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IINOEOOO I*IEO OAI?IA I OEAIEIII? OA?AII?

II. A.I.OIEAOIAA

NEIAIAessIEE

Na?oeaia Ai?en?aia

OAeE 617.751.6-085.84-0.72

E?EOAAEUeI?E AIEEA OINOAI-AEAEO?INOEIOEssOe?? IA OOIEOe?IIAEUeIEE
NOAI CI?IAIAI AIAE?CAOI?A ? ?AA?IIA?IEE E?IAIIA?A IICEO ? I*AE O
OAI?EO IA AIAE?II?TH

14.01.18 — I/i oai?iae

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

IAeANA — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?th ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a inoeooo i/ieo oai?ia oeaieiii oa?ai

i. A.I.Oeaoiaa AII Oe?aie.

Iaoeiaee ea?aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iiiiia?/oe
Aaea?e Naiaiiae/, Iinoeooo i/ieo oai?ia ? oeaieiii? oa?ai?? i.
A.I.Oeaoiaa, ea?aiee ooieoeiiaeueii — ae?aaiinoe/iiai iooaeueiioeaio?o

Iooeei iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
Na?aeth/aiei A??a ?aai?aia, ?inoeooo i/ieo oai?ia ? oeaieiii? oa?ai??
?i. A.I. O?eaoiaa, ea??aiee eaai?aoi??? ?iceaae?a a?iieoey?iiai ci?o ?
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe i?ioani? Aacae?oei Iaaei Aiae??eiae/,
Oa?e?anueeee ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy e?ea??a, i. Oa?e?a, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e i/ieo oai?ia

I?iaaeia onoaiiaa: Aei?i?iiao?ianueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y,
eaoaae?a i/ieo oai?ia, IIC Oe?a?ie, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno aaeaoaeaoueny 17 /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia canaeaii?
niaoeaeciaaii a/aii ?aaee Ae 41.556.01 a ?inoeooo i/ieo oai?ia oeaieiii
oa?ai i. A.I.Oeaoiaa AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 270061, Iaeana-61,
O?aioeocueeee aoeueaa?, 49/51.

C aeena?oaoeth iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o aaeioaoe inoeoooo i/ieo oai?ia
oeaieiii oa?ai i. A.I.Oeaoiaa (270061, Iaeana-61, O?aioeocueeee
aoeueaa?, 49/51).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icneaiee “ 17” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeaeciaaii a/aii ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Aia?iaa I.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aiae?ii?y caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith
iooaeueiieia??, ui coiiaeaii ?? cia/iith ?iciianthaeaeai?noth — a?ae 2%
aei 6% a no?oeoo?? an??? iooaeueiiiaoieia??, c yeeo a?ey 80% i?eiaaea?
ia ?aii?e aeeoy/ee a?e ? a o?aoei? an?o aeiaaee?a ? i?e/eiith
neaaeici?ino? o ae?oae (Aaaoenia A.N. 1968, Eiaaeaanueeee A.?., Hess,
1982, Von Noorden G.K, 1990 ).

Ca?aeii c o?aaeeoe?eieie iiaeyaeaie aiae?ii?y iia’ycaia c? no?eeei
oi?iiciei i?ioeanii a ae?eyioe? ci?iai? ei?e aieiaiiai iiceo, yea
i?aaenoaaey? oeaio?aeueio yieo n?oe?aee (I?eueiai I. ?., 1959,
Aeia?iieneia A.I. 1962, Aaaoenia A.N., 1964, Duke-Elder, 1972). Naia oea
aecia/eei aeei?enoaiiy oeaio?aeueii? aino?ioe ci?o, cieaeaiiy yei? ?
aieiaiith oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith aiae?ii??, iaeiei c aieiaieo e?eoa???a
ioe?iee nooiaiy oyaeeino? aiae?ii??, a oaeiae aoaeoeaiino? ethaiai
iaoiaeo ?? e?eoaaiiy. Iaeiae, ine?eueee aiae?ii?y ? iaoieia??th
?aiiueiai ?icaeoeo ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a, a a noaiiaeaii? ci?iaiai
aiae?caoi?a ye oe?eiai i?eeiathoue o/anoue e ?io? ci?ia? ooieoe?? ?
o?c?ieia?/i? i?ioeane, oae? ye eie??ia, na?oeiaa, aeaeo?e/ia
/ooeea?noue, oea aeaei i?aenoaao i?eionoeoe, ui i?e aiae?ii?? aiie
iiaeii? iaoe iaai? ii?ooaiiy ? aeayeei /eiii aooe iia’ycai? c
ii?ooaiiyie oeaio?aeueiiai ci?o. A inoaii? ?iee oe? i?eiouaiiy ciaeoee
nai? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a ?iaioao aeayeeo aaoi??a (Eethea ?.A., 1972,
Eoe??aa C.O., 1974, Oaeai?i TH.?.,1985, Cene?ia I.I. 1989, Campos, 1989,
von Noorden, 1990, Aie/oe ?.I., 1994, 1998).

Oaeei /eiii, c iaeiiai aieo a?aeiii, ui ii?ooaiiy ci?iaeo ooieoe?e i?e
aiae?ii?? ia iaiaaeothoueny cieaeaiiyi aeeeth/ii oeaio?aeueiiai ci?o, a
caeo/athoue aei iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano ci?iaee aiae?caoi? a oe?eiio. C
?ioiai aieo, oe? ii?ooaiiy aeoaea ??aeei i?eeiathoueny aei oaaae i?e
ioe?ioe? aoaeoeaiino? oiai /e ?ioiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii??.

Ua a 60-o? ?iee Aaaoenia A.N. i?eionoea, ui a iniia? ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ii?ooaiue i?e aiae?ii?? eaaeaoue a?aeiia?aei? ci?ie iai?iieo i?ioean?a a
ci?ia?e ei??. A inoaii? ?iee oae? ii?ooaiiy iaoaaie?cio a ci?iaeo
oeaio?ao ei?e iiceo aoee aeyaeai?, ye? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue cia/iei
cieaeaiiyi eieaeueiiai e?iaiia?ao iiceo a oeueiio ?aa?ii? (Demer J.L.,
von Noorden G.K., 1988; 1993; Imamura K., 1997).

Aeine?aeaeaiith e?iaiia?ao i/ae i?e aiae?ii?? i?enay/aii eeoa aeae?eueea
?ia?o, oae ye c oi/ee ci?o a?eueoino? aeine?aeiee?a iniiai? ii?ooaiiy
i?e aeai?e iaoieia?? a?aecia/athoueny c aieo aeui? eaiee ci?iaiai
aiae?caoi?a — iiceo, a ci?ie c aieo i/iiai yaeoea ae?aaeai? iaei.
Iaeiae, aeayeei aaoi?ai (Aaeeaacaeiaa-Iie/a?aa E.A. c ni?aaao., 1989,
1993, Na?a??iei I.I 1997, 1998) aaeaeiny iieacaoe iayai?noue ii?ooaiue
eieaeueiiai e?iaiiinoa/aiiy i/ae, cie?aia oeee?a?iiai o?ea, o oai?eo ia
aiae?ii?th ? a?ia?iao?ii?th.

Ana oea aecia/a? aaaeeea?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy eieaeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee
iiceo ? i/ae o aea/aii? iaoiaaiaoe/ieo iaoai?ci?a aiae?ii??. Iaeiae ia
aeaiee /an iiae?ai? ?iaioe ? iiiaeeiieeie ? ia ?ice?eaathoue a iiai?e
i??? ca’yceo ii?ooaiue ci?iaeo ooieoe?e i?e aiae?ii?? c? noaiii
?aa?iia?iiai e?iaiia?ao iea oa iiceo. E??i oeueiai, acaaae? a?aenooi?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aeyaeaiith aieeao ia iieacieee aaiiaeeiai?ee oiai /e
?ioiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii??.

Iniiai? no/ani? ieaiioe/i? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? caniiaai? ia
i?eioeei? ieethc?? aaaeo/iai iea c o?aioaaiiyi ci?iai? nenoaie ca
aeiiiiiaith aaeaeaaoieo ?e iiae?aciee?a — noeioeyoe?? n?oe?aee na?oeii,
eaca?iei aei?ii?iaiiyi, ??cieie aeaeaie no?oeoo?ieo noeioe?a aai ?o
niieo/aiiyi, a oaeiae aeei?enoaiiyi a eiiieaeniiio e?eoaaii?
iaai?oinoeioeyoe??, ?aoeaenioa?ai??, o?aioaaiiy aeiiiaeaoe?? (Cuppers,
1956, Aaaoenia A.N., 1964, Campbell, 1978, Naiye?ia A.N., 1998,
?icaiaa?a A.A., 1984, 1998, Na?aeth/aiei A.?., 1998).

A iniia? cai?iiiiiaaiiai aeey e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? iaoiaeo
aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? (AN) eaaeeoue aieea ia i?ia?aeieeia? oeyoe ci?iaiai
aiae?caoi?a (CA) ?iioeueniiai aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio — iiae?acieea,
iaaaeaeaaoiiai aeey CA, aea oi?aa?naeueiiai aeey an??? ia?aiai? nenoaie.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaoiaeo AN aeyaeee eiai iiceoeaiee aieea ia
ci?ia? ooieoe?? o 50-80% oai?eo ia /anoeiao ao?io?th ci?iaiai ia?ao
(Aaoo??aaa I.I., 1983, Oaiaeo??ia A.I., 1983, Eiiiai??oeue ?.A.,
1985-1992, Oaaei?ia N.I., 1993, Iiiiia?/oe A.N., 1995-1998). A na?aae
aaaaoueio iaoai?ci?a, ye? eaaeaoue a iniia? iie?auaiiy ci?iaeo ooieoe?e
i?e aeaiiio iaoiae? e?eoaaiiy, aeaye? aaoi?e i?eioneathoue nooo?ao ?ieue
iie?auaiiy eieaeueii? aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo oa iea, ui ciaeoei nai?
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy o ei?ioeici?eo (Iiiiia?/oe A.N., 1997).

