I?I?NOA?NOAI IOI?IIE CAeI?IA’ss OE?A?IE

EE?ANUeEA IAAeE*IA AEAAeAI?ss I?NEssAeEIEIIII? INA?OE ?i. I.E.OOIEEA

OA?AOIIE* Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/

OAeE 616.37 – 002 – 07 – 08: 615.832.97

EAIA?INEII?*I? IAOIAeEEE A E?EOAAII? AINO?IAI IAIE?AAOEOO

14.01.03 – o??o?a?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anuee?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
?i. I.E. Ooieea I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

IAOEIAEE EA??AIEE:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iai/e/ Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o??o?a?? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie

IO?Oe?EI? IIIIAIOE:

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Eeoaeiaiei
Ieaenaiae? Ieaenaiae?iae/, a?aeae?e ia?aaeiooeeiieo caoai?thaaiue ?
aae’thaaioii? oa?ai?? Oe?a?inueeiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo
iieieia?? oa ?aae?ieia?? IIC Oe?a?ie

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Eii/ae Aieiaeeie?
Ieoaeeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo o??o?a?? i?aeoeoieiai? caeice oa
?aeiino?oeoeaii? o??o?a?? aeia/ieo oeyo?a ?inoeoooo ee?i?/ii? oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii? o??o?a?? AII Oe?a?ie

I?IA?AeIA ONOAIIAA:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.Aiaiiieueoey IIC Oe?a?ie,
eaoaae?a oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “___“ ___________ 1999 ?ieo i ____ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.613.02 i?e Ee?anuee?e
iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie
(254112, aoe.Aei?iaiaeeoeueea, 9)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea (i.Ee?a,
aoe.Aei?iaiaeeoeueea,9)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “___” __________ 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee e.i.i., aeioeaio

Aaicaeye I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia
c?inoath/ith /anoioith aeieeiaiiy aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo. Ca aeaieie
A.A.Eoaeoe?ia (1996), A.Ae.Oienoie ? ni?aaao. (1996), I.I.Oae?iiaa ?
ni?aaao. (1997), TH.A.Ianoa?aiei ? ni?aaao. (1999), P.G.Lankisch oa
P.A.Banks (1997), W.Uhl (1997) oey iaoieia?y aiaaiaii caeia? o?ao?
i?noea na?aae aeno?aii? o??o?a?/ii? iaoieia??. Oi/a c iiiaioo, eiee
aino?ee iaie?aaoeo aoa aia?oa i?eaeeoo?ai ae?aaiinoiaaiee Classen
i?ieoei a?eueoa 150 ?ie?a (oeeo. ca [201]), i?iaeaia niaoeeo?/ii?
oa?ai?? iaie?aaoeoo caeeoa?oueny iaae??oaiith. Eaoaeuei?noue oai?eo c
aaaeeith oi?iith caoai?thaaiiy caeeoa?oueny aenieith, a?ae 6 aei 89 %
(A.N.Caineia, 1987; I.I.Oae?iia ? ni?aaao., 1997), a o aeiaaeeao
?io?eoaaiiy iae?ico iiaea aeinyaaoe 85 % (?.I.Oaa/oe, 1999; W.Steinberg
oa S.Tenner; 1994; P.G.Lankisch oa P.A.Banks, 1997). sse ? ?ai?oa,
eeoa?oueny iaa?aeiiei, /iio ca iayaiino? iiaooi?o aaaaoi??aiaaeo
caoenieo ? iaeo?ae?coth/eo iaoai?ci?a aeieea? iaea?iaaiee i?ioean
oa?iaioaoeaiiai aaoie?co caeice. Caeeoathoueny iaae??oaieie i?iaeaie
iiia?aaeaeaiiy oa iaiaaeaiiy ciie iaie?aiiae?ico oa iiia?aaeaeaiiy
?io?eoaaiiy aiaieu aeano?oeoe??.

Iaei??th c ia?aoeiae aeey ni?anoaaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo iaoiae?a
e?eoaaiiy aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo ? a?aenooi?noue caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo
noaiaea?o?a ioe?iee noaio oai?iai. Ia i?ioyc? inoaii?o 10 – 15 ?ie?a
oeueiio ieoaiith iaaea?oueny aaeeea oaaaa a ioae?eaoe?yo ? a?o/eciyieo,
? ?iicaiieo aeine?aeiee?a (N.I.Oae?iia, A.I.?aaeceoianeee,
I.A.Ie/eoaeei, 1990; A.?.O?e?i oa A.E.Einoth/aiei, 1994, I.A.?aaiia ?
ni?aaao., 1997; E.J.Balthazar ? ni?aaao., 1993; P.A.Banks ? ni?aaao.,
1994; oa ?i.). Oea ciaeoei nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o noai?aii? iecee oeae
aeey ioe?iee aaaeeino? noaio oa aaeaioaoe?y ?icia?ooy eeaneo?eaoe?eieo
nenoai aei iio?aa i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy. Iaeiae iaeaea an? aiie ia
iicaaaeai? iaaeie?e?a ? ia aeineoue c?o/i? a i?aeoe/iiio canoinoaaii?.
E??i oiai, a ??cieo e?eoaaeueieo caeeaaeao aeei?enoiao?oueny ??cia
ae?aaiinoe/ia onoaoeoaaiiy, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei o?oaeiiu?a o
ni?anoaaeaii? aeaieo ae?aaiinoeee oa e?eoaaiiy.

Oaeoeea e?eoaaiiy iaie?aiiae?ico caciaea iiey?ieo eieeaaiue, a?ae
aeoeaii? iia?aoeaii? oaeoeee aeia?aaeaeoaaeueieo ?acaeoe?e aei
aacaeueoa?iaoeaiiai eiina?aaoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy. Ia?aaaaeia canoinoaaiiy
iia?aoeaieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy ia i?ecaaei aei nooo?aiai iie?auaiiy
caaaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a. A?eueoa oiai, aoei iii?/aii, ui c?ea
eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae oa ?icaeoie neiae?iio iie?i?aaiii?
iaaeinoaoiino? aeieeathoue ia e?iaoeue ia?oi? – ae?oai? aeiae i?ney
iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy [166]. Iniiaiei iieacii aeey iia?aoeaiiai
ao?o/aiiy iei? ?, a iniiaiiio, e?eoaaiiy ?io?eiaaiiai iaie?aiiae?ico.
Aeey oeueiai [116, 166] ?aeiiaiaeothoue eiio?iethaaoe ?icaeoie
iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano a caeic? ca aeiiiiiaith oeueo?acaoeiai?
(uiaeaiii) oa eiii’thoa?ii? oiiia?ao?? (eiaei? 3 aei?). Iia?aoeaia
ao?o/aiiy aeine?aeieee ?aaeyoue aeeiioaaoe eeoa o aeiaaeeo ?io?eoaaiiy
aiaieu II, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iaoiaeii oiieiaieeiai? ioieoe?eii?
ani??aoe??. A ?aoo? aeiaaee?a ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny eiina?aaoeaia oa?ai?y.

Cia/ii c?inee ? iiaeeeaino? eiina?aaoeaii? oa?ai?? ca ?aooiie ?icaeoeo
iaoiae?a aeaoieneeaoe?? oa i?aeo?eioth/i? /e cai?nii? ?ioaineaii?
oa?ai??. Oiio iinooiiai neeaaea?oueny aaeain oaeeo iaoiae?a, eiee
ia?aaaaa a?aeaea?oueny ?ioaineai?e eiina?aaoeai?e oa?ai??, a caaaeaiiy
iia?aoeaieo iaoiae?a – e?eoaaiiy oneeaaeiaiue. Iaeiae, /anoi iaiiaeeeai
?ica’ycaoe an? caaaeaiiy eeoa caniaaie eiina?aaoeaii? oa?ai??. C
?icaeoeii iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a ca?eueoo?oueny /anoea oai?eo, a
e?eoaaii? yeeo iiaeia oieeiooe aai ciaioeoe e?euee?noue iia?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiue ? iineeeoe aoaeoeai?noue eiina?aaoeaieo caoiae?a.
Eaia?ineii?/ia iaeaaeiaiiy aeicaiey? aeeiioaaoe iaei?iaaceai? ao?o/aiiy
i?ae eiio?ieai iea, ui ciaioo? e?euee?noue iaaaaeaieo iane?aee?a. Oiio
eaia?ineii?/ia iaeaaeiaiiy oa iaoiaeeee nooo?ai ?icoe?ththoue
iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy iaiia?aoeaieo e?eoaaeueieo caoiae?a c iaioei
iaaaoeaiei aieeaii ia i?aai?ci. Aea a e?eoaaii? aaaeeeo oi?i aino?iai
iaie?aaoeoo iiaeeeaino? iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiaeee aeei?enoiaothoueny ua
aeineoue iaiaaeaii, oi/a naia i?e oaeeo noaiao iaioa o?aaiaoe/i?noue
eaia?ineii?/ieo ao?o/aiue caaacia/eea a iaea?eueoo aoaeoeai?noue
canoinoaaiiy oeeo iaoiae?a.

A iiooeao cania?a, ye? a ia?a?eaaee i?io?eaiiy oa?iaioaoeaiiai e?ceno
oeaieie i?aeoeoieiai? caeice oaaaa aeine?aeiee?a aoea caa?iooa ia
canoinoaaiiy a?iioa?i?? oa e??iaeano?oeoe??. Iecea aeine?aeaeaiue [3,
39, 49, 51, 60, 103, 166, 174] aoea i?enay/aia iaoiaeo e??iaeano?oeoe??
aiaieu iaie?aiiae?ico. Aaoi?e iieacaee iiceoeaiee aieea oeueiai iaoiaeo
ia i?io?eaiiy aaaeeiai aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo. Iaeiae, c ?icaeoeii
eaia?ineii?/ii? o??o?a?? iinoa? iaiao?aei?noue caeo/eoe iaoiae
e??iaeano?oeoe?? aei a?naiaeo iaei?iaaceaieo ao?o/aiue.

