EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OIIAIEI Ieaia Noaiai?aia

OAeE 802.0:800.86:070

E?IAA?NOE*IEE AIAE?C CO*ANIIAI

IIE?OE*IIAI AeENEO?NO NOA

(90-o? ?iee OO noie?ooy)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.04 – aa?iainuee? iiae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaaaeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

A?EIAA Aeea Aeieo??aia,

caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie

AEOEAIEI Aaea??e A?eoi?iae/,

aee?aeoi? Oeaio?o iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue oa

aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia IAI Oe?a?ie

NIEIUOE Ethaeieea Aanee?aia,

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 26 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo i 10
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.11 i?e
Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (Ee?a, aoeueaa? Oaa/aiea
14).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea 58).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 25 “ ethoiai 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? ae.o.i. Aaoueiai C.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Iai?ee?ioe? OO noie?ooy aeeeth/ii aaaeeeaa ?ieue iiae ye caniao
eiioi?eaoe??, ui no??iei oa iaaieiii c?inoa?, noaea i/aaeaeiith ia eeoa
aeey e?iaa?no?a, a e aeey oao?aoe?a, ye? i?aoeththoue a ?ioeo iaeanoyo.
Aieiaiith i?e/eiith oeueiai noaa ?ioi?iaoe?eiee aoi, coiiaeaiee
noaiiaeaiiyi oa ?icaeoeii iaeiia?oi?oeo oaoiieia?e oa ?o c?iuaiiyi c
a?cianii, ui o naith /a?ao coiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue aeinooio aei
?ioi?iaoe?? oa iaeneiaeueii oaeaeeiai iai?io iath, a oaeiae aeeeeeaei
oaeineiiaeaiiy noa?eo oa noai?aiiy iiaeo cania?a ca’yceo, o oiio /ene? e
aeaeo?iiieo, a oaeiae ni?eyei ?icaeoeo CI?. ?ioi?iaoe?eiee aoi noaa
iiooiaoii aei ?icaeoeo iia, ye? eiai ianeoaiaothoue, ? ianaiia?aae
i?aeia?iaeieo, ? a ia?oo /a?ao aei ?icaeoeo eaene/ieo nenoai oeeo iia.
Iaaeaiiy ? iiooe ?aeaaaioii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a oiiaao aeiaaeueiiai
ioeueoeeoeueoo?iiai oa ioeueoeiiaiiai i?inoi?o caaino?eee i?iaeaio
aoaeoeaiino? eiioi?eaoe??. Oea aaciina?aaeiuei noino?oueny iie?oee?a, ui
i?ioan?eii caeiathoueny caaacia/aiiyi aca?ii?icoi?iiy, iai?eionoe-i?noth
oa a?aaoethaaiiyi eiioe?eo?a o aeiaaeueiiio i?inoi??, aeei?enoiaoth/e o
yeino? caniao eiioi?eaoe?? i?e?iaei? iiae.

A?aeiinii na?oo iie?oeee ona?aeiieaiiy aaaeeeai? ?ie? iiae noi?ioaaeiny
o o?einionuee? oa e?iaa?noe/i? i?iaeaie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiae oa aeaaee,
aa?oaoe??, i?iiaaaiaee ? iie?oe/ii? ?aeeaie, ?ioi?iaoeaiino? oa
ia?aeiieeaino? o iie?oe/i?e eiioi?eaoe??, aea/aiiy iiae ye ?ino?oiaioo
nioe?aeueii? aeaaee, iiaii? oiaeiaee nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o
aeaiie?aoe/iiio oa oioae?oa?iiio noni?euenoaao, aeei?enoaiiy iiae c
iaoith aieeao ia na?aeii?noue oe?ieeo ian, ?ie? iiae o noai?aii?
?i?aeaeo iie?oeea, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai noeeth iie?oeea ye iiaii?
iniaenoino?. O e?iaa?noeoe? oey oaiaoeea oaeoe/ii a?aeiia?aea? i?iaeai?
iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no, ui noaa i?ioyaii inoaiiueiai /ano iiioey?iei
ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiue ia iaoa??ae? ??cieo iia. ?ioa?an aei iie?oe/iiai
aeeneo?no coiiaeaiee ia eeoa ?ieeth iie?oeee oa iie?oee?a o na?o?, ui
iineeth?oueny, oa ?oi?i ia?aaoaaiiyi o oeaio?? oaaae CI?, o?niith
ni?ai?aoeath iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo? oa CI?, a e aeieeiaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii
iecee iiaeo aeenoeeie?i – iie?oieia??, eiioe?eoieia??, ?i?aeaeaeia??
oiui.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaa no/aniee aia?eeainueeee iie?oe/iee
aeeneo?n, yeee yaey? niaith ?aei?noue aa?aaeueiiai oa iaaa?aaeueiiai, ui
oi?io?oueny i?ae aieeaii oe?eiai niaeo?o aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieo oaeoi??a,
ia?aaeon?i, nioe?aeueieo.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooiathoue iaeeieoe? eaene/iiai ??aiy iiae,
neioaene/i? eiino?oeoe??, noee?noe/i? oa ?eoi?e/i? i?eeiie, ui
caaacia/othoue aoaeoeai?noue iie?oe/ii? eiioi?eaoe??, ?ioi?ioaaiiy oa
ia?aeiioaaiiy aae?anaoa.

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe coiiaeaia ?ioa?anii o e?iaa?noeoe?

— aei iiaeaethaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?ioeano c o?aooaaiiyi oaeoi?o
aae?anaoa, eoeueoo?ieo, aoi?/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo iniaeeainoae
aoaeeoi???,

— aei i?aaee eiaeoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? iiaieie caniaaie c iaoith
caaacia/aiiy iaeneiaeueii? aoaeoeaiino? eiioi?eaoe?? oa ei?aeoe??
iaioaeueiiai i?inoi?o aae?anaoa o aaaeaiiio iai?yieo,

— aei iicaiiaieo oaeoi??a, ui aaciina?aaeiuei /e iiina?aaeeiaaii
aieeaathoue ia eiioi?eaoe?th.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio,
ui a iueiio

— aia?oa cae?enith?oueny eiiieaenia e?iaa?noe/ia aea/aiiy no/an-ii?
iie?oe/ii? eiioi?eaoe?? o NOA,

— aeine?aeaeothoueny iniiai? i?eioeeie oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no,
eiai neeaaeia? oa oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino?,

— aea/a?oueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee noeeue aia?eeainueeeo i?aceaeaio?a
ae?oai? iieiaeie OO noie?ooy oa iiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? a
aia?eeainueeiio noni?euenoa?,

— ?ice?eaa?oueny a?aoiaioaoeaiee iioaioe?ae no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae,
ui aeei?enoiao?oueny o iie?oeoe? aeey aieeao ia na?aeii?noue oe?ieeo
ian,

— ooi/ith?oueny niaeo? nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a oa ?oi?e aieea ia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiae o iie?oe/i?e eiioi?eaoe?? o no/aniiio
aia?eeainueeiio noni?euenoa?,

Oai?aoe/ia iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio, ui o iueiio aia?oa ia
iaoa??ae? aia?eeainueeiai aa??aioo no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae

— ?icaeaathoueny iieiaeaiiy oai??? aeeneo?no oa oaenoie?iaa?noeee,

— aeine?aeaeothoueny ?eoi?e/i? i?eeiie oa i?eioeeie, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny o ioae?/ieo aenooiao no/anieo aia?eeainueeeo
iie?oee?a,

— ooi/iththoueny iicaiiai? oaeoi?e, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue aea?? iiaieo
iaeeieoeue oa i?aai?caoe?th iia?aeiieaiiy,

— ?icaeaa?oueny aio?iiii???ioiaaiee i?aeo?ae o e?iaa?noeoe?, a naia
oyaeaiiy i?i iiaio iniaeno?noue.

Aieiaia iaoa ?iaioe – eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?eioeei?a i?aai?caoe??
aia?eeainueeiai iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no – iaoiiaeea eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy:

— aecia/eoe oa?aeoa?i? ?ene aia?eeainueeiai iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no,

— aea/eoe iiaia ioi?ieaiiy iiiyoue, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue i?aai?caoe?th
iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no,

— ooi/ieoe aieea o?einionueeeo, iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo oai??e,
eoeueoo?ieo eiioeaio?a ia aa?aaeueio /anoeio iie?oe/ii? eiioi?eaoe?? o
no/ani?e Aia?eoe?,

— aeiiiaieoe ?nioth/? aeina??? iie?oe/ieo oa?i?i?a iaeeieoeyie, ui
c’yaeeeny o 90-o ?ieao OO noie?ooy.

O ?iaio? aeei?enoai? oae? iaoiaee oa i?eeiie e?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co:
eiioaenooaeueiee aiae?c, aeane?eioeaiee, naiaioeei-neioaene/iee.

Iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee oaenoe i?iiia aia?eeainueeeo
i?aceaeaio?a oa iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a (50 i?iiia) ? oaenoe c no/anieo
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, iie?oe/ii? oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? e?oa?aoo?e
caaaeueiei ianyaii aeecueei 11 oen. noi??iie.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy o eo?nao c eaeneeieia??, neiaioai?o,
nioe?ie?iaa?noeee, oai??? eiioi?eaoe??, ?eoi?eee, eiai?oeaii?
e?iaa?noeee, oai??? aeeneo?no, oaenoie?iaa?noeee. Ioiieai? i?iaeaie
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeai? aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy a ?ioeo aoiai?oa?ieo iaoeao, cie?aia, o iie?oieia??,
ineoieia??, nioe?ieia??, ?i?aeaeaeia??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? o
ainueie ioae?eaoe?yo. Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
can?aeaii? eaoaae?e aiae?enueei? iiae aoiai?oa?ieo oaeoeueoao?a
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (1997, 1998), ia eaoaae??
aiae?enueei? o?eieia?? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea
(1998), ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo o Iieoaa? (1996), Eueaia? (1996),
Ee?a? (1996, 1997), Eooeueeo (1997).