A?aeiiino? i?i canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo /a?acoe??ii? aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? aeey
e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? iaaaaaoi/eneai?. Aooaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaii?
iaoiaeeee aeyaeeany aenieith (a?ae 30% aei 80%) (Aoaae??iaa A.AE.,
1994, Oaoeaiei ?.A. 1992, E?theianueeeo I.I. 1993, Ieoaeeiaa E.A.,
1994), ioe?ithaaeany aiia aeeeth/ii ca aaee/eiith ci?ie aino?ioe ci?o ?
aac ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co ?? aoaeoeaiino? i?e ??cieo aeaeao aiae?ii??.
Aeaoaeueia eiiieaenia aea/aiiy aieeao aeaeo?e/ii? noeioeyoe?? ia noai
?ioeo ci?iaeo ooieoe?e o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th ??cieo aeae?a aei oeeo i??
oaeiae ia i?iaiaeeeiny, ui ae/a?iii ia ?ice?eaa? iaoiaaiaoe/i? iaoai?cie
aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? i?e aeai?e iaoieia??. Caeeoa?oueny iiee ui ia
aea/aiei ci?ia noaio ?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo ? iea o oai?eo ia
aiae?ii?th i?ae aieeaii iecueei?ioaineaiiai aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio. Ia
i?iaaaeaii ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? o oai?eo ia
aiae?ii?th a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeo?aeieo iieaci?e?a ci?iaeo ooieoe?e ?
?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo oa iea. Ana oea coiiaeei aeooaeuei?noue
? iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeaia ?iaioa ?
o?aaiaioii eiiieaenieo oai ?inoeoooo i/ieo oai?ia ? oeaieiii? oa?ai??
?i. A.I.O?eaoiaa: 1) “?ic?iaeoe iia? niiniae oa i?eno??e aeey e?eoaaiiy
aiae?ii?? ia iniia? iaeneiaeueiiai iaaeeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e noeioethth/iai
iiey aei ??ciiiai?oieo ooieoe?e ci?iai-ia?aiaiai eaiaeo” (1997-1999 ??.)
(? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?? 0197U001311); 2) “?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo
eiii’thoa?ii? ioi?eia?ao?? aeey ae?aaiinoeee ?iceaae?a aaaaoaoeaii?
?ia?aaoe?? aeiiiaeaoe?eii-eiiaa?aaioii-c?ie/ii? nenoaie” (1997-1999 ??.)
(? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?? 0197U001309).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: ia i?aenoaa?
eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a
? ?aa?iia?iiai e?iaiia?ao iiceo oa i/ae anoaiiaeoe e?eoaaeueio
cia/ou?noue oinoai- aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?:

1. Aea/eoe ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a (?ic??ciyeueio
ni?iiiaei?noue, na?oeiao, eie??io, aeaeo?e/io /ooeea?noue ?
eaa?euei?noue) ? ?aa?iia?iee e?iaiia?a iiceo oa iea o oai?eo ia
?ao?aeoe?eio, ai?ciiao?ii?/io ? aeena?iieoey?io aiae?ii?th.

2. Aecia/eoe ci?ie ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a i?ae
aieeaii oinoai-aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? o oai?eo ia ?ao?aeoe?eio,
ai?ciiao?ii?/io ? aeena?iieoey?io aiae?ii?th.

3. Aea/eoe aieea oinoai-aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? ia ?aa?iia?iee e?iaiia?a
iiceo ? i/ae o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th.

4. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiy ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co aecia/eoe iniaeeaino?
aca?iica’yceo i?ae ooieoe?yie ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a, ?aa?iia?ii?
aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo ? iea o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th, oa anoaiiaeoe ?o
cia/ou?noue aeey ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy iaoiaeii
oinoai-aeaeo?inoeioeyoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th aia?oa
aeyaeaii i?yi? ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee i?ae aino?ioith ci?o (nooiaiai
aiae?ii??) ? iacii?/iith aino?ioith ci?o, aeoeai?noth
oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueii? aoa?aioii? nenoaie ca ii?iaii aeieeiaiiy oaiiiaio
Aaeaeeiaa?a, eie??iith /ooeea?noth aei caeaiiai ? neiueiai eieuei??a, a
oaeiae ??aiai e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy noaeei aieiaiiai iiceo a aanaei?
aa?oaa?i-aaceey?ieo a?oa??e.

Aia?oa aeyaeaii ii?ooaiiy ?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo o oai?eo ia
aiae?ii?th — cieaeaiiy ??aiy e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy noaeei, i?aeaeuaiiy
noaeeiiiai oiiono, aieiaiei /eiii a nenoai? aa?oaa?i-aaceey?ieo a?oa??e,
ye? iaea?eueo ae?aaeai? i?e aiae?ii?? aenieiai nooiaiy. Anoaiiaeaii
a?eueoo ae?aaeai?noue ii?ooaiue ?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee i/ae i?e
aiae?ii?? aenieiai nooiaiy ? i?ii?/i?e ?ao?aeoe??.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii iiceoeaiee aieea oinoai- aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? (OAN) ia
ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a (?ic??ciyeueio
ni?iiiaei?noue, na?oeiao, eie??io, aeaeo?e/io /ooeea?noue ?
eaa?euei?noue, aeoeai?noue oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueiiai aoa?aioiiai oeyoo)
aiae?ii?/ieo i/ae, a oaeiae ia?ieo iaaiae?ii?/ieo i/ae i?e iiiieoey?i?e
aiae?ii??.

Aia?oa aeyaeaii iiceoeaiee aieea iaeii?aciaiai eo?no OAN ia ?aa?iia?io
aaiiaeeiai?eo iiceo, ui a?aeia?aceeiny a c?inoaii? e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy
noaeei, iie?auaii? ?o aeanoioii?/ieo aeanoeainoae ? aaiiciiai a?aeoieo
aieiaiei /eiii a aanaei? aa?oaa?i-aaceey?ieo a?oa??e. Anoaiiaeaii
ii?iae?coth/ee aieea OAN ia ?aa?iia?io aaiiaeeiai?eo iea.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeyaeai? ii?ooaiiy ci?iaeo
ooieoe?e ia aiae?ii?/ieo ? ia?ieo iaaiae?ii?/ieo i/ao (iacii?/ia
aino?ioa ci?o, na?oeiaa, eie??ia, aeaeo?e/ia /ooeea?noue ?
eaa?euei?noue, ii??a aeieeiaiiy oaiiiaio Aaeaeeiaa?a), a oaeiae
ii?ooaiiy ?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo ? i/ae aeathoue i?aenoaae aeey
?o aeine?aeaeaiiy o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th a yeino? aeiaeaoeiaeo
ae?aaiino?/ieo oano?a aeey eiio?ieth aeeiai?ee i?ioeano e?eoaaiiy.

Aia?oa onoaiiaeaii iie?auaiiy aino?ioe ci?o i?ney iaeii?aciaiai eo?no
OAN o 88.0% — 84.6% oai?eo ia ?ao?aeoe?eio oa ai?ciiao?ii?/io aiae?ii?th
c a?ia?iao?ii?/iith ?ao?aeoe??th, aeena?iieoey?io c oeaio?aeueiith
o?enaoe??th; a 73.1% aeiaaee?a — i?e aenoeaio?e/i?e o?enaoe?? ? a 48.1%
i?e ai?ciiao?ii?/i?e aiae?ii?? c i?ii??th. A 56% aeiaaee?a a?aecia/aii
iie?auaiiy aino?ioe ci?o ia?iiai iaaiae?ii?/iiai iea.

Aia?oa aeyaeaii iie?auaiiy ci?iaeo ooieoe?e (na?oeiai?, eie??ii?,
aeaeo?e/ii? /ooeeaino? ? eaa?eueiino?, aeoeaiino? oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueiiai
aoa?aioiiai oeyoo) i?ae aieeaii oinoai-aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? ia
aiae?ii?/ieo ? ia?ieo iaaiae?ii?/ieo i/ao, a oaeiae ii?iae?caoe?th
iieaciee?a ?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo ? i/ae o oai?eo ia
aiae?ii?th. Aecia/aii no?ee?noue ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy ia i?ioyc?
o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo niinoa?aaeaiiy — 6-8 i?nyoe?a, a oaeiae aeyaeaii
iiceoeaiee aieea ia ci?ia? ooieoe?? iiaoi?iiai eo?no OAN.

Aeyaeaii iaaaoeaiee aieea i?ii?/ii? ?ao?aeoe?? ? aenoeaio?e/ii?
o?enaoe?? aiae?ii?/ieo i/ae ia ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy aiae?ii?? iaoiaeii
OAN. Onoaiiaeaii i?yio caeaaei?noue iie?auaiiy aino?ioe ci?o i?ney OAN
a?ae aeo?aeiiai ??aiy eieai/eiai? na?oeiai? /ooeeaino?, aeoeaiino?
oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueiiai aoa?aioiiai oeyoo, eie??ii? /ooeeaino? aei neiueiai
eieuei?o.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Ooieoe?iiaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a ? ?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee
iiceo oa i/ae o oai?eo ia ?ao?aeoe?eio, ai?ciiao?ii?/io oa
aeena?iieoey?io aiae?ii?th i?iaaaeaii ia aac? eaai?aoi???
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaio ci?o ?inoeoooo i/ieo
oai?ia ? oeaieiii? oa?ai?? ?i. A.I.O?eaoiaa AII Oe?a?ie. I?ei??oaoia
?aeay aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo oinoai-aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? aeey e?eoaaiiy
aiae?ii?? iaeaaeeoue iaoeiaiio ea??aieeia?, ae.i.i., i?ioani?o
Iiiiia?/oeo A.N. Naiino?eii i?iaaaeaii iooaeueiieia?/ia ianoaaeaiiy,
eiiieaenia ooieoe?iiaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?iaeo ooieoe?e
an?o oai?eo, aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaiia?ao iiceo oa i/ae —
?aiaioeaoaeia?ao?y, ?aiiooaeueiia?ao?y. Ie?ai? ooieoe?iiaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a i?iaaaeai? ni?eueii ?c
ni?a?ia?oieeaie eaai?aoi??? ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?aaio ci?o. Naiino?eii aeeiiaia ee?i?/ia ioe?iea ?acoeueoao?a,
?ica?oioaaiiy oai?eo ia iniia? io?eiaieo aeaieo, a oaeiae noaoenoe/iee
aiae?c, ee?i?/ia ioe?iea ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oi?ioethaaiiy
aeniiae?a ii aeena?oaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeieeaaeaii ia O c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeeo iooaeueiieia?a, Iaeana (1996), O
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? iooaeueiieia?a Iaeana-Aaioy, Iaeana (1997),
O? eiia?an? ?a?iiaenueeiai oiaa?enoaa iooaeueiieia?a, Aoaeaiaoo (1997),
Iaoe?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe?? Aieaa?nueeiai oiaa?enoaa iooaeueiieia?a ca
i?aeia?iaeiith o/anoth, Nio?y (1997), Iaeanueeiai iaeaniiai oiaa?enoaa
iooaeueiieia?a, Iaeana, (1998), OO??? I?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an?
iooaeueiieia?a, Ainoa?aeai (1998), ?a?iiaenueeiio oi?oi? iaoeiaoe?a, ye?
caeiathoueny aeine?aeaeaiiyi ia?aiai? nenoaie, Aa?e?i (1998), ?V
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c iooaeueiieia??, Ee?a (1998), V
Iaoe?iiaeuei?e eiioa?aioe?? iooaeueiieia?a ?anioae?ee Iieaeiaa ca
i?aeia?iaeiith o/anoth, Eeoei?a, (1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 13 ae?oeiaaieo
?ia?o, c ieo 4 noaoo? a oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao ? 1 a oaoiaiio ca??ieeo
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 2 — a ca??ieeao (1 — ca ei?aeiiii), 6 — a iaoa??aeao
? oacao eiioa?aioe?e.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y iaienaia ?in?enueeith
iiaith, aeeeaaeaia ia 238 noi??ieao eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo. Neeaaea?oueny
?c anooio, 6 ?icae?e?a, caeeth/aiiy, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae. ?ethno?iaaia 39 oaaeeoeyie ? 53 iaethieaie, ye?
caeiathoue 64 noi??iee. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 246
iaeiaioaaiue ? ?ici?uo?oueny ia 24 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Eiiieaenia ooieoe?iiaeueii-ae?aaiino?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? e?eoaaiiy aoei
i?iaaaeaii o 176 oai?eo (229 i/ae) c aiae?ii??th ??ci?o nooiai?a, ye? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo aiae?ii?? aoee ?icae?eai? ia 3 a?oie ca?aeii
ee?i?/ii? eeaneo?eaoe?? Aaaoeniaa A.N. (1968): 1 a?oia — oai?? c
?ao?aeoe?eiith ?ciaiao?ii?/iith aiae?ii??th — 53 iniae (106 i/ae); 2
a?oia — iaoe??ioe c ai?ciiao?ii?/iith iiiieoey?iith aiae?ii??th — 67
in?a (67 i/ae); 3 a?oia — oai?? ia aeena?iieoey?io iiiieoey?io
aiae?ii?th — 56 in?a (56 i/ae). Aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio ci?iaeo ooieoe?e
aoei oaeiae i?iaaaeaii ia 123 ia?ieo iaaiae?ii?/ieo i/ao o oai?eo ia
iiiieoey?io aiae?ii?th. Na?aaei?e a?e oai?eo a oe?eiio neeaa 9.40.13
?ie?a c i?i?i?aeueiei 6 ?ie?a ? iaeneiaeueiei 15 ?ie?a.

