Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?ss iaoe oe?a?ie

?inoeooo o?ceee

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Eoeee A?eoi? Naiaiiae*

OAeE 537:534.1

Eooia? ? aia?aaoe*i? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a,

ai?oiaaieo iaeiiaeaiaioieie oa nieaaieie

??aeeiiaoaeaaeie aeaea?aeaie

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 01.04.04.- o?ce/ia aeaeo?ii?ea

aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? o?ce/ii? aeaeo?ii?ee ?inoeoooo o?ceee IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Iaaeaaae?a Aaeaioei Eocueie/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ai?oeia Ay/aneaa Ieeieaeiae/,

(?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie)

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Eice??a TH??e Ieeieaeiae/

(?inoeooo o?i?? iiaa?oi? IAI Oe?a?ie)

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O. Oaa/aiea,

?aae?io?ce/iee oaeoeueoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “28” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 16 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.159.01

i?e ?inoeooo? o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie (252022, Ee?a, i?iniaeo Iaoee,46)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 23 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ?uoe A.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

Iaeiei ?c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a ?icaeoeo i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee ? ?ic?iaea ?
noai?aiiy oi?eaeueiiai ?ino?oiaioa??th iaiioaoiieia?e, ca aeiiiiiaith
yeiai iiaeia aeaioiaeyoe aeaeo?iii? ? iioe/i? noaie c ?ici??aie
aeaiaio?a, iaioeie aeanyoe iaiiiao??a. Canoinoaaiiy ??aeeiiaoaeaaeo
aeaea?ae ?ii?a (?IAe?) a ?iiii-i?iiaiaaeo i?eno?iyo aea? iiaeeea?noue
noai?aiiy i?aoeec?eiiai, oi?aa?naeueiiai ?ino?oiaioa, ui iiaea
caaeiaieueieoe oe? aeiiae. Aino?inoieoniaai? ?iii? io/ee ?IAe? c
ea?iaaiith aia?a??th ? a?aeoeeaiiyi, ca inoaii? ?iee ciaeoee oe?iea
i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy aeey ??cieo aeae?a ia?iaee i?e?iiieo ia’?eo?a,
aeey i?yii? (aacianeiai?) ?iieaioaoe?? aeii?oie a iai?ai?ia?aeieeia?
iaoa??aee, aeey e?oia?ao?/ieo ?ia?o, a oaeiae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
aeaiaioiiai aiae?co aeine?aeaeoaaieo ia’?eo?a [1,2]. Ioaea ?IAe? iiaea
aooe ia o?eueee /anoeiith oaeeo ?ino?oiaio?a, a ua e iniiaith aeey
?ic?iaee aaaaoueio iaoiaeee o?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. ssne?aa?noue ?IAe?
? ?aei?aeiith na?aae a?aeiieo aeaea?ae ?ii?a (~108A/ni2.n?), iaeanoue
ai?n?? noaiiaeoue i?eueeiiio /anoeo eaaae?aoiiai i?e?iiao?a. Oaeei
/eiii, oea i?aeoe/ii oi/eiaa aeaea?aei. ?iceeae ai?oiaaieo iei ?ii?a ii
aia?a?yo caeaaeeoue a iniiaiiio a?ae aaee/eie ai?n?eiiai no?oio ?
noaiiaeoue ~5?50 aA. A iaei?ino?oiio aeaeyae? ?IAe? neeaaea?oueny
anueiai c aeaio aeaeo?iae?a: ai?oa?a, yeei iiaea aooe eai?ey?,
caiiaiaiee ?icieaaii iaoaeo, /e cii/aia iei iai?aaeyth/a a?no?y, ?
aeno?aeoi?a (eieaeoi?a) ?ii?a. Oaea aeaea?aei caeia? ia’?i a?ey iaeiiai
eoa?/iiai naioeiao?a. Iaa?oue i?inoith nenoaiith aeaeo?inoaoe/ieo e?ic
aaea?oueny noieonoaaoe ?iie ?IAe? a oeyoeo ae?aiao?ii ~50 ii.

Oieonoaaeuei? i?eno?i?, ye? iathoue nenoaio aeey ?icae?eaiiy ?ii?a
??cieo ian ? ca?yae?a, aeicaieythoue aeei?enoiaoaaoe nieaai? aeaea?aea a
?iiii-i?iiaiaaeo onoaiiaeao. Nieaai? aeaea?aea ia o?eueee ?icoe?ththoue
niaeo? iaiao?aeieo aeey aeei?enoaiiy ?ii?a, a e aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
aac ci?ie aeaea?aea i?iaiaeeoe ia?iaeo ia’?eo?a ??cieie ?iiaie a iaeiiio
oaoiieia?/iiio oeeee?.

Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui /ei oe?oa ?IAe? ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny a i?aeoe/i?
?ic?iaee, oei iaaaeuei?oeie noathoue ieoaiiy ia o?eueee i?aeoe/iiai, a e
oai?aoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Ia aeaiee iiiaio ? ua aaaaoi ieoaiue noiniaii
iaoai?ci?a ?iaioe ??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae, ?aeeii? aeoiee i?i ye? ua
iaia? . Ioaea nai? aeaea?aea ? neeaaeieie o?ce/ieie ia’?eoaie, ye?
iaiao?aeii aea/aoe. C?icoi?ei, ui neeaaei?noue oeueiai ia?niaeoeaiiai
aeaea?aea iaoiiaeaia oei, ui a iaaaeeeiio ca ?ici??aie ia’?i? i?inoi?o
(a aeae?eueea iaiiiao??a), ia iaae? iaoae-aaeooi a?aeaoaathoueny
iaeii/anii aaaaoi aca?iiiia’ycaieo o?ce/ieo yaeu. Iniiaieie c ieo ?:
aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/iee ?oo ??aeeiai iaoaeo; ae?y nee iiaa?oiaaiai
iaoyao a oiiaao ?ooo ??aeeie ? ae?? aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a, ye? aeinyaathoue
aaee/ei aeecueeeo aei aioo??oiueiaoiiieo; iieueiaa aeia?iaoaaiiy i?e
u?eueiino? ai?oiaaieo ?ii?a, ui iaaeeaeathoueny aei u?eueiino? aoii?a o
iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? ??aeeie; aca?iiae?y ai?oiaaieo ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie
i?ae niaith ? aieea i?inoi?iaiai ca?yaeo ia iaeanoue ai?n??; i?ioeane
aca?iiocaiaeaeaii? ci?ie oi?ie ??aeei? ie?aee ? ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?e/iiai
iiey iaae iath; eieeaaiiy iiaa?oi? ??aeeiai iaoaeo oa ?io?. Aei
aeooaeueieo i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai iaeaaeaoue ianooii? ieoaiiy, ui
noinothoueny ai?n?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaea?ae:

a) niaeo? ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie, ui ai?oothoueny aeaea?aeii,

a) eooia? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a (eooiaa aonoeia ?iiieo no?oi?a o ??cieo
iai?yieao ai?n??),

a) ?iciiae?e ?ii?a ii aia?a?yo (a iniiaiiio acaeiaae in? eiiono
ai?n??),

a) caeaaei?noue ai?n?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee a?ae oaiia?aoo?e aeaea?aea,
aaee/eie caaaeueiiai ai?n?eiiai no?oio ? a?ae neeaaeo nieaao aeey
nieaaieo aeaea?ae.