Ae??oaiiy aeacaieo i?iaeai ni?eyei a iie?ioaiith ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy
aaaeeeo oi?i aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo ? iie?aueei a iiaeeea?noue
ni?anoaaeaiiy ??cieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy a ??cieo e?eoaaeueieo caeeaaeao.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? “Eaia?ineii?/i? iaoiaeeee a e?eoaaii? aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo”
? naiino?eiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith ?ic?iaeith ca ? 01900 14986
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??, yea aeeiiaia a EIAII ?i. I.E.Ooieea ca ia??iae
1995 – 1998 ??.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea
?aoe?iiaeueii? oaeoeee aeey iie?auaiiy ?acoeueoao?a eiiieaeniiai
e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c aaaeeeie oi?iaie aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo ia iniia?
oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy eaia?ineii?/ieo iaoiaeee.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiyi aoei iinoaaeaii oae?
iniiai? caaea/?:

Aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiaee noaiaea?oecaoe?? ioe?iee noaio oai?eo oa
i?iaiicoaaiiy ia?aa?ao oai?iae ?ic?iaeoe iieace aei canoinoaaiiy
eaia?ineii?/ieo iaoiaeee o oai?eo ia aaaee? oi?ie aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo.

?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo eaia?ineii?/ii? e??iaeano?oeoe?? aiaieu
iaie?aiiae?ico oa aecia/eoe iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy, iieacaiiy oa
i?ioeiieacaiiy aei aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai iaoiaeo.

Ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii? oaeoeee eiiieaeniiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo
c aaaeeeie oi?iaie aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A?oiooth/enue ia iaeiie/aiiio
ee?i?eith i?aeoe/iiio aeina?ae? noai?aii eeaneo?eaoe?th aino?iai
iaie?aaoeoo ca e?eoaaeueiith oaeoeeith. Iiaeeo?eiaaii oeaeo ioe?iee
aaaeeino? noaio oai?eo ia aino?ee iaie?aaoeo ? ai?iaiaaii ?? a
i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio?. A aeine?aeaeaii? aia?oa iienaii eaia?ineii?/ia
iaoiaeeea a?iioa?i?? ia?aaeiuei? iiaa?oi? i?aeoeoieiai? caeice
(iiceoeaia ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae ? 98073796).
Aia?oa aeeiiaii e??iaeano?oeoe?th aiaieu iaie?aiiae?ico c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaei?iaaceaiiai aeinooio oa i?iaiae?ciaaii a?coaeuei? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
i?io?eaiiyi i?ioeano ?aaaia?aoe??. Anoaiiaeaii iniaeeaino? caaeeaeaiiy
aiaieu iaie?aiiae?ico i?ney e??iaeano?oeoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aeaaiino? aeieeiaiiy iaie?aiiae?ico. Noai?aii iiaee aoaeoeaiee i?eno??e
aeey ae?aioaaiiy /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie (iiceoeaia ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o
iaoaioo Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae ? 98073797). Iieacaii iiaeeea?noue oa
aoaeoeai?noue ?aiiueiai a?aeiiaeaiiy aioa?aeueiiai aiaeoaaiiy oai?eo c
aaaeeeie oi?iaie aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia iniia?
io?eiaieo aeaieo noaiaea?oeciaaii ae?aaiinoe/i? caoiaee oa
iiaea?i?ciaaii oaeoeeo e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c aaaeeeie oi?iaie aino?iai
iaie?aaoeoo, ui aeicaieeei ciaioeoe /anoeo oai?eo, ye? iio?aaothoue
iia?aoeaieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy, nei?ioeoe o?eaae?noue e?eoaaiiy a 1,5
?ace oa ciaioeoe e?euee?noue eaoaeueieo iane?aee?a aei 10,77 %.

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo aeaieo ?ic?iaeaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
canoinoaaiith eaia?ineii?/ieo iaoiaeee a e?eoaaii? aaaeeeo oi?i aino?iai
iaie?aaoeoo.

?ic?iaeai? ? ai?iaiaai? eaia?ineii?/i? iaoiaeeee e?eoaaiiy aino?iai
iaie?aaoeoo ai?iaaaeaeaii? a i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue o??o?a?/iiai
a?aeae?eaiiy Ee?anueei? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. I?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?ii
i?iaiae?ciaai? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy 244 oai?eo c aaaeeith oi?iith
aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo. Io?eiai? aeai? aoei iieeaaeaii a iniiao aeeiiaii?
?iaioe. Aaoi? aeeiioaaa naiino?eii oa i?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue o
aeeiiaii? ye iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue, oae ? o canoinoaaii? eaia?ineii?/ieo
iaoiaeee. Ni?eueii c eiino?oeoi?aie aia?aoo “E??ioii – 3” aoei
iiaea?i?ciaaii aie?eaoi? aeey iiaeeeaino? eiai aeei?enoaiiy i?ae /an
eaia?ineii??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
aeeth/aii aei aeena?oaoe?? aoei ii?eethaeiaii ia IV oa VI eiioa?aioe?yo
o??o?a?a-aaiaoieia?a ?in?? oa e?a?i NIAe (i. Ooea, 3 – 5 aeiaoiy 1996 ?.
oa i. Ee?a, 25 – 27 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.), ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ae?aaiinoeea ? o??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy
caoai?thaaiue ? iioeiaeaeaiue iicaia/?ieiaeo aeia/ieo i?ioie?a”, i.
Ee?a, 22 – 23 eenoiiaaea 1996 ?.), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie o??o?a??” (aei 75 – ??//y eaoaae?e o??o?a??
Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe, i. Ee?a, 20 – 21
eenoiiaaea 1997 ?ieo).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 16 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o. C
ieo aeaa iiceoeaieo ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo Oe?a?ie, 4 noaoae a
aeo?iaeao oa 10 ?ia?o o aeaeyae? oac aeiiia?aeae ia o??o?a?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo oa c’?caeao.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 4
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, iieacieea e?oa?aoo?e. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 134
noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, i?i?ethno?iaaia 18 oaaeeoeyie oa 22
iaethieaie. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 219 aeaea?ae, a oiio /ene? 110
?ia?o a?o/eciyieo ? 109 ?ia?o ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe oa caaaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe i?iaaaeaii
ianoaaeaiiy oa eiiieaenia e?eoaaiiy 244 oai?eo c aaaeeith oi?iith
aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo, ye? ciaoiaeeeenue ia e?eoaaii? o o??o?a?/iiio
a?aeae?eaii? Ee?anueei? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? c 1988 ii 1998 ?iee
aeeth/ii. Aei ia?oi? a?oie oa?eoei 92 oai?eo, ye? io?eioaaee
caaaeueiii?eeiyoo eiina?aaoeaio oa?ai?th. Aei ae?oai? a?oie aoei
aeeth/aii 87 oai?eo, yeei i?iaiaeeee iia?aoeaia e?eoaaiiy oneeaaeiaiue
aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo. O?aoy a?oia neeaaeaeany c 65 oai?eo, a e?eoaaii?
yeeo aeei?enoiaoaaee eaia?ineii?/i? iaoiaeeee. Na?aae oai?eo iacia/ii
ia?aaaaeaea e?euee?noue ae?iie – 128 (52,46 %). AI iae/ano?oa a?aaeaa
in?a i?aoeacaeaoiiai a?eo – 182 oai?eo (74,59 %), iaeiieiaeoee iaoe??io
iaa 18 ?ie?a, iaenoa?oee – 76 ?ie?a. Na?aaei?e a?e oai?eo noaiiaea 50,55
?ie?a, /ieia?e?a — 48, 65 ?ie?a, a ae?iie – 52,27 ?iee. Ao?ieia?y
aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo aoea anoaiiaeaia a 85,25 % aeiaaee?a. Iaoieia?y
a?e?a?ii? nenoaie noaaaea i?e/eiith caoai?thaaiiy a 128 aeiaaeeao,
aaeeaaiiy aeeiaieth – a 63 aeiaaeeao, a 17 aeiaaeeao aino?ee iaie?aaoeo
?icaeaaany a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? aai aiane?aeie o?aai.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie aoei i?aenoiiaaii ?acoeueoaoe
aeeiiaiiy eaia?ineii?? o 65 oai?eo c aaaeeeie oi?iaie aino?iai
iaie?aaoeoo (AI) c iaoith ooi/iaiiy ae?aaiico ? aeeoa?aioe?aeueii?
ae?aaiinoeee, eaia?ineii?/ii? a?iioa?i?? naeueieeiai? noiee oa
e??iaeano?oeoe?? aiaieu iaie?aiiae?ico, ?aa?c?? ? ae?aioaaiiy
naeueieeiai? noiee ? /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie, eaia?ineii?/iiai ae?aioaaiiy
inaaaeieeno i?aeoeoieiai? caeice (aeea. oaa.). Na?aae oai?eo aoea
i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaa e?euee?noue /ieia?e?a ? ae?iie (34 ? 31
a?aeiia?aeii). Na?aaei?e a?e oai?eo noaiiaea 53,92 ?iee.