A yeino? a?oie eiio?ieth aoei ianoaaeaii 26 caei?iaeo ae?oae a?eii a?ae
7 aei 15 ?ie?a (n?aaei?e a?e — 10.50.5 ?ie?a) c aino?ioith ci?o iaio
i/ae aeua 0.9.

Ca noaiii ?ao?aeoe?? aiae?ii?/ieo i/ae a 85.1% aeiaaee?a aecia/eee
a?ia?iao?ii?th ? a?ia?iao?ii?/iee anoeaiaoeci, a 14.9% aeiaaee?a —
i?ii?th, i?ii?/iee ? ci?oai?e anoeaiaoeci. O?enaoe?y aiae?ii?/iiai iea
i?e ?ao?aeoe?ei?e ? ai?ciiao?ii?/i?e aiae?ii?? a 100% aeiaaee?a aoea
oeaio?aeueiith, i?e aeena?iieoey?i?e — a 55.4% a?aecia/aii oeaio?aeueio
o?enaoe?th ? a 44.6% aeiaaee?a — aenoeaio?e/io. A?iieoey?iee c?? ca
eieuei?i-oanoii aecia/aany a 60.2% aeiaaee?a (106 oai?eo), a ?aoo?
aeiaaee?a (39.8%) oa?aeoa? ci?o aoa iiiieoey?iei aai iaeii/aniei.

?c an?o oai?eo 107 in?a (60.8%) ?ai?oa aaea e?eoaaeeny o?aaeeoe?eieie
iaoiaeaie e?eoaaiiy (cana?oe ii Ethiia?no, caeiyooy ia aiae?io?aia??,
oanoa??, EAI- noeioeyoe?y), a inoaii?o 39.2% aeiaaee?a iaoe??ioe aei OAN
yeiai-iaaoaeue ?ioiai e?eoaaiiy ia io?eioaaee.

An?i oai?ei e??i cae/aeiiai iooaeueiieia?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy aoee
i?iaaaeai? aeiaeaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ci?iaiai
aiae?caoi?a, a oaeiae ?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo oa i/ae. Eiiieaen
aeiaeaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue neeaaeaany c noaiaea?oieo iaoiaeee
aecia/aiiy: 1) aino?ioe ci?o a iacii?/ieo oiiaao ina?oeaiiy ia
aaeaioiiao?? A?I; 2) aeoeaiino? oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueii? aoa?aioii? nenoaie
ca ii?iaii aeieeiaiiy oaiiiaio Aaeaeeiaa?a ia iaeoeioanoa??
iiey?ecaoe?eiiio; 3) eieai/eiai? oa iaee/eiai? na?oeiai? /ooeeaino? ia
aaeaioiiao?? A?I; 4) aeaeo?e/ii? /ooeeaino? ca oinoaiii ? eaa?eueiino? a
?aaeeiao 3- e?aoiiai (“3”) ? 1.5-e?aoiiai (“1.5”) ca?eueoaiiy ii?iaiai?
neee no?oio ia noeioeyoi?? iooaeueiieia?/iiio ae?aaiinoe/iiio EINI2; 5)
eie??ii? /ooeeaino? ia niaeo?aeueiiio aiiiaeineii? AI59.

?aa?iia?io aaiiaeeiai?eo iiceo aeine?aeaeoaaee ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo
?aiaioeaoaeia?ao?? ia 4-o eaiaeueiiio ?aia?ao? ?4-02 a /ioe?ueio
noaiaea?oieo a?aeaaaeaiiyo, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue noai e?iaiia?ao a
aanaeiao aioo??oi?o niiieo a?oa??e (ANA) (a?aeaaaeaiiy FT) ?
aa?oaa?i-aaceey?ieo a?oa??e (AAA) (a?aeaaaeaiiy MO). Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
e?iaiia?ao iea canoiniaoaaee iaoiae ?aiiooaeueiia?ao?? ca Eaoeiaeueniiii
E.A. (1971).

Aeey e?eoaaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaee ?ic?iaeaiee a ?inoeooo? i/ieo oai?ia ?
oeaieiii? oa?ai?? ?i. A.I.O?eaoiaa ni?eueii c IAe? “Ooi?i” e?eoaaeueiee
iooaeueiieia?/iee aeaeo?inoeioeyoi? “Oinoai”. E?eoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny ca
noaiaea?oiith iaoiaeeeith c ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei i?aeai?ii ii?iaiai?
aaee/eie neee no?oio, ui aeeeeea? a?ae/oooy na?o?iiy a ioe?
(oinoai-oaiiiai) ?icae?eueii aeey eiaeiiai iea ? eiaeiiai oai?iai.
*anoioa iiaea/? ia/ie aeaeo?e/ieo ?iioeuen?a neeaaeaea 15-30 Aoe.
Iacaeaaeii a?ae oiai, aoa iaoieia?/iee i?ioean iiiieoey?iei aai
a?iieoey?iei, aieea cae?enithaaany ia iaeaeaa iea iaeii/anii. Eo?n
e?eoaaiiy neeaaeaany c 10 — 15 uiaeaiieo naain?a ii 10 oaeeei eiaeiee.

