19

AEAAeAI?ss IA?ACIOAI?*IAI IENOAOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

EOE?OIAA

Oaoyia Ieaenaiae??aia

OAeE 72.03 (477-25)

EAIAeOAOOII-EIIIICEOe?EI? INIAEEAINO?

OI?IOAAIIss A?O?OAEOO?IIAI IA?ACO EE?AA

O-II*AOEO OO NOIE?OUe

18.00.01 — Oai?ey a?o?oaeoo?e,

?anoaa?aoe?y iai’yoie a?o?oaeoo?e

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? aoae?aieoeoaa
? a?o?oaeoo?e (EIOAA) I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani?

*AIAEEE A?eoi? Aaneeueiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iniia a?o?oaeoaeoo?e

? a?o?oaeoo?iiai i?iaeooaaiiy EIOAA

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani?

EAA?EE Aaiiaae?e ?aaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e a?o?oaeoo?ii?

eaae?iao??? EIOAA

eaiaeeaeao a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani?

NEI?EE Ea?ena Iaae?aia,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e a?o?oaeoo?iiai

i?iaeooaaiiy Aeaaeai?? ia?acioai?/iai

ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo oai??? oa ?noi???

a?o?oaeoo?e ? i?noiaoaeoaaiiy, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “18” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.103.01 a Aeaaeai?? ia?acioai?/iai
ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e I?ieoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Nie?iiaa-Eanoi/eeia, 20.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aeaaeai??
ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Nie?iiaa-Eanoi/eeia, 20.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “17” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, i?ioani? __________________
Aae?/ei TH.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?ciaiiy nai???aeiino? ia?aco Ee?aa ia iniia?
?ice?eooy oa?aeoa?ieo yeinoae eaiaeoaooo i?noa ? eiai iaeyaeiaiai
ni?eeiyooy ? iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueieie. Ieoaiith ooaeiaeiuei?
oe?e?niino? ? iaiiaoi?iino? i?noa Ee?aa — oiaoi eiai nai???aeiino? — ia
i?eae?eyeinue iaeaaeii? oaaae a oaoia?e e?oa?aoo??. Iiiyooy oi?ioee
nai???aeiino? iaee//y i?noa Ee?aa aia?oa cai?iaaaeea a?aeiiee ?noi?ee
a?o?oaeoo?e TH.An??a. Aaaeeeai ciaeoe eiiiiiaioe ? oeyoe ?icaeoeo i?noa,
ye? aecia/eee a Ee?a ye /a??aia i?noi na?oo, c oi?eaeueiei i?e?iaeiei
eaiaeoaooii ? nai???aeiith caaoaeiaith. I?noi ooai?eeiny ia ai?ao, a
y?ao, aeieeiao acaeiaae Aei?i?a. Oea i?e?iaeia i?aeiniiaa, ui
aeei?enoiaoaaeanue ? ?icaeaaeanue a?ae V no. i?ae aieeaii ethaeeie — ??
eoeueoo?e. A?o?oaeoo?io nai???aei?noue iiaeia aea/eoe eeoa ?icaeyaeath/e
?icaeoie i?noa, ye aeeiai?/iee i?ioean. Iiae?aii aei aeoai?o
a?o?oaeoo?e, i?noi yaey? niaith i?inoi?iaee i?aai?ci a?aaionueeiai
ianooaao, yeee iiaeia ni?eeiyoe o?eueee ca o?eaaeee /an.

Iniaeeao aeooaeuei?noue ieoaiue i?i a?aeiioaiiy ethaeeie aei i?e?iaee,
inyaiaiiy neeaaeiiai ? caiaaeoi /ooeeaiai i?aai?cio i?nueeiai
eaiaeoaooo, iaoiiaeth? i?eoaiaiia no/aniiio noni?euenoao ca?eueoaiiy
a?ae?eao ethaeeie a?ae i?e?iaee, iaoooaaiiy i?e?iaeieie iniaeeainoyie
eaiaeoaooo. O?aai?caoe?y oaeaeei i?ia?ano?, ci?ithth/e iaee//y Ee?aa.
I?e?iaeiee eaiaeoaoo, a yeiio ?nioaaee ia?oeioai?i? aca?ii? ca’ycee
aeaiaio?a i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, aoei ci?iaii ethaenueeith
ae?yeuei?noth. Ci?ie oe? a /ane Ee?anueei? ?on? aoee ii??aiyii
iaaaeeeeie, c /anii ca?eueoeeenue iano?eueee, ui iei? noaee iaaeoi
neeueieie, caeaoieie ii?ooeoe iioeiaeuei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oa aca?ii?
ca’ycee i?e?iaeiiai eaiaeoaooo ? aeaiaio?a caaoaeiae. Oi?ioea
nai???aeiino? Ee?aa caeeaaeaia ia?o ca ana a iniaeeainoyo i?e?iaeii?
i?aeiniiae, ?icaeiooa ia iniiaieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo ieaioaaiiy i?noa,
aeyaeea oa?aeoa?i? ?ene eiai aeaiaio?a: ?aeii?a, ieiu, eaa?oae?a,
aoeeoeue, aoce?a, iaeyaeiaeo i???ioe??a, aenioieo aeii?iaio.

I?noiaoae?aiee oaiiiai nai???aeiino? Ee?aa i?noeoue a nai?e iniia?
iiaeaeue aca?iiae?? ia i?ioyc? a?e?a oaeeo oaeoi??a ye: i?e?iaea,
ethaeeia, ?noi??y. A?o?oaeoi?, ia?aaaaeii, ia? ni?aao c i?noii o
oe?eiio, iaa?oue eiee i?iaeoo? iaeeie/iee ia’?i. Naia oi?iiy i?aoethaaoe
a na?aaeiaeu? ? iniiaith i?ioan?eii? eoeueoo?e. Aea/aiiy a?o?oaeoi?ii
oi?eaeueiiai ca nai?th i?e?iaeith i?noa Ee?aa aeeth/a? inyaiaiiy ??cieo
oaeoi??a. Ia?oee ? aecia/aeueiee na?aae ieo ? i?e?iaeiee: i?ia?ao?y
eaiaeoaooo (eiai ?aeue?o), a?ae?ia?ao?y, ?ineeii?noue, ee?iao. ?aeue?o
i?noa iaa aeineoue ?ic/eaiiaaiee oa?aeoa?: i?noeaa?noue oi
i?aeiineeanue, ooai?thth/e ?yae ie?aieo aenio (aei 100 i), oi
cieaeoaaeanue aei ??aiy aeieeie Aei?i?a. Ieaoi, ia yeiio ?ici?uoaaany
Ee?a, i?ae ??eaie Aei?i?ii ? Eeaaaeaeth, aoei aonoi ii??caia aaeeaie oa
y?aie. Ia iaae? O?O ? OO noie?oue caneiaii ?yae y??a, ci?aaeueiaai?
aeaye? iaai?ae. Aeey ??/eiai? aeieeie Aei?i?a a?ey Ee?aa oa?aeoa?ii
a?eueo i?aeaeuaiee i?aaee aa?aa ? iaaiae?oaaiiy eiai ?onea. Ia oa?eoi???
i?noa i?io?eaee i?eoiee Aei?i?a Ii/aeia, Eea?aeue ? iaaaeee? no?oiee
Ne?aoeue, Eeyiea, Aeeai/eoey, TH?eiaeoey, Neiii?io, O?auaoee, Eeia oa
?i. O?auaoee, Neiii?io ? Aeeai/eoey iei? a?aeaaaeai? a o?oae. Iinooiiai
??/ee caa?oaeieeenue, aiane?aeie ae?oaee e?n?a ciaioeeanue ?o
aiaei?noue, iai?e?ee ?onea. A?aeiinia aieia?noue iia?o?y a OO no.
i?aeaeueeanue a Ee?a? a ca’yceo c iaaiaeiaiiyi oa?eoi??? i?noa c i?aii/?
? i?aaeiy Ee?anueeei ? Eai?anueeei aiaeinoiaeuaie. Cieuaiiy aaeeei?
/anoeie ?ineeiiino? ia ee?anueeeo ai?ao i?eaaei aei ?ic?inoaiiy y??a ?
aei ?oeioaaiiy a?oio?a, a oaeiae ca?eueoaiiy ?iia??iino? ooai?aiiy
cnoa?a ia oeeo ai?ao.

Ieoaiiyi inyaiaiiy nai???aeiino? ia?aco Ee?aa caeiaeenue ia i?ioyc?
a?e?a oaeaiiaeo? iiia?aaeieee, ye? aeeee /e oei/aniai ia?aaoaaee o
Ee?a?. Caaaeyee aeaai?i cia?aaeaiiyi ? iienai Ee?aa iiaeia oyaeoe noa?a
i?noi o c??c? /aniaeo iaoa?oaaiue, oaeei ? iaethiee c uiaeaiieea
iaiae??aieea I.A?oiaaaaa (1584), ia?niaeoeaia cia?aaeaiiy Ee?aa /aioey
A.Eaeueiioienueeiai (1638), iiene ea?oia?aoa A.aea Aiieaia (1640),
iaethiee ooaeiaeieea A.Aanoa?oaeueaea (1651), ieai ?.Ooaeiaa (1695)
?ethno?aoe?? aei oacen?a ia /anoue ?.Ia?aeianueeiai (1691) ?.Ue?nueeiai,
a?aath?e c aeaeaie Ee?aa a?ao?a Aioii?y ? Eaiio?y Oa?anaae/ae, ye?
oa?eoee aei aeaeaiiy “Iaoa?eea Ia/a?nueeiai” (1702). Oe?ii?noue an?o
noa?eo cia?aaeaiue Ee?aa iieyaa? a oiio, ui a ieo cao?eniaaia
nai???aei?noue ee?anueeiai eaiaeoaooo oeo /an?a. Ee?a O?O no.
a?aeia?aaeaiee a iaethieao A.O?iia, I.Naaeeia, O.Oaa/aiei oa ?i.,
nai???aei?noue i?noa ia Aei?i?? ciaeaeaia ooaeiaeieeaie OO no.:
?.?aeaeaae/ai, A.Iaiaae/ai, I. Ao?a/aeii, TH.Oeie/ai, A.sseooiae/ai oa
?i.

