeoo?e o?aeio ca ?aooiie aeoaea aeaoaeueiiai iieno
iioeaaoe?? (i?e/eie) cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino? oeo, ooi noa? ?in?enueeeie
iao?ic?. Iaaaaeaii oeae eiiiiiaio neooaoe??:

And more often than not, the Russian mafiosi [cei/eiaoeue] themselves
are pulled into illegal business unwittingly. A lot of people get into
it with the firm intention of working honestly, and only after some time
do they grasp the fact that this is practically impossible. Either the
government ruins you with taxes, or you cheat the government. In
principle, all our “tough guys” are peaceable folks; they would enjoy
investing their profits in the giant Uralmash plant say, or the Kirov
factory, if they didn’t already know that it’s the same thing as giving
money away to the poor. Better to open a little cafe and launder money
through it. But here too, exorbitant taxes are a bother; almost 80
percent of the laundered money gets handed over to the state, meaning
that new jobs are not created and more and more enter into crime
[iioeaaoe?y cei/eio] [MN 1996, 12].

Iaea?eueo nooo?aith oa?aeoa?enoeeith aiae?ciaaii? oaenoiai? neooaoe?? o
ooaeiaei?e i?ic?, ui ni?yiiaaia ia?aae on?i ia anoaoeei-aiioe?eiee aieea
ia /eoa/a, ? ia?aaaaeia aeenoaioe?eia ?icaaaeai?noue eiiiiiaio?a oe???
neooaoe??, oiaoi ?icna?aaeaeai?noue iiaieo cania?a aeooae?caoe?? o?aeio
o oaenoia?e oeaiei?. E??i oiai, niaoeeo?/iei aeey oaenoiai? neooaoe??
cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue o ooaeiaeiueiio oaeno?, ii??aiyii c oaenoaie
?ioeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noee?a, ? oaiaeaioe?y aei iaeneiaeueii iiaiiai
?icai?oaiiy aoce?a o?aeio oa o?aeio a oe?eiio. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oaeno?a
?ioeo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noee?a o ooaeiaei?o oaenoao iaeiei c
iae/anoioi?oeo ? neio iioea cei/eio, a neio niin?a nei?iiy cei/eio —
ia??aeei i?aeeyaa? aeaoae?caoe??.

Oae, oaenoiaa neooaoe?y ?c ?iiaio A. ?ia?ica “Stiletto”, ui iaaiaeeoueny
ieae/a ? iieno? aaeanoai na?aeea, ?icna?aaeaeaia ia naie noi??ieao (yeui
ia a?aoe aei oaaae, ui iien cei/eioe?a aeaaaany ? ?ai?oa, uiiaeiaio ia
i’yoe ??cieo noi??ieao — aeea. noi?. 6, 7, 12, 23, 48) c iicia/aiiyi
i?noey, /ano oa ?ino?oiaioo nei?iiy cei/eio, eiai aea?oae oa aeoaea
aeaoaeueiei iienii niiniao nei?iiy cei/eio. Iaaaaeaii oeae o?aaiaio
oaenoo c iaaieie nei?i/aiiyie:

Las Vegas [i?noea nei?iiy cei/eio] is a night town.

They [cei/eioe?] paused, looking down into the lobby of the gambling
casino [i?noea nei?iiy cei/eio].

It was ten o’clock [/an cei/eio] and the tables at the Maharajah [i?noea
cei/eio] were crowded with the people who had come from the dinner show.
Cesare’s [cei/eiaoeue] eyes searched the room [i?noea cei/eio]. <…>

He [cei/eiaoeue] could see the Twister’s [aea?oaa cei/eio] face now, a
look of concentration on it. <…>

Opposite the Twister [aea?oaa cei/eio] sat a big blond girl. Cesare
[cei/eiaoeue] stared for moment. The girl leaned forward and he
[cei/eiaoeue] could see her full breasts pull against the two thin
straps that held up her dress. Suddenly he [cei/eiaoeue] began to smile.
He [cei/eiaoeue] knew how he would do it now.