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny ianooii? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Nioe?aeuei?noue iiae o iie?oe/iiio aeeneo?n? i?iyaey?oueny o
?aoaeueii-i?iaeoiaiiio iiaiiio ioi?ieaii? nioe?aeueii-aaaiieo iiae?e c
iaoith aieeao ia na?aeii?noue aae?anaoa, o ?ie? yeiai aenooia? nioe?oi.
O oi?ioaaii? oa iioe?aii? no/aniiai aia?eeainueeiai iie?oe/iiai
aeeneo?no cia/io ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue CI?. Nioe?aeuei? oaeoi?e, ui
aeaoa?i?iothoue no/aniee iie?oe/iee aeeneo?n o NOA, iiaeooue aooe
ioa?aeoa?eciaai? ye na?aeii?, neio?iii?, i?e?inioe?aeuei?, iiceoeai?.

2. O noa?? iie?oe/ii? eiioi?eaoe?? o oiae? aaiethoe?? iie?oe/iiai
aeeneo?no aeieeea naiy oa?i?iinenoaia, ui nooo?ai iiiiaieeany o OO-io
noie?oo? aiane?aeie neia?ico iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo? NOA oa CI?. Iie?oe/i?
oa?i?ie caciathoue aieeao caaaeueieo naiaioe/ieo caeii?a ci?ie cia/aiiy
ne?a. Iniiaieie aeaea?aeaie iiiiaiaiiy no/aniiai aia?eeainueeiai
aeina??th iie?oe/ieo oa?i?i?a ? nii?o, aea?aii CI?. Iie?oe/iee aeina??e
iiiiaith?oueny ia?aaaaeii ca ?aooiie aea?eaao?a aaea a?aeiieo
neiaioa??ieo iniia, aai aeieeiaiiy onoaeaieo neiainiieo/aiue, ye? ca
nai?i ooieoe?iioaaiiyi oioiaei? oa?i?iai. Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith
oa?i?iieia?? iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no inoaiiueiai aeanyoee?ooy noaea
ia?nii?o?eaoe?y nioe?aeueii-cia/oueo iiae?e ? iiyaa ?iaiiee?a,
i?eeiaoiee?a oa ae??ne?a, ooai?aieo a?ae i??caeu a?aeiieo iie?oe/ieo
ae?y/?a.

3. I?aai?caoe?y no/aniiai aia?eeainueeiai iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no ia?
aen?ieia?/io i?e?iaeo. Iaeaaaeeea?o? oe?ii?ni? iiiyooy, ui i?aaenoaaeai?
ia?aaaaeii eaenaiaie, oaeoe/ii aeeiiothoue ?ieue a?aoiaioai,
cae?enithth/e iii?oiee aieea ia eiai?oeaio nenoaio ?aoeei??ioa. Iiaia
ioi?ieaiiy oi?aa?naeueieo oe?iiinoae, oae naii ye iaoe?iiaeueii-cia/oueo
eoeueoo?ieo eiioeaio?a, o iie?oe/iiio aeeneo?n? c /anii ci?ith?oueny.

4. Noaaeaiiy aei i?iaeai aoi?/ieo iaioei oa ae?iie o noni?euenoa?,
aeio?eiaiiy aoeeaoo a eiioi?eaoe?? ? aieiaieie oeyoaie ?aae?caoe??
i?eioeeio iie?oe/ii? ei?aeoiino? a no/ani?e iie?oe/i?e eiioi?eaoe??.

5. Aieiaieie ?eoi?e/ieie i?eeiiaie no/aniiai iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no NOA
ne?ae aaaaeaoe iiaoi?, eiio?ano ? i?ioenoaaeaiiy, iaoaoi?ecaoe?th,
noai?aiiy iiceoeaii? ioe?ii/ii? ia?niaeoeae aeey aena?oeaiiy aeanii?
ae?yeueiino?, iaaaoeaii? – aeey ae?yeueiino? noi?ioeaiee?a. Oa?aeoa?iith
?enith ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai noeeth i?aceaeaio?a oa neeaaeiaith
i?aceaeaionueeiai aeeneo?no ? aaioeaio?e/i?noue.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y (164 noi??iee oaenoo) neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a c aeniiaeaie aei eiaeiiai c ieo, caaaeueieo
aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, ui ia?aoiao? 238 iiceoe?e, o oiio /ene? 74
aiae?enueeith iiaith, ia?ae?eo neiaiee?a, nieneo i?iiia I?aceaeaioa
A?eea Ee?ioiia oa ?ioeo iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a NOA, aeieoiaio?a
aia?eeainueeiai o?yaeo oa aeiaeaoeo aei aeina??th iie?oe/ii?
oa?i?iieia??.

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie, aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiaa iiaecia,
oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Nioe?aeuei? oaeoi?e o iia? oa iiaeaii?”
iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue o?aooaaiiy oe?ieiai niaeo?o nioe?aeueieo
oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoie aia?eeainueeiai
iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no. O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iie?oe/iee aeeneo?n ye
ia’?eo e?iaa?noe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy” ?icaeyaeathoueny aen?ieia?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee no/aniiai iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no NOA, ?eoi?e/i? i?eioeeie
eiai i?aai?caoe??, oeyoe iiiiaiaiiy aeina??th iie?oe/ii? oa?i?iieia??, a
oaeiae iniaeeaino? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aeeneo?no aia?eeainueeeo
i?aceaeaio?a, e o ia?oo /a?ao iniaeeaino? aeeneo?no I?aceaeaioa A?eea
Ee?ioiia.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Ieoaiiy aca?iiae?? iiae oa aeaaee ciaeoei ae?aaeaiiy o iie?oe/iiio
aeeneo?n?, yeee i?ioyaii inoaiiueiai /ano ciaoiaeeoueny o oeaio?? oaaae
o?einio?a, iie?oieia?a, nioe?ieia?a oa e?iaa?no?a. Iiynith?oueny oea
caaaeueiith oaiaeaioe??th aei aeaiie?aoecaoe?? on?o noa? aeeooy
noni?euenoaa, ?icaeoeii cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, caaaeyee yeei noaei
iiaeeeaei ioi?ieaiiy iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no.

I i e ? o e / i e e ae e n e o ? n iiaea aooe aecia/aiee ye
noeoii?noue on?o iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a o iie?oe/ieo aeeneon?yo, a oaeiae
i?aaee ioae?/ii? iie?oeee, ye? ioi?ieeeny ca?aeii ?nioth/eo o?aaeeoe?e
oa io?eiaee ia?aa??eo aeina?aeii. Iie?oe/iee aeeneo?n ?aae?co?oueny a
oni?e oa ienaii?e oi?iao. Aei onii? oi?ie iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no iiaeia
a?aeianoe ioae?/i? aenooie iie?oee?a, ?oi? aenooie ia ?aae?i, ii
oaeaaa/aiith, ?ioa?a’th, i?an-eiioa?aioe??, ia?eaiaionuee? aeaaaoe,
oaea- oa ?aae?iiiaeie. Aei ienaiii? oi?ie iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no
iaeaaeaoue ??ciiiai?oi? aeieoiaioe – aeiaiai?e, i?ioieiee, oaiaee,
?oa?eee iie?oe/ieo iiaei o i?an?, iie?oe/i? ieaeaoe oa eeno?aee.

O iie?oe/iiio aeeneo?n? nioe?aeuei?noue iiae i?iyaey?oueny o iiaiiio
ioi?ieaii? nioe?aeueii-aaaiieo iiae?e oa iniaeeainoyo
aae?anaioii-aae?anaoii? eiio?ao?aoe??, eiee aae?anaoii aeyaey?oueny
nioe?oi. ?icaeoie oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy no/aniiai aia?eeainueeiai
iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no cia/iith i??ith a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie aieeao
ia iueiai CI?. Ia iie?oe/iee aeeneo?n aieeaathoue iicaiiai? oaeoi?e
?aeaieia?/iiai ci?noo – oaeoi?e na?aeiiiai aieeao ia iiao (?aeaieia?y,
i?iiaaaiaea, ?aeaieia?/ia inieneaiiy iiaieo iaeeieoeue, eaeneeii oa
iiaeaiiy iie?oee?a), iae?inioe?aeuei? (ianiaa eiioi?eaoe?y) oa
i?e?inioe?aeuei? oaeoi?e (oai?i?nonueeee ?oo, ai?ioueaa i?aaenoaaiee?a
aoi?/ieo iaioei ca nai? i?aaa).