I?iaeaie a?o?oaeoo?ii-eiiiiceoe?eii? nai???aeiino? i?nueei? caaoaeiae
?noi?e/ii noi?iiaaii? /anoeie Ee?aa c o?aooaaiiyi aca?iiaieeao
eaiaeoaooo ? ?aeue?oo, aeeth/athoue oe?iea eiei ieoaiue, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny ia noeeo iaoe. Oe? ieoaiiy noinothoueny i?e?iaeieo
iniaeeainoae oa?eoi??? i?noa (?aeue?oo, a?ae?ia?ao??, aaieia?/ii?
aoaeiae Aei?i?a, aaieia?/ii? aoaeiae oa?eoi??? i?noa, i?aecaiieo aiae,
ee?iaoo, ?ineeiiino?, oiiia?ao?? ? ?o aieeao ia eaiaeoaoo); ?noi?e/ii?
oiiia?ao??, ?icaoaeiae ? ieaioaaiiy; aio?iiiaaiiiai aieeao ia eaiaeoaoo;
aeieia??; a?o?oaeoo?ii-eiiiiceoe?eieo ??oaiue aeaiaio?a i?noa (?aeii?a,
ieiu, aoeeoeue, ?o ia?ao?anoue, ie?aieo nii?oae). Ie?aiei i?iaeaiai
oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo a?o?oaeoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua i?noa i?enay/aia
niaoe?aeueia e?oa?aoo?a.

Oai?aoe/i? ?iaioe, ui noinothoueny ieoaiue, iaiao?aeieo aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae??oaiiy caaea/, ii?ooaieo a aeena?oaoe??, oiiaii
iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia a?oie: ca i?e?iaeieie ? oiiia?ao?/ieie iniaeeainoyie
Ee?aa; c ieoaiue ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo caaoaeiae i?noa; c aeina?aeo
na?oiai?, a?o/eciyii? i?aeoeee i?noiaoaeoaaiiy.

Ia?oo a?oio neeaaeathoue oai?aoe/i? i?aoe?, a yeeo aena?oeththoueny
ieoaiiy i?e?iaeieo iniaeeainoae oa?eoi??? Ee?aa (A.Ao?ia, A.Aeieo/a?a,
I.Iaeneiiae/, A.Naaaiei, I.*e?aeinueeee, I.Aa?ai?o-aea-Ia?i?,
E.Oaio?eaeoia, N.Eieeee, O.Eioeia, ?.?iae?/e?i).

Ae?oaa a?oia — oea ?iaioe a yeeo aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy ?noi?e/ii?
oiiia?ao?? noa?iaeaaiueiai Ee?aa (A.Oaoeuaa, E.Ai?icae?i,
I.Aa?e?inueeee, I.Cae?aanueeee, N.Aieoa?a, I.Iao?ia, A.Aioiiiae/,
I.Eaaaaeeioeaa, I.Eaoea?ueia, Ae.Nethna?aa, I.Oeoiiiae/, I.Oea/aiei,
A.Aiaonaae/, I.Ea?aa?, I.Oiei/ei oa ?i.)

O?aoth a?oio neeaaeathoue oai?aoe/i? i?aoe?, i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeaiith
?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo caaoaeiae i?noa Ee?aa a?ae ia??iaeo eiai aeieeiaiiy
(I.Caoa?/aiei, *.ssuaanueeee, E.Oe?ioeueeee, O.A?ino oa ?i.); Ee?a
O-O??? noie?oue ? iiaeaeueo? aoaie eiai ?icaeoeo aoee aena?oeai? a
?iaioao no/anieo a/aieo TH.An??aa, A.Eiaaeia, N.E?eanni, A.Aeoa?iai?,
A.Oa?eaiiaa, A.*aiaeeea, A.ssn??ae/a, TH.Aae?/ei, A.I?aeai?e, E.I?ey?ai?
oa ?i.; cia/ii? oaaae caneoaiaothoue i?aoe? aaoi??a, a yeeo noaaeeeny
i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino? (A.E?e/aanueeee, A.Ua?aae?anueeee,
A.Eoeiinueeee, E.AEoeia, E.Ooieoeueeee, ?.Na?aethe, Ae.Aioiiiae/,
A.*aiaeee, A.Iaea?ia oa ?io?).

*aoaa?oa a?oia ?ia?o i?enay/aia oai? i?noiaoae?aii? ?icaoaeiae oa?eoi???
Ee?aa a ?? ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo?, yea eeoa?oueny ua neaai aena?oeaiith
(A.?eiii?eia, I.N?icai-Ne/aanueeee, ?.U?oe?anueeee,
A.Aooi?e-N?aa?nueeee, A.Ieeyanueeee, I.Iaoooaae/, ?.?aiaoe?i).

I’yoa a?oia — oea aeine?aeaeaiiy, a yeeo oa?aeoa?ecothoueny no/ani?
aeiiae aeey iie?auaiiy i?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua c o?aooaaiiyi ?noi?e/ieo
nii?oae oa eaiaeoaooo i?noeaaino?, i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeieeaie ?ioeo e?a?i
(E.Ceooa, A.A??ieiai, Ea Ei?athcue?, O.-E. ?aeo, C.A?ae?ii, O.A?aaa?o,
?.A?oca, Ae.Naeiiiaen, E.E?i/ oa ?io?), oae ? a?o/eciyieo a/aieo
(A.Aoi?i, O.Naaa?ainueea, I.E?oaeiaa, A.?eiii?eia, I.Aooiia, A.Aeace/aa,
I.Aaa?e/aanueeee, A.Eaa?ia, C.ss?a?ia, E.Caeannueea, A.Aa?aoiia,
A.E?ia?on, A.Aioiiia oa ?i.). Oai? ?icaeoeo i?noiaoae?aieo nenoai ia
Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae ?o neeaaeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo (I.Aeueii?i, ?.Oii?i, A.Eaa?ee, A.Iaeoo?i,
C.Iiena?iei, E.Nei?ee, A.?aeia, O.Iai/aiei, A.?oaeieoeueeee,
A.Oeiio??iei oa ?i.); ieoaiiy ae??oaiiy a?o?oaeoo?ii-eaiaeoaooiiai
i?inoi?o Ee?aa ? iniaeeainoae a?coaeueiiai ?ice?eooy ia’?eo?a
?icaeyaeathoueny c iiceoe?e aa?aaeiiai noaaeaiiy aei noi?iiaaii?
i?e?iaeii? ? ?noi?e/ii? i?aeiniiae i?noa (?.Aiaeceinueeee, O.Onoaiei,
A.Eiiae?aoaiei, O.Oianoaiei, A.Aa/a?nueeee, A.Iao?ei oa ?i).

Na?aae iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia aena?oeaiiy ieoaiue i?i
?ieue aeeaiaeaeiiai eaiaeoaooo oa ?aeue?oo Ee?aa a nooe?eueiiio
ni?eeiyoo? a?o?oaeoo?ii-i?inoi?iai? eiiiiceoe?? i?noa, ia aaeaeiny
a?aeiaeoe iiiia?ao?/ieo ?ia?o, ye? a noaaeee a ia?aae niaith caaaeaiiy
niaoe?aeueii aea/eoe aeacaiee aniaeo, nenoaiaoecoaaoe e ocaaaeueieoe
iaoeia? iaoa??aee, noi?ioethaaoe oe?e?nio eiioeaioe?th. A?aenooi? oaeiae
ocaaaeueithth/a aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae nai???aeiino? ia?aco i?noa
iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueiiai aeey ia?aiiy a??ieo oeyo?a ?aeiino?oeoe?? c
o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae aca?iiae?? ?aeue?oo ? eaiaeoaooo c
eiiiiceoe??th caaoaeiae.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?o?oaeoo?iee ia?ac Ee?aa O — ii/aoeo OO
noie?oue.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — oea a?o?oaeoo?ia nai???aei?noue Ee?aa a
eiiieaen? an?o ?? neeaaeiaeo: i?e?iaeii? i?aeiniiae, iniiaieo aoai?a
?icaeoeo ieaioaaiiy i?noa, oi?ioaaiiy ia’?iii-i?inoi?iai? eiiiiceoe??
caaoaeiae c o?aooaaiiyi eaiaeoaooo ? ?aeue?oo.

Iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy a?o?oaeoo?iiai ia?aco Ee?aa
?icaeyaeathoueny o?eueee c iiceoe?e eaiaeoaooii-eiiiiceoe?eii?
nai???aeiino? caaoaeiae i?noa:

— iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ?noi?e/ii noi?iiaaio oa?eoi??th
i?noa, yea ia i?ioyc? a?e?a neeaaeaeanue c o?ueio a?aeie?aieaieo /anoei:
Aa?oiueiai i?noa, Iiaeieo, Ia/a?nueea, ui iinooiiai c?inoaeenue a ?aeeia
oe?ea;

— /ania? iaae? aeeth/athoue an? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo Ee?aa a?ae eiai
aeieeiaiiy (V no.) aei ii/aoeo OO no. Iniaeeaa oaaaa a aeine?aeaeaii?
i?eae?ey?oueny ia??iaeo O?O oa ii/aoeo OO noie?oue: neeoaoiei
iniaeeainoyi eaiaeoaooo ia ??ai? iae?ineeoaoo (oanaae i?noa c aieo
Aei?i?a, iaii?aii?noue ee?anueeeo ocaeo); i?e?ineeoaoo a caaoaeia?
aoeeoeue; eiiiiiaioai ia’?iii-i?inoi?iai? eiiiiceoe?? (ieiu?, ia?ao?anoy
aoeeoeue, eaa?oaee, naaeeae, ie?ai? nii?oaee); aecia/aiith «iaeyaeiaeo
ei?eaei??a, naeoi??a», /a?ac ye? a?coaeueii ni?eeiathoueny iaii?aie,
«aaeueaaaea?e», ia?niaeoeae, aeaeia? oi/ee, anoaiiaeththoueny a?coaeuei?
ca’ycee i?ae a?o?oaeoo?ieie aeii?iaioaie i?noa, ?aeii?a, aoeeoeue.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a inyaiaii? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy i?inoi?iai?
eiiiiceoe?? i?nueei? caaoaeiae ?noi?e/ii noi?iiaaii? /anoeie Ee?aa c
o?aooaaiiyi aca?iiaieeao iniaeeainoae eaiaeoaooo ? ?aeue?oo.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iinoaaeaiith iaoith aecia/ai? oae? caaaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? i?e?iaeii? i?aeiniiae i?noa, eiai eaiaeoaooo, a
yeee ua ia ao?o/aeanue ethaeeia — nai???aeiino? ?aeue?oo (iaai?a?a,
aeieei, y??a), a?ae?ia?ao?? (??/ie, ica?) ? ?ineeiiino?.

2. I?iaanoe ?noi?e/iee aiae?c i?noiaoae?aii? ?icaoaeiae i?noa (O-OO
noie?oue) ia iniia? aecia/aiiy aieiaieo aoai?a oi?ioaaiiy eiai
oa?eoi???, c a?aooaaiiyi ciae/eie iniaeeainoae ?aeue?oo aai ?aii?oaaiiy
ieie i?e?iaeiiai eaiaeoaooo a iaaiee ia??iae ?icaeoeo Ee?aa.