Eiiieaenia ooieoe?iiaeueii-ae?aaiino?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio ci?iaiai
aiae?caoi?a o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th, i?iaaaeaia aei e?eoaaiiy, aeyaeei
cieaeaiiy ci?iaeo ooieoe?e a ii??aiyii? c aiaeia?/ieie iieacieeaie a
eiio?ieuei?e a?oi?. A oe?eiio aeey an?o aiae?ii?/ieo i/ae aoei aeyaeaii
cieaeaiiy iacii?/ii? aino?ioe ci?o a na?aaeiueiio ia 69.18.25%,
aeoeaiino? oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueii? aoa?aioii? nenoaie ia 32.59.1%, na?oeiai?
/ooeeaino? — eieai/eiai? ia 15.71.2%, iaee/eiai? — ia 16.71.4%,
aeaeo?e/ii? /ooeeaino? ia 19.86.3%, eaa?eueiino? (“1.5”) — ia 36.25.5%,
eie??ii? /ooeeaino? ia /a?aii?e eie?? ia 28.93.2%, caeaiee ? nei?e
eieuei?e — ia 889.7% ? 89.412.0% a?aeiia?aeii (p<0.05) (oaae.1). I?ney i?iaaaeaiiy iaeiiai eo?no oinoai-aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? (OAN) o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th an?o aeine?aeaeaieo a?oi aoei a?aecia/aii nooo?aa iie?auaiiy ci?iaeo ooieoe?e. Oae, o oai?eo ia ?ao?aeoe?eio aiae?ii?th ei?eaiaaia aino?ioa ci?o (AC) c?inea a 84.6% aeiaaee?a a na?aaeiueiio ia 0.130.02 (c 0.490.02 aei 0.620.02) (p<0.01). Iacii?/ia AC c?inea ia 33.3% (c 0.270.02 aei 0.360.02) (p<0.01), i?ioa ii?ie ia aeinyaea (0.640.02). Iie?aueany ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueii? aoa?aioii? nenoaie, ui a?aeia?aceeiny a cieaeaii? ii?iao aeieeiaiiy oaiiiaio Aaeaeeiaa?a (IAOA) ia 16.1% (n 6.250.2 a?aei.iae. aei 5.200.2 a?aei.iae.); io?eiai? aaee/eie a?aeiia?aeaee ii?i? (5.640.2 a?aei.iae). I?ney e?eoaaiiy a?aecia/aii i?aeaeuaiiy aei ii?iaeueieo aaee/ei (2.800.06 eia.iae) eieai/eiai? na?oeiai? /ooeeaino? (N*) - ia 10.4% (c 2.300.06 eia.iae. aei 2.540.06 eia.iae.), iaee/eiaa N* c?inea - ia 5.1% (c 3.160.08 eia.iae. aei 3.320.07 eia.iae.), aea caeeoaeany cia/ii ieae/a ii?ie (3.980.09 eia.iae) (p<0.05). Ii?iae aeaeo?e/ii? /ooeeaino? ca oinoaiii (IA*O) ? eaa?euei?noue a ?aaeei? “1.5” o oai?eo ia ?ao?aeoe?eio aiae?ii?th aei e?eoaaiiy aoee ieae/a ii?ie (p<0.05), oiae? ye aaee/eie eaa?eueiino? “3” a?ae ii?ie ia a?ae??ciyeeny, ui a?aeia?aceeiny ia ?acoeueoaoao e?eoaaiiy ca oeeie iieacieeaie. Oae, IA*O i?ney eo?no OAN cieceany a n?aaeiueiio ia 24.6% a?ae ii/aoeiaiai ??aiy (c 69.52.6 ieA aei 59.42.2 ieA) (p<0.001); iieacieee E*CIO “1.5” a?aeiiaethaaeeny aei ii?ie, c?inoath/e ia 53% (c 9.51.4 Aoe aei 14.51.6 Aoe) (p<0.005). Eaa?euei?noue “3” c?inoaea iacia/ii. I?ney eo?no OAN i?e ?ao?aeoe?ei?e aiae?ii?? a?aecia/aii iie?auaiiy eie??ii? /ooeeaino?, ui a?aeia?aceeiny a cieaeaii? ?? ii?ia?a ia /a?aiiee eie?? ia 21.2%, ia caeaiee - ia 26.2%, ia nei?e - ia 22.6% a ii??aiyii? c ii/aoeiaei ??aiai (p<0.001). Iiaia ii?iae?caoe?y iieaciee?a a?aecia/aia eeoa aeey /a?aiiiai eieuei?o, a inoaii?o aeiaaeeao ii?iae caeeoaeeny cia/ii aeua ii?ie (p<0.005). Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aieeao eo?no OAN ia ci?ia? ooieoe?? o oai?eo ia ai?ciiao?ii?/io aiae?ii?th aeyaeee ?o ??cieoeth a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ao?aeoe?? - a?ia?iao?ii?y /e i?ii?y. Aino?ioa ci?o c ei?aeoe??th i?ney e?eoaaiiy c?inoaea i?e aiae?ii?? c a?ia?iao?ii??th cia/ii /ano?oa, i?ae i?e aiae?ii?? c i?ii??th - a 84.4% i?ioe 48.1% (p<0.001). Ca na?aaei?ie aaee/eiaie AC oaeiae c?inea a a?eueo?e i??? i?e aiae?ii?? c a?ia?iao?ii??th - ia 0.170.02 (c 0.240.03 aei 0.410.04), a ii??aiyii? c i?ii??th - ia 0.080.009 (c 0.240.04 aei 0.320.05) (p<0.005). Iacii?/ia AC i?ney e?eoaaiiy cia/ii c?inea eeoa i?e aiae?ii?? c a?ia?iao?ii??th - ia 64.3% (c 0.140.03 aei 0.230.03) (p<0.01). I?ney e?eoaaiiy iie?aueany ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueii? aoa?aioii? nenoaie, ui ae?aceeiny a cieaeaii? IAOA aei ii?ie i?e aiae?ii?? c a?ia?iao?ii??th - c 6.550.23 aei 5.630.23 a?aei.iae (ia 14.1% a?ae ii/aoeiaiai ??aiy) (p<0.05) ? oaiaeaioe?? aei iie?auaiiy i?e aiae?ii?? c i?ii??th. Na?oeiaa /ooeea?noue o oai?eo ia ai?ciiao?ii?/io aiae?ii?th aei e?eoaaiiy a?eueoa aoea cieaeaia i?e aiae?ii?? c i?ii??th, i?ae c a?ia?iao?ii??th. I?ney eo?no OAN eieai/eiaa N* i?aeaeueeany eeoa i?e aiae?ii?? c a?ia?iao?ii??th - c 2.450.09 aei 2.700.09 eia.iae. (ia 10.2%); iaee/eiaa N* c?inea i?e aiae?ii?? c a?ia?iao?ii??th ia 12.3% (c 3.490.07 aei 3.920.12 eia.iae), c i?ii??th - ia 7.1% (c 3.240.13 aei 3.470.12 eia.iae) (p<0.05). I?ney e?eoaaiiy N* ia a?ae??ciyeany a?ae ii?ie ia aiae?ii?/ieo i/ao c a?ia?iao?ii??th ? caeeoaeany nooo?ai ieae/ith ca ii?io i?e aiae?ii?? c i?ii??th. Aeaeo?e/ia /ooeea?noue ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a aei e?eoaaiiy ieae/a ii?ie aoea eeoa i?e aiae?ii?? c a?ia?iao?ii??th (p<0.05); iieacieee eaa?eueiino? “3” ia a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae ii?iaeueieo; eaa?euei?noue “1.5” aoea cieaeaiith ia an?o aiae?ii?/ieo i/ao (p<0.05). I?ney e?eoaaiiy IA*O cieceany ia 11.3% (c 54.21.92 ieA aei 48.11.48 ieA), aeinyaioaoe ii?ie eeoa i?e aiae?ii?? c a?ia?iao?ii??th (p<0.001). Eaa?euei?noue “1.5” i?ney e?eoaaiiy iiai?noth a?aeiiaeeany, c?inoath/e ia i/ao c aiae?ii??th ? a?ia?iao?ii??th ia 40.7% (c 11.81.45 Aoe aei 16.61.4 Aoe) ? ia 33.7% (c 9.12.47 Aoe aei 12.32.8 Aoe) i?e aiae?ii?? c i?ii??th (p<0.005). I?ney e?eoaaiiy a?aecia/aii iie?auaiiy eie??ii? /ooeeaino?. Ii?iae ia an? o?e eieuei?e cieceeeny a n?aaeiueiio ia 14.2 - 20.6% aeey i/ae c aiae?ii??th ? a?ia?iao?ii??th, ia 17.4 - 24.8% aeey aiae?ii?? c i?ii??th (p<0.005) (oaae.1). Oaeei /eiii, o oai?eo ia ai?ciiao?ii?/io aiae?ii?th c a?ia?iao?ii?/iith ?ao?aeoe??th ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy ca aeaieie c?inoaiiy aino?ioe ci?o, iacii?/ii? aino?ioe ci?o, ii?iao aeieeiaiiy oaiiiaio Aaeaeeiaa?a, na?oeiai? /ooeeaino?, aoee cia/ii e?aueie, i?ae i?e ai?ciiao?ii?/i?e aiae?ii?? c i?ii??th. O oai?eo ia aeena?iieoey?io aiae?ii?th aino?ioa ci?o aieiaiei /eiii caeaaeaea a?ae aeaeo o?enaoe?? - oeaio?aeueia /e aenoeaio?e/ia (r=0.67, p<0.001), ui aeaei i?aenoaae i?iaiaeeoe aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy a aeaio a?oiao caeaaeii a?ae aeaeo o?enaoe??: 1) c oeaio?aeueiith - 31 iei, 2) c aenoeaio?e/iith - 25 i/ae. Oaaeeoey 1 Ci?ie ci?iaeo ooieoe?e i?ney eo?no oinoai-aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th (Mm) Eiio?. a?oia?ao?aeoe. aiae?ii?yAi?ciiao?ii?/ia aiae?ii?yAeena?iieoey?ia aiae?ii?yNooi?iue ci?ie ci?iaeo ooieoe?e (%)HmMOeaio?. o?enaoe?yAenoeaio?. o?enaoe?ycieaeaiiy a?ae ii?iei?aeaeuaiiy i?ney OANAino?ioa ci?o c ei?aeoe??thAei I?ney1.050.010.490.02 0.620.02*0.240.03 0.410.04*0.240.04 0.320.05*0.400.03 0.560.04*0.100.01 0.150.01*76.37.2944.17.7Iacii?/ia aino?ioa ci?oAei I?ney0.640.02 0.270.02 0.360.02* 0.140.03 0.230.03* 0.120.03 0.180.04 0.370.03 0.470.03*0.090.01 0.190.04*69.18.2547.116.0Eieai/eiaa na?oei-aa /ooe-oue (eia.iae.)Aei I?ney2.800.062.300.06 2.540.06* 2.450.09 2.700.09* 2.440.10 2.480.09* 2.320.16 2.580.17* 2.300.13 2.590.11*15.71.29.21.9Iaee/eiaa na?oeiaa /ooeea?noue(eia.iae.)Aei I?ney3.980.093.160.08 3.320.07* 3.490.07 3.920.12* 3.240.13 3.470.12* 3.380.14 3.700.15* 3.300.13 3.590.15*16.71.48.61.2IAOA (a?aei.iae)Aei I?ney5.640.20 6.250.17 5.200.16* 6.550.23 5.630.23* 8.830.39 6.980.24* 6.870.31 5.740.26* 8.880.24 7.640.26*32.59.116.51.27Ii??a aeaeo?e/ii? /ooeeaino? (ieA)Aei I?ney48.42.0 69.52.63 59.42.17* 54.21.92 48.11.48*53.42.94 53.12.4953.82.45 49.01.79* 59.03.41 53.42.17*19.86.3%13.22.9Eaa?euei?noue a ?aaeei? “1.5” (Aoe)Aei I?ney15.20.7 9.461.37 14.51.61* 11.81.45 16.61.36* 9.12.47 12.32.79* 7.01.87 13.04.44* 11.12.36 14.32.80*36.25.547.610.6Eie??ia /ooe. ia /a?-aii. eie?? (a?aei.iae)Aei I?ney16.10.3020.30.99 16.00.49* 21.61.18 16.70.92* 19.03.2 15.72.4* 21.01.26 18.20.80* 21.93.58 20.82.59*28.93.215.93.2Eie??ia /ooe. ia caeai. eie??(a?aei.iae)Aei I?ney12.20.3 21.80.86 16.10.58* 20.41.19 16.20.79* 22.61.5 18.51.4* 22.01.0 18.50.83* 28.03.50 21.02.74*889.721.21.9Eie??ia /ooe. ia nei?e eie?? (a?aei.iae)Aei I?ney11.00.319.10.80 14.80.59* 16.30.82 14.00.66* 23.04.6 17.32.3* 20.51.05 17.11.02* 26.34.61 19.22.87*89.412.019.23.7* - ??aaiue cia/ouino? ??cieoeue i?ae iieacieeaie aei ? i?ney e?eoaaiiy p < 0.01 - ??aaiue cia/ouino? ??cieoeue aeine?aeaeaieo iieaciee?a a?ae a?oie eiio?ieth p<0.05 I?ney e?eoaaiiy ei?eaiaaia AC ca?eueoeeany i?e aiae?ii?? c oeaio?aeueiith o?enaoe??th a 88.0% aeiaaee?a a na?aaeiueiio ia 0.210.02 (c 0.490.03 aei 0.700.04) ? iaioa i?e aiae?ii?? c aenoeaio?e/iith o?enaoe??th - a 73.1% a na?aaeiueiio ia 0.060.009 (c 0.100.001 aei 0.160.01) (p<0.001). Iacii?