O Niieo/aieo Ooaoao aiane?aeie c?inoaiiy ca’yceo iie?oeee oa eai?oaeo,
i?iaaaeaiiy ianooaaieo aeai?/eo eaiiai?e, ?icaeoeo aenieeo oaoiieia?e oa
CI?, ia?aoo?, caaaeyee iniaeno?niei yeinoyi aeaeaoieo aia?eeainueeeo
i?aceaeaio?a aoa noai?aiee no/aniee ?inoeooo i?aceaeaionoaa, neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith yeiai noaa iie?oe/iee aeeneo?n. Oa?aeoa?ieie ?enaie no/aniiai
aia?eeainueeiai iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no ne?ae aaaaeaoe eiai ?icaeoie o
o?niiio ca’yceo ?c CI?, iayai?noue i?aceaeaionueei? ?eoi?eee ye eiai
neeaaeiai?, eiai oe?ii?nio i???ioaoe?th, aeio?eiaiiy i?eioeeio
iie?oe/ii? ei?aeoiino?, iineeaio oaaao aei i?iaeaie i?aa ae?iie oa
iieiaeaiiy aoi?/ieo iaioei. Aieiaieie ?eoi?e/ieie i?eeiiaie
caeeoathoueny aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a eiio?anoo, i?ioenoaaeaiiy, iiaoi?o,
aeae?eaiiy eeth/iaeo iiiyoue.

Aieiae?iiy ?eoi?e/ieie i?eeiiaie, ye ? ?ai?oa, caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiei
o no/aniiio aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa?. I?ioa oeaio? oaaae
a?iiaaenueeino? ia?ai?noeany c? ci?noo ioae?/ieo aenooi?a ia ?o oi?io oa
ianoaaeie, o yeeo aiie i?iiiaeythoueny. Aeey oni?oiiai aeinyaiaiiy
aae?anaioii nai?? iaoe a?eueo aaaeeeaei aeyaey?oueny noai?aiiy aaeaeiai
?i?aeaeo, neeaaeiaeie yeiai aeyaeythoueny a iaeiaeia?e i??? ye
i?aoi?nuee? cae?aiino? i?iiiaoey, oae ? eiai ciai?oi?e aeaeyae, oioi- oa
oaeaa?i?/i?noue. ?acoeueoaoii nenoaiaoe/iiai aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae
?eoi?eee no/anieo iie?oe/ieo e?aea??a ? e?aua ?icoi?iiy oa?aeoa?o
iie?oe/ii? iiae, a oaeiae iiaii? oiaeiaee iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny o aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa?. Iiaia oiaeiaea yaeu
iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ni?eyea ?icaeoeo ?i?aeaeaai? eiioi?eaoe??. Oaeoe/ii
aoaeeoi??y ia? ni?aao ia aaciina?aaeiuei c iie?oeeii, a c eiai
?i?aeaeai, o noai?aii? yeiai ii?yae c ?i?aeaeiaeea?aie aa?ooue o/anoue ?
CI?. ?i?aeaeaa? oa?aeoa?enoeee iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a noathoue
oeaio?aeueiei aeaiaioii aeai??a, ine?eueee o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia ia?oa
i?noea aenooia? ?iaioa c ianiaith na?aeii?noth. ?ioeie neiaaie, ?i?aeae
aenooia? o ?ie? ca’ycoth/iai i?noea i?ae iie?oeeii oa eiai aoaeeoi???th.
A?i neoao? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi ye ?ioa?an?a aoaeeoi???, oae ? iie?oeea, e
iaiaaa?oueny ii?aeiaoe oe? ?ioa?ane, oieeiooe iaeiinoi?iiiueiai oeneo
caa?oo, i?eoaiaiiiai ia eeoa oioae?oa?iiio, a e aeaiie?aoe/iiio
noni?euenoao. A aiioo oaeaaa/aiiy, i?yieo o?aineyoe?e ?c ia?eaiaio?a,
oe?ieiai aena?oeaiiy iie?oe/ieo iiae?e o CI?, i?e noai?aii? ?i?aeaeo
iaia’yceiai iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe a?coaeueiee eaiae eiioi?eaoe??.
Iaei??th c oa?aeoa?enoee, ui iaaoaa? aaeeei? aaae a aiioo oaeaaa/aiiy, ?
ciai?oi?noue iie?oeea. Ciai?oi?noue /anoi iia’ycothoue c iiiyooyi
“oa?ecia”. Oa?eciaoe/ieie iniaenoinoyie aaaaeaee i?aceaeaio?a Oaiaei?a
?ocaaeueoa, Aeaaeoa Aecaioaoa?a, O?aiee?ia Aeaeaii ?ocaaeueoa oa Aeaeiia
Eaiiaae?. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui neea oa?ecie iaiiaeeeaa aac iiae, ?
ianaiia?aae oea noino?oueny iie?oe/ii? eiioi?eaoe??. Oaiaei?a ?ocaaeueoa
aaaaeathoue caniiaieeii oae caaiiai “?eoi?e/iiai i?aceaeaionoaa”
(rhetoric presidency), nooue yeiai iieyaa? o oiio, ui i?aceaeaio
aenooia? e?aea?ii oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee a e?a?i?.

I?aceaeaio O?aiee?i Aeaeaii ?ocaaeueo ia?oei c ainiiaea??a A?eiai aeiio
a yeino? aoaeoeaii? “ca?i?” aeei?enoaa ?aae?i. Caaaeyee ?aae?i eieeoi?
ieoiiiiai? iie?oe/i? i?iiiae iaaoee oa?aeoa?o cae/aeii? ?iciiae oa noaee
aeeae/eie aei aoaeeoi???. Ai?iiy I?aceaeaioa ?ocaaeueoa aoaeoeaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ??ciiiai?oi? ?eoi?e/i? caniae – aeae?eyoe eeth/ia?
neiaa, aeae?aoe a??io ?ioiiaoe?th, i?inoeie, c?icoi?eeie neiaaie
iiynithaaoe iaeneeaaei?o? ?a/? – ni?eyee eiai iiioey?iino? na?aae
aia?eeaioe?a.

I?aceaeaioa Aeaeiia Eaiiaae? aaaaeathoue caniiaieeii no/aniiai
i?aceaeaionueeiai “ni?/iaeea?noaa”. Aeaeii Eaiiaae? caeiaoa
i?aceaeaionueea e??nei /anoeiai caaaeyee nai?e oaeaa?i?/iino? oa
i?eaaaeeaino?, ye? a?ae?a?aee iaaaeyeo ?ieue i?ae /an eiai aeaaao?a ?c
??/a?aeii I?eniiii o 1960 ?ioe?. Aaea ca /an?a i?aceaeaionoaa caaaeyee
aoii?o oa iaaeiooaiino? Aeaeiiia? Eaiiaae? aaeaaaeiny c eaae?noth
iaacca?ithaaoe nai?o iiiiaio?a. E??i oiai, a?i ia?oei c i?aceaeaio?a
ii/aa aenooiaoe ia?aae a?iiaaenuee?noth c iaeiaeiaith ?aaoey?i?noth
i?ioyaii ?ieo. I?ae /an naiai i?aceaeaionoaa Aeaeii Eaiiaae? aenooiaa c
i?iiiaaie c i?eaiaeo eiaeii? aaaeeeai? iie?oe/ii? iiae??.

I?aceaeaioa ?iiaeueaea ?aeaaia ni?aaaaeeeai aaaaeaee “aaeeeei
eiioi?eaoi?ii” (Great Communicator). sse eieeoi?e aeoi? a?i aeia?a ciaa,
ye i?aoeththoue caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, ye ?o iiaeia aeei?enoaoe o
nai?o oe?eyo, ye iiaoaeoaaoe na?e aenooi, uia e?aua aeinyaoe aaaeaiiai
aoaeoo. Aenooie I?aceaeaioa ?aeaaia ii ?aae?i oa oaeaaa/aiith, ia?aae
“aeeaith” aoaeeoi???th iaee aaeeeee oni?o. Iaeiae eiio iaioa aaeaaaeeny
iai?aeaioiaeai? aenooie. A?i ia ethaea i?an-eiioa?aioe?e, i?ae /an yeeo
?ieiee iaa??ii ?icoi?a caieoaiiy aeo?iae?no?a oa i?eioneaany na?eicieo
iiieeie, aeath/e a?aeiia?ae?, aea eiiiainoaaa nai? iiieeee,
iaiaaath/enue aooe i?ea?oiei, ?iceooei, iaoi?iaeueiei o ni?eeoaaii? c
aeo?iae?noaie.

C iiyaith ia iie?oe/i?e a?ai? 42-ai I?aceaeaioa NOA A?eea Ee?ioiia,
aeaaea a aea?aeaa? ia?aeoea aei iiaiai, iieiaeiai iieie?iiy
aia?eeaioe?a. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?aaenoaaieee i?ane ii aiaeia?? c
Thatcher’s Britain ooai?eee iii?iaoe?th Bill Clinton’s America.
I?aaenoaaieee CI? cacia/athoue, ui c i?eoiaeii aei aeaaee I?aceaeaioa
Ee?ioiia noaeeny ? aeaye? ci?ie o ?eoi?eoe? iie?oee?a. ?eoi?eea iiaiai
iieie?iiy aia?eeainueeeo iie?oee?a a?aecia/a?oueny c?ooaiiyi o a?e
aaioeaio?e/iino?, na?ae/aiiyi /iai ? oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy caeiaiieea
ia?oi? iniae iaeieie, ui ia aoei oeiiaith ?enith ?eoi?eee iiia?aaeiee?a
A?eea Ee?ioiia.