3. Aecia/eoe neeoaoi? iniaeeaino? ee?anueeiai eaiaeoaooo ia ii/aoeo OO
no., aiae?coth/e iae?ineeoao i?noa c aenoa?’??ieie aeii?ioth/eie
nii?oaeaie ? i?e?ineeoao — a?o?oaeoo?ii-i?inoi?iao eiiiiceoe?th aoeeoeue
c ?ioa?’??ieie i???ioe?aie.

4. Aeae?eeoe cia/aiiy iaaieo eiiiiiaio?a i?noa (ieiua, ia?ao?anoy
aoeeoeue, eaa?oae, naaeeaa, aoaeeiie) c o?aooaaiiyi eaiaeoaooo ?
?aeue?oo.

5. Ni?iaoaaoe aeeeanoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey aa?aaeiiai noaaeaiiy aei
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?noa; ye? aecia/athoueny i?e?iaeieie
iaioth/eie ocaeooyie, ai?aie, noeeaie, ieaoi oa a?o?oaeoo?ieie
aeii?iaioaie, i?ae yeeie anoaiiaeththoueny a?coaeuei? ca’ycee –
“iaeyaeia? ei?eaei?e, naeoi?e”, iaii?aie, “aaeueaaaea?e”, aeaeia? oi/ee,
ia?niaeoeae aaaeeea? aeey aecia/aiiy ieanoe/ii? oi?ioee Ee?aa.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia canoinoaaii? iaoiae?a
nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo oa aeeth/a?:

— ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, iioae?eiaaieo ?
iieniaeo iaoa??ae?a;

— i?iaaaeaiiy iaoo?ieo ianoaaeaiue ? aea/aiiy ?o ?acoeueoao?a ia iniia?
e?aneaiue ? iaethie?a aaoi?a oa a?o?aieo cia?aaeaiue;

— aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a iaoo?iiai ianoaaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ice?eoi iniaeeaino?
i?e?iaeiiai oaeoi?o — aecia/aeueiiai aeey iaee//y i?noa, ui aieeaa? ia
eiai nai???aei?noue. Aia?oa a nenoaiaoeciaaiiio aeeeaae? ?icaeyaea?oueny
?noi?e/ia oi?ioaaiiy caaoaeiae Ee?aa ia i?ioyc? a?e?a, aaeeea cia/aiiy,
a ia?ac? yeiai ia eiaeiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo i?noa aeyaeyeanue
nai???aei?noue eaiaeoaooo ? ?aeue?oo. A aeine?aeaeaii? aecia/ai? oaeoi?e
iaiao?aei? aeey inyaiaiiy oi?ioee nai???aeiino? Ee?aa: aeyaeai?
iniaeeaino? i?e?iaeii? i?aeiniiae i?noa — eaiaeoaooo; iniiai? aoaie
?icaeoeo ieaioaaiiy i?noa; oa?aeoa?i? ?ene eiai aeaiaio?a: ?aeii?a,
aoeeoeue, ?o ia?ao?anoue, ieiu, eaa?oae?a; iaeyaeia? i???ioe?e.

I?aaeiao caoenoo.

1. Iniaeeaino? eiiiiceoe?eii-eaiaeoaooii? aca?iiae?? oi?ioaaiiy ia?aco
Ee?aa ia i?ioyc? a?e?a.

2. I?ioean ?noi?e/iiai oi?ioaaiiy neeoaoieo ??oaiue caaoaeiae Ee?aa a
oe?eiio ? eiai no?oeoo?ieo /anoei ia iniia? inyaiaiiy i?e?iaeieo
iiaeeeainoae ?aeue?oo.

3. Eiioeaioe?y ioe?iee a?o?oaeoo?ii-eiiiiceoe?eii? nai???aeiino?
?noi?e/ii? /anoeie Ee?aa a aniaeo? caa?aaeaiiy iaiiaoi?iino? eaiaeoaooo
i?noa a i?ioean? aeoea?caoe?? eiai ?aeiino?oeoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeniiaee aeeiiaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?yiiaai? ia c’ynoaaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae
a?o?oaeoo?ii-eiiiiceoe?eii? nai???aeiino? ?noi?e/ii? /anoeie Ee?aa, ye?
iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie aeey oeo, ooi aoaea caeiaoenue ieoaiiyie ioi?iie
? caa?aaeaiiy iaiiaoi?iino? eaiaeoaooo i?noa, ?ic?iaeyoe i?iaeoe
?aeiino?oeoe?? ? ?icaoaeiae oeeo ?aeii?a noieeoe?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie aeey a?o?oaeoi??a, ui
i?iaeoothoue nii?oaee iniaeeai a eiai ?noi?e/i?e /anoei?, a oaeiae a
??cieo ?aeiiao Ee?aa, aeey ienoaoeoaiciaaoe?a, e?a?ciaaoe?a, ?noi?ee?a.
Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? aoc?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

· Aeyaeai? oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? ee?anueei? i?e?iaee: a?ae?ia?ao?y,
aaieia?/ia aoaeiaa Aei?i?a ? Ee?aa, i?aecaii? aiaee ? cnoai? i?ioeane,
ee?iao, ?aeue?o ? eaiaeoaooi? iciaee, ?ineeii?noue ? ?o aieea ia
oi?ioaaiiy iaee//y i?noa.

· Noi?iiaaii oyaeaiiy i?i aacia?a?aiee ? iine?aeiaiee i?ioean
noaiiaeaiiy aieiaii? iaii?aie i?noa c aieo Aei?i?a a?ae /an?a Ee?anueei?
?on?, O?V-OV? noie?oue, ia??iaeo aa?iei OV??-OV??? noie?oue, aeiae
eeaneoeecio O?O no. oa ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy. Aeyaeaia neeoaoia ?
noeeueiaa nai???aei?noue caaoaeiae eiaeiiai ia??iaeo o aca?iiae?? c
eaiaeoaooii ? ?aeue?oii.

· Iieacai? i?noiaoae?ai? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo i?noa, ?aeii?a, aoeeoeue,
iaeaaaeeea?oeo ainaiae?a ie?aieo naaeea Ee?aa.

· Aecia/aia nenoaia a?coaeueiiai ?ice?eooy c ??cieo oi/ie ?aeii?a
i?noa: Aa?oiueiai i?noa, Iiaeieo, Ia/a?nueea; oa?aeoa?ieo ee?anueeeo
aoeeoeue c aeyaeaiiyi aeii?iaioieo nii?oae, ui ?ice?eaathoueny /a?ac
“a?coaeuei? ei?eaei?e, naeoi?e”, iaii?aie, i?ae ??ciei eooii ci?o.

· I?iaaaeaia nenoaiaoecaoe?y aeae?a aeii?iaioieo ? aeoeaioieo nii?oae
Ee?aa, ui ?nioaaee aei ii/aoeo OO no.

· Aeyaeai? cia/aiiy iaeaaaeeea?oeo no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a i?noa:
aoeeoeue, ieiu, eaa?oae?a, naaeea, ie?aieo nii?oae, ii/eiath/e a?ae
iaea?aeii?oeo ?noi?e/ieo ainaiae?a aei aeayeeo ?yaeiaeo oa?aeoa?ieo
ia’?eo?a o ca’yceo c ?o aca?iiae??th c ?aeue?oii ? eaiaeoaooii.

· ?ice?eoi aianie aecia/ieo iaeno??a ee?anueei? a?o?oaeoo?e: E.Oaaeaey,
N.Eiai??a, ?.A?eai?iae/a-Aa?nueeiai, A.Iaeainueeiai, A.Aa?aoo?,
A.I?eiea?aa, A.Ai?iaeaoeueeiai, A.A?aaeoiaia, I.Aeueioeia o ae??oaiiy
neeoaoo i?noa ? caaoaeiae iaecia/i?oeo ?aeii?a ? ae?eyiie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Ia?o? ?acoeueoaoe
iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie aoee i?aaeiaoii iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeae aaoi?a: ia
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ia?ac aiioe. Eoeueoo?ia na?aaeiaeua
Ee?aa e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.” (i. Ee?a, 1995 ?.), ia 56-e, 57-e,
58-e, 59-e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e (1995, 1996, 1997,
1998 ??.) oa io?eiaee ai?iaaoe?th a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? oi?aa?neoaoo.
Iniiai? iaoa??aee oa aeniiaee oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a 12
iaoeiaeo noaooyo aaoi?a, a oiio /ene? ? a ca??ieeo oac aeiiia?aeae
o/aniee?a i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??, iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao ?
a?o?oaeoo?ieo aeo?iaeao.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a c aeniiaeaie aei eiaeiiai ?icae?eo, a oaeiae aeniiae?a aei
an??? ?iaioe (anueiai 147 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo), nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (anueiai 216 iiceoe?e), o?ueio aeiaeaoe?a ? nieneo
?ethno?aoe?e, ui aeeth/a? 41 ?ethno?aoeaii-aiae?oe/iee ?enoiie c 183
iaethieaie ? noaiaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

?ICAe?E IA?OEE

I?E?IAeII-?NOI?E*IEE ?ICAEOIE OA?EOI??? EE?AA

A i?ae?icae?e? “I?e?iaea” ?icaeyaea?oueny aecia/aeueiee oaeoi?
nai???aeiino? i?noa — i?e?iaeiee, yeee aeeth/a? oe?iea eiei ieoaiue:
aaieia?/ia ieioea Ee?aa, eiai i?e?iaeii-aaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy,
a?ae?ia?ao?th, aaieia?/io aoaeiao Aei?i?a ? oa?eoi??? i?noa, ?aeue?o,
i?aecaii? aiaee, cnoae, ee?iao, ?ineeii?noue, oiiia?ao?th ? eaiaeoaoo
(iiaeaii o “Aeiaeaoeo A”). Eaiaeoaooe Ee?aa, aeoai?ai? i?e?iaeith,
aecia/eee ?icia?ooy aa??aio?a ?aeue?oo, i?ia?ao?/ieo ooai?aiue, a oaeiae
ieoii? ?ineeiiino?, eio?? caeeaee aaaaonoai ieanoeee i?noeaaino?, ??
iniaeeao i?inoi?ia?noue ? eyaee a iniiao nai???aeiino? iaeaooiueiai
i?noa.