I?e oeueiio aaaeeeai ia o?eueee aeine?aeeoe iia? aeaea?aea ? aeyaeoe
/eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia ?oi? ai?n?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee, a e aeinyaoe
aeeaoiai ?icoi?iiy o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a ?IAe?.
Cie?aia, aeine?aeaeaiiy nieaaiiai AuSi-?IAe? [3] a?oiith Naiiniia, a
oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy nieaaiiai Ga?n-?IAe? a iao?e eaai?aoi??? iieacaee,
ui eooia? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a oeeo aeaea?ae ? “iacae/aeieie” a ii??aiyii?
?c ?iciiae?eaie ?ii?a iaeiiaeaiaioieo ?IAe?. Oey iacae/aei?noue iieyaa?
a oiio, ui ?iie iaeieo aeaiaio?a ai?oothoueny c iaeneiaeueiith
?ioaineai?noth ia?aaaaeii acaeiaae in? eiiono ai?n?? (?iie Ga aeey
Ga?n-?IAe?), oiae? ye ?io? iathoue iaeneioi ?ioaineaiino? i?ae eooii
10-14° aei in? eiiono ai?n?? (?iie In, GaIn-?IAe?). A ?iaio? [4] aoei
cai?iiiiiaaii ia?oa iiaeaeueia oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy oaeeo
eooiaeo ?iciiae?e?a ?ii?a, ui a?oiooaaeiny ia a?aooaaii? ??cieo aaee/ei
iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a, iaiao?aeieo aeey iieueiaiai
aeia?iaoaaiiy ??cieo aeaiaio?a nieaao. Oea aoei ia?oei e?ieii aei
aeeaoiai ?icoi?iiy iaoai?ci?a ?iaioe nieaaieo ?IAe?, aea ia ana a ?aieao
oe??? iiaeae? iiaeia aoei iiynieoe. Aaaeei aoei c?icoi?oe, iai?eeeaae,
ci?io oa?aeoa?o eooiaeo ?iciiae?e?a ?ii?a a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? aaee/eie
ai?n?eiiai no?oio aeaea?aea. Oiio aea/aiiy nieaaieo aeaea?ae aoei
i?iaeiaaeaii, a ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ye iaeiiaeaiaioieo, oae ?
nieaaieo ?IAe? oa aiae?c oeeo ?acoeueoao?a neeaaeathoue iniiao aeaii?
aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

— aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy iaeiiaeaiaioieo oa nieaaieo
??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae ia iniia? Ga, Li, Ga?n, GaInAg, GaInCu, GaInSn
ca aeiiiiiaith ian-niaeo?iiao?e/ii? iaoiaeeee aeey aecia/aiiy ?o
ai?n?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee;

— aeyaeaiiy /eiiee?a, ye? aieeaathoue ia eooia? ? aia?aaoe/i? ?iciiae?ee
?ii?a ?IAe?, noaa?euei?noue ?iaioe aeaea?ae;

-iiooe iiaeeeainoae ea?oaaiiy eooiaeie ? aia?aaoe/ieie ?iciiae?eaie
?ii?a oeyoii ci?ie aeaiaioiiai neeaaeo nieaa?a, oaiia?aoo?e, aaee/eie
ai?n?eiiai no?oio aeaea?ae;

— ?icaeoie oyaeaiue i?i iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy eooiaeo ? aia?aaoe/ieo
?iciiae?e?a ?ii?a ?IAe? ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa:

1. Aeyaeaii a iaeano? i?eii?iaiaeo ai?n?eieo no?oi?a no?eaeiiiae?aiee
ia?ao?ae ??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae a ?aaeei iaeeo ai?n?eieo no?oi?a (I
?aaeei), i?e iaai?e e?eoe/i?e aeey eiaeiiai aeaea?aea aaee/ei?
ai?n?eiiai no?oio (Ie?). Eooia? ? aia?aaoe/i? ?iciiae?ee oeueiai ?aaeeio
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aiaeia?/ieo ?iciiae?e?a a ?aaeei? na?aaei?o
no?oi?a (?aaeei II). Ia?ao?ae aeaea?aea ?c iaeiiai ?aaeeio a ae?oaee ?
iai?ioiei. I?e ia?aoiae? /a?ac Ie? no?eaeii ci?iththoueny aaee/eia
caaaeueiiai ai?n?eiiai no?oio, eoo eiiono ai?n?? ?ii?a, eooiaa aonoeia
?iiieo no?oi?a.

2. Aeey aeine?aeaeaieo ??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae (Ga, Ga?n, Ga?nAg,
Ga?nCu, Ga?nSn, Li–?IAe?) aecia/aii ?ioa?aaee no?oi?a I ?aaeeio ?iaioe,
e?eoe/i? no?oie, eooia? ? aia?aaoe/i? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a.

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui caeaaei?noue oe?eie
aia?ai?iciiae?eo ?ii?a a?ae aaee/eie caaaeueiiai ai?n?eiiai no?oio ia?
i?i?ioi a iaeano? no?oio Ie?.

4. Ciaeaeaii iaeei ?c iiaeeeaeo niinia?a ea?oaaiiy eooiaeie ?
aia?aaoe/ieie ?iciiae?eaie ?ii?a oeyoii aaaaeaiiy a nieaa aeaiaio?a, ui
iathoue oaiaeaioe?th aei naa?aaaoe?? a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao ?icieaa?a ?IAe?
(aeiaaaee oaeeo aeaiaio?a iathoue aooe a?ae iaeeieoeue aei 20-30 ao.%).
I?e iioaioe?ae? ?ii?caoe?? naa?aaoth/iai aeaiaioa, aeuiio ca iioaioe?ae
?ii?caoe?? aeaiaioa-?ic/eiieea, eooia? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a aoae/athoue, a
eooiaa aonoeia ?iiieo no?oi?a c?inoa?.

5. Ii??aiyeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie nieaaieo aeaea?ae anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?
?aaeei? ?iaioe aeaea?ae aeii?io? ai?n?y ?ii?a c iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a
?icieaao.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe

1. ?ic?iaeai? iia? aeaea?aea ? ca aeiiiiiaith ii ian-niaeo?iiao???
aeine?aeaeai? ?o ai?n?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee (Ga, Ga?n, Ga?nSn, GaInCu,
GaInAg, Li-?IAe?).