I?ae /an aeeiiaiiy eaia?ineii?? ae??ooaaee ae?aaiinoe/i? ? e?eoaaeuei?
caaaeaiiy. Ine?eueee, i?e/eie AI iae/ano?oa a?e?a?i? (I.I.Oae?iia,
TH.C.E?oo?oe, A.I.Eii/ae, 1998, W.Uhl, 1997), a ia?oo /a?ao ?ica’ycoaaee
ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c iaoieia??th a?e?a?ii? nenoaie. Ciai?oi? ae?aioaaiiy
aeia/ieo iicaia/?ieiaeo oeyo?a (AEIO) aoei aeeiiaii a 40 aeiaaeeao.
Aaaeeea?noue oeueiai aniaeoo aoei i?aee?aneaii i?iaaaeaiei aea/aiiyi
iieaciee?a aioo??oiueii?ioieiaiai oeneo aeia/?. O 38 oai?eo aei??thaaee
aeo?aeiee oene, oene iiaeieaiiy oa caeeoeiaee oene. Aeyaeeinue, ui a 26
aeiaaeeao oene aoa i?aeaeuaiee. Ua a 4 oai?eo oene ca?eueoeany ia 3-4
aeiae niinoa?aaeaiiy. I?e aea/aii? oa?aeoa?o aeia/? a 9 aeiaaeeao aoea
iiceoeaiith aaeoa??ineii?y, a ua a 4 aeiaaeeao a?aei?/aany ?aoethen
iaie?aaoe/iiai nieo a AEIO, i?i ui na?ae/eea cia/ii aeua ai?eie?oe/ia
aeoeai?noue aeia/? a ii??aiyii? c na/ath. Oiio, iaie aoei canoiniaaii
e?eoaaeueiee eaaaae AEIO (iiaiea?iii c aeiaeaaaiiyi eiio?eeaeo, ii-oie
oa iao?aaeae?eo) oa aeaeiioai?iaoe?th aeia/? (aioo??oiueii’ycaaei oa
aioo??oiueiaaiiei aaaaeaiiyi oeaoia?aeo). E?eoaaeueiee eaaaae aoa
aeeiiaiee o 20 oai?eo c eaia?ineii?/iei oa 30 oai?eo c iia?aoeaiei
ae?aioaaiiyi AEIO. Aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeaaeo?e ioe?ithaaee ca aeeiai?eith
a?e??oa?ia, o?ainai?iac, eaeoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace oa eoaeii? oinoaoace
ne?iaaoee e?ia?. Aeey eiio?ieth ioe?ithaaee oae? ae iieacieee o 18
oai?eo c eaia?ineii?/iei oa 30 oai?eo c iia?aoeaiei ae?aioaaiiyi
aeia/ieo oeyo?a aac eaaaaeo. I?e aiae?c? eaai?aoi?ieo iieaciee?a o
oai?eo c ae?aioaaiiyi oa eaaaaeai aeia/ieo oeyo?a aeyaeaii, ui
ii?iae?caoe?y ??ai?a o?ainai?iac, eaeoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiace, a?e??oa?ia,
eoaeii? oinoaoace a?aeaoaaeeny oaeaeoa, i?ae o oai?eo, aea ae?aioaaiiy
aeia/ieo oeyo?a ia aeeiioaaee.

Oaaeeoey .

Canoinoaaiiy eaia?ineii?/ieo iaoiaeee

Iaoiaeeee Ne?eueee aeeiiaii Oneeaaeiaiiy Iiia?ei

Eaia?ineii?e caaaeii 83

7

Ia?ao?ae aei iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy 18

Ae?aaiinoe/ia eaia?ineii?y 14

2

Iaeyae IC ?io?aaano?aeueii 43 1

Iaeyae IC noi?aaano?aeueii 6 1

Eaia?ineii?/ia e??iaeano?oeoe?y 18

Eaia?ineii?/ia a?iioa?i?y 33

Ia?eoiiaaeueiee ae?ae?c 31

1

Ae?aioaaiiy AEIO 40

4

*a?acia/?ieiaa i?e?ioieaoeenoinoii?y 17

2

Eaia?ineii?/ia i?e?ioieaoeenoinoii?y 21 2 2

Ae?aioaaiiy oieaaeioo 2

E?eoaaeueiee eaaaae AEIO 20

Eaia?ineii?/ia ae?aioaaiiy inaaaeieeno IC 6

I?ae /an eaia?ineii?? nooo?aa cia/aiiy ia? aeyaeaiiy a?eueii? ??aeeie a
/a?aai?e ii?iaeiei?. A io?eiai?e ??aeei? aecia/aee ieoiio aaao,
eiioeaio?aoe?th a?eea, aeoeai?noue ai?eace oa e?iace. I?e io?eiaii?
??aeeie aaii??aa?/iiai oa?aeoa?o aeiaeaoeiai aecia/aee eiioeaio?aoe?th
aaiiaeia?io. Ca aeaieie M. Mahon ? ni?aaao. (1990) e?euee?noue ? aeaeyae
aaaeoeiaaiiai aenoaeaoo ia? i?iaiinoe/ia cia/aiiy: eiee io?eiothoue 20
ie ? a?eueoa a?eueii? ??aeeie aoaeue-yeiai eieuei?o, aai oaiii? ??aeeie
a aoaeue-ye?e e?eueeino?, eaoaeuei?noue aeinyaa? 33 % ? a?eueoa. A
iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? na?aaeiy e?euee?noue io?eiaiiai aenoaeaoo
noaiiaeea 522,26 ± 45,04 ie (i?i?iaeueii — 35 ie, iaeneiaeueii — 1500
ie). I?e aaii??aa?/i?e oi?i? AI na?aaeiy e?euee?noue aenoaeaoo aoea
iaioith (465,0 ± 67,85 ie), i?ae o oai?eo c ?ioeie oi?iaie. A?aei?/aii,
ui o iaoe??io?a c aaii??aa?/iei oa?aeoa?ii aenoaeaoo oai?iaa i?io?eaea
aaae/a, na?aaeiy ioe?iea neeaea 4,09 ± 0,31 aaee. Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe??
i?ae eiioeaio?aoe??th aaiiaeia?io oa ioe?iea aaaeeino? noaio na?ae/ea
i?i iayai?noue neeueiiai i?yiiai ca’yceo (rxy = 0,77). O oai?eo, noai
yeeo aoa ioe?iaiee a 3 aaee, na?aaeiy e?euee?noue aenoaeaoo noaiiaeea
321,25 ± 40,94 ie, a 4 aaee – 543,53 ± 35,64 ie, a 5 aae?a – 585,00 ±
142,51 ie, a 6 oa 7 aae?a – 1032,5 ± 206,21 ie. Aecia/aii iayai?noue
neeueii? (rxy = 0,72) i?yii? ei?aeyoe?? i?ae e?euee?noth a?eueii?
??aeeie a /a?aai?e ii?iaeiei? oa aaaee?noth noaio. Aaaee?noue noaio oa
eiia??i?noue eaoaeueieo iane?aee?a cia/ii ca?eueoo?oueny, eiee o oai?iai
aeyaeythoue a?eueoa 310 ie a?eueii? ??aeeie na?iciiai /e
na?icii-o?a?eiiciiai oa?aeoa?o. Eiioeaio?aoe?y a?eea a ia?eoiiaaeueiiio
aenoaeao? iaea iii??ii ae?aaeaio i?yio ei?aeyoe?th c aaaee?noth noaio
(rxy = 0,57). Eiioeaio?aoe?y aaiiaeia?io a a?euei?e ??aeei? aoea
iia’ycaia ?c aeoeai?noth ai?eace (rxy = 0,48) oa e?iace (rxy = 0,54)
i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaith i??ith. Aeinoia??ii? ei?aeyoe?? ioe?iee aaaeeino?
noaio c ieoiiith aaaith, aeoeai?noth ai?eace oa e?iace ia aeyaeaii.
C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui e?euee?noue a?eueii? ??aeeie oa ai?no a i?e
aaiiaeia?io ? i?iaiinoe/ieie oaeoi?aie, a e?iie?oe/ia oa ai?eie?oe/ia
aeoeai?noue ia?eoiiaaeueiiai aenoaeaoo a?ae?a?athoue ae?aaiinoe/ia
cia/aiiy.

Iaeiie/aiiy a?eueii? ??aeeie a /a?aai?e ii?iaeiei? a?aeaoaa?oueny, a
iniiaiiio, ia i?ioyc? ia?oiai oeaeiy, eiee caaa?oo?oueny oi?ioaaiiy
ae?eyiie iaie?aiiae?ico. A.?.O?e?i (1994) a ia??iae? oi?ioaaiiy iae?ico
aeae?ey? oaco ?ioaineaii? aenoaeaoe?? a /a?aaio ii?iaeieio oa
cai/a?aaeiiee i?ino?? oa oaco o?iiaioai?aiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy “aaiaoiie, ui
cai?ioeany”. A ia?o?e oac?, yea o?eaa? 1 – 1,5 aeiae, iaeneiaeueii
ca?eueoo?oueny i?iieei?noue no?iie noaeei, iniaeeai a i?aeoeoieia?e
caeic? ? cai/a?aaeii?e ee?oeiaei? oa ?icaeaa?oueny aiaeiaaiia
?ioieneeaoe?y, yea i?iyaey?oueny eieainii oa oieii. Oaeei /eiii,
iniiaiei iaoai?ciii ia?inoaiiy e?eueeino? a?eueii? ??aeeie a /a?aai?e
ii?iaeiei? aaoi? aaaaea? i?ioean aenoaeaoe?? a aiaieu? caiaeaiiy. Ie
i?eionea?ii, ui oea iia’ycaii c i?aeaeuaiiyi a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiai oeneo a
e?ioaoe/iiio eieaeoi?? cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o, yea ia? i?noea a oeae
ia??iae. Iiaeeeai, a i?io?eaii? aeaiiai i?ioeano a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue ?
?io? oaeoi?e. Iaeiae, iiaeia aaaaeaoe aacnoii?aiei, ui e?euee?noue
aenoaeaoo a /a?aai?e ii?iaeiei? a?aeia?aaea? ae?aaeai?noue iaoieia?/iiai
i?ioeano a caeic?, a eiioeaio?aoe?y aaiiaeia?io a aenoaeao? a?aeia?aaea?
?ioaineai?noue aaii??aa?/iiai i?ioeano a caeic?. Aiaeii/an, ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? a?eueii? ??aeeie a no?iee i?ci?oa oeaeiy iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i
?icaeoie oneeaaeiaiue aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo.