A i?ae?icae?e? “?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie oa?eoi???” aiae?co?oueny ?noi?e/ia
?icaoaeiaa Ee?aa, noi?iiaaia oyaeaiiy i?i iniaeeaino? ia?aco i?noa, i?i
aieiaio iaii?aio c aieo Aei?i?a a ia??iae Ee?anueei? ?on?, OIV-XVI
noie?oue, a ia??iae aa?iei XVII-XVIII noi??/. A /ane Ee?anueei? ?on?
ii/aea neeaaeaoenue ?aei?noue caaoaeiae ia Iiaeie? ? ioi/oth/eo ai?ao,
aeyaeyth/e oyae?iiy aei aeinyaiaiiy aa?iii?? i?ae ?yaeiaith caaoaeiaith
? aeii?ioth/eie ia’?eoaie, aea aoei caaaeaii iaeaaaeeea?o? eiiieaene,
caeeaaeaii iii?i? aocee i?nueeiai eaiaeoaooo, eio?? ioieoe?ii iai?oeee
eiiiiceoe?eiee ea?ean iaeaooiuei? nai???aeiino?. O OVI?? no.
a?aeaoaaeanue iiaeaeueoa ?icaoaeiaa ie?aieo /anoei Ee?aa: Iiaeieo,
Aa?oiueiai i?noa ? Ia/a?nueeo c eiai iai?iiieie eiiieaenaie oi?oaoe? oa
iaecia/i?oeie neeoaoieie aeii?iaioaie o aeaeyae? niai??a ? aeca?ieoeue,
nii?oaeaeaieo E.Oaaeaeai, N.Eiai??ii, A.Eaaniaei,
?.A?eai?iae/ai-Aa?nueeei oa ?ioeie, ye? ooaa?aeeee iaee?ioee i?aai?/iee
ca’ycie i?ae i?e?iaeiei eaiaeoaooii ? caaoaeiaith, noai?eaoe
iaeaoaeoeai?oa iaee//y i?noa c aieo Aei?i?a — eiai /oaeiao iaii?aio. Ia
oeueiio aoai? iniaeeai ae?acii oi?io?oueny neeoao i?noa, caaaeyee
oai?/ino? ciae/eo, ye? aoaeoaaee nii?oaee, a?aoiaoth/e nai???aei?noue
eaiaeoaooo. Ee?a, ua ia neeaaoenue ye ?aeeia i?noi, aaea aeoai?ea na?e
neeoao c aieo Aei?i?a, iai?oea oe?e?ni? i?noiaoae?ai? oeaio?e, iaaeiei
yeeo noi?ioaaeanue caaoaeiaa.

A i?ae?icae?e? “I?noiaoae?aaeueia ?icaoaeiaa oa?eoi???” a O?O — ia
ii/aoeo OO noie?oue aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?noiaoae?aaeueia ?icaoaeiaa
Ee?aa. Ia?oee i?iaeo ?aaoey?iiai ieaio i?noa 1787 ?. iae?aneea ceeooy
ie?aieo /anoei “Aa?oiueiai i?noa” ? “Ia/a?nueeiai”. Ii/aoie O?O no. —
oea ia??iae eeaneoeecio, eiee cae?enithaaeenue i?iaeoe ?aaoey?iiai
ieaioaaiiy ca ieaiaie 1812, 1816 ??. i?e o/ano? ia?oiai i?nueeiai
a?o?oaeoi?a A.Iaeainueeiai. O?O no. aianei a i?noi eeane/io
?aaoey?i?noue caaoaeiae ? nii?oaeaeaiiy aioo??oi?o i?nueeeo aeoeaioieo
nii?oae, ui aeiiiaieee aeii?iaioe OVI?? no., oai?aie A.Iaeainueeiai,
A.Aanoa, A.Aa?aoo?, A.I?eiea?aa, ye? caeeaee ?aei?noue an??? oa?eoi???,
noai?eee caaaeueiii?nueeee oi?oi — O?auaoee, i?iniaeo ?noi?e/ieo
aa?oiaei – aoeeoeth A.Aieiaeeie?nueeo oa ?yae ?ioeo iaa?no?aeae.
Eeaneoeenoe/iee ia??iae iicia/eany ye ia ieaioaaii? aoeeoeue ?
iaeaeai?a, oae ? ia neeoao? i?noa. N?oeo ?aaoey?ieo aoeeoeue iaeeaee
iaa?oue ia i?noeaa?noue c ia?an?/aiei ?aeue?oii a ?aeii? “Iiaiai
no?i?i?y”, i?yi? aoeeoe? a Eeieao ?icieaiiaai? c o?aooaaiiyi ieaio 1787
?., oa?eoi??th a?ey Oi?aa?neoaoo ?icaeoi ia i?yiieooi? eaa?oaee ca
caieneii a?o?o. A.Aa?aoo? (ca ieaiii 1837 ?.). Ii/aeanue ao?aoa
aeinyaiaiue XVIII no. — ia??iaeo ?icea?oo oe?a?inueeiai aa?iei — noeeth
/e niiniao aa/aiiy, yeee caeiaoa iaeaeui? aa?iii?? a ?icoaooaaii?
nii?oae a iaeueiaie/eo ee?anueeeo eaiaeoaooao, a ?aeiaii? neeoao?a
o?ai?a ? aoae?aaeue ?c ieanoe/ieie ia?enaie /eneaiieo iaai?a?a oa
caeaenoeie e?i?yie aaaaoueio no?oie?a ? ??/ie.

?ic?iaea ieaio 1837 ?. a oaeiae 1855, 1861, 1888 ??. noi?ioaaea a
iniiaiiio ieaioaaiiy i?noa ye ?aeeii? oa?eoi???, caeeaaoe ?aeath
no/aniiai Ee?aa. I?noi, yea a?eaie ?nioaaei a o?ueio ?ic’?aeiaieo
/anoeiao, iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. aaea iaaoei aeaeyaeo
oe?e?niiai i?nueeiai i?aai?cio.

Ii/aoie OO no. aiineoue a caaoaeiao i?noa iia? ?ene. I?ae aieeaii
ethaeeie aeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaeanue i?e?iaeia i?aeiniiaa Ee?aa:
ae??aithaaany ?aeue?o, ci?ithaaany ?ineeiiee iie?ea, ui aieeaaa ia
ee?iao ? i?ioeane a?oioiooai?aiiy, ia ?aaeei iiaa?oiaaiai noieo ? cnoai?
i?ioeane, ooo/ii ooai?thaaeinue aieiaia ?onei Aei?i?a, aeniaaeoaaeenue ?
a?aeaiaeeeenue a o?oae no?oiee, ui i?io?eaee ia oa?eoi???. A i?nuee?e
caaoaeia? aeyaeythoueny iiaea?i?noe/iee ?iiaioeci, ui aeiiiaithaaa
iioe?aiee ?aoe?iiae?ci c eiai iaaei??iith u?euei?noth caaoaeiae oeaio?o,
i?aaiaiiyi aenieoaoaoe?eii? aeioe?eueiino?, aeiiii?/iino?, i?aeaeuaiiyi
??aiy ?iaeaia?iiai caaacia/aiiy. A neeoao i?noa ii/aee oaiaeeoenue
iiaeaaei? eaeai/?, aiaeiiai??i? aaae?, caaiaenuee? aeeia??, aeaaaoi?e
aa?iii?eii ia iia’ycai? c i?e?iaeith ? i?nueeei eaiaeoaooii, ui
caii/aoeoaaei ?oo aei iaaii? aeaanoaoecaoe?? aeoai?aiiai ia?aco Ee?aa.

?ICAe?E Ae?OAEE

NEEOAOI? INIAEEAINO? EE?ANUeEIAI EAIAeOAOOO

(IA II*AOEO OO NOIE?OOss)

Neeoaoi? iniaeeaino? ee?anueeiai eaiaeoaooo ii/aoeo OO no. aecia/ai? ia
iniia? aiae?co iae?ineeoaoo c aenoa?’??ieie aeii?ioth/eie nii?oaeaie ?
i?e?ineeoaoo — a?o?oaeoo?ii-i?inoi?iai? eiiiiceoe?? aoeeoeue c
?ioa?’??ieie i???ioe?aie. Aiae?c i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e ee?anueeiai
eaiaeoaooo ia ??ai? iae?ineeoaoo aeyaea aace?/ aeoeaioieo aeaiaio?a, c
yeeie anioe?th?oueny iaea?eueo yne?aaee ia?ac i?noa: ?onei Aei?i?a,
ino?iae, no??ie? noeee i?aaiai aa?aaa oa oe?ie? i?inoi?e caieaaieo oa?an
e?aiai aa?aaa. I?e?iaeiee eaiaeoaoo Ee?aa caeeaa iniiae aeey aeoai?aiiy
neeoaoo i?noa, noi?iiaaiiai aecia/ieie eoeueoiaeie ainaiaeyie,
?icoaoiaaieie ia ai?ao, ocaeooyo, ieaoi i?noa, ye? neeaee i?aai?/io
?aei?noue a?o?oaeoo?e ? i?e?iaee, noai?eee aieiaiee oanaae i?noa c aieo
Aei?i?a a XVIII no. Ieanoe/i?noue ?aeue?oo, ye iaeio c nai???aeieo ?en
ia?aco Ee?aa, ia iioyc? a?e?a ona?aeiiethaaee aeaeaoi? iaeno?e
a?o?oaeoo?e, aeei?enoiaoth/e iaee?ioa, ui aea?oaaea i?e?iaea, ?
i?aee?anethth/e iaeaoaeoeai?oa a neeoao?.

?noi?e/iee i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy a?aecia/aany ana aeoeai?oei ao?o/aiiyi
ethaeeie a ?aeue?o i?noa, iniaeeai a O?O no., eiee neeaeanue oe?e?nia
i?nueea ieaioaaeueia no?oeoo?a, a oeaio?? oey nenoaia aoeeoeue aeeeeeaea
i?i??coaaiiy o?an o aaeao ? ai?aao, caneiaiiy y??a.