2. Ciaeaeaia iiaeeea?noue ea?oaaiiy eooiaeie ? aia?aaoe/ieie
?iciiae?eaie ?ii?a nieaaieo ?IAe?, ui ? aaaeeeaei i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo
aeaea?ae c iaia?aae caaeaieie ia?aiao?aie.

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue aia?ai?iceeaeo ?ii?a ?IAe?
a?ae aaee/eie no?oio (a ? ? ?? ?aaeei? ?iaioe) aea? iiaeeea?noue aeey
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai iiooeo iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a ??aeeiiaoaeaaeo
aeaea?ae, ai naia a iaeano? e?eoe/ieo no?oi?a ia?aoiaeo aeaea?aea ?c
?aaeeio a ?aaeei eoo eiiono ai?n?? iaeaoae/ee, a aia?ai?iceeae ?ii?a
aeecueeee aei i?i?iaeueiiai.

4. Io?eiaii iia? a?aeiiino? i?i ai?n?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?IAe? a iaeano?
i?eii?iaiaeo no?oi?a, a naia, aecia/aiiyi oa?aeoa?o ci?ie eooiaeo ?
aia?aaoe/ieo ?iciiae?e?a ?ii?a aenia?eiaioaeueii cana?ae/aii ia?ao?aeiee
aoai a ?iaio? ?IAe?. A iiaeaeueiiio oyaeaii? a?i ca`yco? noaoe/io
iiaeaeue — eiion Oaeei?a — ? aeeiai?/ii ??aiiaaaeio iiaeaeue ?iaioe
?IAe?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno

1. Aia?oa, ia i?eeeaae? nieaaieo ??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae ?ii?a GaInAg,
GaInSn, GaInCu, GaIn, aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii iiaeeeaee niin?a
ea?oaaiiy eooiaeie ? aia?aaoe/ieie ?iciiae?eaie ?ii?a aeaea?aea oeyoii
aaaaeaiiy a nieaa eiiiiiaioa-aeii?oee, ui ia? caeaoi?noue aei
naa?aaaoe?? a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao nieaao. Aieea ia eooia? ? aia?aaoe/i?
?iciiae?ee ?ii?a aeaea?aea iieyaa? a ciaioaii? /e ca?eueoaii? eooa
eiiono ai?n?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae iioaioe?aeii
?ii?caoe?? eiiiiiaioa-aeii?oee ? eiiiiiaioa-?ic/eiieea. A?eueoee
iioaioe?ae ?ii?caoe?? aeii?oee ciaioo? eoo eiiono ai?n?? aeaea?aea,
iaioee — ca?eueoo?.

2. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii no?eaeiiiae?aiee ia?ao?ae
iaeiiaeaiaioieo ? nieaaieo ??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae ?ii?a ia iniia? Ga,
GaIn, GaInAg, GaInSn, GaInCu, Li a ?aaeei iaeeo no?oi?a (? ?aaeei), yeee
a?ae??ciy?oueny eooiaeie ? aia?aaoe/ieie ?iciiae?eaie ?ii?a a?ae ?aaeeio
na?aaei?o no?oi?a (?aaeei ??). A ? ?aaeei? eoo ai?n?? ?ii?a caeeoa?oueny
i?aeoe/ii iaci?iiei, a aia?ai?iceeae ?ii?a ciaioo?oueny i?e ca?eueoaii?
ai?n?eiiai no?oio, ia a?aei?io a?ae aia?ai?iceeaeo a ?aaeei? ??.
No?eaeiiiae?aiee ia?ao?ae i?ae ?aaeeiaie a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e iaaiiio aeey
eiaeiiai aeaea?aea e?eoe/iiio ai?n?eiiio no?oi?. No?eaeii ci?iththoueny:
aaee/eia ai?n?eiiai no?oio (ia 10-30%), eoo eiiono ai?n?? (a 1,5-2
?ace), eooiaa aonoeia ?iiieo no?oi?a (a?ae 3-4 aei 20-25 ?ac?a).

3. Ii??aiyeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie ??aeeiiaoaeaaeo nieaaieo aeaea?ae
?ii?a, ui i?noyoue eiiiiiaioo, caeaoio aei naa?aaaoe?? a iiaa?oiaaeo
oa?ao ?icieaao (?n, Sn), anoaiiaeaii a?aei?ii?noue o ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo
?iiieo no?oi?a eiiiiiaio?a a ? ? ?? ?aaeeiao ?iaioe aeaea?aea.
A?aeiioaiiy ?iiiiai no?oio naa?aaoth/iai eiiiiiaioa aei no?oio
eiiiiiaioa-?ic/eiieea a ? ?aaeei? a?eueo?, i?ae a ?aaeei? ??. Oea
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaeano? ai?n?? ? ?aaeeio oi?iothoueny ia?aaaaeii
c iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a ?icieaao aeaea?aea.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a iioae?eoaai? i?aoe?:

1. ?ic?iaea ? noai?aiiy ia iniia? ian-niaeo?iiao?a I?-1201O iaoiaeeee,
ui aeicaiey? aeine?aeaeoaaoe eooia? ? aia?aaoe/i? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a
??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae.

2. Aeaioiaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo c?ace?a ?IAe? oa ?ic?iaea
i?ea?iaeueieo oaoiieia?/ieo niinia?a caiiaiaiiy aeaea?ae ?icieaaaie
iaoae?a ? nieaa?a (aacoeaaeueia caiiaiaiiy a aaeooi?).

3. I?iaaaeaiiy nenoaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a?oie iaeiiaeaiaioieo oa
nieaaieo aeaea?ae — Ga, GaIn, GaInAg, GaInCu, GaInSn, Li — ?IAe?.

4. Ia?iaea oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

5. Aeoeaia o/anoue a iinoaiiaoe? o?ce/ieo caaea/.

6. O/ano? a iaienaii? ? i?aeaioiaoe? aei ae?oeo noaoae, ui neeaaeathoue
iniiao aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a caaacia/aia no/aniei ??aiai oaoi?ee, ui
aeei?enoiaoaaeany i?e aeine?aeaeaiiyo, /?oeith a?aeoai?thaaii?noth
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? a?aeiia?aei?noth i?e ii??aiyii? ?yaeo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c aeaieie, ui aoee io?eiai? ?ioeie aaoi?aie
i?e aeei?enoaii? a?aei?iieo iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia:

3-?e Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? c ieoaiue i?e?iaiae?co ? ?iiieo io/e?a
(Noie, 1990);

38-io I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? c iieueiai? ai?n?? (Aano??y, A?aeaiue,
1991);

6-?e ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c o?ce/ieo i?iaeai i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee
(Naaanoiiieue, 1990);

Ananithciiio nai?ia?? c iieaeoey?ii-i?iiaiaai? ai?oaen?? (Iiainea??nuee,
1991);

5-?e I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c aaeooiii? aeaeo?ii?ee (Aano??y,
A?aeaiue, 1992);

22-?e Eiioa?aioe?? c ai?n?eii? aeaeo?ii?ee (?in?y, Iineaa, 1994);

I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ?IN’94 (O?aioe?y, A?aiiaeue, 1994);

43-io I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? c iieueiai? ai?n?? (?in?y, Iineaa,
1996);

I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c ieoaiue ai?n?eii? aeaeo?ii?ee ? iiaeo
oaoiieia?e (Ocaaeenoai, Oaoeaio, 1997).