O?eaaeee /an a e?eoaaii? oai?eo ia AI aeei?enoiaothoue ia?eoiiaaeueiee
ae?ae?c. Iieacaie aei eiai canoinoaaiiy aaaaeathoue ii?ooaiiy ooieoe??
ie?ie oa eaaaiue [163]. Iaeiae, aeaye? aeine?aeieee aaaaeathoue, ui
ia?eoiiaaeueiee ae?ae?c ia i?eca?a aei iii?oiiai cieaeaiith eaoaeueiino?
i?e aaaeeiio AI, ui iiynith?oueny eieae?caoe??th iae?ioe/iiai i?ioeano a
cai/a?aaeiiiio i?inoi??, yeee ia i?aeaea?oueny e?eoaaeueiiio aieeao
ia?eoiiaaeueiiai ae?ae?co [163, 168, 193]. A?aoiaoth/e, ui aenoaeao
cae/aeii i?noeoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue iaie?aaoe/ieo oa?iaio?a ? coiiaeth?
aeieeiaiiy /e cia/ia iineeaiiy aieueiaiai neiae?iio, a a iiaeaeueoiio
aiane?aeie i?e?aeiaiiy ?ioaeoe?? iiaea noaoe aeaea?aeii ia?eoii?oo [86,
107, 129], i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaee eiai aaaeoaoe?th c
ianooiiei i?iieaaiiyi /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie ioieiaeaeaieie ?ic/eiaie
aioenaioee?a. Aeey i?eai?/aiiy aeoeaiino? iaie?aaoe/ieo oa?iaio?a
aaeaaciaaieo ia iiaa?oi? i/a?aaeie aei aioenaioee?a aeiaeaaaee
?ia?a?oi?e oa?iaio?a o ?ic?aooieo 1 000 iae eiio?eeaeo ia 100 ie
?ic/eio. Aeey ciaioaiiy aaaaeueii? ?iioeuenaoe?? aei neeaaeo i?iieaii?
noi?o? aeiaeaaaee ?ic/ei iiaiea?io. Iiceoeai? aoaeoe oaeiai caoiaeo
i?iyaeyeeny a ciaioaii? aieueiaiai neiae?iio oa iie?auaii? noaio oai?eo.
sseui caiaeueiee i?ioean a?eueoa ae?aaeaiee ii caaei?e iiaa?oi? caeice,
oi aenoaeao iioe?th?oueny, a iniiaiiio, a aeeaieeo oa?ao ee?oeiaeie ?
e?eoaaeueia aoaeoeai?noue ia?eoiiaaeueiiai ae?ae?co i?e oeueiio aoaea
i?i?iaeueia. Eiee caiaeueiee i?ioean ca aeaieie oeueo?acaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiii’thoa?ii? oa iaai?oi?aciiainii? oiiia?ao?? a?eueoa
ae?aaeaiee a ia?aaei?e iieiaei? IC, oi ca ?aooiie iai?ai?iieeieo
aeanoeainoae i/a?aaeie ia?eoiiaaeueiee ae?ae?c iiaea ciaiooaaoe i?iyae
?ioieneeaoe?? ? i?enei?thaaoe ae?i?iaoe?th oaeoi??a aa?an??. Ia iao
iiaeyae, naia oeae aniaeo coiiaea oi?ioaaiiy aca?iii?ioeeaaeii? ioe?iee
oe??? e?eoaaeueii? iai?ioeyoe??. Oiio o 31 oai?iai c e?euee?noth
aenoaeaoo a?eueoa 300 ie i?ae /an eaia?ineii?? anoaiiaethaaee ae?aiaae?
aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eoiiaaeueiiai ae?ae?co. O 31 oai?iai aoei
canoiniaaii iino?eiee i?ioi/iee aai aeene?aoiee ia?eoiiaaeueiee ae?ae?c
c aeei?enoaiiyi noaiaea?oieo ?ic/ei?a c aeiaeaaaiiyi 100 oen iae
eiio?eeaeo ia eiaeio i?ioeaaeo?o, ui o 21 c ieo aeicaieeei cieceoe
iieacieee ?ioieneeaoe?? oa ciaioeoe ioe?ieo aaaeeino? noaio aaea ia 3
aeiao. AEiaeai c oeeo 21 oai?eo ia iio?aaoaaa a iiaeaeueoiio
iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy, a c ?ioeo 10, eeoa o aeaio aeiaaeiny ae?aioaaoe
aiaieua II iia?aoeaiei oeyoii. Aoaeoeai?noue ia?eoiiaaeueiiai ae?ae?co
ioe?ithaaee oeyoii ii??aiyiiy iieaciee?a (ioe?iea ca oeaeith SAPS,
eaeeioeeoa?iei ?iaeaenii ?ioieneeaoe??, ??aiai na?aaei?o iieaeoe) noaio
oai?eo, yeei aeeiioaaee ia?eoiiaaeueiee ae?ae?c, oa ye? io?eioaaee eeoa
eiina?aaoeaio oa?ai?th. A?aei?/aii a?eueo oaeaeeo iiceoeaio aeeiai?eo
noaio a ioe?ioe? ca oeaeith SAPS (ia 3 aeaiue niinoa?aaeaiiy
aeinoia??i?noue ??cieoe? ioe?iie noaio oai?eo a aeaio a?oiao aoea ? =
0,039, a ia 6 – ? = 0,02); a a?oi? c ia?eoiiaaeueiei ae?ae?cii cia/ii
oaeaeoa ciaiooaaany eaeeioeeoa?iee ?iaeaen ?ioieneeaoe??
(aeinoia??i?noue ??cieoe? ioe?iie ia 3 aeaiue noaiiaeea ? = 0,0076, a ia
6 – ? = 0,012); iiceoeaiee aieea ia?eoiiaaeueiiai ae?ae?co ia noai
oai?eo i?iyaeyany oaeiae aeeiai?eith ??ai?a na?aaei?o iieaeoe
(aeinoia??i?noue ??cieoe? ioe?iie ia 3 aeaiue noaiiaeea ? = 0,021, a ia
6 – ? = 0,027). A a?oi? oai?eo, yeei aeeiioaaee ia?eoiiaaeueiee ae?ae?c
(na?aaeiy ioe?iea aaaeeino? noaio ca Ranson = 4,06 aaee) iiia? eeoa
iaeei oai?ee, a a?oi? oai?eo, ye? io?eioaaee eeoa eiina?aaoeaia
e?eoaaiiy eaoaeuei?noue neeaea 15,22 % (20 c 87 oai?eo).

Ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie a i?aeoeoieia?e caeic? i?e AI ??ciiiai?oi? ?
iaiaeiicia/i? a iaei?e ? o?e aea ee?i?/i?e oac? caoai?thaaiiy, a oaeiae
a aeeiai?oe? iaie?aiiae?ico. O?aaeeoe?ei? ii?oieia?/i? iciaee (iaa?ye,
aeueoa?aoe?y no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a IC, aeania caiaeueiee i?ioean)
i?enooi? caaaeaee a ??cieo eiia?iaoe?yo. Iaeiae, ia iao iiaeyae,
iaoiii?oieia?y AI a?eueo neeaaeia ? ??ciiiai?oia. O aeiaaeeao ia?aeiiiai
iaie?aaoeoo iaoieia?/i? ci?ie a caeic? iiaeooue i?iyaeyoeny ye
aaii??aa?/iei iaie?aiiae?icii, e?oiii aiaieuaaei ia?aio?iaoiciei,
aiaieuaaei ?ioa?noeoe?aeueiei, aeano?oeoeaiei iaie?aaoeoii oa ye noi?o
ia?ae?/aieo oi?i. Ine?eueee, iei? ia?aaaaea? aeoeaii-ae/?eoaaeueia
oaeoeea e?eoaaiiy AI, i?ae /an iia?aoe?? oa eaia?ineii?? /anoi
ciaoiaeyoue aai oioaeueiee aaii??aa?/iee iaie?aiiae?ic, aai ci?oaio
oi?io o?aaeaiiy caeice, ye? oneeaaeiai? iaaii?iiyi. Oiio iae?ineii?/ia
ea?oeia ci?i a IC i?ae /an i?io?eaiiy AI ia ae?eyieao, aeinooiieo aeey
iae?ineii??, iaiaeii??aeia. Iaoiaiiiii?/iei iiaeia aaaaeaoe iayai?noue a
iaaeieeoi?o oeaieiao a?eueo /e iaio ae?aaeaiiai
aeueoa?aoeaii-aeano?oeoeaiiai i?ioeano ia ae?eyieao aee?iai? ee?oeiaeie,
oiaoi – aiaieu noaaoiiae?ic?a. ?acii c oei, iaie a?aei?/aii, ui ee?i?/ia
aaaee?noue caoai?thaaiiy ia caaaeaee ei?aeth? c ii?oieia?/ieie ci?iaie,
ye? aecia/athoueny i?ae /an eaia?ineii?? /e ?io?aiia?aoe?eii. O
aeiaaeeao i?ia?anoth/iai i?io?eaiiy caoai?thaaiiy iaa?oue i?e iiaoi?ieo
iaeyaeao caeice iaie aoei iii?/aii, ui a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao ia?aio?ia
caeice iiaea aeaeyaeaoe iaei ci?iaiith. Iaeiae, oea ia i?ioe??/eoue oei
a?oaei aeano?oeoeaiei i?ioeanai a caeic?, eio?? aecia/athoueny eeoa i?ae
/an aeine?aeaeaiiy a?noieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo.