Cesare [cei/eiaoeue] waited till the blonde sat up straight on her
stool. He walked down the aisle behind the blond and hesitated for a
moment. The croupier turned the wheel and dropped the ball. Cesare’s
[cei/eiaoeue] hand moved quickly behind the blonde’s back and he
[cei/eiaoeue] started to walk around the table to his own <…>.

The bodyguard was just starting to turn toward the Twister [aea?oaa
cei/eio] when the scream came. The bodyguard whirled <…>. Cesare
[cei/eiaoeue] moved quickly. Across the table the blond fought to hold
her dress over her bosom. It was a losing battle. There was too much of
her.

Cesare [cei/eiaoeue] let go of the stiletto [?ino?oiaio] and felt the
knife spring back into his sleeve. The Twister [aea?oaa] still sat
quietly on his stool, not moving. The bodyguard turned back [niin?a
nei?iiy cei/eio].

The blonde was passing their [cei/eioe?] table now. Her high-pitched
voice floated to them [cei/eioe?]: “They didn’t break, <…> they were
cut!” [Robins, 57, 58, 59, 61, 63].

O iaaaaeaiiio aeua i?eeeaae? aeaoaeueiee, aoii?enoe/ii aeeeaaeaiee iien
niiniao nei?iiy cei/eio aecia/a?oueny aeaiia ia?aiao?aie, ye? iiaeia
aaaaeaoe oaiaoe/iei oieonii oe??? oaenoiai? neooaoe??, a naia,
oa?aeoa?ii cei/eioey, aeiao?aeeeaiai oa ei?oeeaiai uiaei naiai “oaoo”,
oa iniaeeainoyie ?ino?oiaioo nei?iiy cei/eio, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai aoei
ia o?eueee e?ea?aeiaaii iaaaaeaiiai na?aeea, aea e ?ic??caii a?aoaeueee
ia noei? eaaeiaaaeii? aeiiaeeiee, ai?ioueaa yei? ca caeeoee oeiioeeaino?
a?aeaie?eea oaaao oeo, ooi aoa ii?o/ ?c cei/eioeai oa eiai aea?oaith.

Aeniiaee. I?iaaaeaiee a aeena?oaoe?? aiae?c oaenoiai? neooaoe??
cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aeyaea o? oaiaeaioe?? o naiaioe/i?e
i?aai?caoe?? oaiaoe/ii iia’ycaieo oaeno?a ??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo
noee?a, ye? aeathoue iaai? i???ioe?e uiaei oa?aeoa?o ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
nioe?aeueii cia/oueo o?aaiaio?a na?oo. Ca?aeii c oeeie i???ioe?aie
cacia/aia oaenoiaa neooaoe?y, yea iiina?aaeeiaaii (/a?ac a?aeiia?aeio
eiioeaiooaeueio neooaoe?th) ao?eth? niaoe?aeuei? th?eaee/i? /e caaaeuei?
ciaiiy, ui iia’ycai? /e anioe?ththoueny a noni?euenoa? c i?iyaaie
i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino?, cei/eio ye oaeiai oa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noth ca
eiai nei?iiy, iiaeaeth?oueny ye /ioe?eeiiiiiaioiee i?aaeiaoii-iiae?eiaee
o?aei, yeee caeaaeii a?ae noeeueiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee oaenoo iiaea iaaoaaoe
iciae noeaia?iino?.