Caaaeyee CI? iie?oeee iino?eii ciaoiaeyoueny o oeaio?? oaaae
a?iiaaenueeino?. O iia? iaa?oue c’yaeeiny neiainiieo/aiiy permanent
campaign, yea aeo/ii oa?aeoa?eco? ae?yeuei?noue iie?oee?a a aiioo
?icaeiooeo cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??. ?ieue, yeo aeeiiothoue inoaii?,
iicia/a?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iii?iaoe?? body watch, a ?ieiee iaa?oue
death watch, ye o aeiaaeeo c I?aceaeaioii Eaiiaae?. Oae, i?ei??ii,
i?aaenoaaieee CI? caa?ioee oaaao ia aeei?enoaiiy A?eeii Ee?ioiiii
i?eeiio ?eoi?e/iiai i?ioenoaaeaiiy, eiee a?i ?iie?oeeoii aeacoaaa ia
iioeeee a?e naiai noia?ieea: “The President never fails to mention
Dole’s long public service — emphasis on the “long”. Decades of service.
Centuries! The listener is left thinking that only Methuselah, or maybe
Strom Thurmond could have served longer” (The Weekly Standard, Aug. 19,
1996). ?iaa?o Aeioe o nai?e eaiiai?? ?iaea aeoeaio ia oaeiio iiiyoo? ye
strong moral center, i?ioenoaaeyth/e eiai ?ioiio, aei yeiai oaeiae
aoiaeeoue eaenaia moral — moral crisis, ? yea a?i aaeeaaa noiniaii
I?aceaeaioa Ee?ioiia: “America suffers from a moral crisis… But the
problem isn’t in your house. It’s in the White House. Bill Clinton’s
White House (The International Herald Tribune (IHT), Oct. 10, 1996).

O oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee ?niothoue iaai? iniaeeaino? iiae iie?oeea, aai
eiee ii?ooo?oueny i?eioeei iie?oe/ii? ei?aeoiino?, CI? ia iaoiaeyoue oea
nai?th oaaaith. Cie?aia, i?eeeaaeii “iiieeee” eaiaeeaeaoa a?ae
?anioae?eainueei? ia?o?? ?iaa?oa Aeioea aoei i?aeoiieaiiy i??caenueea
Bozo (?i’y oaeaa?c?eiiai eeioia), aaeeoiai noiniaii A?eea Ee?ioiia
iaeiei ?c aeai?oe?a i?ae /an aeai?/i? ii?caeee ?iaa?oa Aeioea: “…in
the town of Lyndhurst… a man called out, “Please get Bozo out of the
White House”. “Bozo’s on his way out”, said Mr. Dole” (IHT, Oct.9,
1996).

Aiane?aeie “ioe?ithaaiiy” iie?oee?a i?aaenoaaieee CI? iaae?eythoue
inoaii?o i??caenueeaie. A aiae?enuee?e iia? ?nio? oe?eee aieaaoey?
iie?oe/ieo i??caenuee. Iica oaaaith CI? ia caeeoeany ? iei?oi?e
I?aceaeaio NOA A?ee Ee?ioii, yeiio iaeaaeaoue aaaaoi i??caenuee, na?aae
yeeo Boy Clinton (iaoye ia iieiaeee a?e i?aceaeaioa), Slick Willy oa
Wimp. Iiaeeeai, iaei?eaaaeea?oei i??caenueeii I?aceaeaioa Ee?ioiia ? The
Man from Hope, o yeiio eaenaia hope, ui icia/a? iacao ianaeaiiai ioieoo,
iaeii/anii ni?eeia?oueny e o aoeaaeueiiio cia/aii?. Oe?eaaith
aeaea?oueny ?noi??y iioiaeaeaiiy ua iaeiiai i??caenueea A?eea Ee?ioiia –
The Comeback Kid, yea c’yaeeiny aiane?aeie eiai ai?iiy ciaoiaeeoe aeo?ae
c iani?eyoeeaeo neooaoe?e. I?aceaeaioa Ee?ioiia oa?aeoa?ecothoue,
aeei?enoiaoth/e oae? i??caenueea-y?eeee ye A National Embarrassment,
Teenager, Veto Bill, Motor Voter Bill, na?aae yeeo cono??/athoueny ? oae
caai? “iiin-ai?aee” ye, iai?eeeaae,
Mr.The-Era-of-Big-Government-Is-Over. I?aaenoaaieee CI? ia ia?eoee
oaaaith ? Ia?oo Eaae? Niieo/aieo Ooao?a – A?eea?? Ee?ioii, yea io?eiaea
i??caenueea President Hillary, Czarina of the “United States of the UN”
oa Eleanor Clift .

Iaei??th c iaeoa?aeoa?i?oeo ?en “iiai? iie?oeee” (the new politics) i?ae
/an aeai?/eo eaiiai?e noaee oaeaa?c?ei? aeaaaoe (televised debate).
Aeaaaoe aeicaieythoue aeai?oeyi ii??aiyoe i?aoaiaeaio?a ia iinaaeo
i?aceaeaioa ye iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a oa ye iniaenoinoae. Eaiaeeaeaoe ia
iinaaeo i?aceaeaioa NOA, cie?aia, ia eeoa ia iiaeooue ?iaeoe oiai, ui ?i
caaaaea?oueny, a e aeneiaethaaoe aeanio aeoieo c oiai /e ?ioiai ieoaiiy,
yeui oea iiaea iaoeiaeeoe ?oi?e ea?’???. Na?ae/aiiyi oeueiai ? neiaa
A?eea Ee?ioiia i?ae /an oae caaieo “?inoeaiiaaieo aeaaao?a” (mock
debate): “What we do often (during the mock debate( is I give the
answer I’d like to give and then go back and give the answer I should
give” (IHT, Oct.9, 1996). I?ae /an aeai?/i? eaiiai?? 1996 ?ieo c’yaeeany
oae caaia bridge-iaoaoi?a (ye, iai?eeeaae, bridge to the twenty-first
century), yea noaea eiaioeiii ae?oaiai oa?i?io i?aceaeaionoaa A?eea
Ee?ioiia oa /anoeiith eiai ?i?aeaeo ye naiiai iieiaeiai i?aceaeaioa, ui
aeeoeia o 21-io noie?oo? oa ca /an?a i?aceaeaionoaa yeiai Niieo/ai?
Ooaoe ia?aeaeooue ?c iaei??? aiioe aei ?ioi?. Aeath/e iaaaoeaio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeai?/i? i?ia?aie naiai iie?oe/iiai noi?ioeaieea ?iaa?oa
Aeioea, I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii aaeea iaoaoi?o to blow a hole in the deficit.

Caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeathoue, ia?aaaaeii, iiceoeaio ioe?ieo
aenooiai A?eea Ee?ioiia, oa?aeoa?ecothoue eiai i?iiiae ye “optimistic,
virtually nonpartisan and almost entirely devoid of sharp edges” (Los
Angeles Times, Oct.10, 1996). Iaeiae iacaaaeath/e ia iiceoeaio ioe?ieo
i?aceaeaionueei? ?eoi?eee, noaaeaiiy CI? aei iniae A?eea Ee?ioiia ia
iiaeia iacaaoe iaeiicia/iei. Ca neiaaie iaeiiai c i?aaenoaaiee?a i?ane,
“the media seem to love Clinton when he campaigns and hate him when he
governs” (The Weekly Standard, Nov.11, 1996(. Iaeiae iacaaaeath/e ia
??cea cieaeaiiy iiioey?iino? I?aceaeaioa Ee?ioiia i?ae /an ia?oiai
oa?i?io ia?aaoaaiiy i?e aeaae?, eiio aaeaeiny ia eeoa iiaa?iooe ao?a/aio
i?eoeeuei?noue aeai?oe?a, a e c ?oiueith aeiiiiiaith aae?oaa aeai?ioe
ia?aiiao o i?aceaeaionueeeo aeai?ao.

Ca /an ?nioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? eiioi?eaoe?? noi?ioaaany neiaiee iie?oe/ii?
oa?i?iieia??, oeaio?aeueieie iiiyooyie yeiai ? iaaaeeea e?euee?noue nooi
iie?oe/ieo iiiyoue. Ia?aaaaeio a?eueo?noue ne?a, ui ooai?ththoue
aeina??e iie?oe/ieo oa?i?i?a, aoei caiice/aii c ?ioeo noa?. O iueiio
cono??/athoueny onoaeai? ae?ace, caiice/ai? c A?ae?? (All things to all
men, Eleventh Commandment, fight the good fight, Armageddon),
eea?eeaeuei?, oea?eiai? oa?i?ie (party faithful, party elders, bleeding
heart, gray eminence), neiaa c oai??a Oaeni??a (strange bedfellows),
Ai?aenai?aea (Happy Warrior), Ae?ioa (wasteland), caiice/ai? c? noa?e
nii?oo, cie?aia, oa?i?iieia?y e?inueeeo ia?aaii?a (dark horse, running
mate, front runner, bolt, shoo-in), c iaeano? a?enueeiai? ni?aae
(campaign, camps, boom, spoils, rally, regular, hundred days, man on
horseback, war horse). Aeina??e iie?oe/ieo oa?i?i?a aeeth/a? oaeiae
iaeeieoe? c aea?aiio cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? (off the record,
authoritative sources, backgrounder, dope story, leak, plant, not for
attribution), a oaeiae oa?i?ie, iia’ycai? c ?ooii ca a?iiaaenuee? i?aaa
(black power, white power structure, Freedom Now, backlash, We Shall
Overcome, soul, tokenism, Uncle Tom, Jim Crow, segregation, stand in the
doorway).