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio iniiaieo ?icae?e?a,
i?aenoieiaiai ?icae?eo ? nieneo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e ?c 112
iaeiaioaaiue. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 148 noi??ieao oaenoo ? i?noeoue
52 ?enoiee ? 1 oaaeeoeth.

Ei?ioeee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiue, noi?ioeueiaaii
iaoo ?iaioe ? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, a?aeia?aaeaii
iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? ia? iaeyaeiaee oa?aeoa? ? i?enay/aiee
aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, a naia, ai?n?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae, oai??? iieueiaiai aeia?iaoaaiiy ye iniiaiiai
iaoai?cio ai?n?? ?ii?a oeeo aeaea?ae, a oaeiae ?nioth/eo ia aeaiee /an
iiaeaeueieo oyaeaiue i?i iaoai?cie ae?? ?IAe?. A ie?aieo i?ae?icae?eao
?icaeyaeathoueny eiino?oeoe?? ? oiiae, iaiao?aei? aeey ?iaioe
??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae, iniiai? aeanoeaino? ??aeei ? ?o iiaa?oiaaiai
oa?o, aaoaeoe/i? nieaae ? ?o iniiai? aeanoeaino?. A e?ioe? ?icae?eo
i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?iaioe ??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae ?
aeaea?ae c oaa?aeei ai?oa?ii (a?no?y iieueiaiai ?iiiiai i?e?ineiia
-I?I), a oaeiae aecia/aii eiei ieoaiue, ae??oaiiy yeeo ia aeaiee iiiaio
aaaeeeai ye aeey iio?aa i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy ?IAe?, oae ? aeey
aeeaoiai ?icoi?iiy oeueiai neeaaeiiai o?ce/iiai ia’?eoa.

Iieueiaa aeia?iaoaaiiy ?ii?a c iiaa?oi? a?no?y I?I aeei?enoiao?oueny
aeey oiai, uia i?aeaiooaaoe iiaa?oith aeey niinoa?aaeaiue. I?e oeueiio
aeinyaa?oueny aoiia?ii-aeaaeea iiaa?oiy aa?oeie a?no?y, aeecueea aei
noa?e/ii? c i?aeoe/ii iaci?iiei ?aae?onii e?eaecie i?e iiaeaeueoiio
aeia?iaoaaii?. I?ioeano iieueiaiai aeia?iaoaaiiy ?c ??aeeiiaoaeaaiai
ai?oa?a ia?aaeo? iaaia aaiethoe?y oi?ie ??aeeiai iaoaeo i?ae ae??th
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey (~108 A/ni). Nii/aoeo a?i i?eeia? oi?io eiiona c eooii
i?e aa?oei? aeecueei 100° (98,6° — eiion Oaeei?a (EO)). Noaea ai?n?y
?ii?a niinoa??aa?oueny oiae?, eiee ia aa?oei? oeueiai eiiona
ooai?th?oueny no?oiaiaiiae?aiee ??aeeiiaoaeaaee aenooi, aa?oeia yeiai ?
? iaeanoth ai?n??. *ei a?eueoee no?oi ai?oo? aeaea?aei, oei a?eueoa
aeoyao?oueny ? iioiauo?oueny oaea iaaeaoaeiaa. Eiion ai?n?? i?e oeueiio
oe?oa?. Ca aaiiao???th i?aoethth/iai (Ga, Au) ?IAe? aaeaeiny
niinoa??aaoe in situ a?oi? Cthaepo [5,6]. Aiie ioe?ieee ?ici??e
??aeeiiaoaeaaiai aenooia ia EO aeey na?aaei?o no?oi?a ai?n??. I?e
no?oiao ~10 ieA aenioa eiai a?ey 100 A0 , a iiia?a/iee ia?a??c aeecueei
25-30 A0, oiaoi ia?a??c ai?ooth/iai caaino?aiiy noaiiaeoue aeecueei 10
na?aaei?o aoiiieo ae?aiao??a. Oiio e ia aeeaii, ui yne?aa?noue
??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae nyay? 109 A/ni2.n? aeey ii??aiyiiy (yne?aa?noue
aeoiieaciio?iia ~103 A/ni2. n?).

i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e ?icieaa?a (GaIn, GaInAg, GaInCu), ye?niee
oa?aeoa? oaeiai eaac?iiaeoeueiaaiiai ?iciiae?eo oaeiae caa??aa?oueny, ye
? caa??aathoueny eiioeaio?aoe?ei? iaiaeii??aeiino? aaaaoueio aaoaeoe/ieo
nieaa?a c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e [9,10]. Eooia? ae ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a
?iae?th a oe?e a?oi? nieaaieo aeaea?ae ? iaaiei a?aeia?aaeaiiyi oaeiai
?iciiae?eo ?iae?th ? eiai ci?ie i?e ci?i? oaiia?aoo?e ?icieaao, a
aaee/eia ai?n?eiiai no?oio aeaea?aea aecia/a? oe?eio (iiia?a/iee ?ici??)
??aeeiiaoaeaaiai aenooio, oiaoi aecia/a? e?euee?noue iiiioa??a ?icieaao,
ui iaaeoiaeeoue a iaeanoue ai?n?? ? aa?a o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? eooiaeo
?iciiae?e?a ?ii?a.

Eiee ae ia iiaa?oi? ?icieaao naa?aao? ieiai, oi, ine?eueee iaiao?aeia
iai?oaeai?noue iiey aeey eiai iieueiaiai aeia?iaoaaiiy aeinyaa?oueny
iaeaeeae/a aei iiethno ??aeeiiaoaeaaiai aenooio, aiii nai?th
“ae?aioth/ath” ae??th ia aea? iiaeeeaino? aeia?iaoaaoeny In i Ga. Oea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai, ui iaeanoue ai?n?? caoaeo?oueny ? a?aeiia?aeii
ciaioo?oueny eoo eiiono ai?n?? aeey an?o ?ii?a GaInSn-?IAe?.
Aia?ai?iceeae ?ii?a Ga i In GaInSn — ?IAe? iaioee, i?ae o GaIn, GaInAg,
GaInCu-?IAe?.