Iai?yiee aa??thaaiiy oaenoiai? neooaoe?? cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue o
no/anieo aiaeiiiaieo oaenoao, ii?aeiaieo oaiaoeeith i?aai?ciaaii?
cei/eiiino? o NOA, oa eiie?aoia iiaia iaiiaiaiiy aoce?a o?aeio
aecia/athoueny noeeueiaith oa/aai aeai?iaith iaeaaei?noth oeeo oaeno?a,
oa?aeoa?ii oaiaoe/iiai oieono oaenoiai? neooaoe??, i?aaenoaaeai?noth o
?? naiaioeoe? iaoe?iiaeueii-aoi?/iiai eiiiiiaioo ? ?aaoeththoueny ae??th
eiai?oeaiiai iaoai?cio aena?oeaiiy/caoaiiaiiy, oiaoi aeianaiiyi ia
ia?oee ieai oa/aai aeoeaiooaoe??th iaaieo eiiiiiaio?a oaenoiai?
neooaoe?? — ?? o/aniee?a (cei/eioey aai aea?oae), naiiai cei/eio, /ano
/e i?noey eiai nei?iiy, niiniao /e ?ino?oiaioo a/eiaiiy cei/eio,
iioeaaoe?? /e iane?aee?a cei/eiii? ae??.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue ua iaeia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oiai, ui
“anthaee, aea na?o aei?iaiao?oueny iaie, aea a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aai?aiiy
/oaeeiiino?, aea cae?enith?oueny canai?iiy, aaa/aiiy, inyaiaiiy, aea
ci?ia?oueny iaciaiiy ? iaciaeiinoai, anthaee cae?enith?oueny
aa?iaiaaoe/iee i?ioean cae?aiiy na?oo o neiai ? caaaeueio na?aeii?noue”
(A.-A.Aaaeaia?). A?aei?aoeueiaaia o aeena?oaoe?? iaoiaeeea aiae?co iiaea
aooe o ia?niaeoea? aeno?aiieueiaaia ia ?io? oaenoia? neooaoe?? o iaaeao
iaeiiai /e ??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noee?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Iaoe?iiaeueii-niaoeeo?/i? eiiiiiaioe oaenoiai? neooaoe??
“cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue” (ia iaoa??ae? RICO) // Studia
Methodologica. A?niee Oa?iii?eueneiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y: O?eieia?y. Aei. 4. – Oa?iii?eue: OAeIO, 1998. – N.
106-111.

2. Iiai? caniae ao?eaiiy eiioeaiooaeueii? neooaoe??
“cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue” o ooaeiaei?e i?ic? // I?iaeaie eaene/ii?
naiaioeee oa naiaioeee oaenoo. A?niee Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieiaeeo a/aieo. Na??y:
O?eieia?y. Aei. 6. – E.: EAeEO, 1998. – N. 106-114. 3. Professionally
Relevant Textual Situations in Teaching ESP // IATEFL–Ukraine
Newsletter. — Issue No. 13. — 1998. — P. 23-25. 4. Oaenoiaa neooaoe?y oa
oi?iaoe ?ai?acaioaoe?? ciaiue // A?niee Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o
ni?aa. Aei. 4. – Iaeana: I?AN, 1998. – N. 158-163

5. E?iaai-eiai?oeai? iniaeeaino? oaenoiai? neooaoe??
“cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue” a ??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noeeyo // Oaenou
ieaia?iuo canaaeaiee ??-ai Iaaeaeoia?. neiiic. “*aeiaae: ycue,
eoeueoo?a, iiciaiea”. — E?eaie ?ia: IOe *ssEI. — 1997. — N. 215-216.

6. E?iaa?noe/iee aniaeo ia?aeeaaeo niaoe?aeueieo oaeno?a // Iaoa?eaeu
Iaaeaeoia?. iao/i. eiio. “sscue. Eoeueoo?a. Acaeiiiiieiaiea”. — Eueaia:
EAO. — 1997. — N. 306-308.

7. Aeei?enoaiiy i?ioan?eii-i???ioiaaieo oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e o
aeeeaaeaii? ?iicaiii? iiae a th?eaee/iiio AOC? // Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i. eiio. “E?iaa?noe/i? oa iaoiaee/i? aniaeoe aeeeaaeaiiy
?iicaiieo iia o aeueo th?eaee/ieo caeeaaeao ina?oe”. — E.: IAANO. —
1997. — N. 4-5.