A?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean aca?iii?iieeiaiiy ne?a ?c caaaeueiioaeeaaii?
eaeneee aei noa?e iie?oeee, ? iaaiaee. Oe?eaaei, ia iao iiaeyae, o
oeueiio a?aeiioaii? ? nai???aeiee neiaiee eaeneee i?aceaeaionueeeo
aeai?/eo eaiiai?e, ui ? iaeieie c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iiae?e o iie?oe/iiio
aeeoo? aeaiie?aoe/ieo noni?euenoa. Ne?ae aeacaoe ia aaaeeeao ?ieue
cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? o i?ioean? ia?iaeaeaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy oa
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iiaeo eaenai. Cie?aia, o iia? CI? aeieeee iiiyooy
front runner (aieiaiee i?aoaiaeaio ia aenoiaiiy ia iinaaeo), the best
man (eaiaeeaeao ia iinaaeo i?aceaeaioa NOA, ia?aiee ia ia?o?eiiio
c’?cae?), presidential timber (eiia??iee eaiaeeaeao, ethaeeia, ui ia?
an? oaine noaoe i?aceaeaioii), hot property (aaaaoiia?oeyth/ee
eaiaeeaeao), man of the people (ethaeeia c ia?iaeo, ia?iaeiee
eaiaeeaeao, caoeniee i?aa ia?iaeo), cemetery vote (aieine ia?oaeo aeoo,
oao?aenoai), kangaroo ticket (iacaaeainiaaiee aeai?/ee nienie, o yeiio
eaiaeeaeao ia iinaaeo a?oea-i?aceaeaioa ei?enoo?oueny a?eueoei aieeaii,
i?ae eaiaeeaeao ia iinaaeo i?aceaeaioa), swing voter (iacaeaaeiee
aeai?aoeue), vote-catching (iiioey?iee na?aae aeai?oe?a), Humpty Dumpty
(oaeoae-aiaoae, eaiaeeaeao, ui ia ia? oain?a aooe ia?aiei), presidential
fever (i?aceaeaionueea eeoiiaiea, iaeea aaaeaiiy ia?eiyoe iinaaeo
i?aceaeaioa) oiui. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe aianie, yeee c?iaeee aei neiaieea
iie?oe/ii? oa?i?iieia?? aia?eeainuee? i?aceaeaioe. Iaea?eueoa aeey
?icaeoeo aaciina?aaeiuei i?aceaeaionueei? ?eoi?eee c?iaeee Aa?aaai
E?ieieuei, Oaiaei? ?ocaaeueo, O?aiee?i Aeaeaii ?ocaaeueo, ??/a?ae
I?enii, ?iiaeueae ?aeaai, ui aeyaeeeny iaaaeyeeie iiaieie iniaenoinoyie.

Nai???aeiee iaieia?/iee aeaoo noaany o 1973-1974 ?ieao, o ia??iae
ia?aaoaaiiy i?e aeaae? I?aceaeaioa ??/a?aea I?eniia (1969-1974).
Eaeneeia?aoe aaaaeathoue oeae ia??iae “cieioith a?ith iie?oe/iiai
neiaioai?o”. “Neiaiee Aioa?aaeoo” (Watergate vocabulary) aeeth/a?
iii?iaoe?? at this point in time, big enchilada, cover-up, CREEP,
deep-six, dirty tricks, enemies list, executive privilege, firestorm,
hardball, inoperative, laundering, nobody drowned at Watergate,
plumbers, Saturday night massacre, smoking gun, stonewalling, twisting
slowly, slowly in the wind. Noo?en -gate ii/aa aeiaeaaaoeny aei ?ioeo
ne?a, iaaeath/e ?i iaaaoeaio eiiioaoe?th ?c iaoyeii ia iiaeeeaee
neaiaeae: Abdulgate, Billygate, Irangate, Koreagate, Muldergate,
Winegate, sexgate oiui. Inoaiiueith iaeeieoeath oe??? a?oie noaei neiai
zippergate, ui c’yaeeiny a aiae?enueeiio aieaaoey?? i?ney ?icaeyaeo
aia?eeainueeei Naiaoii ni?aae I?aceaeaioa Ee?ioiia a n?/i? – ethoiio
1999 ?ieo. Oe?eaai, ui i?ioyaii aeaio ?ie?a i?ney “Aioa?aaeonueeiai
neiaioai?o” iie?oe/iee neiaiee ia iiiiaieany aeiaeiei iaieia?ciii.
Ia??iae i?aceaeaionoaa Aeaea?aeueaea Oi?aea (1974-1977) aoa oi?eaeueiei
oei, ui ia caeeoea ca niaith aeiaeii? o?ace, ui caiai’yoaeany. C
ia??iaeii ia?aaoaaiiy i?e aeaae? I?aceaeaioa ?iiaeueaea ?aeaaia
(1981-1989) iia’ycothoue iiiyooy evil empire, nuclear freeze, nuclear
winter, Soviet aggression, Star Wars, Whitewater. I?ae /an
i?aceaeaionoaa Aeaei?aeaea Aooa (1989-1992) aiae?enueeee iie?oe/iee
neiaiee iiiiaieany o?acaie new world order, nightmare scenario, peace
divident, unipolar world.

I?ae /an i?aceaeaionoaa A?eea Ee?ioiia (1992- ) aeiee iaieia?ci Clinton
time, yeee “aeea?aoaaee” i?aaenoaaieee ian-iaae?a: oae aiie iaceaathoue
/an, i?ioyaii yeiai aeiaiaeeoueny /aeaoe ia i?aceaeaioa, ui /anoi
cai?cith?oueny ia cono??/? c ieie. Aaaeei c oiaaiaii?noth aiai?eoe i?i
oa, ye? eaene/i? iaeeieoe? caeeoaoueny o iie?oe/iiio neiaieeo i?ney
ia?aaoaaiiy i?e aeaae? I?aceaeaioa A?eea Ee?ioiia, ine?eueee, ye
a?aeiii, eeoa /an iieaaea, ye? iaieia?cie oa?eaeooue aei ?noi???. Iiaeia
i?eionoeoe, ui na?aae ieo aoaeooue oae? iii?iaoe??: bridge to the 21st
century, to blow a hole in the deficit, Clinton time, common sense
government, New Democrat, Boy Clinton, sexgate, zippergate.

Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei iiiyoue “?aeaieia?y” ?
“i?iiaaaiaea” c aieo io?oe?eieo no?oeoo? NOA, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe ?o
iayai?noue o no/aniiio aia?eeainueeiio iie?oe/iiio aeeneo?n?. CI?
aiane?aeie neia?ico c iie?oeeith noaaaee eaiaeaie i?iiaaaiaee, iioe?aiiy
aia?eeainueei? ?aeaieia??, iie?oeee aia?eeainueeiai o?yaeo,
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny aeey caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a NOA.
Iniaeea?noth i?iiaaaiaee ia no/aniiio aoai?, na?ae/aiiyi
oaeineiiaethaaiiy oaoi?ee i?iiaaaiaee ? ?? aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y, a naia
o?aooaaiiy oaeoi?o aae?anaoa, a naia iaoe?eai?noue ia iaai? naaiaioe
noni?euenoaa. Iiai? i?eeiie i?iiaaaiaee iiaeia oiiaii iiae?eeoe ia aea?
aaeee? a?oie: iiceoeai? oa iaaaoeai?. Iiceoeai? (iaeeieoe? c iiceoeaiith
ioe?ii/i?noth) ni?yiiaai? ia caoeno ?aeae, ui niaoe?aeueii
iioe?ththoueny, ia noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeii? aoiinoa?e aeey ni?eeiyooy
?ioi?iaoe??. Iaeeieoe? c iaaaoeaiith ioe?ii/i?noth aeei?enoiaothoueny
aeey oiai, uia iiaaneoe nioe?aeueio iai?oao, aeey e?eoeee iiiiaio?a,
noai?aiiy ia?aco ai?iaa. C i?iiaaaiaeenonueeith iaoith o no/aniiio
aia?eeainueeiio iie?oe/iiio aeeneo?n? aeei?enoiaothoueny e aaoai?cie. O
aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa? iai?ioeyoe?y ianiaith na?aeii?noth i?eeia?
a?eueo aeoii/ai? oa oaeineiiaeai? oi?ie. Iie?oeee, ye i?aaeei,
aeei?enoiaothoue i?eeiie i?iiaaaiaee c iaoith cia?aaeaiiy o iiceoeaiiio
eiioaeno? aeanii? ae?yeueiino? oa iaiiaeyiiy nai?o noia?iee?a. Iaeiei c
i?eeeaae?a oeueiai yaeua ? i??caenueeio?e?y. Iiaa o iie?oe/i?e
eiioi?eaoe?? aenooia? ye can?a aieeao ia eiai?oeaio nenoaio ?aoeei??ioa,
can?a iaa’ycoaaiiy iiaeyae?a. No/ania i?iiaaaiaea, ia?aaaaeii,
ni?yiiaaia ia i?aeo?eieo iaeieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ?o e?aea??a oa i?ioe
?ioeo ia?o?e, i?ioe iai?eeiyoieo ?aeaieia?e oa noai?aiiy ia?aco ai?iaa.
?acoeueoaoii ?nioaaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy i?iiaaaiaee o NOA ? iiyaa ?
oe?iea canoinoaaiiy iie?oe/ieo oa?i?i?a c yne?aai ae?aaeaiei iaaaoeaiei
ioe?ii/iei cia/aiiyi.