Iao? iiaeaeuei? oyaeaiiy i?i eooia? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a aeine?aeaeaii?
a?oie nieaaieo ?IAe? a?oioothoueny ia iiaeaeueieo oyaeaiiyo i?i ?iaioo
iaeiiaeaiaioieo aeaea?ae [13-15]. Aiie ye?nii ocaiaeaeothoueny c
io?eiaieie aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie, a oaeiae aeathoue ye?nia
iiyniaiiy “iacae/aeieo” ?iciiae?e?a ?ii?a AuSi-?IAe? ?iaioe [3].

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
iaeiiaeaiaioieo ? nieaaieo Ga, GaIn, GaInAg, GaInCu, GaInSn, Li — ?IAe?
a iaeano? iaeeo no?oi?a. Ie aia?oa ciaeoee, ui ia?ao?ae aeaea?ae ?c
?aaeeio na?aaei?o no?oi?a (?aaeei ??) a ?aaeei ii/aoeiaeo no?oi?a
(?aaeei ?) a?aeaoaa?oueny no?eaeiiiae?aiith ci?iith eooiaeo ?iciiae?e?a
?ii?a, no?eaeiiiae?aiith ci?iith iaaiiai aeey eiaeiiai aeaea?aea no?oio
(e?eoe/iee no?oi ia?aoiaeo ?e?), a oe?eia aia?ai?iciiae?eo ?ii?a
aeine?aeaeaieo aeaea?ae (aia?ai?iceeae) a iaeano? e?eoe/ieo no?oi?a ?
iaeiaioith (i?i?iaeueiee aia?ai?iceeae ?ii?a). Aoei aecia/aii ?ioa?aaee
ai?n?eieo no?oi?a ? ?aaeeio ? no?oie ?e? aeey eiaeiiai aeaea?aea.
Aeyaeeiny, ui ?ioa?aae no?oi?a ? ?aaeeio aeey ia?aae?aie ??aeeiiaoaeaaeo
aeaea?ae — Ga-?IAe? — ? a aeine?aeaeai?e a?oi? aeaea?ae iaeiaioei.
Caaaeyee oiio, ui no?oiia? ?ioa?aaee ? ?aaeeio GaIn, GaInAg, GaInCu,
GaInSn ? Li — ?IAe? ? iaaaaaoi oe?oeie, aaeaeiny aeaoaeueii aeine?aeeoe
ye eooia?, oae ? aia?aaoe/i? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a. Ia ?en. 2 iieacaii eooia?
?iciiae?ee ?ii?a nieaaiiai GaInAg — ?IAe? aeey aeaio no?oi?a, ui
a?aeiinyoueny aei ? ? ?? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe. Eooia? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a a ?
?aaeei? ?iaioe ?IAe? iathoue oe?ieee ? i?aeoe/ii iaci?iiee eoo ai?n??.
Ia ?en. 3 iieacaia caeaaei?noue aia?ai?iceeaeo ?ii?a aeaio
??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae (iaeiiaeaiaioiiai ? nieaaiiai) a?ae aaee/eie
ai?n?eiiai no?oio. E?a? a?eee e?eaeo a?aeiinii i?i?ioia oa?aeoa?ecothoue
aia?ai?iceeae ?ii?a ? ?aaeeio ?iaioe aeaea?ae. I?e no?oiao ?e? e?ea?
i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac i?i?iaeuei? cia/aiiy aia?ai?iceeaeo ?ii?a.

Aeniiaee

1. Aeey iaeiiaeaiaioieo ? nieaaieo aeaea?ae aia?oa aeyaeaia
no?eaeiiiae?aia ci?ia oa?aeoa?o ?iaioe aeaea?ae i?e ia?aoiae? c iaeano?
na?aaei?o ai?n?eieo no?oi?a (?aaeei ??) a iaeanoue ii/aoeiaeo ai?n?eieo
no?oi?a (?aaeei ?). A naia, i?e iaai?e aeey eiaeiiai aeaea?aea
e?eoe/i?e aaee/ei? no?oio ?e?, no?eaeii ci?ith?oueny ye naia aaee/eia
ai?n?eiiai no?oio, oae ? aeaeyae eooiaeo ?iciiae?e?a ?ii?a aeaea?ae.
No?oie ci?iththoueny ia 10-30 % a?ae aaee/eie ?e? , a eoo eiiono ai?n??
?ii?a no?eaeii ca?eueoo?oueny (a 1,5-2 ?ace) ? caeeoa?oueny i?aeoe/ii
iaci?iiei a oeueiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe aae aei cieeiaiiy ai?n?eiiai no?oio
aeaea?aea. Ia?ao?ae aeaea?aea ?c ?aaeeio a ?aaeei ? iai?ioiei a?aeiinii
no?oio ?e? .

2. Aeey aeine?aeaeaii? a?oie aeaea?ae aia?oa aecia/ai? ?ioa?aaee
no?oi?a ? ?aaeeio ? eooia? oa aia?aaoe/i? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a aeaea?ae a
oeueiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe.

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/aii, ui a ? ?aaeei? ?iaioe aia?ai?iceeae
?ii?a ciaioo?oueny i?e ca?eueoaii? ai?n?eiiai no?oio ia a?aei?io a?ae
?aaeeio ??, a yeiio aia?ai?iceeae ?ii?a c?inoa? i?e ca?eueoaii? no?oio.
Ioaea caeaaei?noue aia?ai?iceeaeo ?ii?a a?ae aaee/eie caaaeueiiai
ai?n?eiiai no?oio ia? aeaeyae e?eai? c i?i?ioiii a iaeano? ?e? — no?oio
ia?aoiaeo aeaea?aea ?c ?aaeeio a ?aaeei.

4. Ciaeaeaii niin?a ea?oaaiiy eooiaeie ? aia?aaoe/ieie ?iciiae?eaie
?ii?a nieaaieo aeaea?ae oeyoii aaaaeaiiy a nieaa aeaiaio?a, ui iathoue
oaiaeaioe?th aei naa?aaaoe?? a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao ?icieaao. Aeiaaaea
oaeeo aeaiaio?a (a?ae aeae?eueeio iaeeieoeue aei 20-30 ao. %) aecia/a?
eooia? ? aia?aaoe/i? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a oaeiai nieaaiiai aeaea?aea. sseui
iioaioe?ae ?ii?caoe?? aeaiaioa-aeii?oee aeuee ca iioaioe?ae ?ii?caoe??
iniiaiiai aeaiaioa-?ic/eiieea nieaao, oi eooia? ?iciiae?ee aoae/athoue,
a eooiaa aonoeia ?iiieo no?oi?a c?inoa?. I?e iioaioe?ae? ?ii?caoe??
naa?aaoth/i? aeii?oee iaioiio i?ae iioaioe?ae ?ii?caoe?? ?ic/eiieea, eoo
EA oe?oa? (ca?eueoo?oueny ii a?aeiioaiith aei eooa EA aac aeii?oee).

5. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue eooiaeo ?iciiae?e?a
?ii?a nieaaieo aeaea?ae aia?oa aeyaeaii, ui a ?aaeei? ? aeii?io? ai?n?y
?ii?a c iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a ?icieaao aeaea?aea.

6. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaa iiaeaeueia oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy
eooiaeo ?iciiae?e?a ?ii?a nieaaieo aeaea?ae, aieiaia ?aeay yeiai iieyaa?
a oiio, ui no?oeoo?a nieaao ?IAe? (?iciiae?e aeaiaio?a nieaao a ia’?i?
i?e aeai?e oaiia?aoo??) iaaiith i??ith caa??aa?oueny ? a ai?ooth/iio
??aeeiiaoaeaaiio aenooi? ia eiion? Oaeei?a. Ioaea eooia? ?iciiae?ee
?ii?a nieaaieo aeaea?ae, c o?aooaaiiyi iai?oaeaiino? iie?a aeia?iaoaaiiy
aeey neeaaeiaeo nieaao, ? iaaiei a?aeia?aaeaiiyi no?oeoo?e ?icieaao.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe iioae?eiaaii a ?iaioao:

1. Eoeee A.N., Iaaeaaaeaa A.E., Iiiiae/ I.I., *e?iue A.E. Oaeiaia e
yia?aaoe/aneia ?ani?aaeaeaiea eiiia Ga+ Ga++ Ga2+, yieoe?oaiuo aaeeeaaui
aeeaeeiiaoaeee/aneei enoi/ieeii eiiia. OOAE, 1991, o.36, ?11,
n.1626-1635.

2. Kulik V.S. and Medvedev V.K. Angular and energy distribution of ions
emitted from a GaInSn liquid alloy ion source. Revue “Le Vide, les
Couches Minces”, Supplement au N 271, 1994, P. 255-258.

3. Eoeee A.N., Iaaeaaae?a A.E. Eooia? ? aia?aaoe/i? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a,
ai?oiaaieo c iaeiiaeaiaioieo oa nieaaieo ??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae ?ii?a
i?e iaeeo ai?n?eieo no?oiao. OOAE, 1999, o. 44, ? 4, n. 453-459.

4. Eoeee A.N., Iaaeaaaeaa A.E., Iiiiae/ I.I., *e?iue A.E. Enneaaeiaaiea
oaeiauo e yia?aaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee eiiiiai io/ea ec
aeeaeeiiaoaeee/aneeo enoi/ieeia eiiia. Oaiaoe/aneee nai?iee iao/iuo
o?oaeia EAO: oeceei-oeie/aneea, no?oeoo?iua e yienneiiiua naienoaa
oiieeo ieaiie e iiaa?oiinoe oaa?aeiai oaea, 1992, n. 260-282.

5. Kulik V.S., Medvedev V.K., Chernyi V.I. Angular and energy
distributions of ions emitted from liquid metal ion sources (LMIS).
Proc. 38-th IFES (Vienna, Austria), 1991. P. 33-35.

6. Kulik V.S. and Medvedev V.K. Angular and energy distribution of ions
emitted from a GaInSn liquid alloy ion source. Abstract of ICMC’94.
(Grenoble, France) P. 42-45.

7. Eoeee A.N., Iaaeaaaeaa A.E., Iiiiae/ I.I., *a?iue A.E. Enneaaeiaaiea
oaeiauo e yia?aaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee eiiiiai io/ea ec
aeeaeeiiaoaeee/aneeo enoi/ieeia eiiia. Oacenu aeieeaaeia ia O1
?anioaeeeaineie eiioa?aioeee ii oece/aneei i?iaeaiai IAeI —
eioaa?aeueiie yeaeo?iieee. Naaanoiiieue, 1990, n. 122.

8. Eoeee A.N., Iaaeaaaeaa A.E., Iiiiae/ I.I., *e?iue A.E. Enneaaeiaaiea
oaeiauo e yia?aaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee eiiiiai io/ea ec
aeeaeeiiaoaeee/aneeo enoi/ieeia eiiia. Oacenu aeieeaaeia OO11
eiioa?aioeee ii yienneiiiie yeaeo?iieea, Iineaa, 1994, o.3, n. 39-40.

9. Kulik V.S., Medvedev V.K., Chernyi V.I. Angular and energy
distributions of ions emitted from GaInCu, GaInSn and GaInAg LMIS. 43
IFES, Moscow 1996, P. 10.

10. Eoeee A.N. Oaeiaua e yia?aaoe/aneea ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiiia,
yieoe?oaiuo ec aeeaeeiiaoaeee/aneeo enoi/ieeia eiiia i?e iaeuo
yienneiiiuo oieao. Oacenu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee: “Yienneiiiay
yeaeo?iieea, iiaua iaoiaeu e oaoiieiaee”. 4-6 iiya?y 1997 a. (Oaoeaio,
Ocaaeenoai), n. 19.

Oeeoiaaia e?oa?aoo?a

1. Melngailis J. Critical Review. Focused ion beam technology and
applications //J. Vac. Sci. Technol. — 1987. -V.5,N.2. — P.469-495.

2. Seliger R.L., Kubena R.L., Olney R.D., Ward J.W., and Wang V.
High-resolution, ion-beam processes for microstructure fabrication // J.
Vac. Sci. Technol, -1979. -V.16, -P.1610-1612.

3. Rao S., Bell A.E., Schwind G.A., and Swanson L.W. Angular
distribution of ions from a AuSi liquid metal ion source // J. Vac. Sci.
Technol, -1990. -V.A8, N3. -P.2258-2264.

4. Medvedev V.K., Chernyi V.I., Popovich N.N. Angular and energy
distributions of ions emitted from a GaIn liquid alloy ion source // J.
Vac. Sci. Technol. B. -1993. -V.11, N2. -P.523-526.

5. Benassayag G., Sudraud P., Jouffrey B. In situ high voltage TEM
observation of an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) ion source //
Ultramicroscopy. -1985. -V.16, N.1. -P.1-8.

6. Gaubi H., Sudraud P., Tence M., and Van de Walle J. High voltage TEM
observation of an electrohydrodynamic ion source // Proc. 29-th Int.
Field Emission Symposium. — Stockholm (Sweden). — 1982. -P.357-362.