/ia AC i?ney e?eoaaiiy c?inea i?e aiae?ii?? c oeaio?aeueiith o?enaoe??th ia 27.0% (c 0.370.03 aei 0.470.03), a iaioiio nooiai? i?e aenoeaio?e/i?e o?enaoe?? - ia 11.1% (c 0.090.01 aei 0.190.04), (p<0.05), ia aeinyaath/e, iaeiae, ??aiy ii?ie. Eo?n OAN iie?auea aeoeai?noue oiaaa - ei?oeeaeueii? aoa?aioii? nenoaie ca IAOA, yeee cieceany ia 16.5% i?e aiae?ii?? c oeaio?aeueiith o?enaoe??th, aeinyaioaoe ??aiy ii?ie (p<0.05). I?e aenoeaio?e/i?e o?enaoe?? IAOA cieceany ia 14.0% a?ae ii/aoeiaiai ??aiy, aea ? i?ney e?eoaaiiy caeeoaany cia/ii aeua ii?ie. I?ney e?eoaaiiy iie?aueeany na?oeiaa /ooeea?noue. Oae, eieai/eiaa N* c?inea i?e aiae?ii?? c oeaio?aeueiith o?enaoe??th ia 11.2% (c 2.320.16 aei 2.580.17 eia.iae), i?e aenoeaio?e/i?e - ia 8.3% (c 2.300.13 aei 2.590.11 eia.iae), iaee/eiaa N* nooo?ai iie?aueeany eeoa i?e aiae?ii?? c oeaio?aeueiith o?enaoe??th ia 9.5% (c 3.380.14 aei 3.700.15 eia.iae) (p<0.05). A ?acoeueoao? e?eoaaiiy i?e aiae?ii?? c oeaio?aeueiith o?enaoe??th N* iiai?noth ii?iae?coaaeany ? caeeoaeany nooo?ai ieae/a ii?ie aeey iaee/eiai? N* i?e aenoeaio?e/i?e o?enaoe??. I?ney eo?no OAN a?aecia/aii iie?auaiiy aeaeo?e/ii? /ooeeaino? ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a o oai?eo ia aeena?iieoey?io aiae?ii?th. IA*O cieceany a na?aaeiueiio ia 9.5% aeey an?o oai?eo iacaeaaeii a?ae aeaeo o?enaoe?? - i?e oeaio?aeuei?e c 53.82.45 ieA aei 49.01.8 ieA, i?e aenoeaio?e/i?e - c 59.03.41 ieA aei 53.42.2 ieA (p<0.05), aeinyaioaoe ii?ie. Eaa?euei?noue “1.5” oaeiae ii?iae?coaaeany, ? c?inea i?e aiae?ii?? c oeaio?aeueiith o?enaoe??th ia 85.7% (c 7.01.87 Aoe aei 13.04.4Aoe) (p<0.05), i?e aenoeaio?e/i?e - ia 27% (c 11.12.36 Aoe aei 14.32.80 Aoe) (p<0.05). Eie??ia /ooeea?noue aei e?eoaaiiy aoea iaea?eueo cieaeaiith i?e aiae?ii?? c aenoeaio?e/iith o?enaoe??th ia caeaiee ? nei?e eie??. I?ney e?eoaaiiy eie??ia /ooeea?noue nooo?ai c?inea ia /a?aiiee eie?? ia 13.3% i?e aiae?ii?? c oeaio?aeueiith o?enaoe??th, ia caeaiee ? nei?e eieuei?e - a?aeiia?aeii i?e aiae?ii?? c oeaio?aeueiith o?enaoe??th ia 15.9% ? 7.1%, i?e aenoeaio??/i?e - ia 25.0% ? 27.0% (p<0.005) (oaae.1). E??i iie?auaiiy ci?iaeo ooieoe?e ia aiae?ii?/ieo i/ao a?aecia/aii ?o iie?auaiiy ia iaaiae?ii?/ieo ia?ieo i/ao ye i?e ai?ciiao?ii?/i?e, oae ? i?e aeena?iieoey?i?e aiae?ii??. Iie?auaiiy AC ia aaaeo/eo i/ao a?aecia/aii a 55.9% aeiaaee?a ia 0.160.009 (c 0.980.02 aei 1.140.03) (p<0.005). Iacii?/ia AC, yea ia iaaiae?ii?/ieo ia?ieo i/ao aoea aei e?eoaaiiy nooo?ai ieae/a ii?ie - 0.460.02, i?ney e?eoaaiiy ii?iae?coaaeany - 0.560.02 (p<0.005). Iie?aueeany ooieoe?iiaeueia aeoeai?noue oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueii? aoa?aioii? nenoaie, ui ae?aceeiny a cieaeaii? IAOA ia 17.0% (c 6.140.19 a?aei.iae aei 5.10.17 a?aei.iae). Eieai/eiaa N* ia?ieo i/ae i?ney e?eoaaiiy ca?eueoeeany ia 8.5% (c 2.600.07 aei 2.820.07 eia.iae), iaee/eiaa - ia 11.1% (c 3.520.05 aei 3.910.09 eia.iae). Ii?iae aeaeo?e/ii? /ooeeaino? cieceeeny ia 9.0% (c 53.81.8 ieA aei 49.01.34 ieA), eaa?euei?noue “1.5” c?inea ia 31.3% (n 13.11.8 Aoe aei 17.21.3 Aoe) (p<0.005). Ii?iae ia eieuei?e cieceeeny ia 13.2- 20.0%. I?e aiae?c? iieaci?e?a ?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th aeyaeaii ianooiia (oaae.2). Oaaeeoey 2 Noai iieaciee?a e?iaiia?ao iiceo a aanaei? aioo??oi?o niiieo a?oa??e (a?aeaaaeaiiy FT) ? aa?oaa?i-aaceey?ieo a?oa??e (a?aeaaaeaiiy II) o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th aei ? i?ney iaeiie?aoiiai eo?no OAN ( Mm) (n)?? (Ii)EA (%)AA (%)AI (%)Eiio?ieue FT MO 0.110.02 0.110.02 0.19 0.01 0.160.005 9.231.92 5.961.61 69.01.74 69.51.66 25.41.54 30.01.14?ao?aeoe?eia aiae?ii?yFT Aei I?ney MO Aei I?ney 0.170.01 0.170.01 0.170.01 0.150.01*0.180.006 0.200.005*0.150.006 0.170.006*17.63.8 13.62.4 19.82.9 13.42.5* 83.42.02 81.21.56 86.12.00 83.21.61 38.21.44 31.41.14* 38.71.26 34.51.45*Ai?ciiao?ii?/ia aiae?ii?yFT Aei I?ney MO Aei I?ney 0.160.01 0.160.01 0.160.01 0.160.01 0.160.01 0.200.01* 0.140.008 0.160.01*24.63.92 15.72.78* 25.03.32 14.42.99* 82.82.37 82.02.60 84.42.12 79.72.02*35.91.84 30.41.26* 39.52.08 35.01.62*Aeena?iieoey?ia aiae?ii?yFT Aei I?ney MO Aei I?ney 0.170.01 0.130.01* 0.160.01 0.150.01 0.180.007 0.190.009 0.130.009 0.160.01*20.54.36 14.803.07 11.303.15 8.201.51 78.52.47 76.52.31 84.22.78 77.02.49*41.62.81 36.02.62* 39.62.67 37.92.53A oe?eiio aeey an??? a?oie oai?eo ia aiae?ii?thFT Aei I?ney MO Aei I?ney0.170.008 0.160.009 0.160.009 0.150.0080.180.005 0.200.005*0.140.005 0.170.005*20.42.31 15.71.65* 18.91.57 12.71.57*83.31.62 82.21.33 84.61.51 81.61.26*37.81.36 31.60.99* 39.91.26 34.91.04 * - ??aaiue cia/ouino? ??ci?oe? i?ae iieacieeaie ?AA o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th ? a eiio?ieuei?e a?oi? p<0.05 * - ??aaiue cia/ouino? ??ci?oe? i?ae iieacieeaie ?AA aei ? i?ney e?eoaaiiy p<0.05 Aei e?eoaaiiy e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy noaeei aieiaiiai iiceo ca aaee/eiith ?aia?ao?/iiai ?iaeaeno (??) i?e ?ao?aeoe?ei?e aiae?ii?? aoei a iaaeao ii?ie a iaio noaeeiieo aanaeiao. O oai?eo ia aeena?iieoey?io aiae?ii?th ii?iaeueia aaee/eia ?? aoea eeoa a aanaei? ANA. I?e ai?ciiao?ii?/i?e aiae?ii?? ?? a aanaei? ANA aoa ieae/ei ca ii?io - 0.160.01 Ii i?ioe 0.190.01 Ii (p<0.05). A aanaei? AAA ?? aoa ieae/a ii?ie ? aei??aithaaa i?e ai?ciiao?ii?/i?e aiae?ii?? 0.140.008 Ii, i?e aeena?iieoey?i?e aiae?ii?? - 0.130.009 Ii (p<0.05); aeey an??? a?oie oai?eo nooi?iue cieaeaiiy neeaa 14.7%. Eiao?oe?aio i?aei?aeoeaai? aneiao??? e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy noaeei iiceo (EA) a iaio noaeeiieo aanaeiao aoa aeuei ca ii?io a oe?eiio ia 61.6% (p<0.005), ui a?aeia?aaeaei nooo?a? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? eieeaaiiy e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy noaeei i?aai? ? e?ai? i?aeoe?. Iaea?eueo cia/ii EA aoa i?aeaeuaiei o iaoe??io?a n ai?ciiao?ii?/iith aiae?ii??th - (24.63.92)% a aanaei? ANA ? (25.03.32)% a aanaei? AAA (oaae.2). ssei?-iaaoaeue caeiiii??iino? a ia?aaac? e?iaiiaiiaiaii? noaeei o??? aai ?ioi? noi?iie iiceo aeyaeaii ia aoei. Oiion aaeeeeo ? na?aaei?o noaeei (iieaciee ) o an?o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th aoa aeuei, i?ae a eiio?ie? ia 54% a aanaei? ANA ? ia 45.5% - a aanaei? AAA (p<0.01), aeey an??? a?oie a oe?eiio - ia 50.0%. Aaee/eia aaiicii-a?oa??aeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy AA, yea a?aeia?aaea? ??aaiue ia?eoa??eiiai noaeeiiiai iii?o (INI), i?e aiae?ii?? an?o aeae?a aoea ia 14.7% aeua, i?ae a ii?i?, ? aei??aithaaea a?aeiia?aeii aeey an??? a?oie oai?eo (83.31.62)% a aanaei? ANA ? (84.61.51)% - a aanaei? AAA i?ioe (69.01.74)% ? (69.51.66)% a eiio?ie? (p<0.001) (oaae.2). Aaiiciee a?aeoie (AA) a on?o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th aoa oneeaaeiaiee, ui oa?aeoa?ecoaaeiny a?eueo aenieeie aaee/eiaie AA a ii??aiyii? c ii?iith a n?aaeiueiio ia 29% - (37.81.36)% o a?aeaaaeaii? FT ? (39.51.26)% o a?aeaaaeaii? II i?e a?aeiia?aeieo iieacieeao a a?oi? eiio?ieth (25.41.54)% ? (30.01.14)% (p<0.01). I?iaaaeaiiy iaeii?aciaiai eo?no oinoai-aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? aeeeeeaei nooo?aa iie?auaiiy iieaciee?a aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo. E?iaiiaiiaiaiiy noaeei iiceo c?inoaei iaea?eueo nooo?ai a aanaei? AAA, aaea ?? a oe?eiio ae??n ia 21.4% (p<0.01), aeinyaioaoe ??aiy ii?ie, ui aoei iniaeeai aaaeeeaei o oai?eo ia ai?ciiao?ii?/io ? aeena?iieoey?io aiae?ii?th c ii/aoeiai iecueeeie iieacieeaie ?? (oaae.2). A on?o a?oiao oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th cieceany eiao?oe??io i?aei?aeoeaai? aneiao??? EA a oe?eiio ia 32.8% - aei (15.71.65)% a aanaei? ANA ? (12.71.57)% a aanaei? AAA (p<0.05). Oiion aaeeeeo ? n?aaei?o noaeei ca iieacieeii i?ney e?eoaaiiy ci?ithaaany iaei ? iaa eeoa oaiaeaioe?th aei cieaeaiiy o an?o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th a oe?eiio. Ia?eoa??eiee noaeeiiee ii?? ca iieacieeii AA aiane?aeie e?eoaaiiy nooo?ai cieceany eeoa a aanaei? AAA - c (84.61.51)% aei (81.61.26)% (p<0.05), nooi?iue cieaeaiiy aoa iaea?eueo ae?aaeaiei i?e ai?ciiao?ii?/i?e (ia 5.7%) ? aeena?iieoey?i?e aiae?ii?? (ia 8.5%) (a n?aaeiueiio ia 7.1%). I?ney e?eoaaiiy iie?aueany aaiiciee a?aeoie a n?aaeiueiio ia 12.5%, ui ae?aceeiny cieaeaiiyi iieacieea AA - c (37.81.36)% aei (31.60.99)% a aanaei? ANA ? c (39.91.26)% aei (34.91.04)% a aanaei? AAA (p<0.005). Oaeei /eiii, a oe?eiio ci?ie ?aa?iia?iiai e?iaiia?ao iiceo - ca?eueoaiiy e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy noaeei, cieaeaiiy ia?eoa??eiiai noaeeiiiai iii?o, iie?auaiiy aaiiciiai a?aeoieo, - i?ney OAN aoee a?eueo nooo?aeie a aanaei? aa?oaa?i-aaceey?ieo a?oa??e, i?ae a aanaei? aioo??oi?o niiieo a?oa??e, oiaoi naia a oiio noaeeiiiio aanaei?, yeee a?aeiia?aea? ca e?iaiiinoa/aiiy ci?iaeo oeaio??a iiceo. E?iaiia?a iea a noaeeiao, ui ooai?ththoue noaeeiio iaieiieo, aecia/aany ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo ?aiiooaeueiia?ao?? (?IA) c aeei?enoaiiyi aaeooiiiai aeao/eea eiioaeoii? e?ice eiino?oeoe?? *?aa?aia. Noai aaiiaeeiai?ee i/ae ioe?ithaaany ca aeaiia iieacieeaie: 1) ?aia?ao?