8. Typology of Textual Situations in Different Functional Styles //
IATEFL-Ukraine Newsletter. — Iss. No. 4. — 1996. — P. 23.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aa?aa E.A. E?iaaieiai?oeai? iniaeeaino? oaenoiai? neooaoe??
“cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue” o ??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo noeeyo no/anii?
aiae?enueei? iiae. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae. — Iaeanueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?.Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeana, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii anoaiiaeaiith oa iieno e?iaaieiai?oeaieo
iniaeeainoae oaenoiaeo neooaoe?e, ii?aeiaieo oaiaoeeith
cei/ei-a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, ye? ae/eaiiaothoueny o ??cieo ca noeeai
no/anieo aiaeiiiaieo oaenoao — th?eaee/ieo, aacaoii-ioae?oeenoe/ieo oa
ooaeiaei?o. Cacia/aia oaenoiaa neooaoe?y ? a?aeaeoeii no?oeoo?iaaiiai
ciaiiy i?i nioe?aeueii cia/ouee o?aaiaio ae?eniino? ? iiaea aooe
ciiaeaeueiaaia a oa?i?iao i?aaeiaoii-iiae?eiaiai o?aeio, yeee i?noeoue
/ioe?e eeane neio?a — aeoaioii-iiae?eiaee, /ani-i?inoi?iaee,
niiniaiai-?ino?oiaioaeueiee oa iioeaaoe?eii-iane?aeeiaee. Iiaiioa
i?aaenoaaeaiino? oiai /e ?ioiai aocea o?aeio ? oa?aeoa? aca?iica’yceo
i?ae ieie caeaaeaoue a?ae eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ii? ianoaiiae oa
eaiii?a oaenoiiiaoaeiae, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey eiie?aoiiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
noeeth, a oaeiae a?ae niaoeeo?ee oaiaoe/iiai oieono eiie?aoii?
oaenoiai? neooaoe??. Iniiaieie iai?yieaie aa??thaaiiy aiae?ciaaii?
oaenoiai? neooaoe?? ? noeaia?ecaoe?y o?aeio oa aeeiai?ea
caaeainiaaiino?/ ?icaaeainiaaiino? eiai aaciaeo aoce?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oaenoiaa neooaoe?y, e?iaaieiai?oeai? iniaeeaino?,
i?aaeiaoii-iiae?eiaee o?aei, noeaia?ecaoe?y, oaiaoe/iee oieon,
ooieoe?iiaeueiee noeeue, caaeainiaai?noue/ ?icaaeainiaai?noue.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aa?aa E.A. Eeiaaieiaieoeaiua iniaaiiinoe oaenoiaie neooaoeee
“i?anooieaiea-ioaaonoaaiiinoue” a ?aciuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo noeeyo
nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 — aa?iaineea ycuee. — Iaeanneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. E.E.Ia/ieeiaa.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia onoaiiaeaieth e iienaieth eeiaaieiaieoeaiuo
iniaaiiinoae oaenoiauo neooaoeee, iauaaeei?iiuo oaiaoeeie
i?anooieaiea-ioaaonoaaiiinoue, au/eaiyaiuo a ?aciuo ii noeeth
nia?aiaiiuo aiaeiycu/iuo oaenoao — th?eaee/aneeo,
aacaoii-ioaeeoeenoe/aneeo e ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo. Iiae oaenoiaie neooaoeeae
a ?aaioa iiieiaaony oaiaoe/anee iauaaeei?iiue niaea?aeaoaeueiue
eiiiiiaio oaenoa, ?ai?acaioe?othuee iia?aaeae?iioth eiioeaiooaeueioth
neooaoeeth, o.a. iooene no?oeoo?e?iaaiiiai ciaiey i niioaaonoaothuai
o?aaiaioa aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, iin?aaenoaii eiiieaena ycueiauo n?aaenoa,
nin?aaeioi/aiiuo a eiiiiceoeeiiii e no?oeoo?ii oeaeinoiii o?aaiaioa
oaenoa eee ?ann?aaeioi/aiiuo ii oaenoiaie oeaie.

Oaenoiaay neooaoeey i?anooieaiea-ioaaonoaaiiinoue, eioi?ay
iiin?aaeiaaiii (/a?ac niioaaonoaothuoth eiioeaiooaeueioth neooaoeeth)
io?aaeaao oaeia iauanoaaiiia yaeaiea, eae i?aaieciaaiiay i?anooiiinoue
(?aoa?aioiay neooaoeey), iiaeao auoue niiaeaee?iaaia a aeaea
i?aaeiaoii-niauoeeiiai o?aeia, niiniaiiai iiaeaa?aaoueny noeaia?ecaoeee.
Aeaiiue o?aei aeeth/aao /aou?a aaciauo eeanna oceia: aeoaioii-niauoeeiue
(i?anooiiee, oa?aeoa? i?anooieaiey e aea?oaa), i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie
(a?aiy e ianoi niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey), niiniaiai-eino?oiaioaeueiue
(niinia e n?aaenoaa niaa?aoaiey i?anooieaiey) e
iioeaaoeeiiii-iineaaenoaaiiue (iioeaaoeey i?anooieaiey e aai
iineaaenoaey, aeeth/ay iaeacaiea ca niaa?o?iiia aeayiea).