Eiaeiee c ?noi?e/ieo ?aeii?a i?noa iaaoa iniaeeaeo ?en ieaioaaiiy ?
caaoaeiae. Aa?oi? i?noi ciaoiaeeoueny ia ieaoi Noa?iee?anueei? ai?e, ia?
aeii?ioth/a iieiaeaiiy a no?oeoo?? i?noa. Caaaeyee ?icieaioaaiith
oa?eoi??? a?ey Oi?aa?neoaoo ca i?iaeoii Aa?aoo?, iaaoei ?aaoey?iino?,
aecia/aii? aaeeeei ianooaaii ? noiee/iei ?iciaoii ieaioaaiiy. Iiae?e
ciaoiaeeoueny o ??aieii?e aeieeie Aei?i?a. ?aeii ni?eeia?oueny iaii?aiii
c i?aeaeuaiue, ui ioi/othoue eiai ?c caoiaeo. Ia ii/aoeo O?O no. ae?noaa
?aaoey?ia ieaioaaiiy iaeiiiaa?oiao eeaneoeenoe/io caaoaeiao oa /eneaii?
eoeueoia? ia’?eoe, ye? ni?a?nioaaee c eiiieaenaie ? ainaiaeyie aeiae
aa?iei ? aeoai?eee i?ea?iaeueiee neeoao. Ia/a?nuee ?icoaoiaaii acaeiaae
Aei?i?a, ia Ia/a?nueeiio ocaeoo?. ?aeii iaa ae?aciee neeoao, noi?iiaaiee
ainaiaeai Ia/a?nueei? Eaa?e ? aeiiiaiaiee ia’?eoaie oi?oaoe?. Eeiee, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny a cao?aei?e /anoei? Ia/a?nueeiai ocaeooy, iaaoee ia
ii/aoeo O?O no. cia/aiiy i?nueeiai oeaio?o ? ae?noaee oiae? aacneeoaoia
?aaoey?ia ieaioaaiiy. «Iiai? no?i?i??» noaei ?aeiiii, aeoai?aiei a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no., c /?oeith ? i?aaeeueiith n?oeith aoeeoeue,
aienaieo a ?aeue?o. Ia? aa?i? iaii?aie a aeieei? ??ee Eea?aeue.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a iaoo?iiai ianoaaeaiiy ia iniia?
e?aneaiue ? iaethie?a aaoi?a ? a?o?aieo cia?aaeaiue aecia/aia nenoaia
a?coaeueiiai ?ice?eooy ? ni?eeiyooy c ??cieo oi/ie ?aeii?a i?noa:
Aa?oiueiai i?noa, Iiaeieo, Ia/a?nueea, oa?aeoa?ieo ee?anueeeo aoeeoeue c
aeyaeaiiyi aeii?iaioieo nii?oae, ui ?ice?eaathoueny /a?ac «a?coaeuei?
ei?eaei?e, naeoi?e», iaii?aie i?ae ??ciei eooii ci?o.

Oanaae i?noa c aieo Aei?i?a ia ii/aoeo OO no. aeeaoaaa nai?th
aa?iii?eiith e?anith — aaee/i?noue i?aaiaa?aaeieo a?? ?aeiaeanue c ?o
ieoiith ?ineeii?noth oa ??cueaeaieie neeoaoaie niai??a ? aeca?ieoeue
Aeaeoaeoeueeiai, Ia/a?nueeiai, Iee?euenueeiai, Cieioiaa?oiai
Ieoaee?anueeiai, Ee?ee?anueeiai iiianoe??a, O?ueionayoeoaeuenueei?,
Oniainueei? Aeanyoeiii? oa Aiae???anueei? oea?eia. O ?acoeueoao?
i?iaaaeaieo a oeueiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaiue noai?aia nenoaiaoecaoe?y
aeae?a aeii?iaioieo ? aeoeaioieo nii?oae Ee?aa, ieaiiaino? iaii?ai.

A oeueiio ?icae?e? i?aee?aneth?oueny oaea niinoa?aaeaiiy, ui
ee?anueeiio eaiaeoaooo i?eoaiaiia iaii?aii?noue caaaeyee a?aee?eoino?
i?inoi??a. Iaeyaeia? o?iioe a?aee?eaathoueny c iaeiiai i?aeaeuaiiy ia
ia?niaeoeae ?ioeo, ooai?thth/? aoaeoi? aaaaoiieaiia? iaii?aie.
Iaiao?aeii caa?aaoe oeae aacoe?iiee anoaoe/iee oiiae.

I?e?ineeoao eaiaeoaooo Ee?aa oi?io?oueny i?inoi?ii aoeeoeue, ye? ?
noeaiith aeey ??ciiiai?oii? caaoaeiae: aei?noei? ?aioiai? /e c
?ic?eaaie, iaeiaeiai? aenioe /e ??cii?. ?noi?e/ia nai???aei?noue
aoeeoeue Ee?aa aecia/eeanue neeaaeiiuaie aienoaaiiy a ?aeue?o, ui
i?eaaei aaaaoi aoeeoeue aei e?eaie?i?eiino? oa ?iiaioe/ii?
iai?aeeia?iino? ?o o?an /a?ac cia/i? ia?aiaaee aenio ? no??ie?noue
noee?a (Aiae???anueeee oca?c, E?oaei-Oi?aa?neoaonueea, Iaei-I?aeaaeueia
oa ?i.). Eiio?anoii aei ieo noaee aoeeoe? c i?yiie?i?eiith o?a?eoi???th,
ye? i?ieoee ieaoi a?? ? ??aieiieie aeieeiaie (A.Aieiaeeie?nueea,
Nio?enueea, Ooiaeoeea?anueea, A?a?eianueeee aoeueaa? oa ?i.). Oea
iaaeaei ?i cia/ii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, neeaaoe aa?iii?eia
aca?iiaeiiiaiaiiy i?nueei? eiiiiceoe??. Iai?ee?ioe? O?O no.
i?ieeaaeaeenue aaeee? iaa?no?ae? oa aieiai? aoeeoe?, ui caeeaee
ieaioaaeuei? in? i?noa (Ooiaeoeea?anueea aeiaaeeiith 1640 i,
A?a?eianueeee aoeueaa? aeiaaeeiith 1840 i). Iath/e aaeeeo aeiaaeeio oe?
aoeeoe? i?ioiaeyoue aeiaaee oeyo ii oa?eoi??? c ia?an?/aiei ?aeue?oii. ?
i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui aieiaia aoeeoey caeia? aai iaeaeua i?noea,
?icoaoiaoth/enue ia o?aaoao iaai?e?a /e ?ici?uoth/enue a y?ao, o ?one?
eieeoi?o ??/ie. Eiee aoeeoey i?ieeaaeaeanue iaai??, nii/aoeo ??
caaoaeiaoaaee aenieeie aoaeeieaie, eiee aieco — a?eueo iecueeeie
(iai?eeeaae A.Aieiaeeie?nueea, O?auaoee), a iio?i a e?ioe? O?O — ia
ii/aoeo OO noie?oue oea ii?oooaaee.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co i?inoi?iaeo eiiiiceoe?e aeaeaoieo aoeeoeue i?noa
(O?auaoee, A.Aieiaeeie?nueea, Aiae???anueeee oca?c oa ?i.) anoaiiaeaii,
ui ca ?aooiie ?icaeoeo eaiaeoaooieo yeinoae i?inoi?o ee?anueeeo
aoeeoeue, aeoeaiooaaiiy, aeyaeaiiy iaaieo aeaiaio?a iiaeia aeinyaoe
aaeaeeo ii?aeiaiue, noai?thth/e iiaio aa?iii?th nii?oae ? eaiaeoaooo.

?ICAe?E O?AO?E

EIIIIIAIOE IA’?III-I?INOI?IAI? EIIIICEOe?? I?NOA

(IA II*AOEO OO NOIE?OOss)

Ee?a ia i?ioyc? a?e?a neeaany ye aeeaee aaaaoiooieoe?iioth/ee i?aai?ci
?c nai???aei?noth aeaeyaeo, noi?iiaaiiai iaeaaaeeea?oeie no?oeoo?ieie
aeaiaioaie, iae/ano?oa aienaieie a ?aeue?o ?c a?aooaaiiyi i?e?iaeiiai
eaiaeoaooo, ui iaaeaei eiiiiceoe?yi iiaeeea?noue i?aee?aneeoe eiai
ieanoeeo ? i?inoi?ia?noue, iaiiaoi?i?noue ? ?iiaioeci, ye? i?aai?/ii
c’?aeiaeenue a eiai ia?ac?.

A?eueo?noue ee?anueeeo iaeaeai?a a?aecia/aeenue /anoeiaith
a?aee?eo?noth i?inoi?o ia aoeeoe?, ye? eoee aiec /e aai?o, a oiio
caaaa/oaaee ?o i?inoi?ia? eiiiiceoe??; ia??aeei, ioi/oth/? ocaeooy
noai?thaaee aaaaoiieaiia? ia?niaeoeae, a?coaeuei? ei?eaei?e /e naeoi?e,
ui iaaeaaaei ?i iniaeeai? /a??aiino?. O?e ieiu? O?auaoeeo iaee ni?euei?
i?e?iaei? iniaeeaino?: ciaoiaeaeaiiy o aeieei? a ioi/aii? i?aeaeuaiue,
ui aeiiiaithaaee neeoaoia ??oaiiy a?o?oaeoo?ii-eaiaeoaooiiai i?inoi?o.
Aaeaei canoiniaaii iiaeeeaino? eiio?anoiiai ni?anoaaeaiiy ?ice?eoeo ?
cae?eoeo i?inoi??a ia Iiaeie?, ia Ieaenaiae??anuee?e ieiu?, aea
?ice?eoee i?ino?? — c aieo Aei?i?a, a cae?eoee — c aieo a??.

A o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny aeeoeia? eaa?oaee Ee?aa,
?icoaoiaai? ia noeeao ocaeo ? aeieei, caaoaeiaai? ca ?aaoey?iith
nenoaiith a ??cieo aa??aioao a?ae a?eueiiai ?icoaooaaiiy aoaeeie?a,
ioi/aieo caeaiith naae?a aei ??oaiue c aei?noeith ia?eiao?aeueiith
caaoaeiaith, cae?eniaiith ca eaneaaeiei i?eioeeiii, oi/a, iaeaea
caaaeaee, ia aeiaaaeaiith aei aaaeaii? aeineiiaeino?. sseui ia ??aieii?e
oa?eoi??? aeieeie Aei?i?a (Iiae?e) /e Eeaaae? (“Iiai? no?i?i??”), ia
ieaoi i?aeaeuaiue Noa?iee?anueeiai (acaeiaae aoeeoeue Ooiaeoeea?anueei?,
A.Aieiaeeie?nueei?) oa Ia/a?nueeiai (Eeiee) eaa?oaee iaee i?aaeeueio
oi?io, oi ia noeeao a?? aiie iaaoaaee a?eueii? oi?ie, iaiaaeoth/enue
?ieiee c iaeiiai aieo i?e?iaeieie iaaeaie iaeueiaie/eo einiai??a, ye?
ioi/othoue, iai?eeeaae, Aiae???anueeee oca?c. Na?aaeiy ieiua eaa?oae?a o
Aa?oiueiio i?no?, a?ey Oi?aa?neoaoo aoea 4,5 aa, a ia ae?eyieao c?
neeaaeiei ?aeue?oii 6-10 aa. A Eeieao, ia Iiaeie? naaeeaia caaoaeiaa
iaoiiaeea ieiuo 2 aa.