A iiooeao oaeiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy AI, yeee aeicaieea ae i?eieieoe
i?ioean e?ceno caeice aeanieie naiiaeoeaiaaieie oa?iaioaie oaaaa
aeine?aeiee?a aoea caa?iooa ia canoinoaaiiy a?iioa?i?? caeice ?
iaaeiecueeeo oaiia?aoo?. Iecea aeine?aeaeaiue (A.?.Aeueia?iae/ ?c
ni?aaao., 1984 ? 1985, I.I.Eeoaeiaiei, 1989, N.I.Oae?iia ?c ni?aaao.,
1991, A.A.Eiceia ?c ni?aaao., 1985, O.A.Eiieiaa, 1995, Lin Q. ? Yao Z.,
1995, oa ?i.) aoea i?enay/aia iaoiaeo e??iaeano?oeoe?? aiaieu
iaie?aiiae?ico. Aoei aeiaaaeaii, ui o aiaieuao iaie?aiiae?ico, aea
iniiaiee iaoieia?/iee i?ioean i?io?ea? ca ?aooiie naiiaeoeaaoe??
iaie?aaoe/ieo oa?iaio?a ? aea?eueiaiiy aaee/acii? e?eueeino? a?ieia?/ii
aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, i?ney aeeiiaiiy e??iaeano?oeoe?? ci?ie iaaoaathoue
oa?aeoa?o cae/aeiiai caiaeueiiai i?ioeano, ui cia/ii ciaioo? i?iyae
?ioieneeaoe??.

Aoaeoeai?noue e?eoaaiiy AI ca aeiiiiiaith e??iaeano?oeoe?? aiaieu
iae?ico aoea ia?aa??aia iaie o 15 oai?eo ia aino?ee iaie?aaoeo.
E??iaeano?oeoe?y cae?enithaaeanue i?ae /an iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ca
noaiaea?oiith iaoiaeeeith, ?aeiiaiaeiaaiith a?eueo?noth aaoi??a,
aia?aoii “E??iaeaeo?ii?ea – 2” (Oe?a?ia) c aeei?enoaiiyi noaiaea?oieo
aie?eaoi??a i?e oaiia?aoo?? — 195? N ia i?ioyc? 3 oaeeei. An? oai?? iaee
aaaeeo oi?io AI (a?eueoa 2 e?eoa???a Ranson oa 6 e?eoa???a IO). O 14
oai?eo a?aei?/aii oaeaeea iie?auaiiy noaio, ia aeieeaei iaiao?aeiino? a
i?iaaaeaii? ?aeaia?ioii?e. Iaeei oai?ee iiia? o ca’yceo c i?ia?anoaaiiyi
oioaeueiiai iaie?aiiae?ico. Iaeiae, iaaeie?eii aeaiiai iaoiaeo ?
iaiao?aei?noue aeeiiaiiy oe?ieiai eaia?ioiiiiai aeinooio aei
i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, ui i?aeaeuo? eiai o?aaiaoe/i?noue, i?ecaiaeeoue
aei aeieeiaiiy oneeaaeiaiue, iia’ycaieo c eaia?ioii??th (iaaii?iiy ?aie,
i?neyiia?aoe?eia eeea oa ?i.), aaae/a ia?aiineoueny iaoe??ioaie, aeiaaa?
aeiaeaoeiaiai i?ecia/aiiy aiaeueaaoee?a, a oiio /ene? ? ia?eioe/ieo.

Aeey iiaeieaiiy oeeo iaaeie?e?a iaie aoei cai?iiiiiaaii cae?enithaaoe
e??iaeano?oeoe?th aiaieu II i?ae /an eaia?ineii??. Aeey oeueiai
aeei?enoiaoaaee aia?ao “E??ioii – 3” (ae?iaieoeoai OIA IAI “Iaaeai”, i.
Ee?a). Ioieiaeaeaiiy ?iai/i? iiaa?oi? e??i?ino?oiaioa cae?enith?oueny
i?e aeia?iaoaaii? e??iaaaioa (??aeeee acio) a oaieiiai?iieeo, i?ney /iai
e??iaaaio iio?aiey? a aie?eaoi?. Aeeiiothoue eaia?ineii?th. I?ney
aaaeoaoe?? aenoaeaoo cae?eniththoue aeinooi aei i?aeoeoieiai? caeice
/a?ac oeoieiai-iiia?a/ii-iaiaeio ca’yceo ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoith
iaoiaeeeith. Iaeyaeathoue caeico ? i?e aeyaeaii? aiaieuaaiai i?ioeano ia
ae?eyieao aeinooiieo iaeyaeia?, ?c ie?aiiai ?ic??co a /a?aaio ii?iaeieio
/a?ac o?iaea? aaiaeyoue e??iaie?eaoi? aia?aoo “E??ioii – 3” ?
cae?eniththoue ioieiaeaeaiiy iaoieia?/ii ci?iaieo ae?eyiie caeice ia
i?ioyc? 3 – 4 oaeeei.

Eaia?ineii?/ia e??iaeano?oeoe?y aoea cae?eniaia o 18 oai?eo ia aaaeeee
AI (a?eueoa 6 e?eoa???a IO). Aeey canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo i?ci?oa 2-ai
oeaeiy ia ia? na?eicieo i?aenoaa, ine?eueee a oe? no?iee a?aeaoaa?oueny
aai cai?ioi?e ?icaeoie iaie?aiiae?ico, aai ?icaeoie oneeaaeiaiue,
caiia?aoe yeei ca aeiiiiiaith e??iaeano?oeoe?? aaaeei. Oiio, iaoiae aoa
canoiniaaiee o 7 oai?eo a ia??iae 4 – 6 aeiaa c ii/aoeo caoai?thaaiiy,
ua o 7 – a ia??iae 7 –10 aeiaa ? 4 – a ia??iae 11 – 14 aeiaa.
Ioieiaeaeaiith aoei i?aeaeaii a?ae 6,3 ni2 aei 37,8 ni2 iiaa?oi? caeice.
Eiio?ieue ca iiaeaeueoei ?icaeoeii i?ioeano cae?enithaaany ca
iaoiaeeeith aeeiai?/ii? eaia?ineii??. O oai?eo c ae??aieie (1,5 – 2 ni a
ae?aiao??, 4 oai?eo) aiaieuaie iiaeaeueoa i?io?eaiiy i?ioeano
?aaaia?aoe?? a?aeiia?aeaei aeaiei, iienaiei a e?oa?aoo??. Ciia
e??iaeano?oeoe?? ia 2 – 3 aeiao ciai? aeaeyaeaea iiae?aii aei
aaii??aa?/iiai iaie?aiiae?ico.

I?e a?noieia?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? a?iioao?a, acyoeo c i?ii?aeii? ciie ia
3 aeiao niinoa??aaeanue ea?oeia oeiiaiai caiaeueiiai i?ioeano c /?oei
ae?aaeaiith aeaia?eaoe?eiith ciiith neoi/aiiy iaeo?io?e?a oa iae?ioaa?a,
a ia 8 — 10 aeiao ia?inoaee i?ioeane i?ie?oa?aoe??, i?i ui na?ae/eei
ia?inoaiiy e?eueeino? o?a?iaeano?a. Ia a?aei?io a?ae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo
iaie aoei aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aiaieu
iaie?aiiae?ico ae?aiao?ii a?eueoa 3 ni i?aeaeaieo e??iaeano?oeoe?? i?ney
6 aeiy c iiiaioo caoai?thaaiiy. A?aecia/aeinue i?enei?aiiy i?ioeano
naeaano?aoe?? aiaieu iae?ico o ii??aiyii? ?c cae/aeiei i?io?eaiiyi
i?ioeano (c 15 – 16 aeiy c iiiaioo caoai?thaaiiy ca aeaieie H.G.Beger,
1993), ye? a iiaeaeueoiio aoee aeaeaeai? i?ae /an aeeiai?/ii?
eaia?ineii??. A?noieia?/ia ea?oeia naeaano?iaaieo ae?eyiie a?aeiia?aeaea
oeiia?e ea?oei? iaie?aiiae?ico.

?acoeueoaoe canoinoaaiiy eaia?ineii?/ii? e??iaeano?oeoe?? aea/aee a
ii??aiyii? c oai?eie, o yeeo e??iaeano?oeoe?y aeeiioaaeanue iia?aoeaiei
oeyoii oa c oai?eie, o yeeo canoiniaoaaee eeoa a?iioa?i?th naeueieeiai?
noiee. Ioe?ithaaee aeeiai?eo noaio oai?eo ca iiaeeo?eiaaiith oa oeaeith
SAPS, iieacieee eaeeioeeoa?iiai ?iaeaeno ?ioieneeaoe??, ??aiy na?aaei?o
iieaeoe, aeoeai?noue C-?aaeoeaiiai i?ioa?io, i?ioa?iia?aio,
o?ainai?iace, ne?iaaoeiao eaeoaoaeaa?ae?iaaiaco, aeeiai?eo aeoeaiino?
ai?eace a na/? oa e?ia?, e?iace a e?ia?.

I?ney aeeiiaiiy e??iaeano?oeoe?? iie?auaiiy noaio a?aei?/aee ii/eiath/e
c 2 – 3 aeiae. Oea i?iyaeyeiny a ciaioaii? aieueiaiai neiae?iio,
iie?auaii? naiiii/oooy. O oai?eo, yeei aeeiioaaee eaia?ineii?/io
e??iaeano?oeoe?th (na?aaeiy ioe?iea aieueiaeo a?ae/ooo?a – 2,11), a?eue
iaeoaeaeoa ii/eiaa noeoaoe aaea /a?ac 8 aiaeei, a /a?ac aea? aeiae
na?aaeiy ioe?iea noaiiaeea 0,89 aaee, oiae? ye o oai?eo, yeei i?iaiaeeee
a?iioa?i?th naeueieeiai? noiee (na?aaeiy ioe?iea aieueiaeo a?ae/ooo?a –
2,27) a?eue ii/eiaa noeoaoe /a?ac 16 aiaeei, a /a?ac aea? aeiae i?ney
ii/aoeo a?iioa?i?? na?aaeiy ioe?iea noaiiaeea 1,27 aaee. Oaeiae caa?oa?
ia naaa oaaao, ui o oai?eo, yeei aeeiioaaee e??iaeano?oeoe?th
eaia?ineii?/ii, ioe?iea noaio iie?auoaaeany oaeaeoa: c 8,16 aae?a
ia?aae canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo aei 2,19 ia 7 aeaiue niinoa?aaeaiiy (? < 0,05). O oai?eo, yeei e??iaeano?oeoe?y aiaieu II aeeiioaaee i?ae /an iia?aoe??, ia i?ioyc? 2 ae?a a?aei?/aeinue aeayea iia??oaiiy ioe?iee noaio – c 6,27 aei 7,41 aae?a (? > 0,05), iaeiae oey ci?ia ia aoea
noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??iith. A ii??aiyii? c iaiia iaoiaeaie
e??iaeano?oeoe??, aeei?enoaiiy a?iioa?i?? naeueieeiai? noiee iia?euei?oa
? iaioith i??ith iie?auoaaei ioe?ieo noaio oai?eo. I?e aeine?aeaeaii?
eaai?aoi?ieo iieaciee?a a?aecia/aee a?eueo oaeaeea ciaioaiiy aeoeaiino?
ai?eace oa e?iace ne?iaaoee e?ia?, cieaeaiiy eaeeioeeoico, ciaioaiiy
e?eueeino? eaeeioeeoa?iiai ?iaeaeno ?ioieneeaoe?? ? N-?aaeoeaiiai
i?ioa?io oa ii?iae?caoe?y e?eueeino? caaaeueiiai a?eea o oai?eo c
eaia?ineii?/iith e??iaeano?oeoe??th aiaieu II. Oe? ci?ie iaaoaaee
iaea?eueoi? ae?aaeaiino? ia 5 – 6 aeiao i?ney canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo, ui
a?aeiia?aea? e?oa?aoo?iei aeaiei.