Iieiioa i?aaenoaaeaiiinoe oiai eee eiiai ocea o?aeia e oa?aeoa?
acaeiinayce iaaeaeo ieie caaenyo io eiiioieeaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/aneie
onoaiiaee e eaiiiia oaenoiiino?iaiey, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey eiie?aoiiai
ooieoeeiiaeueiiai noeey, a oaeaea io niaoeeoeee oaiaoe/aneiai oieona
eiie?aoiie oaenoiaie neooaoeee.

?anoiaeaeaiey a caiieiaiee aaciauo oceia o?aeia iiaeii iauynieoue
iin?aaenoaii i?ioioeie/aneiai aiaeeca, eioi?ue iie?aaony ia ii?aaeaeaiea
iniiaiuo oaeoi?ia neooaoeaiiai aa?uee?iaaiey. Oaeoi? ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
noeey ii?aaeaeyao noaiaiue ?acaa?iooinoe ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia
aiaeece?oaiie oaenoiaie neooaoeee e noaiaiue nin?aaeioi/aiiinoe eee
?ann?aaeioi/aiiinoe oaenoiaie neooaoeee eae oaeiaie. Niaoeeoeea
oaiaoe/aneiai oieona oaenoiaie neooaoeee aeeyao ia au?aaeaiiinoue eee
iaau?aaeaiiinoue a oaenoa oao eee eiuo neioia niioaaonoaothuae
eiioeaiooaeueiie neooaoeee.

Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie aa?uee?iaaiey oaenoiaie neooaoeee
i?anooieaiea-ioaaonoaaiiinoue a aiaeece?oaiii iaoa?eaea yaeythony
noeaia?ecaoeey o?aeia, o.a. aeeth/aiea ai o?aeiiaoth no?oeoo?o, ia?yaeo
ni ciaieai aeaeea?aoeaiui (noaoe/aneei), i?ioeannoaeueiiai
(i?ioeaaeo?iiai) ciaiey, e aeeiaieea
naaeaine?iaaiiinoe/ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoe oceia o?aeia. Aeaeaeaiea
noeaia?ecaoeee — io iieiie noaoeee (ea?oeiiinoe) oaenoiauo neooaoeee a
ioeoeeaeueii-th?eaee/aneeo oaenoao aei aiciiaeiie aeeiaiecaoeee anao
oceia o?aeia a oaenoao ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo.

Iaiieiaiea oceia o?aeia, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai iiaeaee?oaony
eiioeaiooaeueiay neooaoeey niaa?oaiea i?anooieaiey e iaeeaeaiea
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iaai, iaoiaeyuay naith ?aaeecaoeeth a nia?aiaiiuo
aiaeiycu/iuo oaenoao ?aciuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo noeeae, e
naaeaine?iaaiiinoue oceia a ?aieao oeacaiiiai o?aeia ii?aaeaeythony
aeaenoaeai eiaieoeaiiai iaoaiecia aunaa/eaaiey/ caoaiiaiey e aa?uee?otho
a caaeneiinoe io oaiaoe/aneiai oieona.

Aeey oaenoiauo neooaoeee i?anooieaiea-ioaaonoaaiiinoue a
ioeoeeaeueii-th?eaee/aneeo oaenoao oa?aeoa?iui yaeyaony
nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue oaenoiaie neooaoeee a oeaeinoiii o?aaiaioa oaenoa,
aunaa/aiiinoue e naaeaine?iaaiiinoue aeoaioii-niauoeeiuo oceia o?aeia e
neioa iineaaenoaey. Oeaio?aeueiui aeey th?eaee/aneeo oaenoia yaeyaony
iienaiea oa?aeoa?a i?anooieaiey, niaoeeoeea eioi?iai eae oaiaoe/aneiai
oieona oaenoiaie neooaoeee ii?aaeaeyao noaiaiue aano?aeoiinoe eee
eiie?aoiinoe, a oaeaea /aoeinoe eee ?anieua/aoinoe caiieiaiey anao
ae?oaeo oceia o?aeia.