7. Oieiiia O.A., Caaeoieei N.I., Ae/aae?ia A.A. ?aaioa auoiaea
yeaeo?iia, iiaa?oiinoiia iaoyaeaiea e ieioiinoue nenoaiu aaeeee-eiaeee
// Aeieeaaeu AI NNN?, Oec. Oei. — 1973. — O. 210, ? 4. -N.899-902.

8. Aooioia I.A., Oaacooia A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey oaciauo ia?aoiaeia
ia iiaa?oiinoioth naa?aaaoeeth a eiaeeaauo nieaaao iaoiaeii yeaeo?iiiie
Iaea-niaeo?ineiiee // Iiaa?oiinoue. — 1983. -? 4. -N.60-64.

9. Ei?ieueeia A.I. Iaeioi?ua caeiiiia?iinoe eciaiaiey naienoa aeeaeeeo
nieaaia a nayce n aeeaa?aiiaie ninoiyiee. Enneaaeiaaiea nieaaia oeaaoiuo
iaoaeeia. Nai?iee ? 4. -I.: Ecae-ai AI NNN?, 1963. -N.68-74.

10. Aeacia A.I.. Aa?oiai A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea nieaaia oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia.
-I.: Ecae-ai AI NNN?, 1963. -N.85-93.

11. Ng Y.S., Tsong T.T. and McLane S.B.Jr. Atom-probe FIM investigation
of surface segregation in Ni-Cu, stainless steel 410 and Pt-Au alloys //
Surf. Sci. — 1979. — V.84. -P.31-53.

12. Oaoia?iiia I.E. I iieaeoey?iie no?oeoo?a aeeaeeeo ?anoai?ia e
nieaaia // Na. “No?oeoo?a e naienoaa aeeaeeeo iaoaeeia”, 1959, Ecae.
Ei-oa iaoaeeo?aee ei. A.A. Aaeeiaa. -N.103-104.

13. Kingham D.R. and Swanson L.W. A dynamic model including fluid flow
and space-charge effects // Appl. Phys. A. -1984. -V.34, N.2.
-P.123-132.

14. Forbes R.G. and Ljepojevic N.N. LMIS theory: electrohydrodynamics
and emitter shape // Surf. Sci. -1991. -V.246. -P.113-119.

15. Forbes Richard G. and Djuric Zoran. Progress in understanding
liquid-metal ion source operation // Proc. 9-th Int. Vacuum
Microelectronics Conference. -St. Petersburg (Russia). -1996.
-P.468-472.

16. Ward J.W. and Seliger R.L. Trajectory calculations of the
extraction region of a liquid-metal ion source // J. Vac. Sci. Technol.
-1981. -V.19, N.4. -P.1082-1086.

Eoeee A.N. Eooia? ? aia?aaoe/i? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a, ai?oiaaieo c
iaeiiaeaiaioieo oa nieaaieo ??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae. — ?oeiien.
Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.04.- o?ce/ia
aeaeo?ii?ea.- ?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Caoeua?oueny 10 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o c aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
ian-niaeo?iiao?e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?n?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
??aeeiiaoaeaaeo aeaea?ae ?ii?a (?IAe?) ia iniia? Ga, Li, GaIn, GaInAg,
GaInCu, GaInSn a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ?icieaao, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aeaiaio?a a neeaae? nieaao (aeey nieaaieo aeaea?ae) oa aaee/eie
ai?n?eiiai no?oio aeaea?aea. Aeey nieaaieo aeaea?ae ciaeaeaii, ui
aaaaeaiiyi a neeaae nieaao aeaiaio?a, ye? iathoue oaiaeaioe?th aei
naa?aaaoe?? a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao ?icieaa?a, iiaeia ea?oaaoe eooiaeie ?
aia?aaoe/ieie ?iciiae?eaie ?ii?a aeaea?aea (aeiaaaee aeaiaio?a aei 20-30
ao. %). Eooia? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a aoae/athoue, a aia?ai?iceeae ?ii?a
ciaioo?oueny, yeui iioaioe?ae ?ii?caoe?? naa?aaoth/iai aeaiaioa aeuee ca
iioaioe?ae ?ii?caoe?? iniiaiiai aeaiaioa-?ic/eiieea. Aeey
iaeiiaeaiaioieo ? nieaaieo aeaea?ae aia?oa aeyaeaii no?eaeiiiae?aio
ci?io oa?aeoa?o ?iaioe i?e ia?aoiae? c iaeano? na?aaei?o ai?n?eieo
no?oi?a (?aaeei ??) a iaeanoue ii/aoeiaeo ai?n?eieo no?oi?a (?aaeei ?).
I?e iaaiiio aeey eiaeiiai aeaea?aea e?eoe/iiio no?oi? ?e? no?eaeii
ci?ith?oueny (ia 10-30% a?ae ?e?) ye naia aaee/eia no?oio, oae ? eoo
ai?n?? (no?eaeii ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,5-2 ?ace). Ia?ao?ae aeaea?aea ?c
?aaeeio a ?aaeei ? iai?ioiei a?aeiinii ?e?. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aia?aiaiae?co ?ii?a oa ?o eooia? ?iciiae?ee na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?e
no?oiao, aeecueeeo aei e?eoe/ieo, ai?n?ei? ia?aiao?e ?IAe? iioeiaeuei? —
eoo eiiono ai?n?? iaeaoae/ee, a aia?ai?iceeae ?ii?a i?i?iaeueiee.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaa iiaeaeueia oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy eooiaeo
?iciiae?e?a ?ii?a nieaaieo aeaea?ae, a yeiio aia?oa a?aoiao?oueny
oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo aeaiaio?a nieaao a ia’?i? ?icieaao. Aieiaia ?aeay
iieyaa? a oiio, ui no?oeoo?a nieaao ?IAe? caa??aa?ouen

aeayeith i??ith a ai?ooth/iio ??aeeiiaoaeaaiio aenooi? ia eiion?
Oaeei?a. Eooia? ?iciiae?ee ?ii?a nieaaieo aeaea?ae, c o?aooaaiiyi
iai?oaeaiino? iie?a aeia?iaoaaiiy aeey neeaaeiaeo nieaao, ? iaaiei
a?aeia?aaeaiiyi no?oeoo?e ?icieaao. Ci?ia eooiaeo ?iciiae?e?a ?ii?a c
oaiia?aoo?ith aeaea?aea iiynith?oueny ci?iith oa?aeoa?o ?iciiae?eo
aeaiaio?a nieaao a ia’?i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ??aeeiiaoaeaa? aeaea?aea ?ii?a, ian-niaeo?iiao?e/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, no?oeoo?a nieaa?a, naa?aaaoe?y, eiion ai?n??, eooia?
?iciiae?ee ? aia?ai?iciiae?ee ?ii?a, e?eoe/iee no?oi.