Ca aeiiiiiaith eaia?ineii?/ii? e??iaeano?oeoe?? aiaieu iaie?aiiae?ico
aaeaeiny iie?aueoe ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy aaaeeeo oi?i AI, ui i?iyaeeiny
a nei?i/aii? no?ie?a e?eoaaiiy, a?aenooiino? ?icaeoeo oneeaaeiaiue oa
eaoaeueieo iane?aee?a. Aeey canoinoaaiiy eaia?ineii?/ii?
e??iaeano?oeoe?? ia iio??aii aeeiioaaoe eaia?ioii?th, ui iiia?aaeaeo?
oneeaaeiaiiy iia’ycai? c ia?eicii, c i?io?eaiiyi ?aiiaiai i?ioeano oa
caaeeaeaiiyi ?aie.

Eaia?ineii?th caaa?oaee ae?aioaaiiyi /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie. O aeiaaeeao,
eiee aoei aaaeoeiaaii a?eueoa 200 ie aenoaeaoo i?ney i?eieiaiiy
ia?eoiiaaeueiiai ae?ae?co aeei?enoiaoaaee neiino?oeiaaiee iaie i?eno??e
aeey ae?aioaaiiy /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie. Aieiaiei iaaeie?eii
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo iaoiaeee ? oa, ui aenoaeao iiaeiai aeo?eaoe ianeaii,
a i?e aeoeai?e ani??aoe?? aei ioai??a ia aieia?e iiaa?oi? o?oaee
i?eniieoothoueny no?iee eeoeiaeea oa ?io? ooai?e /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie, ui
cieaeo? aoaeoeai?noue ae?aiaaeii? nenoaie.

Iiaeieaiiy oeueiai iaaeie?eo aeinyaa?oueny caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith
eai?ey?ieo aeanoeainoae oeaieiiiai iie?eooy ? ??cieoe? iniioe/iiai oeneo
i?ae /a?aaiith ii?iaeieiith oa ?ii?noth c a?ia?oii?/iei ?ic/eiii, a
oaeiae, caaaeyee ni?aoe?eiei aeanoeainoyi oeaieie “Aei?i?i – 2”.
I?eno??e aeey ae?aioaaiiy /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie caaacia/o? oaeaeea
aeaeaeaiiy caiaeueiiai aenoaeaoo c /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie, ui iie?ioo?
i?ioean e?eoaaiiy ia?eoii?oo.

Aea?? oiai /e ?ioiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia eeoa ia
i/?eoaaii? ei?enieo aoaeo?a. Aaaeeeai a?aoiaoaaoe ? iaaaaeai? iane?aeee.
A oeueiio a?aeiioaii? eaia?ineii?/ia oaoi?ea aea?aeii a?ae??ciy?oueny
a?ae iia?aoeaieo iaoiae?a oei, ui noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaioith e?euee?noth
oneeaaeiaiue. Ca aeaieie e?oa?aoo?e iae/ano?oa cono??/athoueny e?iaioa/?
oa ii?aiaiiy ii?iaeieiieo i?aai?a (eeoea, oieaaeio). Oaeeo oneeaaeiaiue
o ian ia aeieeaei. O aeaio oai?eo i?ney aeeiiaiiy eaia?ineii?/ii?
i?e?ioieaoeenoinoii?? i?a?aoe?y eaoaoa?a ni?e/eieea aei i?aeo?eaiiy
aeia/? a /a?aaio ii?iaeieio. A iaeiiio aeiaaeeo aoei aeeiiaii iia?aoeaia
ao?o/aiiy – oieaoeenoaeoii?y c ae?aioaaiiyi oieaaeioo. Ua o 2
?icaeioeany i?aeoe??ia aio?caia, yea ia iio?aaoaaea aeiaeaoeiaiai
e?eoaaiiy. Caaaeueia e?euee?noue oneeaaeiaiue – 4 (6,25 %).

Aeei?enoaiiy eaia?ineii?/ieo iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoeee ? e?eoaaiiy aino?iai
iaie?aaoeoo aeicaieeei ciaioeoe e?euee?noue eaoaeueieo iane?aee?a. A
a?oi? oai?eo, a e?eoaaii? yeeo aeei?enoiaoaaee eaia?ineii?/io oaoi?eo,
eaoaeuei? iane?aeee noaeeny o 7 oai?eo. Aaaee?noue noaio 4 c ieo
(57,14%, anueiai c iiae?aiith aaaee?noth 7 /ieia?e) iaea ioe?ieo a?eueoa
6 e?eoa???a Ransons, aai a?eueoa 15 aae?a oeaee APACHE – ?? /e a?eueoa
11 aae?a iiaeeo?eiaaii? oeaee. A oae?e aea a?oi? oai?eo i?ney
iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy iiia?ei 4 c 5 /ieia?e, a eeoa i?ney
eiina?aaoeaii? oa?ai?? – 3 c 4 oai?eo. O?eaae?noue ia?aaoaaiiy a
noaoe?iia?? oai?eo, a e?eoaaii? yeeo canoinoaaee eaia?ineii?/i? iaoiaee,
noaiiaeea 14,69 e?aeeiaei?a, ui aoei cia/ii iaioa, i?ae o?eaae?noue
e?eoaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith eeoa eiina?aaoeaieo iaoiae?a – 17,39
e?aeeiaei?a oa iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy — 28,72 e?aeeiaei?a. Ia iniia?
aeua iaaaaeaieo aeaieo c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui o oai?eo c aaaeeeie
i?iyaaie AI aeioe?eueii a?aeaeaaaoe ia?aaaao eaia?ineii?/iei
iaoiaeeeai.

AENIIAEE

Ca iaoeie aeaieie e?euee?noue oai?eo c aaaeeeie oi?iaie aino?iai
iaie?aaoeoo iino?eii c?inoa?: na?aaeiy ioe?iee aaaeeino? noaio oai?eo ca
1988 ??e noaiiaeea 2,95 aaee Ranson, ca 1998 ??e – 3,89 aaee. A
na?aaeiueiio oai?? c aaaeeeie oi?iaie neeaaeathoue 23,97 % aeiaaee?a
aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo.

Eaia?ineii?/i? iaoiaeeee ?aeiiaiaeiaaii canoiniaoaaoe o oai?eo c
aaaeeeie oi?iaie aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo, o yeeo a?aenooi?e aoaeo a?ae
?ioaineaii? oa?ai?? ia i?ioyc? 2 ae?a oa a?aenooi? iciaee ?io?eoaaiiy
aiaieu iaie?aiiae?ico. O aeiaaeeao iayaiino? oa?iaioaoeaiiai ia?eoii?oo
eaia?ineii?y iiaeiia aeeiioaaoeny ia i?ioyc? ia?oeo aiaeei i?ney
anoaiiaeaiiy ae?aaiico.

Eaia?ineii?/ia ae?aioaaiiy aeia/ieo iicaia/?ieiaeo oeyo?a
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny i?e a?e?a?i?e ao?ieia?? iaie?aaoeoo oa eieae?caoe??
iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano a iaeano? aie?aee i?aeoeoieiai? caeice, i?e
ii?ooaiiyo a ?iaio? ia/?iee oa ye oei/aniaee e?eoaaeueiee can?a.

I?ae /an eaia?ineii?? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeeiioaaoe iaeyae i?aeoeoieiai?
caeice. A aeiaaeeao, eiee a?aaeaiiy i?aeoeoieiai? caeice yaey? niaith
aiaieuaaee i?ioean ia ae?eyieao, aeinooiieo iaeyaeo eaia?ineiiii,
aeioe?eueii aeeiioaaoe eaia?ineii?/io e??iaeano?oeoe?th. O aeiaaeeao
iioe?aiiai i?ioeano ia?aaaao ne?ae a?aeaeaaaoe eaia?ineii?/i?e
a?iioa?i?? naeueieeiai? noiee.

I?e iayaiino? a /a?aai?e ii?iaeiei? a?eueii? ??aeeie aaii??aa?/iiai
oa?aeoa?o a aoaeue-ye?e e?eueeino?, na?iciiai oa?aeoa?o a e?eueeino?
a?eueoa 300 ie c aenieith ai?eie?oe/iith oa e?iie?oe/iith aeoeai?noth
?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeeiioaaoe ia?eoiiaaeueiee ae?ae?c, iino?eiee /e
aeene?aoiee, ui ciaioo? ?ioieneeaoe?th i?aai?cio oa i?ia?anoaaiiy
iaie?aiiae?ico.