/iei eiao?oe??ioii (RQ), yeee oa?aeoa?eco? a?aeiiniee ioeueniaee ia’?i iea; 2) ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi /O - a?aeia?aaea? aeanoioii?/i? aeanoeaino? noaeei. Aiae?c noaio aaiiaeeiai?ee i/ae aoa i?iaaaeaiee o 27 oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th (38 i/ae c aiae?ii??th ? 16 ia?ieo iaaiae?ii?/ieo i/ae). Aeey ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ie aeei?enoiaoaaee a?aeii? c e?oa?aoo?e aeai? iieaciee?a ii?iaeueii? ?IA aeey aeaii? a?eiai? a?oie: RQ - 4.0-5.0, /O - 24.0-27.0% (Oioeae A., 1970, Aeaoaanueeee A., 1972, Eaoeiaeuenii E., 1977). Iaoei aeine?aeaeaiiyi anoaiiaeaii, ui a?aeiiniee ioeueniaee ia’?i noaeei iea ca iieacieeii RQ aei e?eoaaiiy aoa nooo?ai cieaeaiee ? aoa ieae/ei ca 4.0 a 58% aeiaaee?a ? caeaaeaa a?ae nooiaiy aiae?ii?? - i?e aiae?ii?? neaaeiai ? n?aaeiueiai nooiai?a a?i aoa aeuei - 4.530.29, i?ae i?e aiae?ii?? aenieiai nooiaiy 2.330.45 (p<0.05). E??i oiai, anoaiiaeaii, ui RQ caeaaeaa a?ae aeaeo ?ao?aeoe?? aiae?ii?/iiai iea - i?e a?ia?iao?ii?? a?i aoa aeuei - 4.230.35, i?ae i?e i?ii?? - 2.260.32 (p<0.01). Oiion noaeei iea (/O) aei e?eoaaiiy a 50.0% aeiaaee?a ia?aaeuoaaa aaee/eio 30.0%. I?e aiae?ii?? neaaeiai ? n?aaeiueiai nooiai?a /O iaa oaiaeaioe?th aei a?eueo iecueeeo iieaciee?a a ii??aiyii? c aenieei nooiaiai aiae?ii?? - 28.91.36% ? 33.30.94% a?aeiia?aeii. I?ney eo?no OAN ci?ie ioeueniaiai e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy noaeei - RQ, aoee ??ciiiai?aaeai? caeaaeii a?ae eiai ii/aoeiai? aaee/eie - nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy i?e RQ<5.0 - c 3.310.28 aei 3.650.25 (ia 10.3%) (p<0.005) ? cieaeaiiy i?e RQ>5.0 — c 6.350.12 aei 5.00.29 (ia 22.0%) (p<0.005). Iieaciee /O i?ney e?eoaaiiy cieceany eeoa o aeiaaeeao eiai ii/aoeiai? aaee/eie aeua 30.0% - c 34.60.91% aei 31.30.89% (p<0.005). Iieacieee ?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee ia?ieo i/ae aei e?eoaaiiy aoee a iaaeao ii?iaeueieo aaee/ei - RQ = 4.350.46 ? /O = 29.61.57% ? i?ney e?eoaaiiy ia ci?ithaaeeny. Oaeei /eiii, a oe?eiio aieea OAN ia aaiiae?iai?eo iea iineoue ii?iae?coth/ee oa?aeoa?. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aoaeoeaiino? OAN o oai?eo c ??cieie aeaeaie aiae?ii?? aeyaea ianooiia. I?e aiae?ii?? a oe?eiio ei?eaiaaia AC ia? i?yi? ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee c ?ioeie ci?iaeie ooieoe?yie: iacii?/iith AC (r=0.58); eie??iith /ooeea?noth ia caeaiee (r=0.23) ? nei?e eieuei?e (r=0.24); aeoeai?noth oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueii? aooa?aioii? nenoaie (r=0.38), a oaeiae c ??aiai e?iaaiaiiaiaiiy noaeei aieiaiiai iiceo (??) a aanaei? AAA (r= 0.23) p<0.001). Aaniethoiee i?e??no ei?eaiaaii? AC a ?acoeueoao? e?eoaaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae: nooiaiy aiae?ii?? - i?e neaaeiio ? n?aaeiueiio a?i aeuee, i?ae i?e aenieiio (F=8.5, p<0.005); i?e ?ao?aeoe?ei?e ? ai?ciiao?ii?/i?e aiae?ii?? - a?ae ?ao?aeoe??: aeua i?e a?ia?iao?ii??, i?ae i?e i?ii?? (F=8.2, p<0.005); i?e aeena?iieoey?i?e aiae?ii?? - a?ae o?enaoe??: aeua i?e oeaio?aeuei?e, i?ae i?e aenoeaio?e/i?e (F=26.1, p<0.0001). E??i oiai, aeyaeaii i?yi? ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee i?ae aaniethoiei i?e?inoii aino?ioe ci?o i?ney e?eoaaiiy ? ii/aoeiaei ??aiai aeayeeo ci?iaeo ooieoe?e: 1) eieai/eiaith N* (r=0.25), 2) iacii?/iith aino?ioith ci?o (r=0.26), 3) eie??iith /ooeea?noth ia nei?e eie?? (r=0.31) (p<0.01), oiaoi, /ei aeueie aei e?eoaaiiy aoee ii/aoeia? iieacieee oeeo ooieoe?e, oei a a?eueo?e i??? c?inoaea i?ney e?eoaaiiy aino?ioa ci?o ia aiae?ii?/ieo i/ao. Ci?ie ?ioeo ci?iaeo ooieoe?e oaeiae iaee aeaye? caeiiii??iino?. Aeyaeaii, ui ci?ia aaniethoii? aaee/eie IAOA i?ney e?eoaaiiy i?yii caeaaeaea a?ae ?? ii/aoeiaiai ??aiy (r=0.48) ? iaea cai?ioith ei?aeyoe?th c ii/aoeiaith AC (r=-0.13, p<0.05). Eieai/eiaa N* aei e?eoaaiiy aoea ieaeith ca ii?io ? ia caeaaeaea a?ae aeaeo ? nooiaiy aiae?ii??; iaee/eiaa N* oaeiae aoea ieae/a ii?ie, aea iaea?eueo iecueeith aoea i?e ?ao?aeoe?ei?e a?iieoey?i?e aiae?ii??. Oae? ae ci?ie niinoa??aaeeny ? c aieo aeaeo?e/ii? /ooeeaino?, yea oaeiae aoea naiith iecueeith i?e ?ao?aeoe?ei?e aiae?ii?? a ii??aiyii? c ai?ciiao?ii?/iith ? aeena?iieoey?iith (p<0.05). Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui i?e ?ao?aeoe?ei?e aiae?ii?? i?ae aeaeo?e/iith ? na?oeiaith /ooeea?noth aeyaeyeany i?yia ei?aeyoe?y (r=0.46, p<0.01), yea, iiaeeeai, ? iiynith? iaea?eueo iecuee? ?o iieacieee naia a oe?e a?oi? oai?eo. Aaniethoiee i?e??no eieai/eiai? N* a ?acoeueoao? e?eoaaiiy caeaaeaa a?ae aeaeo ?ao?aeoe?? aiae?ii?/iiai iea: i?e a?ia?iao?ii?? a?i aoa nooo?ai aeuei (0.24, =0.18), i?ae i?e i?ii?? (0.14, =0.09) (F=3.96, p<0.05). Aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai? /a?ac 6-8 i?nyoe?a o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th, ui io?eiaee eo?n OAN, anoaiiaeee, ui aino?ioa ci?o, yea aoea aeinyaiooa i?ney ia?oiai eo?no OAN, caa??aa?oueny ia aeinyaiooiio ??ai? a 96.0% aeiaaee?a i?e ?ao?aeoe?ei?e aiae?ii??, a 83.5% - i?e ai?ciiao?ii?/i?e oa aeena?iieoey?i?e aiae?ii??. ?io? ci?ia? ooieoe?? - na?oeiaa, eie??ia, aeaeo?e/ia /ooeea?noue ? eaa?euei?noue, aeoeai?noue oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueii? aoa?aioii? nenoaie, - caa??aaeany ia aeinyaiooiio i?ney ? eo?no OAN ??ai? a 46.5% - 90.0% aeiaaee?a. AENIIAEE 1. Aiae?ii?y yaey? niaith aeooaeueio i?iaeaio no/anii? iooaeueiieia??, ui iaoiiaeaii ?? cia/iith ?iciianthaeaeai?noth, iniaeeai na?aae aeeoy/iai ianaeaiiy, iaaeinoaoiueith aeine?aeaeai?noth ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a i?e aeai?e iaoieia??, a oaeiae iaaiith iaiaaeai?noth a?aeiieo iaoiae?a ?? e?eoaaiiy. 2. O oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th aeyaeaii cieaeaiiy ci?iaeo ooieoe?e ( iacii?/ii? aino?ioe ci?o, na?oeiai?, eie??ii?, a oaeiae aeaeo?e/ii? /ooeeaino? ? eaa?eueiino?, aeoeaiino? oiaaa-aoa?aoii? nenoaie) a ii??aiyii? c ii?iith. Ae?aaeai?noue aeyaeaieo ii?ooaiue ??cia a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo ? nooiaiy aiae?ii??, aeaeo ?ao?aeoe?? ? o?enaoe?? aiae?ii?/ieo i/ae. Aeyaeai? i?yi? ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee i?ae aino?ioith ci?o i?e aiae?ii?? (nooiaiai aiae?ii??) ? aeoeai?noth oiaaa - ei?oeeaeueii? aoa?aioii? nenoaie ca oaiiiaiii Aaeaeeiaa?a, iacii?/iith aino?ioith ci?o ? eie??iith /ooeea?noth aei neiueiai eieuei?o. Anoaiiaeaii cieaeaiiy ci?iaeo ooieoe?e ia ia?ieo iaaiae?ii?/ieo i/ao. 3. Ia i?aenoaa? aea/aiiy ?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo ? i/ae i?e aiae?ii?? anoaiiaeai? ?? ii?ooaiiy a ii??aiyii? c ii?iith - cieaeaiiy ??aiy ioeueniaiai e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy noaeei, i?aeaeuaiiy noaeeiiiai oiiono, i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe?aioo i?aei?aeoeaai? aneiao??? e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy noaeei, ye? a?eueo ae?aaeai? a aanaei? aa?oaa?i-aaceeey?ieo a?oa??e. Anoaiiaeaiee i?yiee ei?aeyoe?eiee ca’ycie i?ae aino?ioith ci?o i?e aiae?ii?? ? ??aiai e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy noaeei iiceo a oeueiio noaeeiiiio aanaei?. 4. Aia?oa aeyaeaii iie?auaiiy aino?ioe ci?o i?ney iaeii?aciaiai eo?no OAN o 88.0% - 73.1% oai?eo ia ?ao?aeoe?eio, aeena?iieoey?io ? ai?ciiao?ii?/io aiae?ii?th c a?ia?iao?ii?/iith ?ao?aeoe??th ? a 48.1% aeiaaee?a i?e ai?ciiao?ii?/i?e aiae?ii?? c i?ii??th. Aeyaeaii cia/ia iie?auaiiy ?ioeo ci?iaeo ooieoe?e i?ae aieeaii iaeii?aciaiai eo?no OAN - iacii?/ii? aino?ioe ci?o, na?oeiai?, eie??ii?, aeaeo?e/ii? /ooeeaino? ? eaa?eueiino?, aeoeaiino? oiaaa - ei?oeeaeueii? aoa?aioii? nenoaie, ye? caa??aathoueny ia aeinyaiooiio ??ai? ia i?ioyc? 6-8 i?nyoe?a. 5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ii?/ia ?ao?aeoe?y, aenoeaio?e/ia o?enaoe?y ? ii/aoeiai iani?eyoeeaeie oaeoi?aie aeey iie?auaiiy ci?iaeo ooieoe?e i?e OAN, a aaniethoiee i?e??no aino?ioe ci?o ia? i?yi? ei?aeyoe?ei? ca’ycee c ii/aoeiaei ??aiai eieai/eiai? na?oeiai? /ooeeaino?, eie??ii? /ooeeaino? aei neiueiai eieuei?o, aeoeaiino? oiaaa - ei?oeeaeueiiai aoa?aoiiai ueyoo ca ii?iaii aeieeiaiiy oaiiiaio Aaeaeeiaa?a. A?aecia/aii iie?auaiiy aino?ioe ci?o ia ia?ieo iaaiae?ii?/ieo i/ao a 56% aeiaaee?a, yea noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny iiaiith ii?iae?caoe??th ?ioeo ci?iaeo ooieoe?e. 6. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii ii?iae?coth/ee aieea OAN ia ?aa?iia?io aaiiaeeiai?eo iiceo ? iea: c?inoaiiy e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy noaeei iiceo (aei iiaii? ii?iae?caoe??) ? iea, cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioo i?aei?aeoeaai? aneiao???, cieaeaiiy noaeeiiiai oiiono, iie?auaiiy aaiiciiai a?aeoieo. Ci?ie iaea?eueo ae?aaeai? a aanaei? aa?oaa?i-aaceey?ieo a?oa??e. 7. Iaoiae OAN ? aoaeoeaiei, aei?aaaeaiei, iaa?oioiaaiei ? iiaea aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaaiee aeey aeei?enoaiiy a ee?i?