Eoeee A.N. Oaeiaua e yia?aaoe/aneea ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiiia, yieoe?oaiuo
iaeiiyeaiaioiuie e nieaaiuie aeeaeeiiaoaeee/aneeie enoi/ieeaie. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.04. — Oece/aneay
yeaeo?iieea.- Einoeooo oeceee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Caueuaaony 10 iao/iuo ?aaio ii yenia?eiaioaeueiiio
iann-niaeo?iiao?e/aneiio enneaaeiaaieth yienneiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee
aeeaeeiiaoaeee/aneeo enoi/ieeia eiiia (AEIEE) ia iniiaa Ga, Li, GaIn,
GaInAg, GaInCu, GaInSn a caaeneiinoe io oaiia?aoo?u ?anieaaa,
niioiioaiey yeaiaioia a ninoaaa nieaaa (aeey nieaaiuo enoi/ieeia) e
aaee/eiu yienneiiiiai oiea enoi/ieea. Aeey nieaaiuo enoi/ieeia iaeaeaii,
/oi aaaaeaieai a ninoaa nieaaa yeaiaioia, eiathueo oaiaeaioeeth e
naa?aaaoeee a iiaa?oiinoiuo neiyo ?anieaaia, iiaeii oi?aaeyoue oaeiauie
e yia?aaoe/aneeie ?ani?aaeaeaieyie eiiia enoi/ieea (aeiaaaee yeaiaioia
io ianeieueeeo aaeeieoe aei 20-30 ao.%). Oaeiaua ?ani?aaeaeaiey eiiia
noaiiayony oaea, a yia?ai?aca?in eiiia oiaiueoaaony, anee iioaioeeae
eiiecaoeee naa?aae?othuaai yeaiaioa auoa, /ai iioaioeeae eiiecaoeee
iniiaiiai yeaiaioa — ?anoai?eoaey. Aeey iaeiiyeaiaioiuo e nieaaiuo
enoi/ieeia aia?aua iaia?oaeaii nea/eiia?aciia eciaiaiea oa?aeoa?a ?aaiou
i?e ia?aoiaea ec iaeanoe n?aaeieo yienneiiiuo oieia (?aaeei ??) a
iaeanoue ia/aeueiuo yienneiiiuo oieia (?aaeei ?). I?e ii?aaeaeaiiii aeey
eaaeaeiai enoi/ieea e?eoe/aneii oiea Ie? nea/eii eciaiyaony (ia 10-30%
io Ie?) eae naia aaee/eia oiea, oae e oaie eiiona yiennee (nea/eii
oaaee/eaaaony a 1,5-2 ?aca). Ia?aoiae enoi/ieea ec ?aaeeia a ?aaeei
ia?aoei ioiineoaeueii Ie?. Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou yia?aiaiaeeca eiiia e
eo oaeiaua ?ani?aaeaeaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi i?e oieao
aeeceeo e e?eoe/aneei yienneiiiua ia?aiao?u AEIEE yaeythony
iioeiaeueiuie – oaie eiiona yiennee naiue oceee, a yia?ai?aca?in eiiia
ieieiaeueiue. I?aaeeiaeaii iiaia iiaeaeueiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i iaoaiecia
oi?ie?iaaiey oaeiauo ?ani?aaeaeaiee eiiia nieaaiuo enoi/ieeia, a eioi?ii
aia?aua o/eouaaaony oa?aeoa? ?ani?aaeaeaiey yeaiaioia nieaaa a iauaia
?anieaaa. Aeaaiay eaeay aai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi no?oeoo?a nieaaa
AEIEE nio?aiyaony a iaeioi?ie noaiaie e a yieoe?othuai
aeeaeeiiaoaeee/aneii aunooia ia eiiona Oaeei?a. Oaeiaua ?ani?aaeaeaiey
eiiia nieaaiuo enoi/ieeia, n o/aoii iai?yaeaiiinoe enia?ythueo iieae
aeey ninoaaiuo nieaaa, yaeythony ii?aaeaeaiiui io?aaeaieai no?oeoo?u
?anieaaa. Eciaiaiea oaeiauo ?ani?aaeaeaiee eiiia n oaiia?aoo?ie
enoi/ieea iauyniyaony eciaiaieai oa?aeoa?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey yeaiaioia
nieaaa a iauaia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeaeeiiaoaeee/aneea enoi/ieee eiiia,
iann-niaeo?iiao?e/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, no?oeoo?a nieaaia, naa?aaaoeey,
eiion yiennee, oaeiaua ?ani?aaeaeaiey e yia?ai?ani?aaeaeaiey eiiia,
e?eoe/aneee oie.

Kulik V.S. Angular and energy distributions of ions emitted from
one-element and alloy liquid metal ion sources. — Manuscript. Thesis for
in candidate’s degree in Physics and Mathematics in the speciality
01.04.04. — physical electronics.- The Institute of Physics, NAS of
Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

Ten scientific works are defended on experimental mass spectrometric
investigation of emission characteristics of liquid metal ion sources
(LMIS) based on Ga, Li, GaIn, GaInAg, GaInCu, GaInSn depending on the
temperature of alloy, elemental composition of the alloys and value of
emission currents of the sources. For alloy sources, it has been found
that by introducing an element with the tendency to segregation in
surface layers it is possible to control angular and energy
distributions of ions emitted from the source (doping from several at. %
to 20-30 at. %). Angular ion distributions become narrower while their
energy spread decreases provided that the ionization potential of the
segregating element is higher than the ionization potential of the main
(matrix) element. For one-element and alloy sources, it have been found
for the first time an abrupt change of the character of their operation
under transition from the range of the intermediate emission currents
(regime II) to the range of the onset emission currents (regime I): for
a proper critical current for each source Icr, there occurs an abrupt
change (about 10-30% of Icr) of the current itself and of the emission
cone angle (the latter increases abruptly by 1.5-2 times). The
transition from one to another regime is reversible relatively to Icr.
The obtained results on the energy and angular ion distributions give
evidence that for currents that are close to the critical values the
emission parameters are optimum: the angle of the emission cone is the
narrowest while the ion energy spread is minimal. A new model is
suggested for the mechanism of formation of angular ion distributions
of alloy LMIS accounting for the character of the distributions of alloy
components in the volume of the alloy. The main idea is that the
structure of the LMIS alloy is conserved to some degree also in the
emitting liquid metalic cusp on the Taylor cone. The angular
distributions of the ions of alloy sources, taking into account the
strength of evaporation fields for the components of the alloy, are a
certain reflect ions of the alloy structure. The change of angular ion
distributions versus temperature of the sources is explained by the
change in the character of the distributions of the elements of alloy
in its volume.

Keywords: liquid metal ion source, mass-spectrometry investigation,
structure of the alloy, segregation, emission cone, angular and energy
distributions of ions, critical current.

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