Ia??aei? aoaeeiee a aeeoeiaeo eaa?oaeao /anoi ae?noaaaee aaooiiiae?ai?
/anoeie, oa?i/ai? eoiieaie, oao?aie /e oieeyie, ui iaaeaaaei cia/ii?
cae?i/aiino? eiiiiceoe?? eaa?oae?a ? ni?eyei i?aeaeuai?e ae?aciino?
ia?ao?anoue aoeeoeue. Aoaeeiee, ui oi?ioaaee ia?ao?anoy aoeeoeue, iaee
??ciiiai?oi? eiiiiceoe?? nii?oae. Oeae eiiiiceoe?eiee aeaiaio iaaoaa?
aeoeaiino?, a i?inoi?e io?eiothoue /?oe? iaae?. Aaeaei aeei?enoaia
caaa?oai?noue a?coaeueieo ea?oei ia aoeeoeyo O?ueionayoeoaeuenuee?e,
Ia???inueei-Aeaaia?uainuee?e, aea eiaeia ae?eyiea caaa?oaia aeoeaioii.
Na?aae an?o ee?anueeeo aoeeoeue naia oey aoeeoey oi?eaeueia nai?ie
a?o?oaeoo?ii-i?inoi?iaeie ??oaiiyie ia?ao?anoue, eiaeia c yeeo
iaiiaoi?ia.

Naaeeae a Ee?a? ii/aoeo OO no. iaaoee ?icia?ooy ??oaiue, ii/eiath/e
a?ae aeaoooaaiiy caeaieo iae?naaeiee?a ? ea?oiee?a i?e aoeeoeyo
(Iaiuee?anueea, Oa?an?anueea, A.Aieiaeeie?nueea, Ooiaeoeea?anueea) aei
noai?aiiy naae?a ca aoaeeieaie, ia??aeei c ia?eiaei aeaaiono?i?i ?
e?i/ath/e aeai?aie-eieiaeycyie, ye? i? ca nai?ie ooieoe?iiaeueieie
yeinoyie, i? ca oa?aeoa?i?noth ia aoee i?eoaiaiieie i?noeaa?e
o?aaeeoe??. Ia ieai? Ee?aa 1861 ?. aoea aaaaeaia ???a?o?y aoeeoeue ca
?ic?yaeaie, aecia/eaoe ?o cia/aiiy a a?o?oaeoo?iiio i?inoi?? i?noa. E?ie
?aaoey?ii? caaoaeiae ii aoeeoeyo ia?oiai ?ic?yaeo aei??aithaaa a?ae 24
aei 45 a?oei (18-32 i), a ieiua naaeeaii? ae?eyiee aeinyaaea 1000 ea.
naae. (4552 ea. i). Ianaae? iia i?eaioi? iaoce aieiaii? aoeeoe?,
?ice?eaaee aeeaeii? ia?niaeoeae.

Aoaeeiee ?yaeiai? caaoaeiae, iicia/ai? iaenoa?i?noth ?o oai?oe?a,
oi?ioaaee oii, ia yeiio aeae?eyeenue aeii?iaioi? nii?oaee, ui aeoaea
aoaeoii aeae?eyei ia’?eoe a?o?oaeoo?e oe?a?inueeiai aa?iei OVIII no. aai
iaae? O?O oa OO noie?oue. Noai?aiiy i?aai?/iino? a?o?oaeoo?ieo
eiiiiceoe?e aeoiaey/e ?c ?aeo?anueeiai iiiyooy “caeioaiino? a naith
ae?eyieo” aeinyaiooi a ??oaiiyo nii?oae: aoaeeieo a?o?oaeoi?a
A.Ai?iaeaoeueeiai, ee?i?ee I.Ea/eianueeiai (a?o?o. ?.Eaaeioianueeee),
i?eaooeiaiai aoaeeieo ia aoeeoe? Iaei-Aieiaeeie?nuee?e, ? 60, iniaiyea
I.Eiaaeaanueeiai (a?o?o. I.Aeueioeia). Aoae?aieoeoai o/aiaeo ?
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oi?o caeeaae?a caeiaei oiae? iaaia i?noea i?ney
i?eaooeiaeo aeeoeiaeo aoaeeie?a.

?aaeaiaiooaaiiy caaoaeiae aeicaieyei o 70-o ??. O?O no. ia oooeaoo?eoe
aoaeeiee, ui ia o?eueee nei?i/oaaei no?iee iiaoaeiae, aea e caaaeyee
cieioenoi-iaeaaiio eieuei?o i?noeaai? oeaaee caaaa/oaaei caaaeueiee
eiei?eo i?noa. Aeey Ee?aa oa?aeoa?iei ? yniee n??aeynoi-iaeaaee eiei?eo
aoaeeie?a e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue, aeiiiaiaiee caeaiith, aai
a?ei-aeaeeoia ? a?ei-a??thciaa a ainaiaeyo OVIII no., ioi/aieo naaeaie
oa ia?eaiaie. Nai???aei?noue ia?aco Ee?aa i?noeoue o nia? iaoa?oaaiiy
an?o iiia?aaei?o aiio: eiyc?anueei? O-O??? noie?oue, na?aaeiueia?//y
O?V-OV? noie?oue, ?icea?oo aa?iei OV??-OV??? noie?oue, eeaneoeecio
ii/aoeo O?O no., iaae? O?O-OO noie?oue, ui caaacia/o? iaaecae/aeio
ooaeiaeith ae?aci?noue ? iaiiaoi?i?noue eaiaeoaooo noieeoe? Oe?a?ie.

AENIIAEE ? ?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

1. Caa?aaeaiiy ooaeiaeiuei? oe?e?niino? oa iaiiaoi?iino? ia?aco
aeaaiueiai Ee?aa ia? iniaeeao aeooaeuei?noue aeey no/aniiai noni?euenoaa
iaia?aaeiaei? OO? noie?ooy, a /an, eiee o?aai?caoe?y oaeaeei i?ia?ano?,
ca?eueoo?oueny a?ae?ea ethaeeie a?ae i?e?iaee. Iaoooaaiiy i?e?iaeieie
iniaeeainoyie eaiaeoaooo i?noa ia Aei?i?? caeaoi? ii?ooeoe iioeiaeuei?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oa aca?ii? ca’ycee aeaiaio?a i?e?iaeiiai eaiaeoaooo ?
aeaiaio?a caaoaeiae. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co iniaeeainoae i?e?iaeii?
i?aeiniiae, iniiaieo aoai?a ?icaeoeo ieaioaaiiy i?noa aecia/ai?
oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? ?icaoaeiae oa?eoi??? oi?eaeueiiai i?inoi?iaiai
i?aai?cio i?noa Ee?aa.

2. Aeyaeai? oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? ?icaoaeiae i?noa iiia?aaei?o aiio:
eiyc?anueei? O-O??? noie?oue, na?aaeiueia?//y O?V-OV? noie?oue, aa?iei
OV??-OV??? noie?oue, eeaneoeecio ii/aoeo O?O no., iaae? O?O-OO noie?oue,
iaoa?oaaiiy yeeo caeeaaeai? a nai???aei?noue no/aniiai ia?aco i?noa.
Noi?iiaaii oyaeaiiy i?i aacia?a?aiee ? iine?aeiaiee i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy
aieiaii? iaii?aie i?noa c aieo Aei?i?a. Aeyaeaia neeoaoia ? noeeueiaa
oa?aeoa?enoeea caaoaeiae eiaeiiai aoaio o aca?iiae?? c eaiaeoaooii ?
?aeue?oii. ?ice?eoi aianie aecia/ieo iaeno??a a?o?oaeoo?e, ye? ni?eeiaee
oa a?aoiaoaaee iniaeeaino? ?aeue?oo oa a?aecia/ai? iaaeie?ee
a?o?oaeoi??a, ye? iaoooaaee i?e?iaeiei eaiaeoaooii o iaaiee ia??iae
?icaeoeo Ee?aa.

3. A?aecia/aii aaaeeea?noue aeinyaiaiue ia??iaeo ?icaoaeiae Ee?aa o
OV??? no. aeey oi?ioaaiiy eiai ia?aco. Ia oeueiio aoai? ooai?th?oueny
iniaeeaa ae?aci?noue neeoaoo i?noa caaaeyee oai?/ino? aeaeaoieo ciae/eo
E.Oaaeaey, N.Eiai??a, A.Eaaniaa, ?.A?eai?iae/a-Aa?nueeiai, ye? aoaeoaaee
nii?oaee, a?aoiaoth/e nai???aei?noue ?aeue?oo oa iineethth/e
iaeueiaie/?noue ee?anueeiai eaiaeoaooo.

4. Aecia/ai? neeoaoi? iniaeeaino? ee?anueeiai eaiaeoaooo ia ii/aoeo OO
no. I?iaiae?ciaaii iae?ineeoao i?noa c aenoa?’??ieie aeii?ioth/eie
nii?oaeaie ? i?e?ineeoao — a?o?oaeoo?ii-i?inoi?iao eiiiiceoe?th aoeeoeue
c ?ioa?’??ieie i???ioe?aie. I?iaaaeaia nenoaiaoecaoe?y aeae?a
aeii?iaioieo ? aeoeaioieo nii?oae Ee?aa, ui ?nioaaee ia ii/aoeo OO no.

5. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co aeyaeai? cia/aiiy iaaieo eiiiiiaio?a i?noa:
aoeeoeue, ieiu, ia?ao?anoue aoeeoeue, eaa?oae?a, naaeea, ie?aieo
nii?oae, ii/eiath/e a?ae iaea?aeii?oeo ?noi?e/ieo ainaiae?a aei aeayeeo
?yaeiaeo oa?aeoa?ieo ia’?eo?a o ca’yceo c ?o aca?iiae??th c ?aeue?oii ?
eaiaeoaooii.

6. Cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? noiniaii aa?aaeiiai noaaeaiiy aei
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?noa; ye? aecia/athoueny i?e?iaeieie
iaioth/eie ocaeooyie, ai?aie, noeeaie, ieaoi oa a?o?oaeoo?ieie
aeii?iaioaie, i?ae yeeie anoaiiaeththoueny a?coaeuei? ca’ycee –
“iaeyaeia? ei?eaei?e, naeoi?e”, iaii?aie, “aaeueaaaea?e”, aeaeia? oi/ee,
ia?niaeoeae aaaeeea? aeey aecia/aiiy ieanoe/ii? oi?ioee Ee?aa.

7. Anoaiiaeai? aaaeeea? neeaaeia? oi?ioee eaioaooii-eiiiiceoe?eii?
nai???aeiino? aeaaiueiai i?noa:

I?inoi?ia?noue

Aaaaoiieaiia?noue

Iaii?aii?noue

a) o?iioaeueia ?ice?eooy iaii?aie;

a) iai?aeieiaa iaii?aii?noue;

a) e?oaiaa iaii?aii?noue.

Iniaeeaino? a?coaeueiiai ni?eeiyooy i?inoi?o i?noa:

a) iine?aeiaia “ei?eaei?ia” ?ice?eooy ia i?yiie?i?eieo aoeeoeyo;

a) iine?aeiaia “ei?eaei?ii”- naeoi?ia ?ice?eooy aoeeoeue c eaiaiith
o?anith;

a) iine?aeiaia naeoi?ia ?ice?eooy caeaenoeo aoeeoeue;

a) ?ice?eooy e?aneaeo aeae?a “aaeueaaaea??a” c ie?aieo iaeaeai/ee?a,
aeyaeaiiy a?coaeueieo aeoeaio?a i?noeaaino? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
e?eueeino? naeoi??a:

— iaeiinaeoi?i? ae?eyiee;

— aeainaeoi?i? ae?eyiee;

— o?enaeoi?i? ae?eyiee;

— aaaaoinaeoi?i?.