Ia aia?eeainueeo iie?oeeo, ?aeaieia?th i?aoethaaea ? aiaeii/an
aenieoaooaaeany iath nenoaia oe?iiinoae NOA, /anoeiai ao?eaia o
eiioeaio? Aia?eeainueei? i??? (American Dream), yea i?aaenoaaeaia o iia?
iaeeieyie freedom, equality before law, equality of opportunity,
fairness, achievement, patriotism, democracy, American exceptionalism (a
belief in the special moral status and mission of America), caring
beyond the self, religion, luck. O iaai? ?noi?e/i? ia??iaee
aia?eeainuee? i?aceaeaioe aai eaiaeeaeaoe ia oeth iinaaeo, iae?aee iaeio
aai aeae?eueea oe?iiinoae, ia?aoai?thth/e ?o aai noai?thth/e ia iniia?
oeeo oe?iiinoae iie?oe/i? neiaaie. Iaea?eueo oe?ii?niii???ioiaaiei
aaaaeaee aeeneo?n I?aceaeaioa ?iiaeueaea ?aeaaia. I?ae /an
i?aceaeaionueeeo eaiiai?e a?i caa?oaany aei iiiyoue, ui iicia/athoue
caaaeueiiethaenuee? oe?iiino? (family, work, neighborhood, peace,
freedom), a oaeiae nooi aia?eeainuee? oe?iiino? (self-esteem,
patriotism, self-realization, religiosity), c?iaeaoe aeooaeueiei
eiioeaio Aia?e-eainueei? i???.

Aeeneo?n I?aceaeaioa A?eea Ee?ioiia i???ioo?oueny ia ii?aeuei? oa
o?aaeeoe?ei? n?iaei? oe?iiino?, ao?eai? o iiiyooyo family, health,
safety, security, education. Ia?aiiao A?eea Ee?ioiia o i?aceaeaionueeeo
aeai?ao 1996 ?ieo aaaaoi o /iio iia’ycothoue ?c ?ic?iaeith no?aoaa??
oe?iiinoae (ui naiai /ano aeiiiiiaei noaoe i?aceaeaioii ?iiaeueaeo
?aeaaio). Ia iiaeia caia?a/oaaoe oie oaeo, ui noia?iee A?eea Ee?ioiia
Aia Aeioe oaeiae caa?oaany aei oe?iiinoae o nai?e eaiiai??, aea
iaaeie?eii eiai no?aoaa?? oe?iiinoae aoei oa, ui aiia aoaeoaaeany ia
aioe- iiiyooyo: “it was anti-gay, anti-sex, anti-single mothers,
anti-abortion, anti-everything-but-the nuclear family”. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
oaei? no?aoaa?? iaaaoeaieo oe?iiinoae, aeaiie?aoe cai?iiiioaaee
no?aoaa?th iiceoeaieo oe?iiinoae, yea aoea ni?eeiyoa aeai?oeyie
iaaaaaoi e?aua, i?ae no?aoaa?y ?anioae?eaioe?a. I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii
iaaaaeaa, ui iaei??th c iaeaeaai?oeo oa iaeaieiai?oeo aia?eeainueeeo
oe?iiinoae, i?iaieioaiith o Eiinoeoooe??, ? ??ai? iiaeeeaino? aeey on?o
a?iiaaeyi (equal opportunity), aea a iao /an oea iiiyooy ia? ?ioa
cia/aiiy, i?ae 220 ?ie?a oiio: “First and foremost, we must press on to
make opportunity available for all of our people. Equal opportunity is
our central value, but the very meaning of that has fundamentally
changed. For example, in the 19th century, opportunity meant access to a
land grant. In the 21st century, it will mean access to a Pell Grant, to
a community college, to a trade school, to a university”. Oea na?ae/eoue
i?i oa, ui a nenoai? oe?iiinoae a?aeaoeeny ci?ie: “noa??” oe?iiino?
iaaoee iiaiai cia/aiiy. Ii??aithth/e iiaeeeaino? ia?oeo aia?eeaioe?a oa
no/anieo a?iiaaeyi NOA, I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii aeoeaioo? oaaao ia oiio
aaee/aciiio i?ia?an?, yeiai aeinyaei ethaenoai e, cie?aia, Niieo/ai?
Ooaoe: “We have made enormous progress.” Aiai?y/e i?i aaeeeo ?ieue
ina?oe (education) o aeeoo? ethaeae, yea oaeiae iaeaaeeoue aei nenoaie
oe?iiinoae, A?ee Ee?ioii cacia/a?, ui aia?eeainueea nenoaia aeui? ina?oe
? iaee?auith o na?o?: “We know, for example, that America has the finest
system of higher education in the world, and people come from all over
the world to be a part of it”. E??i iaee?aui? nenoaie ina?oe, Niieo/ai?
Ooaoe “e?au?” ca ?aooo e?a?i ? a ?ioeo noa?ao: “And in the cutting age
industries of the future — computers, biotech, aerospace — America leads
the world. But America also leads the world again, for the first time
since the 1970s, in automobile production and sales… The United States
is now the world’s number one exporter again… We are the most
productive economy in the world.” Oaeei /eiii, I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii
aeoeaioo? oaaao ia ua iaei?e aaaeeea?e aia?eeainuee?e oe?iiino?, ui
ao?eaia o iii?iaoe?th leadership. Ona?aeiieaiiy iniaeeaiai noaoono
Niieo/aieo Ooao?a, i/aaeaeii, iiaeiii ni?eyoe c?inoaiith iao??ioecio oa
ai?aeino? a?iiaaeyi ca naith e?a?io: “America is, and must always be, a
place where individual dreams can come true, where people who work hard
succeed, where people of different points of view and different
heritages can not only live together but prosper; a place where, by
respecting our differences and working together to meet our
responsibilities, we earn the gold medals of freedom and opportunity”.
I?aceaeaio cacia/a?, ui aaaaoi ethaeae i?eaoee aei e?a?ie o iiooeao
cieioa, i?ioa ni?aaaei?i “cieioii” ? ??ai? iiaeeeaino? aeey on?o
a?iiaaeyi: “The real “gold” that paved our streets was the golden
opportunity for people from any background to be able, through hard work
and ingenuity, to make a fresh start in life”.

I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii i?eae?ey? oaaao oaeiio aaaeeeaiio oe?ii?niiio
iiiyooth ye work, aeei?enoiaoth/e yne?aao iaoaoi?o “Workers are heart
and soul of our nation”. Ua iaeiei c oeaio?aeueieo oe?ii?nieo iiiyoue
aeeneo?no I?aceaeaioa Ee?ioiia ? iiiyooy peace. Eaenaia peace
c’yaey?oueny o eiai aenooiao a ioi/aii? eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, ye?
iaaeathoue iaaii? aeeiai?ee oeueiio, ia ia?oee iiaeyae, noaa?eueiiio
iiiyooth (the peace process; the path to a lasting peace; a just,
lasting, and comprehensive peace; the path of peace, etc). A ?ioeo
aeiaaeeao I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii aaeeaa? ii?yae c eaenaiith peace
aeoe?iiaeuei? ae??neiaa: “…the United States will do whatever we can
to support the peace process… and to minimize the risk of peace”;
“…they (the leaders( have agreed to restore the peace…”; “I invited
them here… to seek to curb the terrible violence and death… to help
both parties return to the hard work of building peace through
negotiations”.

I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii oaeiae caa?oa?oueny aei iiiyoue trust oa
understanding, ui ? aaaeeeaeie eiiiiiaioaie nenoaie iie?oe/io
oe?iiinoae: “I believe the calm, constructive, face-to-face meetings
Prime Minister Netanyahu and Chairman Arafat have had here will help to
build the trust between them…”; “But I beleive there is a higher level
of understanding and a higher level of trust than existed before these
talks began”.

Ua iaeiei aaaeeeaei oe?ii?niei iiiyooyi, aei yeiai caa?oa?oueny
I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii o nai?o aenooiao, ? religion. A?ee Ee?ioii aiai?eoue
i?i oa, ui Aia?eea noaea i?eooeeii aeey on?o ethaeae, ui ia iaee
iiaeeeaino? niia?aeaoe ia?aio ?ae?a?th o naaa ia aaouee?auei?:
“Throughout our history, men and women have come to America to escape
religious persecution elsewhere and secure religious freedom here;
…people coming together across the lines of faith and political
conviction and race to protect the religious liberties we all charish”.
I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii i?ioenoaaey? i?ioeeaaei? iiiyooy (religious
persecution elsewhere — secure religious freedom here), ui ? oeiiaith
?enith iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no, o yeiio ia??aeei cae?enith?oueny aea??
iiey?ieo i???ioe??a, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue (aai oiniaeththoue o nia?)
??ci? oe?ii?ni? nenoaie.