Eaia?ineii?/ia e??iaeano?oeoe?y ? aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii e?eoaaiiy aino?iai
aeano?oeoeaiiai iaie?aaoeoo, yeee ia?a?eaa? i?io?eaiiy i?ioeano
oa?iaioaoeaiiai aaoie?co.

Canoinoaaiiy eaia?ineii?/ieo iaoiaeee aeicaieeei ciaioeoe eaoaeuei?noue
i?e aeano?oeoeaiiio iaie?aaoeo? aei 10,78 % c 24,14 % i?e cae/aeiiio
iia?aoeaiiio e?eoaaii? oa aei 16,30 % i?e eiina?aaoeaiiio e?eoaaii?.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Iai/e/ A.E., Iaeaia?/oe A.E., Oa?aoiie/ A.E. (1998) Acaeyae ia
eeanneoeeaoeeth ino?iai iaie?aaoeoa // Aiiaeu oe?o?ae/aneie aaiaoieiaee.
–1998. – Oii 3. — ? 3. – N. 332 – 337.

Iai/e/ A.?., Aaicaeye I.I., Oa?aoiie/ I.?. I?io?eaeoeea
i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue // Oieoaeueia o??o?a?y. – 1999. — ? 1. –
N. 24 – 29.

Iai/e/ A.E., Aaicaeye I.I., Iaeaia?/oe A.E., Oa?aoiie/ A.E.
Iaeieiaaceaiua iaoiaeu a aeeaaiinoeea e ea/aiee ino?iai iaie?aaoeoa //
Iaoeiaee a?niee Oaeai?iaenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y “Iaaeeoeeia”. –
1999. – Aei. 8. – N. 100 – 105.

Iai/e/ A.E., Noaaioa I.I., Aaeeaioeeee I.I., Ooey?aiei A.A., Aaicaeye
I.I., Eaaeaei A.A., Oa?aoiie/ A.E. AEaeoooa. Ia/aii/iay
iaaeinoaoi/iinoue. Iaoiaeu ei??aeoeee // A?niee ii?nueei? iaaeeoeeie. –
1999. — ? 2 (6). – N. 131 – 132.

??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae ? 98073796. I?eno??e
aeey ae?aioaaiiy /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie / A.?. Iai/e/, A.A. Ooey?aiei, A.?.
Iaeaia?/oe, I.I. Aaicaeye, I.?. Oa?aoiie/. Cayae. 14.07.98.

??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae ? 98073797. Niin?a
e?eoaaiiy aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo / A.?. Iai/e/, A.A. Ooey?aiei, A.?.
Iaeaia?/oe, I.I. Aaicaeye, I.?. Oa?aoiie/, A.A. Eaaeaei, I.N. Ieaoei.
Cayae. 14.07.98.

Iaeaia?/oe A.E., Aaicaeye I.I., Aeaeiaea N.A., Oao?iaa E.I., Oa?aoiie/
A.E. Yiaeiaaiiay eioieneeaoeey i?e aeaeoooao ?acee/iiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey,
aa i?iaiinoe/aneia cia/aiea a auai?a ea/aaiie oaeoeee // “Eeeieea,
aeeaaiinoeea e ea/aiea caaieaaaiee aeei/eiaie aeaeacu”. Iaoa?eaeu
?anioaeeeaineie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee. – Eeaa. — 1994. — N.
231.

Iaeaia?/oe A.E., Iiai?aeia A.A., Oa?aoiie/ A.E., Ie?iaianeee A.TH.,
Ooey?aiei A.A. Iaeieiaaceaiue iaoiae a ea/aiee aieueiuo n aanoeannaie
ia/aie, aioo?ea?thoiiai e aiaa?thoiie eieaeecaoeee eo //
“Aiieii-naioe/aneea ineiaeiaiey a iaioeiaeiie oe?o?aee”. Oacenu
aeieeaaeia iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee oe?o?aia Oe?aeiu. –
Oa?ueeia. – 1995. – N. 267.

Iai/e/ A.E., Ooey?aiei A.A., Oei/aiei A.N., Oaaithe I.I., Iaeaia?/oe
A.E., Oa?aoiie/ A.E. Ino?ue iaie?aaoeo eae ineiaeiaiea iia?aoeaiiai
ea/aiey ycaaiiie aieacie aeaeoaeea e aeaaiaaeoeaoeia?noiie eeoee //
“sscaaiiay aieaciue aeaeoaeea”. Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/iie eiioa?aioeee.
E?aniiaea? – Aiaia. — 1996. — N. 110 – 111.

Iai/e/ A.E., Ooey?aiei A.A., Iaeaia?/oe A.E., Oa?aoiie/ A.E. ?ieue
eaia?ineiiee a ea/aiee ino?iai iaie?aaoeoa // Aiiaeu oe?o?ae/aneie
aaiaoieiaee. – 1996. – Oii 1(i?eeiaeaiea). — N. 156 – 157.

Iai/e/ A.E., Ooey?aiei A.A., Iaeaia?/oe A.E., Aaicaeye I.I., Ia?aoeee
C.C., Oeei A.O., Iaeeaiei ?.E., Oa?aoiie/ A.E. Ino?ue iaie?aaoeo eae
ineiaeiaiea aeae/aeaiaiiie aieacie // “Aeeaaiinoeea e oe?o?ae/aneia
ea/aiea caaieaaaiee e iia?aaeaeaiee aiaia/aii/iuo aeae/iuo i?ioieia”.
Iaoa?eaeu ?anioaeeeaineie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee. Eeaa. –
1996. — N. 84 – 86.

Ooey?aiei A.A., Iaeaia?/oe A.E., Ia?aoeee C.C., Iaeeaiei ?.E., Aaicaeye
I.I., Oa?aoiie/ A.E., Eocueiaiei A.O., Aeothe A.O. Eio?aoieaaeioaaeueiay
oa?aiey eaoa?iiii o aieueiuo n aanoeaaee?othuei aiieiui oieaiaeoii //
“Aeeaaiinoeea e oe?o?ae/aneia ea/aiea caaieaaaiee e iia?aaeaeaiee
aiaia/aii/iuo aeae/iuo i?ioieia”. Iaoa?eaeu ?anioaeeeaineie
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee. Eeaa. – 1996. — N. 102 – 103.

Iai/e/ A.E., Ooey?aiei A.A., Iaeaia?/oe A.E., Iaeeaiei ?.E., Oa?aoiie/
A.E., Eica/oe A.I. Iaoiaeu aeaoieneeaoeee i?e aiieii-ainiaeeoaeueiuo
ii?aaeaieyo iaie?aaoi-aeeea?iie ciiu // “Aeeaaiinoeea e oe?o?ae/aneia
ea/aiea caaieaaaiee e iia?aaeaeaiee aiaia/aii/iuo aeae/iuo i?ioieia”.
Iaoa?eaeu ?anioaeeeaineie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee. Eeaa. –
1996. — N. 107 – 108.

Iai/e/ A.?., Ooey?aiei A.A., Iaeaia?/oe A.?., Oa?aoiie/ I.?.
Aeac?ioieneeaoe?eia oa?ai?y i?e aino?iio iaie?aaoeo? // “No/ani? aniaeoe
iaa?aeeeaaeii? aeiiiiiae”. Iaoa??aee tha?eaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 25-??//th noai?aiiy Euea?anueei? i?nueei?
ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae. – Euea?a. — 1997. — N.
138 – 139.

Oa?aoiie/ A.E. Ioeaiea oyaeanoe ninoiyiey e i?iaiic oa/aiey caaieaaaiey
o aieueiuo n ino?ui iaie?aaoeoii // “Iiaua oaoiieiaee a oe?o?aee”.
Nai?iee iao/iuo ?aaio, iinayuaiiue 75-eaoeth eaoaae?u oe?o?aee Eeaaneie
iaaeeoeeineie aeaaeaiee iineaaeeieiiiiai ia?aciaaiey IC Oe?aeiu. – E.:
A?o A?aoee. – 1997. – N. 73 – 78.

Iai/e/ A.E., Iaeaia?/oe A.E., Oa?aoiie/ A.E. Ino?ue iaie?aaoeo: i?iaeaia
i?aaiecaoeee ea/aaii-aeeaaiinoe/aneiai i?ioeanna // “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
iaie?aaoiaaiaoia?e?a?ii? oa noaeeiii? o??o?a??”. Ca??iee ?ia?o iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 80-??//th aeaaeai?ea I.I.Oae?iiaa. – E.:
Ee?i.o??o?a?y. – 1998. — N. 110 – 112.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oa?aoiie/ I.?. Eaia?ineii?/ia oaoi?ea a e?eoaaii? aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo.
– ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14. 01. 03 – o??o?a?y. – Ee?anueea iaaee/ia
aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E. Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi iniaeeainoae canoinoaaiiy
eaia?ineii?/ieo iaoiaeee a e?eoaaii? oai?eo c aaaeeeie oi?iaie aino?iai
iaie?aaoeoo. Aena?oeaii ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy 65 oai?eo, o yeeo aoei
canoiniaaii oae? iaoiaeeee. I?eae?eaii oaaao noaiaea?oecaoe??
e?eoaaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/iiai i?ioeano ia iniia? oeae Ranson, Glasgow,
APACHE – II oa SAPS. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo eaia?ineii?/ii?
e??iaeano?oeoe?? aiaieu iaie?aiiae?ico. Aea/aii iniaeeaino? caaeeaeaiiy
ae?eyiie e??iaeano?oeoe?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy
iaie?aiiae?ico. Iieacaii caeaaei?noue e?eoaaeueiiai aoaeoo
ia?eoiiaaeueiiai ae?ae?co a?ae aeeaeie ?icoaooaaiiy iaoieia?/iiai
i?ioeano a i?aeoeoieia?e caeic?. Noai?aii i?ea?iaeueiee i?eno??e aeey
ae?aioaaiiy /a?aaii? ii?iaeieie. Ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia ?aoe?iiaeueia oaeoeea e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
aaaeeeie oi?iaie aino?iai iaie?aaoeoo c a?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeainoae
eaia?ineii?/ieo iaoiaeee. Canoinoaaiiy eaia?ineii?/ieo iaoiaeee
aeicaieeei ciaioeoe e?euee?noue oneeaaeiaiue oa eaoaeueieo iane?aee?a
aei 10,78 % c 24,14 % i?e iia?aoeaiiio oa aei 16,30 % i?e
eiina?aaoeaiiio e?eoaaii?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aino?ee iaie?aaoeo, eaia?ineii?y, eaia?ineii?/ia
e??iaeano?oeoe?y, ia?eoiiaaeueiee ae?ae?c.