/i?e i?aeoeoe? aeey e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th ??cieo aeae?a. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIIEO ?IA?O CA OAIITH AeENNA?OAOe?? 1. Iiiiia?/oe A.N., O?aiaiei I.E., Neiaiaeyiee N.A. Oinoai-oa?aiey o aieueiuo n ?ao?aeoeeiiiie aeia?iao?iie/aneie aiaeeiieae // Iooaeueiie. aeo?i. - 1995.- ? 5-6.-N.303-307. 2. Iiiiia?/oe A.N., Neiaiaeyiee N.A., Ae?iaeaiei A.N. Yeaeo?inoeioeyoeeiiiua iaoiaeu ea/aiey a iooaeueiieiaee // Iooaeueiie. aeo?i. - 1998. - ? 4. - N. 318-324. 3. Neiaiaeyiee N.A., Iiiiia?/oe A.N., Eaa?aiei A.I. Iniaaiiinoe aaiiaeeiaieee iicaa o aieueiuo aiaeeiieae e aa eciaiaiea iiae aicaeaenoaeai oinoai- yeaeo?inoeioeyoeee // Iooaeueiie.aeo?i. - 1998. - ?6. - N. 418-423. 4. Iiiiia?/oe A.N., Neiaiaeyiee N.A., Eaa?aiei A.I. Ninoiyiea ?aaeiia?iiai e?iaiia?auaiey aeaca o aieueiuo aiaeeiieae e aai eciaiaiea iiae aicaeaenoaeai oinoai - yeaeo?inoeioeyoeee // Na iaoe. i?aoeue “I?iaeaie aeieia?/ii? oa iaaee/ii? aaiaoeee ? ee?i?/ii? ?ioiieia??”. - Aei.1 (21). - Ee?a-Eoaainuee, 1999. - N.145-155. 5. Iiiiia?/oe A.N., Neiaiaeyiee N.A. N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia ea/aiey aieueiuo n ?aciuie aeaeaie aiaeeiiee iaoiaeii oinoai-yeaeo?inoeioeyoeee // Oe?a?inueeee iaaee/i. aeueiaiao. - 1999. - O.2. - ?2. - N.101-104. 6. Iiiiia?/oe A.N., Neiaiaeyiee N.A. *?aceiaeiay yeaeo?inoeioeyoeey c?eoaeueiuo iooae, iniiaaiiay ia oinoai-oaiiiaia a ea/aiee aiaeeiiee // Iiainoe a iooaeiieiaeyoa. Iaoeeiiaeia eiioa?aioeey n iaaeaeoia?iaeii o/anoea ii neo/ae 70 aiaeeie aueeaa?nei ae?oaeanoai ii iooaeiieiaey. - Nioey, 1997. - N. 214-216. 7. Slobodyanik S., Ponomarchuk V. The results of soma functional testing in patients with different types of amblyopia and they change after transcutaneous electrical stimulation of visual pathway // European Journal of Neuroscience. Abstract Book of 1998 Forum of European Neuroscience, Berlin, 1998.- P.245. AIIOAOe?ss Neiaiaeyiee N.A. E?eoaaeueiee aieea oinoai-aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? ia ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a ? ?aa?iia?iee e?iaiia?a iiceo ? i/ae o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.18 - i/i? oai?iae. - ?inoeooo i/ieo oai?ia ? oeaieiii? oa?ai?? ?i.A.I. O?eaoiaa AII Oe?a?ie, Iaeana, 1999. A aeena?oaoe?? aea/aii ?acoeueoaoe canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo oinoai- aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?? (OAN) aeey e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th. Ia i?aenoaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ci?iaiai aiae?caoi?a ? ?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo ? i/ae o 179 oai?eo ia ?ao?aeoe?eio, ai?ciiao?ii?/io ? aeena?iieoey?io aiae?ii?th aei ? i?ney eo?no OAN anoaiiaeaii ca’ycie cieaeaiiy aino?ioe ci?o c ii?ooaiiyi ?ioeo ci?iaeo ooieoe?e - na?oeiai?, eie??ii?, aeaeo?e/ii? /ooeeaino? ? eaa?eueiino?, ui iaa?oioiao? aeioe?euei?noue ?o aeine?aeaeaiiy o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th aeey eiio?ieth ca aeeiai?eith i?ioeano e?eoaaiiy. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii oa?aeoa? ii?ooaiue ?aa?iia?ii? aaiiaeeiai?ee iiceo o oai?eo ia aiae?ii?th. Iieacaii, ui OAN iie?auo? ci?ia? ooieoe?? aiae?ii?/ieo ? ia?ieo iaaiae?ii?/ieo i/ae, a oaeiae ii?iae?co? ?aa?iia?io aaiiaeeiai?eo iiceo ? i/ae. Aecia/aia no?ee?noue ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy ia i?ioyc? 6-8 i?n. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aiae?ii?y, oinoai-aeaeo?inoeioeyoe?y, ci?ia? ooieoe??, aaiiaeeiai?ea iiceo ? i/ae. AIIIOAOeEss Neiaiaeyiee N.A. Ea/aaiia aeeyiea oinoai-yeaeo?inoeioeyoeee ia ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea c?eoaeueiiai aiaeecaoi?a e ?aaeiia?iia e?iaiia?auaiea iicaa e aeac o aieueiuo n aiaeeiieae. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.18 - aeaciua aieacie. - Einoeooo aeaciuo aieaciae e oeaiaaie oa?aiee ei. A.I. Oeeaoiaa AII Oe?aeiu, Iaeanna, 1999. A aeenna?oaoeee eco/aiu ?acoeueoaou eniieueciaaiey iaoiaea oinoai-yeaeo?inoeioeyoeee (OYN) aeey ea/aiey aieueiuo n ?aciuie aeaeaie aiaeeiiee. Ia iniiaa enneaaeiaaiey ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey c?eoaeueiiai aiaeecaoi?a e ?aaeiia?iie aaiiaeeiaieee iicaa e aeac o 179 aieueiuo n ?ao?aeoeeiiiie, aieciiao?iie/aneie e aeenaeiieoey?iie aiaeeiieae aei e iinea eo?na OYN onoaiiaeaia naycue nieaeaiey ino?iou c?aiey n ia?ooaieyie ae?oaeo c?eoaeueiuo ooieoeee - naaoiaie, oeaaoiaie, yeaeo?e/aneie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe e eaaeeueiinoe, ii?iaa aicieeiiaaiey oaiiiaia Aaeaeeiaa?a, /oi iainiiauaaao oeaeaniia?aciinoue eo enneaaeiaaiey o aieueiuo n aiaeeiieae aeey eiio?iey ca aeeiaieeie i?ioeanna ea/aiey. Onoaiiaeaii iaee/ea i?yiie ei??aeyoeeiiiie nayce iaaeaeo enoiaeiie ei??eae?iaaiiie ino?ioie c?aiey (noaiaiueth aiaeeiiee) e iaciie/aneie ino?ioie c?aiey, aeoeaiinoueth oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueiie aooa?aioiie nenoaiu ii ii?iao aicieeiiaaiey oaiiiaia Aaeaeeiaa?a, oeaaoiaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoueth e neiaio oeaaoo, a oaeaea o?iaiai e?iaaiaiieiaiey ninoaeia aieiaiiai iicaa a aannaeia aa?oaa?i-aaceeey?iuo a?oa?ee. Aia?aua auyaeaiu ia?ooaiey ?aaeiia?iie aaiiaeeiaieee iicaa o aieueiuo n aiaeeiieae - nieaeaiea o?iaiy e?iaaiaiieiaiey ninoaeia, oaaee/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa iaaeiieooa?iie aneiiao?ee e?iaaiaiieiaiey ninoaeia, iiauoaiea oiiona ninoaeia ii n?aaiaieth n ii?iie, aeaaiui ia?acii a nenoaia aa?oaa?i-aaceeey?iuo a?oa?ee, Aeaiiua eciaiaiey iaeaieaa au?aaeaiu i?e aiaeeiiee aunieie noaiaie. Auyaeaiu ia?ooaiey ?aaeiia?iie aaiiaeeiaieee aeac i?e aiaeeiiee - nieaeaiea ioeueniaiai e?iaaiaiieiaiey ninoaeia, iiauoaiea ninoaeenoiai oiiona, eioi?ua iaeaieaa au?aaeaiu i?e aiaeeiiee aunieie noaiaie, a oaeaea i?e ieiie/aneie ?ao?aeoeee aiaeeiie/iiai aeaca. Iieacaii, /oi OYN oeo/oaao c?eoaeueiua ooieoeee aiaeeiie/iuo, a oaeaea ia?iuo iaaiaeeiie/iuo aeac i?e iiiieoey?iie aiaeeiiee, e ieacuaaao ii?iaeecothuaa aeeyiea ia ninoiyiea ?aaeiia?iie aaiiaeeiaieee iicaa e aeac. Oae, onoaiiaeaii /oi iinea iaeiie?aoiiai eo?na OYN ino?ioa c?aiey aic?inea o 88.0%-84.5% aieueiuo n ?ao?aeoeeiiiie aiaeeiieae, aieciiao?iie/aneie aiaeeiieae n aeia?iao?iie/aneie ?ao?aeoeeae e aeenaeiieoey?iie aiaeeiieae n oeaio?aeueiie oeenaoeeae; a73.1% - i?e yenoeaio?e/iie oeenaoeee e a 48.1% neo/aaa i?e aieciiao?iie/aneie aiaeeiiee n ieiieae. Ino?ioa c?aiey ia?iiai iaaiaeeiie/iiai aeaca aic?inea a 56% neo/aaa. Ia?aeeaeueii n oaaee/aieai ino?iou c?aiea ioia/aii oeo/oaiea e ae?oaeo c?eoaeueiuo ooieoeee - iaciie/aneie ino?iou c?aiey, naaoiaie, oeaaoiaie, yeaeo?e/aneie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe e eaaeeueiinoe, ii?iaa aicieeiiaaiey oaiiiaia Aaeaeeiaa?a, eae aiaeeiie/iuo, oae e iaaiaeeiie/iuo aeac. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e ieiie/aneie ?ao?aeoeee, yenoeaio?e/iie oeenaoeee aaniethoiue i?e?ino ino?iou c?aiey a ?acoeueoaoa ea/aiey iaoiaeii OYN nouanoaaiii ieaea, /ai i?e aiaeeiiee n aeia?iao?iieae e oeaio?aeueiie oeenaoeeae. E?iia oiai onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaniethoiue i?e?ino ino?iou c?aiey eiaao i?yioth ei??aeyoeeth n enoiaeiui o?iaiai iaeioi?uo c?eoaeueiuo ooieoeee - eieai/eiaie naaoiaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe, aeoeaiinoe oiaaa-ei?oeeaeueiiai aooa?aioiiai iooe, oeaaoiaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe e neiaio oeaaoo, o.a. /ai auoa aei ea/aiey auee iieacaoaee yoeo ooieoeee, oai a aieueoae noaiaie oaaee/eaaeanue ino?ioa c?aiey iinea ea/aiey. Iinea iaeii?aciaiai eo?na OYN nouanoaaiii oeo/oeeenue iieacaoaee aaiiaeeiaieee iicaa. E?iaaiaiieiaiea ninoaeia iicaa aic?inei iaeaieaa nouanoaaiii a aannaeia aa?oaa?i-aaceeey?iuo ninoaeia, aeinoeaioa o?iaiy ii?iu. E?iia oiai, nieceeny eiyooeoeeaio iaaeiieooa?iie aneiiao?ee e?iaaiaiieiaiey ninoaeia aieiaiiai iicaa, nieceeny oiion ninoaeia, oeo/oeeny aaiiciue iooie. Eciaiaiey auee iaeaieaa au?aaeaiu a aannaeia aa?oaa?i-aaceeey?iuo a?oa?ee, o.a. a oii ninoaeenoii aannaeia, eioi?ue ioaa/aao ca e?iainiaaaeaiea c?eoaeueiuo oeaio?ia iicaa. Eciaiaiey iieacaoaeae ?aaeiia?iie aaiiaeeiaieee aeac iinea ea/aiey eiaee ?aciiiai?aaeaiiue oa?aeoa? a caaeneiinoe io eo enoiaeiiai o?iaiy. Oae, ioeueniaia e?iaaiaiieiaiea ninoaeia aeaca (RQ) nouanoaaiiia iiauoaeny i?e enoiaeii ieceeo iieacaoaeyo (RQ<5.0) e nieaeaeny - i?e aunieeo (RQ>5.0). Iieacaoaeue yeanoioiie/aneeo naienoa ninoaeia /O nieceeny
oieueei a neo/ayo aai enoiaeiuo aaee/ei auoa 30.0%. Iieacaoaee
?aaeiia?iie aaiiaeeiaieee iaaiaeeiie/iuo aeac aei ea/aiey auee a
i?aaeaeao ii?iu e iinea ea/aiey ia eciaiyeenue.