?aeo?nia ?ice?eooy e?a?aeae?a, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae oi/ee ci?o aeyaea/a,
yeee:

— ciaoiaeeoueny a?ey i?aei?aeaey ai?e, ia aa?oei? yei? noi?oue aeoeaioia
nii?oaea;

— ciaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? a?aei?oee ?ici?uaiiy ia’?eoo;

— eiee aeyaea/ ciaoiaeeoueny ia ocaeoo?, aeua ??aiy ?icoaooaaiiy
nii?oaee.

Aeaeuei?noue ni?eeiyooy — caeaaeeoue a?ae ?ici???a aenioe nii?oaee ?
i?noey ?? ?icoaooaaiiy. Aeii?ioth/? a i?inoi?? ia’?eoe, ?ici?uai? ia
Aei?i?ianueeiio ocaeoo? (aenioa 100 i), noathoue i???ioe?aie, ye? aeaeii
c aaaaoueio iai?yie?a, ia cia/i?e a?aenoai?. Aaeeeo Eaa?nueeo
aeca?ieoeth (96,5 i) a yniee aeaiue — c a?aenoai? 30 ei. Ia aeaeuei?noue
ni?eeiyooy aieeaathoue i?ici??noue iia?o?y, ina?oeaiiy ? eiei?eo.
O?iioaeueia, a?/ia, eiio?aaeo?ia ina?oeaiiy a?aecia/a?oueny ??cieie
iieacieeaie a?ae 30 aei 3 ei. Iaea?eueoo aeaeuei?noue ni?eeiyooy aea?
iane/aiee a oii? neeoao (a eiio?aaeo??). Neeoao nii?oae, ?ici?uaieo ia
a??aoe? Aei?i?ianueeiai ocaeooy, ni?eeia?oueny iniaeeai ae?acii c aieo
Aei?i?a ia oii? iaaa a /ane caoiaeo niioey.

Nooiai? a?coaeueiino?. Eiaeia aoeeoey, eiaeai iaeaeai, eiaeia naaeeaa,
eiaeai aoaeeiie i?noa iathoue naith ?iaeea?aeoaeueio i?inoi?iao
oa?aeoa?enoeeo a?coaeueiiai ni?eeiyooy: a?coaeueia iaiaaeai?noue
(i?yiie?i?eieo aoeeoeue, ui i?ioiaeyoue ??aieiiith oa?eoi???th);
a?coaeueia aaaaonoai e?eaie?i?eieo aoeeoeue (ia Aiae???anueeiio ocaic?),
a?coaeueia iane/ai?noue (ia aoe. A.Aieiaeeie?nuee?e), a?coaeueia
aeoeai?noue (ia Nio?enueeiio iaeaeai?), a?coaeueia ?icia?ooy (ia
Ieaenaiae??anuee?e ieiu?).

Ieanoe/ia aeoeai?noue eaiaeoaooo aecia/a?oueny noiith ia?ae?/aieo
yeinoae. Iaeoe?ii?oei eaiaeoaooiei eiiieaenii i?noa ? aeaaoi??? Aei?i?a
c ino?iaaie, oa iie?eo? caeaiith ia?e?a aei?i?ianuee? noeee aenieiai
i?aaiai aa?aaa. C a??aee noee?a cae?enith?oueny aeaeiaa ?ice?eooy,
ni?eeia?oueny neeoao i?noa e iaeyaeathoueny iaea?eueo oe?ie? iaii?aie,
i?inoi?e caieaaieo oa?an e?aiai aa?aaa. Aeieeia Aei?i?a ooai?th?
iaea?eueo yne?aaee ia?ac aieiaiiai oanaaeo i?noa. Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia?
caaoaeiaa Noa?iee?anueei? ai?e, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a oeaio?? i?noa.

I?aai?/i?noue caaoaeiae caaacia/o?oueny aaeaeei ?icoaooaaiiyi ?yaeiai?
caaoaeiae ? aeii?iaio c o?aooaaiiyi ?aeue?oo, oa?aeoa?o o?anoaaiiy
aoeeoeue, ?aeiino? i?inoi?iaeo oa?aeoa?enoee an?o eiiiiiaio?a i?nueei?
caaoaeiae.

I?e an?o /oaeiaeo caaeaoeao eaiaeoaoo?a Ee?aa ana ae ia aeei?enoai?
a?o?oaeoi?aie caeeoeeenue oae? iiaeeeaino?:

· Oa?anoaaiiy ae?eyiie c ?o aaeeeeie iiaeeeainoyie, iniaeeai ia noeeao
Noa?iee?anueei? ai?e a a?e Iiaeieo ? Aei?i?a, c aieo aeieeie Eeaaae?, a
aeieei? O?auaoeea, ia noeeao Ia/a?nueeiai ? Noa?iee?anueeiai
i?aeaeuaiue.

· Ieanoeee eaneaaeii? caaoaeiae ia /eneaiieo iaai?aao i?noa, cie?aia ia
aoeeoeyo Iaiuee?anuee?e, Oa?an?anuee?e, A.Aaneeuee?anuee?e,
A.Aieiaeeie?nueei?; ia noeeao Ia/a?nueeiai i?aeaeuaiiy: ia aoeeoeyo
Aiiaie?anuee?e, ?inoeooonuee?e oa ?i.

· I?inoi?iaa ?ice?eooy ieiu ? aoeeoeue. Aeoinueea ? Aanna?aanueea ieiu?
io?eiaee caieiaiee i?ino??, aac a?aoiaoaaiiy ?icaeoeo eiiiiceoe?? c iaio
aie?a O?auaoi? aeieeie, ye ia noeeao Noa?iee?anueeiai, oae ?
Ia/a?nueeiai i?aeaeuaiue. A.Aieiaeeie?nueea ia ae?noaea aeinoaoiueiai
?ice?eooy, ye ia?aaeaa/aa a?o?o. A.Aa?aoo?.

· Iaei aoee aeei?enoai? iiaeeeaino? ?ice?eooy i?inoi??a ana?aaeei? i?noa
? eiai aeiae?eey. U?eueia ia?eiao?aeueia caaoaeiaa aoeeoe?
A.AEeoiie?nueei? caaaaea? ni?eeiaoe e?a?aeaee iaii?ai iaai?a?a ?
Aei?i?ianueei? aeieeie. Ana?aaeei? i?noa iaaeinoaoiuei ?ice?eo?
a?coaeuei? naeoi?e ia Aaeeeo Eaa?nueeo aeca?ieoeth.

· Iaaeinoaoiy caaa?oai?noue a?coaeueieo ea?oei ia aoeeoeyo: ia ii/aoeo
O?auaoeea, ia ie?aieo ae?eyieao A.Aieiaeeie?nueei?.

· Noai?aiiy i?aai?/iino? a?o?oaeoo?e, aeoiaey/e ?c ?aeo?anueeiai iiiyooy
“caeioaiino? a naith ae?eyieo”.

· Ia aeei?enoai? iiaeeeaino? eiio?anoiiai ni?anoaaeaiiy ?ice?eoeo ?
cae?eoeo i?inoi??a ia Oea?nuee?e, Aeoinuee?e, Ea?aaa?anuee?e ieiuao.

Aeaye? c oeo iiaeeeainoae aoee /anoeiai aeei?enoai? a ?aaeyinueeee /an
i?e ??oaii? iiai?iiiai O?auaoeeo, aoeuea. E.Oe?a?iee, caaoaeiae ae?eyiie
Ia/a?nueeo.

?icaeyae i?aeiyoeo ieoaiue iiaea aooe ei?eniei i?e iiaeaeueoiio
aaeineiiaeaii? neeoaoo Ee?aa oa i?nueeiai eaiaeoaooo a no/anieo oiiaao.
Aeinyaiaiiy, ui caa?aaeenue ia ii/aoeo OO no., ia iiaeii? aooe
caaoaeaieie. A ?iaio? i?aeaiaeeoueny i?aenoiie an?i iaeiie/aiei
aeinyaiaiiyi, ui aoee c?iaeai? ca iiia?aaei? aiioe, ? iai?/aia
ia?niaeoeaa i?iaeai ? iiaeeeainoae, ye? iio??aii ae??ooaaoe ia no/aniiio
aoai?. Cae?i/aiiyi oe??? ?iaioe ia caaa?oo?oueny, a eeoa ii/eia?oueny
i?ciaiiy nai???aeiino? Ee?aa, ai ca oeei iiaeii? iaae?eoe a?eueo
aeaoaeuei? ?icaeyaee /anoei i?noa, ye? aeiiiiiaeooue ia eeoa ?noi?eeai,
aea ? no/aniei i?noiaoae?aieeai.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Eoe?oiaa O.I. Iaoa?ao?cueeee ?iciao ae?yeueiino? a?o?oaeoi?a A?eaio?y
?aaiiae/a Aa?aoo? a Ee?a? // No/ani? i?iaeaie a?o?oaeoo?e oa
i?noiaoaeoaaiiy: Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee ca??iee — E.: EAeOOAA. — 1997. — Aei.
1. — N. 13-17.

2. Eoe?oiaa O. Aaaaoiieaiia?noue iaii?ai ee?anueeeo e?a?aeae?a //
Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y ienoaoeoaa: Aeine?aeieoeuee? oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?
i?aoe?. — E. — 1998.- Aei. 5. — N. 138-141.

3. Eoe?oiaa O.I. Eaiaeoaooii-eiiiiceoe?ei? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy
ee?anueeeo aoeeoeue aei ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy // No/ani? i?iaeaie
a?o?oaeoo?e oa i?noiaoaeoaaiiy: Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee ca??iee — E.: EIOAA,
1999. — Aei. 4. — N. 74-76.

4. I’youe caieoaiue ia oii? «A?ae?iaeaeaiiy» // A?o?oaeoo?a Oe?a?ie. —
1993. — ? 2. — C. 52-53.

5. Eoe?oiaa O. I?eaaoia caaoaeiaa ieioeiai noie?ooy // A.N.N. — 1997. —
? 3. — N. 100-101.

6. Eoe?oiaa O. Nai???aei?noue eaiaeoaooo ? a?o?oaeoo?e a ia?ac? Ee?aa
e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue / «Ia?ac aiioe. Eoeueoo?ia na?aaeiaeua
Ee?aa e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.» — Oace aeiiia?aeae i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — E. — 1995. — N. 6-7.