SUMMARY

Tarakhonich A.I. Laparoscopic Techniques in Treatment of Acute
Pancreatitis. — Manuscript.

A Thesis for a Scientific Degree of a Candidate of Medical Science on a
speciality 14.01.03 — surgery. — Kiev Medical Academy for Post-Graduate
Education of Ministry of Health of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

The thesis is dedicated to laparoscopic techniques applying in treatment
of patients having serious forms of acute pancreatitis. It analyses the
consequences of applying the techniques for curing 65 patients. The
attention of standardizing of treatment and diagnostic process is given
on the basis of scales Ranson, Glasgow, APACHE — II and SAPS. A
technique of a laparoscopic cryolysis of pancreas necrosis centers is
designed. Features of an adhesion of cryolysis sites are studied
depending on a stage of pancreas necrosis formation. The dependence of
medical effect of a peritoneal dialysis on depth of pathological process
in a pancreas is shown. The original device for a drainage of a
peritoneal cavity is created. According to the results of clinical
investigations, a new rational trend for treating high-gravity forms of
acute pancreatitis in view of capabilities of laparoscopic techniques is
proposed. The applying of laparoscopic techniques has allowed reducing
the quantity of complications and lethal outcomes from 24,14 % to 10,78
% at surgery and up to 16,30 % at conservative treatment.

Keywords: acute pancreatitis, laparoscopy, laparoscopic cryolysis,
peritoneal dialysis.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oa?aoiie/ A.E. Eaia?ineiie/aneay oaoieea a ea/aiee ino?iai iaie?aaoeoa.
— ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.03 — oe?o?aey. — Eeaaneay iaaeeoeeineay
aeaaeaiey iineaaeeieiiiiai ia?aciaaiey ei. I.E. Ooieea IC Oe?aeiu, Eeaa,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai iniaaiiinoae i?eiaiaiey
eaia?ineiie/aneeo iaoiaeee a ea/aiee aieueiuo n oyaeaeuie oi?iaie
ino?iai iaie?aaoeoa. ?aaioa iniiaaia ia ?acoeueoaoao ea/aiey 65 oaeeo
aieueiuo, o eioi?uo auee i?eiaiaiu eaia?ineiie/aneea iaoiaeeee.
I?e/eiaie aicieeiiaaiey ino?iai iaie?aaoeoa auee, a iniiaiii, aeeea?iay
iaoieiaey e oiio?aaeaiea aeeiaiey. I?eia?ii iaeeiaeiai /anoi ino?ue
iaie?aaoeo aicieeae o ioae/ei e aeaiuei. I?iaeaiiino?e?iaaii
aeeaaiinoe/aneea aiciiaeiinoe iaaieoi?aciiainiie oiiia?aoee i?e ino?ii
iaie?aaoeoa. N?aaiaiea ?acoeueoaoia i?eiaiaiey eaia?ineiie/aneeo
iaoiaeee i?iaiaeeeinue n ?acoeueoaoaie iia?aoeaiuo e eiina?aaoeaiuo
iaoiaeee ea/aiey. Oaeaeaii aieiaiea noaiaea?oecaoeee
ea/aaii-aeeaaiinoe/aneiai i?ioeanna, aeey ioeaiee oyaeanoe ninoiyiey
aieueiuo auei eniieueciaaii oeaeu Ranson, Glasgow, APACHE — II e SAPS.
I?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey ino?iai iaie?aaoeoa, a iniiao eioi?ie
iieiaeaia ea/aaiay oaeoeea. Ana aieueiua iieo/aee eiina?aaoeaiia ea/aiea
ii i?eioeeio eioaineaiie oa?aiee. Auiieiaia e?eiaeano?oeoeey ioe?uoui
iaoiaeii n iiiiuueth aiia?aoa “E?eiyeaeo?iieea – 2”. Eaia?ineiiey
i?aneaaeiaaea aeeaaiinoe/aneea e ea/aaiua caaea/e. Eniieueciaaee
yiaeio?aoaaeueiue e aioo?eaaiiue ia?eic e ianoioth aiaeueaaceth. A
oiaea eaia?ineiiee i?e iaee/ee iieacaiee auiieiyee ae?aie?iaaiea
aeae/iuo iooae n eo eaaaaeai, iniao?eaaee iiaeaeaeoaei/ioth aeaeaco e
naeueieeiaoth noieo, oaeaeyee yennoaeao e naeaano?u, iaeaaeeaaee nenoaio
aeey aeiioa?iee naeueieeiaie noiee, onoaiaaeeaaee ae?aiaaee aeey
i?iaaaeaiey ia?eoiiaaeueiiai aeeaeeca. Aeey iaaethaeaieai ca aeeiaieeie
i?ioeanna a iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeaca i?eiaiyee aeeiaie/aneoth
eaia?ineiieth. I?iaaaeaii enneaaeiaaiea aeaaeaiey aeae/e a aeae/iuo
iooyo i?e ino?ii iaie?aaoeoa. Ecia?yee enoiaeiia, aeaaeaiea i?aiaeieaiey
e inoaoi/iia aeaaeaiea. Auyaeaii iaee/ea oia?aiiie aeeea?iie aeia?oaicee
o ?yaea aieueiuo ino?ui iaie?aaoeoii ia aeeea?iie yoeieiaee. O oaeeo
aieueiuo i?eiaiai ea/aaiue eaaaae aeae/iuo iooae. I?e iaee/ee a a?thoiie
iieinoe yenoaeaoa, i?iaiaeeee aai oaeaeaiea e ooaeao a?thoiie iieinoe
aioenaioeeaie e eiaeaeoi?aie i?ioaieeca. A yaaeoe?iaaiiii yennoaeaoa
ii?aaeaeyee oaeaeueiue aan, niaea?aeaiea aaeea, aaiiaeiaeia, ii?aaeaeyee
aeoeaiinoue aieeacu e eeiacu, i?iaiaeeee aaeoa?eineiieth e iinaa ia
noa?oeeueiinoue e /onoaeoaeueiinoue e aioeaeioeeai. Iieacaii
i?iaiinoe/aneoth ?ieue eiee/anoaa e oa?aeoa?a ia?eoiiaaeueiiai
aennoaeaoa. Ia?eoiiaaeueiue aeeaeec i?iaiaeeee noaiaea?oiuie ?annoai?aie
n aeiaaaeaieai eiaeaeoi?ia i?ioaac e iiaieaeia. Iieacaii caaeneiinoue
iieiaeeoaeueiiai ea/aaiiai yooaeoa ia?eoiiaaeueiiai aeeaeeca io aeoaeiu
?aniieiaeaiey iaoieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna a iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeaca e
caa?thoeiiie eeao/aoee. ?ac?aaioaii iaoiaeeeo eaia?ineiie/aneie
e?eiaeano?oeoeee i/aaia iaie?aiiae?ica e i?eiaiaii aa ia i?aeoeea
(iieo/aii iieiaeeoaeueiia ?aoaiea i auaea/a iaoaioa Oe?aeiu). Eco/aii
iniaaiiinoe caaeeaeaiey o/anoeia iaie?aiiae?ica a caaeneiinoe io noaaeee
oi?ie?iaaiey iinea e?eiaeano?oeoeee. A ea/aiee aieueiuo n oyaeaeuie
oi?iaie ino?iai iaie?aaoeoa i?eiaiaii ?aiiaa /?acciiaeiaia yioa?aeueiia
ieoaiea. Nicaeaii i?eaeiaeueiia ono?ienoai aeey ae?aie?iaaiey a?thoiie
iieinoe n eniieueciaaieai yaeaiee eaieeey?iinoe, ?acieoeu iniioe/aneeo
aeaaeaiee, a oaeaea – ni?aoeeiiiuo naienoa oeaie “Aeiai? – 2”, /oi
iiauneei yooaeoeaiinoue ae?aie?iaaiey (iieo/aii iieiaeeoaeueiia ?aoaiea
i auaea/a iaoaioa Oe?aeiu). Ia iniiaa iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia
enneaaeiaaiee ?ac?aaioaia ?aoeeiiaeueiay oaeoeea ea/aiey aieueiuo n
oyaeaeuie oi?iaie ino?iai iaie?aaoeoa n o/aoii aiciiaeiinoae
eaia?ineiie/aneeo iaoiaeee, ii?aaeaeaiu iieacaiey e i?ioeaiiieacaiey e
eo i?eiaiaieth. Ineiaeiaieyie eaia?ineiie/aneeo iaoiaeee auei:
iea?aoeey eaoaoa?a ec aeae/iiai iocu?y (2 aieueiuo, a iaeiii neo/aa
iio?aaiaaeinue iia?aoeaiia aiaoaoaeuenoai), iiaeeiaeiay yioecaia (2
aieueiuo). I?eiaiaiea eaia?ineiie/aneeo iaoiaeee iicaieeei oiaiueoeoue
eiee/anoai eaoaeueiuo enoiaeia aei 10,78 % n 24,14 % i?e iia?aoeaiii e
aei 16,30 % i?e eiina?aaoeaiii ea/aiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ino?ue iaie?aaoeo, eaia?ineiiey, eaia?ineiie/aneay
e?eiaeano?oeoeey, ia?eoiiaaeueiue aeeaeec.

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