Iaaethaeaiey a aeeiaieea ii?aaeaeeee onoie/eainoue ?acoeueoaoia ea/aiey
ia i?ioyaeaiee 6-8 ianyoeaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aiaeeiiey, oinoai-yeaeo?inoeioeyoeey, c?eoaeueiua
ooieoeee, aaiiaeeiaieea iicaa e aeac.

ANNOTATION

Slobodyanik S.B. The therapeutic influence of the phosphen-electrical
stimulation on the visual functions and local brain and eye hemodynamic
in amblyopia patients. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by specialty 14.01.18 — eye diseases. —
The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy of AMS of
Ukraine, Odessa, 1999.

In the dissertation the results of use of phosphen electrical
stimulation method (PhES) for the treatment of patients with amblyopia
was studied. On the base of the study of functional state of visual
system and local brain and eye hemodynamic in 179 patients with
refractive, anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia before and after PhES
was determined the relationship between the visual acuity decrease and
another visual functional disturbances (the light, color, electrical
sensitivity and lability). This relationship grounds the expedience of
their examination in amblyopia patients for the dynamic control of
treatment. For the first time was determined the character of brain
hemodynamic disturbances in amblyopia patients. It was shown that PhES
improve the visual function of amblyopic eyes and fellow non-amblyopic
eyes, PhES also improve the brain and eye hemodynamic. It was determined
the stability of treatment results during 6-8 months.

Key-words: amblyopia, phosphen-electrical stimulation, visual functions,
brain and eye hemodynamic.

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