7. Eoe?oiaa O.I. Ae?yeuei?noue ia?oiai i?nueeiai a?o?oaeoi?a A.?.
Iaeainueeiai a Iiae?euenuee?e /anoei? Ee?aa ia ii/aoeo O?O no. // Iiae?e
? ie. — 1997.- ? 4.- N. 16-17.

8. Eoe?oiaa O.I. Aeieeiaiiy Ee?aa // Oe?a?ia-?c?a?eue. A?niee. — 1997. —
? 1. — N. 34-35.

9. Eoe?oiaa O.I. Iaii?aii?noue ee?anueeiai eaiaeoaooo // Iiae?e ? ie. —
1998. — ? 5. — N. 24-25.

10. Eoe?oiaa O. ?noi?e/ia aeeooy aeaaiuei? iiae?euenueei? ieiu? //
Iiae?e ? ie. — 1998. — Aeaeo?iiiee aeione. http: // uamedia/ Visti.net /
web-noi??iea.

11. Eoe?oiaa O. Oa?iieoe? /a??aiino? Nio?enueei? ieiu? // Iiae?e ? ie. —
1999. — ? 4 — N. 30-31.

12. Eoe?oiaa O.I. Nai???aei?noue ee?anueeeo naaeea // Iaaaiie?n. — 1999.
— N. 34-37.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eoe?oiaa O.I. Eaiaeoaooii-eiiiiceoe?ei? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy
a?o?oaeoo?iiai ia?aco Ee?aa O — ii/aoeo OO noie?oue. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?o?oaeoo?e ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 18.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y a?o?oaeoo?e, ?anoaa?aoe?y
iai’yoie a?o?oaeoo?e. — Aeaaeai?y ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa ?
a?o?oaeoo?e, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy
ooaeiaeiuei? oe?e?niino? ? iaiiaoi?iino? a?o?oaeoo?iiai ia?aco Ee?aa o
aca?iiae?? c oi?eaeueiei eaiaeoaooii i?noa. A aeine?aeaeaii? aecia/ai?
oaeoi?e iaiao?aei? aeey inyaiaiiy oi?ioee nai???aeiino? Ee?aa.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui oe? oaeoi?e caeeaaeai? a i?e?iaei?e i?aeiniia?, a
?noi?e/ieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo ieaioaaiiy i?noa, ye? noai?eee
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? ?ene eiai aeaiaio?a: ?aeii?a, aoeeoeue, ?o ia?ao?anoue,
ieiu, eaa?oae?a, ie?aieo nii?oae. Iiaeai? aaaeeea? iieiaeaiiy, ui
nenoaiaoecothoue a?coaeueia ni?eeiyooy i?noa ia ??/oe? Aei?i?i. Aeniiaee
? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeo?a
?aeiino?oeoe?? oa ?icaoaeiae ?noi?e/ii? /anoeie i?noa, aeey oeo, ooi
aoaea caeiaoenue ieoaiiyie ioi?iie ? caa?aaeaiiy iaiiaoi?iino?
eaiaeoaooo i?noa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eaiaeoaooii-eiiiiceoe?ei? iniaeeaino? nai???aeiino?,
a?o?oaeoo?iee ia?ac Ee?aa, iaii?aii?noue, ieanoe/ia aeoeai?noue
eaiaeoaooo, i?aai?/ia caaoaeiaa.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eoeaoiaa O.A. Eaiaeoaooii-eiiiiceoeeiiiua iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey
a?oeoaeoo?iiai ia?aca Eeaaa O — ia/aea OO aaeia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa a?oeoaeoo?u ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 18.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey a?oeoaeoo?u, ?anoaa?aoeey
iaiyoieeia a?oeoaeoo?u. — Aeaaeaiey ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa e
a?oeoaeoo?u, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai auyaeaiey iniaaiiinoae oi?ie?iaaiey
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie oeaeinoiinoe e iaiiaoi?eiinoe a?oeoaeoo?iiai ia?aca
Eeaaa ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n oieeaeueiui eaiaeoaooii ai?iaea. I?aaeiaoii
enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony a?oeoaeoo?iia naiaia?acea Eeaaa a eiiieaena anao
aai ninoaaeythueo: i?e?iaeiie iiaeiniiau, iniiaiuo yoaiia ?acaeoey
ieaie?iaaiey ai?iaea, oi?ie?iaaiey iauaiii-i?ino?ainoaaiiie eiiiiceoeee
cano?ieee n o/aoii eaiaeoaooa e ?aeueaoa.

A?aieoeu enneaaeiaaiey ioaaouaatho enoi?e/anee noi?ie?iaaaoothny
oa??eoi?eth ai?iaea, eioi?ay ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia ninoiyea ec
ioaeaeueiuo /anoae: Aa?oiaai ai?iaea, Iiaeiea, Ia/a?nea, iinoaiaiii
n?anoaaoeony a aaeeiia oeaeia. A?aiaiiua a?aieoeu aeeth/atho ana
ia?eiaeu ?acaeoey Eeaaa io aai ia?aciaaiey (Va.) aei ia/aea OO a. Iniaia
aieiaiea a ?aaioa oaeaeyaony ia?eiaeo O?O e ia/aea OO aaeia.

Auyaeaiu oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe eeaaneie i?e?iaeu: aeae?ia?aoey,
aaieiae/aneia no?iaiea Aeiai?a e Eeaaa, iiaecaiiua aiaeu e iiieciaaua
i?ioeannu, ?aeueao e eaiaeoaooiua i?eciaee, eeeiao e ?anoeoaeueiinoue e
eo aicaeaenoaea ia oi?ie?iaaiea ia?aca ai?iaea. Aeaiu aaaeiua
iieiaeaiey, nenoaiaoece?othuea aecoaeueiia aini?eyoea ai?iaea ia ?aea
Aeiai?. Noi?ie?iaaii i?aaenoaaeaiea i aani?a?uaiii e iineaaeiaaoaeueiii
i?ioeanna nicaeaiey aeaaiie iaii?aiu ai?iaea ni noi?iiu Aeiai?a n a?aiai
Eeaaneie ?one, XIV-XVI aaeia, ia?eiaea aa?ieei XVII-XVIII aaeia, yiioe
eeanneoeecia OIO a. e ia/aea OO aaea. Auyaeaii neeoyoiia e noeeaaia
naiaia?acea cano?ieee eaaeaeiai ia?eiaea ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n
eaiaeoaooii e ?aeueaoii. Iieacaiu a?aaeino?ieoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe
?acaeoey ai?iaea, ?aeiiia, oeeoe, naiaia?acey ainaiaeae ioaeaeueiuo
onaaeaa Eeaaa. Ii?aaeaeaia nenoaia aecoaeueiiai ?ane?uoey ec ?acee/iuo
oi/ae ?aeiiia ai?iaea: Aa?oiaai ai?iaea, Iiaeiea, Ia/a?nea; oa?aeoa?iuo
eeaaneeo oeeoe n auaeaeaieai aeiieie?othueo nii?oaeaiee, eioi?ua
?ane?uaathony /a?ac “aecoaeueiua ei?eaei?u, naeoi?u”, iaii?aiu, iiae
?aciui oaeii c?aiey. I?iaaaeaia nenoaiaoecaoeey aeaeia aeiieiaioiuo e
aeoeaioiuo nii?oaeaiee Eeaaa, nouanoaiaaaoeo aei ia/aea OO a. Auyaeaia
cia/eiinoue aaaeiaeoeo no?oeoo?iuo yeaiaioia ai?iaea: oeeoe, ieiuaaeae,
eaa?oaeia, onaaeaa, ioaeaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee, ia/eiay io ecaanoiuo
enoi?e/aneeo ainaiaeae aei iaeioi?uo ?yaeiauo oa?aeoa?iuo iauaeoia a
aniaeoa eo acaeiiaeaenoaey n ?aeueaoii e eaiaeoaooii. ?ane?uo aeeaae
auaeathueony ianoa?ia eeaaneie a?oeoaeoo?u: E.Oaaeaey, N.Eiaie?a,
E.A?eai?iae/a-Aa?neiai, A.Iaeaineiai, A.Aa?aooe, A.Ieeieaaaa,
A.Ai?iaeaoeeiai, Y.A?aaeoiaia, I.Aeaoeia a ?aoaiee neeoyoa ai?iaea e
cano?ieee iaeaieaa aaaeiuo ?aeiiia e o/anoeia.

?anniio?aiea iiaeiyouo aii?inia iiaeao auoue iieaciui aeey aeaeueiaeoaai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey neeoyoa Eeaaa e ai?iaeneiai eaiaeoaooa a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo. Aeinoeaeaiey, eioi?ua nio?aieeenue a ia/aea OO a., ia aeieaeiu
auoue oo?a/aiiuie. A enneaaeiaaiee iiaeaiaeeony ?acoeueoao anai
iaeiieaiiui aeinoeaeaieyi, eioi?ua auee naeaeaiu a i?aaeuaeouea yiioe, e
iaia/aia ia?niaeoeaa i?iaeai e aiciiaeiinoae, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii
?aoaoue ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia. Auaiaeu e ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iiaoo auoue
iieaciuie i?e ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoia ?aeiino?oeoeee e ?acaeoey enoi?e/aneie
/anoe ai?iaea, aeey oao, eoi aoaeao caieiaoueny aii?inaie io?aiu e
nio?aiaiey iaiiaoi?eiinoe eaiaeoaooa ai?iaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eaiaeoaooii-eiiiiceoeeiiiua iniaaiiinoe naiaia?acey,
a?oeoaeoo?iue ia?ac Eeaaa, iaii?aiiinoue, ieanoe/aneay aeoeaiinoue
eaiaeoaooa, i?aaie/iay cano?ieea.

SUMMARY

Kuleshova T.A. Landscape and compositional peculiarities of the
formation of Kyiv’s architectural image of the Xth — early XXth
centuries. — Manuscript.

The dissertation for a degree of candidate of architecture on speciality
18.00.01 — theory and history of architecture, restoration of
architectural monuments. — Academy of Fine Arts and Architecture, Kyiv,
1999.

The thesis is devoted to definition of peculiarities of the formation of
artistic integrity of inimitable Kyiv’s architectural image in
interaction with unique city’s landscape. The factors, that are
indispensable for comprehending of formula of Kyiv’s peculiarity were
determinated in the investigation. It is established that these factors
was put into nature underlying, into historical stages of the
development of city’s planning, that created the individual traits of
its elements: districts, streets, their crossroads, squares, blocks,
detached structures. Significant provisions that systematise a visual
perception of the city on the Dnipro River was given. Conclusions and
results of the work can be useful when working out the project of
reconstruction and development of city’s historical part, for those who
will be occupied in field of conservation and preservation of unique
city’s landscape.

Key words: landscape and compositional peculiarities of originality,
architectural image of Kyiv, panoramic perception, plastic activity of
landscape, organic building.

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