Aeey oaenoiauo neooaoeee, au/eaiyaiuo a eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneeo
th?eaee/aneeo iaoa?eaeao, oa?aeoa?iui yaeyaony iaee/ea eaeneee,
oeacuaathuae ia iaoeeiiaeueii-niaoeeoe/aneee eiiiiiaio neioa i?anooiiee.
Aeaoaeecaoeey ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia oaenoiaie neooaoeee a
eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneeo th?eaee/aneeo iaoa?eaeao yaeyaony
?acoeueoaoii eo i?aaiaoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe ia ?aca??iooia
oaeooaeueiia eioi?ie?iaaiea.

Aiaeece?oaiua oaenoiaua neooaoeee a aacaoii-ioaeeoeenoe/aneeo oaenoao
oa?aeoa?ecothony oe?ieei aeeaiaciiii aa?uee?iaaiey. Oa?aeoa?iie aeey ieo
yaeyaony i?aeiouanoaaiiay, ii ia iaycaoaeueiay nin?aaeioi/aiinoue a
/aoei i/a?/aiiii o?aaiaioa oaenoa. I?e yoii aeiioneaaony i?a?uaaiea
aa?aaeueiie ?ai?acaioaoeee oceia o?aeia, /oi i?eaea?o oaenoiaie oeaie
ioieoe?iue oa?aeoa?.

Iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie oaenoiaie neooaoeee
i?anooieaiea-ioaaonoaaiiinoue a aiaeece?oaiie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie i?ica
yaeyaony i?aeiouanoaaiiay aeenoaioiay ?acaaaeaiiinoue eiiiiiaioia yoie
neooaoeee, o.a. ?ann?aaeioi/aiiinoue ycueiauo n?aaenoa aeooaeecaoeee
o?aeia ii oaenoiaie oeaie. Niaoeeoe/aneei aeey ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo oaenoia
yaeyaony oaiaeaioeey e iaeneiaeueii iieiiio ?aca??ouaaieth ioaeaeueiuo
oceia o?aeia enneaaeoaiie oaenoiaie neooaoeee e o?aeia a oeaeii.
Ioaeaeueiua eiiiiiaiou oaenoiaie neooaoeee (iai?eia?, eino?oiaio
niaa?oaiey i?anooieaiey) iiaoo i?eia?aoaoue noaoon ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
aeaoaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaenoiaay neooaoeey, eeiaaieiaieoeaiua iniaaiiinoe,
i?aaeiaoii-niauoeeiue o?aei, noeaia?ecaoeey, oaiaoe/aneee oieon,
ooieoeeiiaeueiue noeeue, naaeaine?iaaiiinoue/?acaaeaine?iaaiiinoue.

ANNOTATION

Barba L.V. Cognitive peculiarities of  textual situation
“crime-responsibility” in different functional styles of Modern English.
— Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree by speciality 10.02.04 — Germanic
languages, the Mechnikov Odessa State University, Odessa, 1999.

The dissertation focuses on identifying and describing cognitive
peculiarities of textual situations related to the topic
crime-responsibility which are singled out from modern English
judicial, publicistic and literary texts. The above textual situation
can be viewed as an imprint of the structured knowledge about a socially
relevant fragment of reality. This situation can be modeled as an
OBJECT-EVENT frame which integrates four basic slots: ACTOR-EVENT,
TIME-PLACE, MANNER-INSTRUMENT and MOTIVATION-CONSEQUENCE. The extent to
which this or that slot is represented and the interrelations between
the slots of the frame depend on a pragmatic aim and text-forming
stereotypes typical of a concrete functional style as well as on the
thematic focus of the textual situation in question. The main directions
of variation of the textual situation under analysis are scenariozation
of the frame and dynamics of balance and misbalance of its basic slots.

Key words: textual situation, cognitive peculiarities, OBJECT-EVENT
frame, scenariozation, thematic focus, functional style,
balance/misbalance.

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