I?ioyaii naiai ia?oiai oa?i?io ia?aaoaaiiy i?e aeaae? I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii
ca?aeiiaiaeoaaa naaa ye aa?iee i?aoi?. Aeey aeeneo?no A?eea Ee?ioiia
oa?aeoa?ia oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy aeoe?iiaeueieo ae??ne?a ii?yae ?c
caeiaiieeii ia?oi? iniae iaeieie, caaaeyee /iio aeeneo?n i?aceaeaioa
iaaoaa? a?eueoiai aeeiai?cio, ui ni?ey? noai?aiith caaaeueiiai
iiceoeaiiai a?aaeaiiy i?i aeoeaio ae?yeuei?noue i?aceaeaioa. Oeueiio
ni?ey? ? oooo?aeueia ia?niaeoeaa, yeo i?aceaeaio noai?th?, ie?anethth/e
iai?yiee aeanieo ae?e. Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e aeanio ae?yeuei?noue, a oaeiae
ae?yeuei?noue naiai o?yaeo, A?ee Ee?ioii aeei?enoiao?, ia?aaaaeii,
eaene/i? iaeeieoe? c iiceoeaiith eiiioaoe??th, a ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i
ia??iae, ui ia?aaeoaaa eiai i?aceaeaionoao, a oaeiae ioe?iea iie?oe/ieo
noia?iee?a i?aceaeaioa iiaea?oueny ia oii? eaenai c iaaaoeaiei
ioe?ii/iei cia/aiiyi. Iaeiioe?ai?oeie i?eeiiaie oaoi?ee a?aoiaioaoe??
I?aceaeaioa Ee?ioiia ? o?aaeeoe?ei? ?eoi?e/i? i?eeiie — i?ioenoaaeaiiy
oa iiaoi?.

I?aceaeaio aaeeaa? caeiaiiee I, yeee ooai?th? aaniethoio
aae?anaioi?noue, o aeiaaeeao aeneiaeaiiy iniaenoi? aeoiee, aeanii?
aeoeaiino?: “I propose more empowerment zones…”; “I want to build an
America in the 21st century”; “reform… I signed last week.” sse aeaeii
c i?eeeaae?a, aaniethoia aae?anaioi?noue i?eoaiaiia ?a/aiiyi c
oooo?aeueiith ia?niaeoeaith (I propose…, I want…). sseui caeiaiiee
I ? anooia? aei e?i?eieo a?aeiioaiue ?c ae??neiaii ieioeiai /ano, oi, ye
i?aaeei, eaeaoueny i?i iaaeaeaea ieioea (last week). A iaio aeiaaeeao
aeieea? aoaeo aeoe?iiaeueiino?, caaaeyee yeiio aaea?oueny i?aee?aneeoe
aeoeai?noue aae?anaioa. Aae?anaioi?noue oaeiae ae?aaeaii ca aeiiiiiaith
caeiaiiee?a you and I: “Four years ago… you and I set forth on a
journey…”, o oeueiio aeiaaeeo caeiaiieeia? we iaaienii i?ioenoaaeaii
niieo/aiiy you and I, oei naiei A?ee Ee?ioii i?aee?aneth? aeanio
aeoeai?noue, naith e?aee?oth/o iiceoe?th. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui oaea
aeei?enoaiiy iniaiaiai caeiaiieea o ia?o?e inia? iaeieie ia aoei
oa?aeoa?iei aeey on?o aia?eeainueeeo i?aceaeaio?a. Oae, a?aeiii, ui
I?aceaeaio ?iiaeueae ?aeaai o ioae?/ieo aenooiao iaiaaaany oieeaoe
caeiaiieea I (The Weekly Standard, June 9, 1997). O nai?o aenooiao
I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii aeei?enoiao? ianoaaeie /ano, ye? oaeiae ni?eythoue
noai?aiith a?aaeaiiy i?i eiai aeoeai?noue: “This week we reached
agreement on a bipartisan balanced budget… and next week I will sign
it into law (02/08/97).

Aiaeii/an aiai?y/e i?i aeinyaiaiiy, ui a?aeaoeeny ca /an eiai
i?aceaeaionoaa, A?ee Ee?ioii aeei?enoiao? caeiaiiee we a ?ieethceaiiio
cia/aii?: “record… we have made for American people”; “we have passed
political reform”, “we increased our investments in research and
technology”; “we are developing a super computer”. Oea aeeeeeaei
e?eoe/io ioe?ieo c aieo aeayeeo i?aaenoaaiee?a i?ane. Aiie iacaaee
“iaei??th c iaea?eueoeo ??ii?e” i?aceaeaionueei? eaiiai?? 1996 ?ieo oie
oaeo, ui I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii i?eaeanith? aeinyaiaiiy ?anioae?eainueeiai
Eiia?ano, i/iethaaiiai ?iaa?oii Aeioeii, o oie /an ye inoaii?e ia
aeei?enoiao? oe? aeinyaiaiiy o oe?eyo nai?? eaiiai??: “Clinton says at
nearly every stop: We just passed the Kennedy — Kassenbaum bill in
Washington eligible for health care.” It draws big applause. But that
“we” includes Republican — led Congress, although Clinton doesn’t say
that” (A Newsletter on American Politics, Oct.2, 1996).

I?aceaeaio A?ee Ee?ioii aeei?enoiao? ?eoi?e/i? caieoaiiy, iiaoaeiaai?
ca iaei??th iiaeaeeth, ye? iaaiith i??ith cieaeothoue eaoaai?e/i?noue
aeneiaeaieo iei aeoiie. I?aceaeaio i?ioenoaaey? ana “iaaaoeaia”, ui aoei
?ai?oa, “iiceoeaiiio”, ui a?i cae?a?oueny c?iaeoe aeey e?a?ie: “Do we
really want to make that same mistake all over again? Do we really want
to stop economic growth again? Do we really want to start piling up
another mountain of debt? Do we want to bring back to the recession of
1991 and ‘92? Do we want to weaken our bridge to the 21st century?”
Ii?yae c iiaoi?aie A?ee Ee?ioii aaeeaa? o o?iaeuei?e iiceoe??
?ioaineo?eaoi?e, ye? iieiythoueny a ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio oieon?: “We have
increased our investments… We have increased investment dramatically.”
Caa?oath/enue aei /an?a naiai i?aceaeaionoaa, A?ee Ee?ioii aeei?enoiao?
eaene/i? noia?eaoeae — wonderful people, magnificent convention,
beautiful words, magnificent men and women in uniform. O nai?o i?iiiaao
I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii iianye/anii i?aee?aneth? aeneethceai?noue Niieo/aieo
Ooao?a Aia?eee. Ca eiai neiaaie, oea e?a?ia, ye?e iaeaaeeoue ona naia
iaee?aua, God-given potential. Uia oea i?aee?aneeoe, A?ee Ee?ioii
aeei?enoiao? i?eeiaoieee o iaeaeuiio nooiai?: “Our military remains the
best trained, best-equipped fighting force in the world”; “our
products… the world’s finest”; “we have… the best Vice-President in
our history.” Oaia aeeeth/iino? NOA i?ine?aeeiao?oueny ? a ?ioeo
aenooiao A?eea Ee?ioiia: “…America has once again become the world’s
number one exporter, our largest producer of automobiles, the world’s
largest agricultural exporter, the world’s largest producer of
semiconductors… And from specialty steel to telecommunications,
America leads the world in a very competitive global marketplace”
(10/09/97). I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii iaaieioo? ia aeeeth/i?e i?n?? Niieo/aieo
Ooao?a o na?oia?e ?noi???, aeei?enoiaoth/e aioii?i?/i? iiiyooy, ye?
icia/athoue caaaeueiiethaenuee?, oi?aa?naeuei? oe?iiino?: ”…only America
can make the difference between war and peace, between freedom and
repression, between life and death.” Ia oii? eaenai c iiceoeaiith
eiiioaoe??th iniaeeai iii?oiei noa? eiio?ano, ui ooai?th?oueny i?e
aaeeaaii? ii?yae c ieie iaaaoeaii-caaa?aeaieo iii?iaoe?e, ye?
noai?ththoue iaaaoeaia ioe?ithaaiiy, ? ye? I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii
aeei?enoiao?, iaaaaeoth/e i?i oa, ui aoei aei /an?a eiai i?aceaeaionoaa:
“high unemployment, stagnant wages, crime, welfare and the deficit on
the rise, host of unmet challengers, rising tide of cynicism.”

sse a?aeiii, A?ee Ee?ioii ?icii/aa ai?ioueao ca iinaaeo i?aceaeaioa ye
i?aaenoaaiee iiai? aaia?aoe?? aia?eeaioe?a, ? cie?aia, ye “iiaee
aeaiie?ao” (New Democrat): I?aceaeaio Ee?ioii i?aeo?eio? ?i?aeae “iiaiai
aeaiie?aoa”, eaenaia new ? iaei??th c oeaio?aeueieo o eiai aeeneo?n?:
“…we can enter this new century and this new millenium as the most
successful multiracial, multiethnic, multireligious democracy the world
has ever known” (14/08/97); “America’s oldest and most enduring values
…had to remain strong and vibrant in a new and different time, which
required a new course of action”, “Our nation has remained young and
strong now for over 220 years by always meeting new challenges in way
that renew our oldest values”; “…we must take new action to move
forward” (10/09/97).

Ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c i?iaeaiaie ae?iie oa i?aaenoaaiee?a aoi?/ieo a?oi,
? iaeieie c oeaio?aeueieo o aeeneo?n? no/anieo aia?eeainueeeo iie?oee?a.
An? eaene/i? iiiyooy, ui noinothoueny ae?iie oa aoi?/ieo iaioei,
c’yaeythoueny o iie?oe/iiio aeeneo?n?, ia?aaaaeii, o iiceoeaiiio
eiioaeno?. Iie?oeee, ye i?aaeei, caa?oathoueny aei ieo, iia’ycoth/e ?o c
oe?ii?nieie iiiyooyie. O no/aniiio iie?oe/iiio aeeneo?n? NOA
ae?yeuei?noue ae?iie ioe?ith?oueny ye iiceoeaia. Aea, iacaaaeath/e ia
oa, ui o i?aeaioiaeaieo aeaeao aeeneo?no i?iaeaie ae?iie oa aoi?/ieo
iaioei c’yaeythoueny o iiceoeaiiio eiioaeno?, o iai?aeaioiaeaieo aeaeao
aeeneo?no niinoa??aathoueny aeiaaeee i?iyao ?anecio oa enaiioia??. Oaaaa
aei i?iaeai aoi?/ieo iaioei oa aoi?/iiai neeaaeo aia?eeainueeiai
noni?euenoaa o oe?eiio, i?ecaiaeeoue aei caeo/aiiy iiaeo ne?a aeey
iicia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aoi?/ieo oai??e (melting pot – mosaic – salad
bowl – pizza – rainbow – symphony — kaleidoscope). O nai?io aeeneo?n?
aia?eeainuee? iie?oeee iaiaaathoueny ii?aeioaaoe ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c
aoi?/ieie iaioeiaie, c oeaio?aeueiei iiiyooyi aia?eeainueeiai niiniao
aeeooy – American dream. Neeaaeia? oeueiai iiiyooy, ui noaiiaeyoue
iaeaieiai?o? oe?iiino? noni?euenoaa, ciaoiaeyoueny o oeaio?? no/aniiai
aia?eeainueeiai iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no.

Iiaeaeueoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no iia’ycaia c aecia/aiiyi
eiai aeae?a oa oa?aeoa?ieo ?en eiaeiiai c ieo. Caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiei
aea/aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae iiaeaiiy a?aeiieo iie?oe/ieo
ae?y/?a. Iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no oaeiae iia’ycaia c
eiie?aoecaoe??th iicaiiaieo oaeoi??a, ui aieeaathoue ia eiai oi?ioaaiiy
? ?icaeoie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo i?aoeyo:

1. Iiaa ? i?iiaaaiaea o aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa? // Oace aeiiia?aeae
48 iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? Iieoaanueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, 1996. —
N. 47.

2. AE?ii/ee ?oo ? eiai aieea ia ?icaeoie iiae // O?eieia?y ? eoeueoo?a.
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — E.: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, 1996. — N. 47-52.

3. Aeaye? eeth/ia? iiiyooy eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai iiey iie?oe/ii?
oa?i?iieia?? (ia iaoa??ae? aiae?enueei? iiae) // I?ia?aei? e?iaa?noe/i?
eiioeaioe?? e?ioey OO noie?ooy. Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y
26-27 eenoiiaaea 1996 ?ieo: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
?aaia O?aiea. — Euea?a, 1996. — N. 250-251.

4. Aeaye? iniaeeaino? no/anii? i?aceaeaionueei? ?eoi?eee Niieo-/aieo
Ooao?a Aia?eee // Iiaa o nioe?aeueiiio ? eoeueoo?iiio eiioaeno?. — E.:
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 1997. — N. 216-222.

5. Iie?oe/iee aeeneo?n ? nenoaia oe?iiinoae aia?eeainueeiai
noni?euenoaa // I?iaeaie naiaioeee neiaa, ?a/aiiy, oaenoa. —
Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao. — E., 1997. — N.
197-206.

6. Iiaa i?aceaeaionueeeo aeai??a o NOA // Oace aeiiia?aeae iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? aeeeaaea/?a oaeoeueoaoo ?iicaiii? o?eieia?? 2 ea?oiy 1997
?ieo: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1997. — N.
54-55.

7. No/ania i?aceaeaionueea ?eoi?eea NOA // Noni?euenoaiciaa/? iaoee oa
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe??. — AI AO Oe?a?ie. Aieeinueeee aea?aeoi?aa?neoao
?i.Ean? Oe?a?iee. — Eieaa 3. — Eooeuee, 1997. — N. 139-140.

8. Iie?oe/iee aeeneo?n aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa // A?niee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. ?iicaiia o?eieia?y. – Aeione 27. – E., 1998. —
N. 10-11.

Oiiaiei I.N. E?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c aia?eeainueeiai iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no
(90-o? ?iee OO noie?ooy). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe c? niaoe?aeueiino? 10.02.04 – aa?iainuee? iiae. – Ee?anueeee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1998.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny aen?ieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee no/aniiai
iie?oe/iiai aeeneo?no Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee, ?eoi?e/i? i?eioeeie
eiai i?aai?caoe??, oeyoe iiiiaiaiiy aeina??th iie?oe/ii? oa?i?iieia??, a
oaeiae iniaeeaino? ?eoi?eee aia?eeainueeeo i?aceaeaio?a, e o ia?oo /a?ao
iniaeeaino? aeeneo?no I?aceaeaioa A?eea Ee?ioiia. Iaa?oioiao?oueny
iaiao?aei?noue o?aooaaiiy oe?ieiai niaeo?o nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a, ui
aieeaathoue ia oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoie aia?eeainueeiai iie?oe/iiai
aeeneo?no.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iie?oe/iee aeeneo?n, nioe?aeueiee oaeoi?,
i?aceaeaionueea ?eoi?eea, nenoaia oe?iiinoae, iie?oe/ia oa?i?iieia?y,
i?aceaeaionueeee aeeneo?n, iie?oe/ia ei?aeoi?noue.

Oiiaiei A.N. Eeiaaenoe/aneee aiaeec aia?eeaineiai iieeoe-/aneiai
aeeneo?na (90-a aiaeu OO aaea). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 – aa?iaineea ycuee. – Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1998.

?aaioa yaeyaony iaeiie ec ia?auo iiiuoie eeiaaenoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey
nia?aiaiiiai aia?eeaineiai iieeoe/aneiai aeeneo?na. Iniaaiiinoe
iieeoe/aneiai aeeneo?na NOA eco/athony ia oiia aeaenoaey oe?ieiai
niaeo?a nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia aai oi?ie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea:
oaeoi?ia eaeaieiae/aneiai niaea?aeaiey (eaeaieiaey e i?iiaaaiaea,
eaeaieiae/aneia iniuneaiea ?a/aauo aaeeieoe, eaeneeii e ?a/ue iieeoeeia
e o.ae.), eioi?ua yaeythony oaeoi?aie niciaoaeueiiai aeeyiey ia ycue,
iae?inioeeaeueiuo (ianniaay eiiioieeaoeey) e iee?inioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia
(aeaeaeaiea i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoie/aneeo iaiueoeinoa ca a?aaeaeaineea
i?aaa, oaieieci).

A i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey nia?aiaiiiai aia?eeaineiai
iieeoe/aneiai aeeneo?na aieueooth ?ieue ea?atho n?aaenoaa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa neiaeica NIE n iieeoe/aneeie no?oeoo?aie NOA
cia/eoaeueii iaiaaoeeny aeinna?ee iieeoe/aneie oa?ieiieiaee. A ?aaioa
?anniao?eaathony iniiaiua niiniau iiiieiaiey nia?aiaiiiai aia?eeaineiai
aeinna?ey iieeoe/aneie oa?ieiieiaee, a oaeaea iniaaiiinoe
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iieeoe/aneeo oa?ieiia a nia?aiaiiii aeeneo?na NOA.

Enneaaeothony aeneieiae/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iieeoe/aneiai aeeneo?na, a
eiaiii ycueiaia ioi?ieaiea iniiaiuo oeaiiinoiuo iiiyoee.
?anniao?eaathony oeaio?aeueiua iiiyoey, ieacuaathuea caiaoiia aeeyiea ia
eiaieoeaioth nenoaio ?aoeeieaioa, a oaeaea iniaaiiinoe eo eniieueciaaiey
iieeoeeaie a naiai aeeneo?na.

A ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony iaeioi?ua ec niiniaia ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeia
iieeoe/aneie ei??aeoiinoe a nia?aiaiiie iieeoe/aneie eiiioieeaoeee.

A ?aaioa eniieueciaaiu ?acee/iua iiaeoiaeu e enneaaeiaaieth ycuea, a
/anoiinoe, iieaaie iiaeoiae (i?e aiaeeca iieeoe/aneie oa?ieiieiaee, i?e
enneaaeiaaiee oeaiiinoae), a oaeaea aiaeec aeeneo?na e oaenoieeiaaenoeea
(i?e aiaeeca aunooieaiee I?aceaeaioa Aeeea Eeeioiia). Ioaeaeueiua
?acaeaeu aeenna?oaoeee iinayuaiu eco/aieth ycueiaie ee/iinoe, a
/anoiinoe, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiio noeeth aia?eeaineeo i?aceaeaioia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieeoe/aneee aeeneo?n, nioeeaeueiue oaeoi?,
i?aceaeaioneay ?eoi?eea, nenoaia oeaiiinoae, iieeoe/aneay oa?ieii-eiaey,
i?aceaeaioneee aeeneo?n, iieeoe/aneay ei??aeoiinoue.

Fomenko Olena S. Linguistic analysis of American political discourse
(90s of the XX century). – Manuscript.

Candidate’s Dissertation. Speciality 10.02.04 – Germanic languages. –
Kyiv Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv, 1998.

The research highlights axiological characteristics of American
political discourse, rhetorical principles of its organization,
political glossary enrichment, political terminology development,
peculiarities of presidential rhetoric of American presidents, mainly of
President Bill Clinton. The necessity to view a wide range of social
factors which affect generation and evolution of American political
discourse is proved.

Key words: political discourse, social factor, presidential rhetoric,
system of values, political terminology, presidential discourse,
political correctness.

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